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ME6501

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

LTPC
3 0 0 3

OBJECTIVES:
To provide an overview of how computers are being used in mechanical component
design
UNIT I
FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS
9
Product cycle- Design process- sequential and concurrent engineering- Computer aided design
CAD system architecture- Computer graphics co-ordinate systems- 2D and 3D transformations
homogeneous coordinates - Line drawing -Clipping- viewing transformation
UNIT II
GEOMETRIC MODELING
9
Representation of curves- Hermite curve- Bezier curve- B-spline curves-rational curvesTechniques for surface modeling surface patch- Coons and bicubic patches- Bezier and Bspline surfaces. Solid modeling techniques- CSG and B-rep
UNIT III
VISUAL REALISM
9
Hidden Line-Surface-Solid removal algorithms shading colouring computer animation.
UNIT IV
ASSEMBLY OF PARTS
9
Assembly modelling interferences of positions and orientation tolerance analysis-mass
property calculations mechanism simulation and interference checking.
UNIT V
CAD STANDARDS
9
Standards for computer graphics- Graphical Kernel System (GKS) - standards for exchange
images- Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) - Data exchange standards - IGES, STEP, CALSetc.
- communication standards.
TOTAL : 45 PERIODS
OUTCOMES:
Upon completion of this course, the students can able to use computer and CAD software's for
modeling of mechanical components
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Ibrahim Zeid Mastering CAD CAM Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.2007
REFERENCES:
1. Chris McMahon and Jimmie Browne CAD/CAM Principles", "Practice and Manufacturing
management Second Edition, Pearson Education, 1999.
2. William M Neumann and Robert F.Sproul Principles of Computer Graphics, McGraw Hill
Book Co. Singapore, 1989.
3. Donald Hearn and M. Pauline Baker Computer Graphics. Prentice Hall, Inc, 1992.
4. Foley, Wan Dam, Feiner and Hughes - "Computer graphics principles & practice" Pearson
Education - 2003.

ME 6501 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN


TWO MARK QUESTION AND ANSWERS
UNIT I - FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS
PART- A
1. What is meant product cycle?
The product cycle includes all the activities starting from identification for product to
deliver the finished product to the customer.
2. Write the steps in design process.
Recognition of need.
Definition of problem.
Synthesis.
Analysis of optimization.
Evaluation.
Presentation.
3. What is meant by sequential engineering?
Each activities of product development namely, design; process planning, manufacturing,
quality and marketing are followed sequentially known as sequential engineering.
4. What is meant by concurrent engineering?
The concept and practice of various functions or departments working together from the
beginning, to a engineer a product is known as Concurrent Engineering.
5. What is meant by computer aided design?
The computer help in design and draft is commonly expressed by the term Computer
Aided Design.
6. List the components of computer architecture.
The components of computer architecture are
Central processing unit
Memory unit
Input/output devices.
7. Write the benefits of CAD.
a. Improved Engineering Productivity.
b. Improved accuracy of design.
c. More standardized design.
d. Quick documentation.
e. Shorter lead time.

f. Accuracy in engineering analysis.


8. What is meant by MCS co-ordinate system?
It is the reference space of the model with respect to which all the models geometrical
data is stored. In CAD system MCS is generally shown by displaying the X,Y and Z axes.
9. What is meant by WCS co-ordinate system?
A WCS can be thought of as a portable coordinate system. It is often used when the
desired plane of sketching is not easily defined as one of the MCS planes The user can define a
WCS for such a condition and relate it to MCS using transformation matrix that allows
geometric data to be stored with respect to MCS.
10. What is meant by SCS co-ordinate system?
An SCS is a 2D device-dependant coordinate system whose origin is located in the lower
left corner of the screen. It is mostly used in view-related clicks such as definition of views,
origin and select views from graphics operations.
11. Mention the types of co-ordinate system.
They are 1.MCS Master coordinate system
2. WCS- Working coordinate system
3. SCS Screen coordinate system
12. What do you mean by transformations?
The transformation actually converts the geometry from one co-ordinate system to the
other. By means of transformation, the images can be enlarged in size or reduced, rotated or
moved on the screen. (Eg. Translation, rotation.)
13. Define translation.
Moving an object is called a translation. We translate a point by adding to the x and y
coordinates, respectively, the amount the point should be shifted in the x and y directions. We
translate an object by translating each vertex in the object.
14. Define rotation transformation.
Rotation is another important geometric transformation. Here, the drawing is rotated
about the fixed point. The final position and orientation of geometry is decided by the angle of
rotation ().
15. Define scaling.
Scaling is the transformation applied to change the scale of an entity. This is done by
increasing the distance between the points of the drawing. In other words multiplying the coordinates of the drawing by an enlargement or reduction factor called scaling.

