lab process & instrumentation control

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lab process & instrumentation control

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You are on page 1of 16

CONTROL LAB

MAY 2014

TITLE

GROUP

:

:

RATIO CONTROL

0015596

MEMBERS:

0015675

MOHAMMAD AZIM TARMIZI

0015403

BIN YA'CCOB

NUR ASIAH BINTI MOHD FAUZI

0015369

NUR FATIN DARIAH BINTI

0015668

MOHAMAD DAUD

INSTRUCTOR

FAEZAH ISA

DATE OF EXPERIMENT

DATE OF SUBMISSION

LAB

OBJECTIVE

(i)

To demonstrate the characteristic of Proportional Band, Integral Action and

Derivative Action on a flow process control loop.

(ii)

INTRODUCTION

The experimental is designed for the ratio control in relation to a single loop

flow control. The tank, pump instrumentation and valves are strategically located

for easy access. For safety cause, the control panel shall be protected against water

splashes. The process piping shall be made of industrial pipes.

THEORY

On/Of

On/Off control generally both the simplest and the least expensive type of process

control and has wide application in industry. A process controlled by an on/off

controller almost always has some error in it, in fact the controller turns on or off

only at those times there is no error in the measurement, when the measurement

crosses the set point on its way from one extreme error to another. The valve goes

either fully open or closed depending on the direction of the error.

No attempt is made to balanced the inflow with the outflow. The energy or material

supplied to the process is always either too much or not enough. The measured

variable cycles continuously.

When on/off control is applied to the right type of process, the effect of the cycling

is small and acceptable. On/off controller best applied to a large capacity process

that has relatively little dead time and small mass or energy inflow with respect to

the capacity of the system.

The cycling is illustrated in Figure 1 which shows the relationship between the

temperature and the action of the manipulated variable. A typical application for

on/off control is the temperature of a large tank or bath.

PID

Each of the three basic control modes and the combinations discussed so far,

proportional (P), proportional plus integral (PI) have limitations which may not be

significant if the process and controller are carefully matched. However some

processes are so difficult to control or so critical.

Loop tuning

The closed loop control system attempts to achieve a balance between supply and

demand by comparing the controlled variable to the set point and regulating the

supply to an amount which will maintain the desired balance. Tuning the controller

adjusts it so it can achieve that balance as quickly as possible. This is done when

instrument is first put in service and later on a periodic basis as part of preventive

maintenance. When tuning remember that each controller is part of a closed loop.

All the parts of the loop are interactive, behaviour of other devices in that loop. The

controller response must be matched to that of the process. There are several

procedures for doing this, some mathematical most using trial and error.

A simple three step method for tuning most three mode controllers follows. Batch

controllers and one through processes are special cases discussed after the three

mode and two mode controllers) . This three steps procedure is based on a simple

test to determine the nature period of oscillation of the process.

Step 1 : Set the integral time of the controller at its maximum and the derivative

time at its minimum, thereby providing proportional only control. Then reduce the

proportional band until oscillation begins. Measure the period of this oscillation (also

called the natural period) as the time between two Successive crests or valleys

(Figure 2).

tuning step

Step 2 : Set the derivative time at 0.15 times the natural period and the integral

time at 0.4 times the natural period. Observe the new period of oscillation there

should be a 25 percent decrease(Figure 3). If the new period of oscillation is shorter

than this reduce the derivative time, if period is longer, increase the integral time.

second tuning step

Step 3: Finally the proportional band to achieve the desired degree of damping (the

amount of correction to a process upset which when too much or too little shows up

as either overshoot or sluggishness respectively)

When adjusting a two mode PI controller a slightly different method should be used

since integral mode introduces phase lag that is not counteracted by derivative. The

procedure follows:

Step 1 : Set the integral time of the two mode controller at its maximum and the

derivative time at its minimum, providing proportional only control just as with the

three mode controller. Then reduce the proportional band until oscillation begins

and measure this period.

Step 2 : Set the integral time to the natural period. The period of oscillation should

increase about 40 percent (ideally 43%). If the period is longer than this, increase

the integral time (Figure 4)

tuning step

Step 3: Finally adjust the desired degree of damping is achieved. Adding integral will

always increase the proportional band required for stable control.

Some consideration must be given to processes with variable dynamic

characteristics. Once through processes such as tubular heat exchangers exhibit a

natural period that varies inversely with flow in such situations. One combination of

controller settings cannot be ideal for all flow rates. Integral time should be set

according to the lowest anticipated flow rate and the derivative of time accordingly

to the highest.