16. Define clipping.


It is the process of determining the visible portion of a drawing lying within a window
and discarding the rest.
17. What is meant by 3D transformation?
It is similar to 2D transformations, which can transform 3D objects that By means of
transformation, the images can be enlarged in size or reduced, rotated or moved on the screen.
(Eg. Translation, rotation.)
18. What is meant by homogeneous transformation?
The three dimensional representation of a two dimensional plane is called homogeneous
coordinate and the transformation using homogeneous coordinate is called homogeneous
transformation
19. Write the matrix representation for 2 D translation transformation.
A translation is applied to an object by representing it along a straight line path from one
coordinate location to another adding translation distances, tx, ty to original coordinate position
(x,y) to move the point to a new position (x,y).The translation distance point (tx,ty) is called
translation vector or shift vector.

[ ][][]
x'
x + tx
' =
y ty
y

20. Write the matrix representation for 2 D scaling transformation.


It involves rotation of an object about an axis at angle (), where a positive angle denotes
an anticlockwise rotation.

cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0
0
1

Rot () =

21. Write the matrix representation for 3 D translation transformation.


A translation is applied to an object by representing it along a straight line path from one
coordinate location to another adding translation distances, tx, ty, tz to original coordinate
position (x,y,z) to move the point to a new position (xy,z).The translation distance point
(tx,ty,tz) is called translation vector or shift vector.
'

( ) ()( )
x
tx
x
'
=
+
y
y
ty
'
z
z
tz

Part B
1. Explain in detail the product cycle in CAD.
2. Discuss in detail the various design process carried out in CAD.
3. Write short notes on i) Sequential Engineering ii) Concurrent Engineering.
4. Describe the components of computer system architecture of CAD.
5. Briefly explain the various coordinate systems used in cad modeling.
6. Explain the various 2 D transformation in a CAD modeling.
7. Explain the various 3 D transformation in a CAD modeling.
8. Write short notes on
a) Clipping b) Line Drawing
9. Compare sequential Engineering and Concurrent Engineering with reference to a product
cycle.
10. Explain the various transformations in CAD.

UNIT II - GEOMETRIC MODELING


1. What is Hermite curve?
A cubic polynomial.
Polynomial can be specified by the position of, and gradient at, each endpoint of
curve.
Defined by two points (P1 and P4) and two tangents (R1 and R4)

2. What is Bezier curve?


Bezier curve is defined in terms of the locations of n+ 1 point. These points are
called control points. They form vertices of control polygon which uniquely defines the
curves shape.
3. Give any four characteristics of Bezier curves.
The characteristics of Bezier curves are
The curve interpolates or passes through the first and last control points.
The curve is tangent to the first and last segments of the characteristics polygon.
The curve can be modified by either changing one or more vertices of the
polygon.
A closed Bezier curve can simply be generated by closing its characteristic
polygon or chosing B0 and Bn to be coincident.
Each control point is weighted by its blending functions for each u value.

4. Write two differences between Bezier and cubic spline curve.


BEZIER CURVE
The shape of the curve is controlled by
1 its defining points only.
2 The curve does not pass through the
given data points.
3 The flexibility of the Bezier curve is
more

CUBIC SPLINE CURVE


First order derivatives are used in the
1 curve developments.
These curves are pass through the given
2 data points exactly.
3 Less Flexibility.

5. Define B-spline curves?


B- Spline curves provide effective method of generating curves defined by
polygons.B-spline curves are the proper and powerful generations of Bezier curves and it
is non global
6. What are the limitations for B-spline curve on the basis of Bernstein?
The number of specified polygon vertices fixes the order of the resukting polynomial
which defines the curve.
The only way to reduce the degree of the curve is to reduce the number of vertices
and vice versa.
A change in one vertex is felt throughout the entire curve because of the global
nature of the Berntein basis.
7. List any two properties of B-spline functions.
Local support This property indicates that each control point affects only k curve
segments.
Continuity- Ni,k(u) is (k-3) is always tangent to the midpoints of all the internal
polygon segments.
8. State the rational curves?
It is defined by the algebraic ratio of two polynomials while a non-rational curve
is defined by one polynomial.
9. What is Coons patch?
It is used to create a surface using curves that forms closed boundaries.
Patch

Closed boundary

10. Define bicubic patches?


The geometry of a single bicubic patch is thus completely defined by a set of 16
control points. These are typically linked up to form a B-spline surface in a similar way
as Bezier curves are linked up to form a B-spline curve.
11. What is meant by Bezier surface?
Bezier surface is generated from the basis of Bezier curve. It is a general surface that
permits, twist and kinks. The Bezier surface allows only global control of the surface.
12. What is a B-spline surfaces?
The B Spline surface is generated from the basis of B-spline curve.It can
approximate or interpolate given data points.
13. What are the Solid modeling techniques?
The Solid modeling techniques are
a. Constructive solid geometry (CSG or C-rep)
b. Boundary representation (B-rep)
14. What is meant by CSG technique?

In this approach, the physical objects are modeled by combining these primitives
by a set of Boolean operations. A binary tree is used to store the model in the data
structure.
15. What do you mean by B-rep?
The solid model created by using B-rep technique may be stored in graph based
on data structure system. It is most widely used in solid modeling softwares like Pro/E,
solid works etc,
16. Differentiate between cubic curve and Bezier curve.
BEZIER CURVE
CUBIC SPLINE CURVE
The shape of the curve is controlled by its First order derivatives are used in the curve
defining points only.
developments.
The curve does not pass through the given data These curves are passing through the given
points.
data points exactly.
17. What are the characteristics of the B spline curves?
The curves do not pass through the first and last control points except when linear
blending functions are used.
A non-periodic B spline curve passes through the first and last control points and
is tangent to the first and last segments of the control polygon.
A second degree curve is always tangent to the midpoints of all the internal
polygon segments.
18. What are the characteristics of the Bezier curves?
The characteristics of the Bezier curves are
The curve is tangent to the first and last segments of the characteristics polygon.
The curve is symmetric with respect to u and (1-u) therefore the sequence of
curve can be reversed without change of the curve shape.
Each control point is weighted by its blending function for each u value.
The curve shape can be modified by either changing one or more vertices of its
polygon.
19. List the basic entities available in CSG approach of solid modeling.
The basic entities available in CSG approach of solid modeling are
1. Cuboid
3. Sphere
5. Wedge

2. Cylinder
4. Cone
6. Torus

20. What are the Boolean operations available in CSG?


Union
subtract
intersection
21. Classify the geometric modeling.
1. Wire frame modeling. 2.Surface modeling. 3. Solid modeling

22. Name the two basic approaches followed in solid modeling?


The two basic approaches followed in solid modeling are
a. Constructive solid geometry (CSG or C-rep)
b. Boundary representation (B-rep)
PART B
1. Briefly explain the Hermit curve.
2. Write short note on Bezier curve.
3. Write short note on B-spline curves. List its benefits.
4. Compare Bezier Curve and B-spline curves in detail.
5. Explain the steps in the development of an effective CAD modelling strategy.
6. Brief on the various Features used in a CAD 3 D modelling.
7. Explain in detail the techniques for surface modelling.
8. Explain the CSG Solid modelling technique in detail.
9. Describe in detail the B-Rep Solid modelling techniques.
10. Explain the various solid modelling techniques of CAD.