Some batch controllers because of their mechanical arrangement will become

unstable if equal values of integral and derivative time are used. Always keep their

integral time at least twice the derivative time.

Ratio Control

Ratio control provides a means a blending two or more variables in adjustable

proportions to obtain a desire mixture. The measurement of the load (wild or

uncontrolled flow) is the set point to the ratio controller which adjusts the flow of

the controlled variable. A preset ratio regulates the flow of the controlled variable

for example if the ratio is 2 to 1 for every gallon of the uncontrolled variable flowing,

two galloons of the controlled variable is allowed to flow.

Ratio control is applied to processes where the flow of one variable fluctuates but

the desired blend can be maintained satisfactorily by adjusting the related variable

proportionally.

Ratio control can be accomplished by taking the signal from the uncontrolled flow as

the set point for the ratio controller. This value is multiplied by an adjustable factor

(the ratio setting) . The measurement to the controller is the flow of the controlled

variable.

The ratio can be set to a desired value by a calibrated dial on the controller. The

ratio concerns only the flow signals, not the actual amount of the flows, since the

measurement ranges of the two flow are not necessarily the same.

The ratio controller can be used with any combination of suitably related process

variables. Control action is usually proportional plus integral. The response of a

system with ratio control to process upsets is the same as the response of the basic

control mode used.

PROCEDURE

A. PID Flow Control:

1. The values: PB = 200, I = 6 s and D = 1 s are entered.

2. The control loop is put into manual mode and the set point is adjusted to 50 LPM.

3. The output is tuned gradually so that the measurement matches the set point of

50 LPM flow.

4. The recorder is turned on then the control loop is put into auto mode.

5. Load changes are stimulated by closing HV537 for 3 seconds and then it is

returned to its original position.

6. Once the measurement stabilize, the recorder is turned off. The control loop is

put back into manual mode.

7. The output is tuned gradually so that the temperature measurement matches the

set point of 50 LPM.

8. The recorder is turned on and then the control loop is put into auto mode.

9. Set point changes are stimulated by increasing the set point to 75 LPM.

10. Once the measurement stabilize, the recorder is turned off. The control loop is

put back into manual mode.

11. The previous PB and I values are retained. The control system specifications for

this equipment accept D values in the range of 1-10. Based on the engineering

knowledge that we have acquired in CCB3013, we have selected values of D which

are 5s and 10s. Step 2 to step 10 are repeated.

1. The control loop is put into manual mode and the output is adjusted gradually so

that temperature matches the set point of 50 LPM.

2. The following values: PB = 1000, I = 1000 s and D = 0 s are entered.

3. The recorder is turned on then the control loop is put into auto mode.

4. Load changes are stimulated by closing HV537 for 3 seconds and then it is

returned to its original position.

5. The I and D values are maintained, FIVE (5) PB values in decreasing

order in the range between 1-1000 which are 550, 150, 15 and 4 are selected. Step

3 and step 4 are repeated with these reduced PB until the measurement oscillates

about the set point.

6. The natural period is determined.

7. The PB value is maintained at which the measurement oscillates about the set

point. I is set to natural period. Step 2 and 4 are repeated and the response is

observed. A 40% decrease occurred in this period. If the new period of the

oscillation is longer than this, the interval time is increased if the period is shorter

decrease integral time.

8. The PB is adjusted increasingly until the desire degree of damping is achieved.

C. Ratio Control

1. The control loop is put into manual mode.

2. Selector switch is used to select ratio control mode.

3. FT520 is adjusted to about 40 LPM using HV533.

4. The recorder is turned on. The control loop is put into Auto mode.

5. A change is stimulated by adjusting FT520 to 50 LPM using HV533.

RESULTS

1 ) PID FLOW CONTROL

1.1.1.1 D=1s

1.1.1.2 D=5s

1.1.1.3 D=10s

1.1.1.4

1.1.1.5

TB=20s, 5s

3) RATIO CONTROL

DISCUSSION

PID FLOW CONTROL

For this experiment, we would like to determine the effect of the varied Derivative

Action on the process stability. Process stability is occurred when the variable tallies

with the prior set value. For this part there I two value that we have kept constant

which is The Proportional Band has been set to 200s and Integral Action are set to

constant 6s. Derivative Action is varying with changing at 1s, 5s and 10s.

First set point was set to 50 LPM with Derivative Action initially at 1 second and

disturbance is introduced for 3 seconds. After the graph has turn to normal response

the response has been stopped and the set point has been change to 75 LPM. As we

can see that the spreading of the graph for both 70 and 50 LPM is a little bit longer

which show that the response of process to the disturbance and to change back to

set point is a little bit late. As we increase the set point, the response curve is a little

bit shorter which show quick response compare to 50 LPM.