UNIT - III VISUAL REALISM


1. What is meant by hidden line?
Hidden lines are used to represent surfaces that are not directly visible in the orthographic
view. Without hidden lines all information about the features that are not directly visible
would be lost. Hidden Lines consist of short, evenly-spaced dashes and are used to show the
hidden features of an object.
2. What is meant by hidden surface?
A hidden surface determination algorithm is a solution to the visibility problem, which
was one of the first major problems in the field of 3D computer graphics. The process
of hidden surface determination is sometimes called hiding, and such an algorithm is
sometimes called a hider.
3. Define coherence.
Coherence is a measure of how rapidly a scene or its image changes.it describe the extent
to which a scene or its image is locally constant.
4. List the types of coherence.
They are
Edge coherence
Face coherence
Geometric coherence
Frame coherence
Scan line coherence
Area coherence
Depth coherence
5. What is meant by edge coherence?
The visibility of an edge only changes when it crosses another edge.
6. What is meant by face coherence?
If a part of a face is visible, the entire face is probably visible. Moreover the
penetration of faces is a relatively rare occurance,and therefore it is not usually checked
by hidden removal algorithms.
7. Write a step in hidden line algorithms.
1. Three dimensional scene data.
2. Two dimensional image data.
3. Sorting of image data.
4. Application of visibility techniques
5. Elimination of hidden line of image.
6. Display and/ or plot results.
8. Mention the visibility test.
Minimax test.

Containment test
Surface test
Computing Silhouettes
Edge intersection
Segment compression
Homogeneity test

9. What is mean by minimax test?


This test checks if two polygon overlap. That test provides quick methods to
determine if two polygons dont overlap. Its surrounds each polygon which a box by find
its co-ordinates and then checks for the intersection for any two boxes in both X and Y
directions.
10. What is Containment test?
The containment test checks weather a given point lies inside a given polygon or
polyhedron.
11. Define Computing Silhouettes.
A set of edges that separates visible faces from invisible faces of an object which
respect to a given viewing direction is called Silhouettes or Silhouettes edges.
12. What is meant by shading?
This technique is used to display the image in a natural way. It is based on the
recognition of distance and shape as a function of illumination. The surface of the solid
model is divided into patches, the hidden lines much be removed before shading.
13. What is hidden surface removal?
It is also called as visible surface determination; it is more generally image space
process in which an image of an object is generator at a particular resolution by
manipulating pixels on a raster display, exploding the ability the raster device to display
shaded areas.
14. List the hidden surface removal algorithm?

Z-buffer algorithm.
Watkinss algorithm.
Warnocks algorithm.
Painters algorithm.

15. Classify the methods of shading surfaces.


Constant shading. - Simplest and less realistic shading.

Gourand shading. - First derivative shading.


Phong shading. - Second derivative shading.
16. Write the main objectives of coloring.
The main objectives of coloring are,
Facilitate creating geometry.
Display images.
17. Define color model.
It is a model or a space in a three dimensional color co-ordinate system to allow
specification of colors with in some color range.
(OR)
Color Model is a method for explaining the properties or behavior of color within
some particular context. No single color model can explain all aspects of color, so we
make use of different models to help describe the different perceived characteristics of
color.
18. Mention some of the color model used in CAD.
1. RGB Model (Red, Green & Blue)
2. CMY Model (Cyan, Mangenta & Yellow)
3. YIQ Model (Axis Model)
4. HSV Model (Hue, Saturation & Value)
5. HSL Model (Hue, Saturation & Lightness)
19. Write the syntax for a shading command.
SHADE<Geometric model type><Shading modifiers><Shading resolution>
<Geometric model entities>

20. What is meant by Animation?


Computer animation refers to any time sequence of visual changes in a scene.
Computer animations can also be generated by changing camera parameters
such as position, orientation and focal length.
Applications of computer-generated animation are entertainment, advertising,
training and education.
Example: Advertising animations often transition one object shape into another.
21. Write the steps of animation sequences.

Story board layout


Object definitions
Key-frame specifications
Generation of in-between frames.

22. Mention the steps in the development of an animation sequence.


1. Object manipulation and rendering
2. Camera motion
3. Generation of in-betweens
23. Define Morphing.
Transformation of object shapes from one form to another is called Morphing.
Morphing methods can be applied to any motion or transition involving a
change in shape.
PART-B
1. Explain in details the various types of coherence in visual realism.
2. Write short notes on the following hidden surface removal algorithm
a) Z-buffer algorithm
b) Watkinss algorithm.
3. Write short notes on the following hidden surface removal algorithm
a) Warnocks algorithm
b) Painters algorithm
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Describe the various methods of shading surfaces in CAD.


Explain the various colour models used in CAD.
Discuss in detail the steps of animation sequences.
Explain the the steps in the development of an animation sequence.
What is Morphing in CAD? Explain the morphing methodology.

UNIT - IV ASSEMBLY OF PARTS


1. What is an Assembly modeling?
It is a collection of independent parts and is important to understand the nature
and the structure of dependencies between parts in an assembly to be able to
model the assembly properly.

2. Draw the block diagram of assembly modeling?

3. What you meant by assembly tree.


The most natural way to represent the hierarchical relationships between the
various parts of an assembly is an assembly tree.
4. Mention the constraints applied to assemble components.
Alignment
Surfaces, axes
With offset distances
Mating
Surfaces, edges
Coincidence
Points, edges
5. What are the mating conditions for assembly modeling?
Part coordinates. MCS (modeling coordinates system)
1. Base part: Datum
2. Global coordinates system
3. Local coordinates system
4. Explicit position and direction vs. Mating conditions.
5. 4 X 4 homogeneous transformation matrix
6. What is tolerance analysis in CAD?
Tolerance analysis involves understanding of the functionality of the product,
knowledge of the processes that are used in making the parts, and so on.
7. Define mass Property.
These calculations typically involve masses, centroids and inertial properties.
They form the basis for the study and analysis of both rigid and deformable body
mechanics.
8. What are the considerations to calculate mass property in CAD.
1. Curve length
3. Volume

2. Surface area
4. Mass

5. First moment of inertia 6. Second moment of inertia


7. Products of inertia.
9. Write the formula for calculating the curve length.

10. Write the formula for calculating the cross sectional area.
To calculate the area A of the region R, consider the area of element dA of sides dxL and
dyL. Integrate over the region using
11. Write the formula for calculating the surface area.
The surface area as of a bounded surface is formulated the same as the cross-sectional
area. The major difference is that as is not planar in general as in the case of B-spline or Bezier
surfaces.

12. Write the formula for calculating the mass of an object.


The mass of an object can be formulated the same as its volume by introducing the
density. dm = dV Integrating over the distributed mass of the object, Assuming the density
remains constant throughout the object by
m= dV
13. What is meant by simulation?
Simulation in manufacturing refers to a broad collection of computer based applications
to imitate the behavior of manufacturing systems.
14. What are the benefits of simulation?
This technology holds great promise for reducing costs,
Improving quality,
Shortening the time to market for manufactured goods.
15. Classifiy the types of simulation?
Static or dynamic simulation.
Continuous or discrete.
Deterministic or stochastic.
16. What are the ways in which simulation is carried out?
Programming in general purpose simulation languages.
Simulation using simulation languages.
High level simulators.
17. Define Static or dynamic simulation.
In static simulation time does not have a role. However, most of the manufacturing
systems are time dependent and are hence dynamic.
18. List the simulation software packages.

1. Pro Model.
4. SIMAN.
7. Goldsim.
10. XLSim.

2. GPSS.
5. SLIM.
8. SAIL.

3. SIGMA.
6. PSM+++.
9. Crystal Ball.

19. Mention the Application of Simulation.


Manufacturing Industry.
Automotive Industry.
Aerospace Industry.
20. Write the procedure of simulation using simulation software.

Modeling the process.


Simulation.
Visualization.
Analysis.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

PART B
What is an Assembly modeling? Explain the sequences of assembly modeling.
Write short note on the constraints applied to assemble components.
Briefly explain the considerations to calculate mass property in CAD.
Derive the formula for calculating the curve length.
Derive the formula for calculating the surface area.
Explain in details the types of simulation.
Describe the procedure of simulation using simulation software.
Explain the simulation application in industries.