However as we increase the Derivative Action to 5s the responds is more faster

compare to 1 s where the spreading of the response of curve is a little shorter which

show the quick response to change back to set point. But as compare to 50 LPM and

70 LPM

the response of the curve for 70 LPM is a little bit shorter. This result is

same to first part where Derivative Action is 1 s.

Hence as we increase to Derivative Action to 10s the result is better where the

response is faster. Hence for this experiment, we can see that as we increase the

Derivative Action, the response is better where the quick response will get. This can

cause the process will not be effect with the disturbances and back to set value.

This is due to the derivative action in a PID controller functions to ensure that the

controller output proportionate the rate of change or error. We also can see that as

we increase the set point, the effect of the derivative action to higher set point is

quicker. It is useful when sudden changes in measured variable occur. This explains

why with higher derivative action value, the graph reaches stability faster upon the

introduction of disturbances.

PID FLOW CONTROL LOOP TUNING

For this experiment, we would like to determine the tuning value by setting the

PB=1000s, 600s, 200s, 20s, and 5s. The integrative value and derivative value is

set to 1000s and 0s respectively. As we running the experiment, from 1000s to 200s

the graphs only produce a curve graph when the disturbance is introduced. This

response show that we cannot use this value as it not produce sinusoidal curve for

us to calculate the distance of peak-to-peat to calculate the natural period. But as

we see when the PB is set from 20s to 5 s, the sinusoidal curve is produce. However

both produce inconsistent sinusoidal where the tuning value is also cant be used in

for this value to calculate the natural period as to calculate natural period, the

our part as the 20s produce almost consistent graph, we use the response for

PB=20s to calculate the natural period. The result is as shown below. Sample

calculation is provided in Appendix.

Proportional band,

PB

D

(mm)

Natural period, T

(s)

20

2.5

7.5

Hence we conclude that the best tuning value for our experiment is when PB

is 20s.

RATIO CONTROL

For this experiment we would like to determine response of the system when the set

point is set manually. Ratio control provides a means a blending two or more

variables in adjustable proportions to obtain a desire mixture. First we have set the

flow rate to be 40 LPM manually. As we waited for the response of the process, the

value show in the board does not come to 40 LPM where large fluctuation occurs.

Same result occurs when we set the value to 50 LPM. This because the tuning

parameter in PID controller is not good where it cannot cause the process to

response as same the flow rate that has been set manually.

ERROR AND RECOMMENDATION

ERRORS

1. The eye level is not the same level with the scale

2. Valve is not fully open when making the disturbance

3. The period of time for disturbance is not consistent for 3 seconds

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Make sure that the eye level is perpendicular to the scale

2. Push the valve until its limit to make sure that it is fully open

3. Count the period of time of 3 seconds using stop watch or normal watch

CONCLUSION

Action is increase, the response of process to disturbance also become quicker. As

the set point increase, the response of controller to disturbances also becomes

quicker. Hence we can conclude that it is the best for PID controller by using the

higher value of the derivative action where it can help the process to eliminate error

that causes by the disturbance and come back to set point value.

For second part, we can conclude that the best tuning value for this

experiment is when PB=20s where it produce almost consistent sinusoidal curve

where the peak-to-peak value can be measure to calculate the natural period.

For the third part, as out tuning value is not good, the result we get is not

good where the response on the board is not same as we set manually. Hence

better tuning value is needed to help the process to response to disturbance that

has been introduced.

PB is stand for Proportional Band, I is Integration and D is Derivative. As for

first part for PID controller only changes the derivative value to know the effect of

derivative to PID controller where the best value of derivative can be taken to get

the better result for the response. For second part we set I=1000s where the

maximum value and D=0 so that the controller only become a Proportional

controller. In this part also we determine the best tuning value for PB which is 20 s

where the peak-to-peak produce can be used to calculate natural period since it

almost constant sinusoidal graph.

APPENDIX

CALCULATION

Natural period is calculated using the formula:

Natural period, T =

D

Trend speed

60 min

Sample of calculation:

For PB = 20 s, D = 2.5 mm, Trend Speed = 1200 mm/h (from graph),

Natural period, T

2 mm

= 7.5 s

60 min/h

REFERENCES

Lecture Notes (Chemical Process Dynamics Instrumentation & Control)

Seborg D.E, T.F Edgar and D.A Melliechamp, Process Dynamics and Control, John

Wiley and Sons, New York, 1989, pp 116-118.

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