UNIT V CAD STANDARDS


1. What is graphic Standards?
The standard used in CAD system to exchange data are called graphics standard.

2. Write the benefits (or) Need of graphic standard.


Application program portability.
Picture data portability.
Text portability.
Object data portability.
3. Write the common graphics standard used in CAD/CAM applications.
GKS (Graphical Kernel System)
PHIGS (Programmers Hierarchal Interface for Graphics)
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification)
DXF (Drawing Exchange Format)
STEP (Standard for the Exchange of product model data)
DMIS (Dimensional Measurement Interface Specification)
4. Mention the Objectives of GKS.
To provide the complete range of graphical facilities in 2D including the
interactive capabilities.
To control all the graphic devices such as plotter and display devices in consistent
manner.
To be small enough for a variety of programs.
5. What are the input methods for GKS?
1. Locator
2. Valuater
3. Choice
4. Pick
5. String
6. Stroke
6. Mention the categories of IGES.
1. Geometry
2. Annotation
3. Structure
7. What is IGES?
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) is the most comprehensive
standard used to transfer data including manufacturing attributes its consist of 8 column
field the data and the records are present in the column.
8. List the sub-sections of IGES.
Flag section (C)
Start Section (S)
Global Section (G)
Directly entry section (D)
Parameter data Section (P)
Terminate section (T)
9. What are the disadvantages of IGES?

IGES is very complex and wording.


It is more larger than the equivalent picture file.
Several entities required by specialized CAD applications are yet not
available.
10. What is OpenGL?
OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) is a cross-language, multi-platform application
programming interface (API) for rendering2D and 3D vector graphics. The API is
typically used to interact with a graphics processing unit (GPU), to achieve hardwareaccelerated rendering.
11. What is the need for OpenGL?
Real-time applications
Fast preview for visualizations
Interactive virtual environments
Video games (Quake, by id Software)
12. How to render a geometric primitive in OpenGL?
To Framebuffer
OpenGL primitives
o A group of one or more vertices
o Vertex defines:
o A point
o An endpoint of an edge
o A corner of a polygon where two edges meet
Data consists of
o Positional coordinates
o Colors
o Normals
o Texture Coordinates

Each vertex is processed


o independely
o In order
o In the same way
o
13. What are the primitive used in OpenGL?
Lines, points, polygon, triangle, quad, quad strip, triangle strip and triangle fan.
14. What is STEP?
This standard, ISO 10303 is informally known as STEP (Standard for the Exchange
of Product model data). Its scope is much broader than that of other existing CAD data
exchange formats.
15. Write four main components STEP architecture.
EXPRESS modeling language

Data schemes including attributes such as geometry, topoloty, features and


tolerance.
Application interface called Standard Data Access Interface (SDAI), which is a
standard interface to enable application to access and manipulate STEP data.
STEP database.
16. What are the basic parts in STEP?
EXPRESS modeling language.
Two application protocols.
Drafting and configuration control design for 3D product data.
Six application resources.
17. What entities can be exported using STEP data export in CAD modeling package?
Wire frame edges.
Surfaces.
Solids.
Shells.
Datum curves and points.
18. What is Data exchange standards.
DXF format has been developed by the company Autodesk. It is not an industry
standard.
19. Write down the basic organization of DXF file.
Header section.
Classes section.
Tables section.
Block section.
ENTITIES section.
OBJECTS section.
END of file.
PART B
1. Explain the Graphical Kernal System standards for computer graphics.
2. Describe the various input methods for GKS standard.
3. Explain the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL).
4. Discuss in detail the IGES data exchange standard.
5. Explain in details the categories of IGES.
6. Describe the sub-sections of IGES in detail.
7.Discuss in detail the STEP data exchange standard.
8. Explain the procedure in rendering a geometric primitive in OpenGL.
9. Describe the entities exported using STEP data export in CAD modeling package.
10. Explain the basic organization of DXF file