2nd Edition

Prepared and Edited by Vivien Dale and Elizabeth McGregor

Table of Contents- Referencing Guide 2004

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................4
1.1 What is referencing?.......................................4 Why reference?.....................................................4 1.2 What should be referenced?...........................5 What is plagiarism?...............................................5 1.3 What is the difference between a ...................6 Bibliography and a List of References?...................6 1.4 How are direct quotations used? .....................6 1.5 How do I reference fully?................................7

2 COMPILING THE BIBLIOGRAPHY...............................9
SIMPLE SAMPLE:...................................................9 Here is an example of a simple bibliography where all the items are books, so they are set out as explained in Section 2.1. You will find a longer example at the back – it’s the bibliography showing the research that was done to compile this Reference Guide...................................................9 9 2.1 Published Printed Works...............................10
2.1.1 Books by a single author...........................................................................................................10 2.1.2 Books by multiple authors........................................................................................................10 2.1.3.1 Translated works ....................................................................................................................10 2.1.3.2 Compiled works......................................................................................................................11 2.1.4 Periodicals.................................................................................................................................11 2.1.5.1 Author known......................................................12 2.1.5.2 Author unknown................................................12
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2.1.6.1 Author known.....................................................12 12 2.1.6.2 Author unknown...................................................12

2.2 Personal Communications ............................13 (eg interviews)....................................................13 2.3 Class Handouts and Study Material...............13
2.3.2 Handouts where no reference details are available....................................................................14 2.3.3 Handouts written by class teacher.............................................................................................14

2.4 TV Programs, Motion Pictures and ................14 Videos 14

Note: ‘ producer’ is preferred; however ‘director’ is satisfactory if the producer ................................15 is unknown. 15 2.5 Online and Electronic Material.......................15
2.5.1 Internet sources.........................................................................................................................17 Author known 17 2.5.1.2 Author is unknown................................................17 2.5.1.3 Author is unknown but the source organisation . .18 is known. 18 2.5.3 A CD-ROM database...............................................................................................................18 2.5.3.1 Author known....................................................19 2.5.3.2 Author unknown...................................................19 2.5.3.3 Author is unknown but the sponsoring ................19 organisation is known.......................................................19 2.5.3.4 An entire CD-ROM ...............................................19

2.6 Tricky Situations..........................................19
2.6.1 Referring to multiple works .....................................................................................................20 Different authors with the same surname............................................................................................20 2.6.4 When one author refers to another ...........................................................................................20 2.6.4.1 Quotations 20 2.6.4.2 Secondary referencing.........................................20 2.6.5 Work with no publication date .................................................................................................21 2.6.6 Work with an approximate publication date..........................................................................21 2.6.7 Work with an uncertain publication date...................................................................................21 2.6.8 An anonymous work.................................................................................................................21

3 IN-TEXT REFERENCING.............................................23
3.1 Published Printed Works...............................23
3.1.1 Books by a single author...........................................................................................................24 3.1.2 Books by multiple authors........................................................................................................24 3.1.3.1 Translated works ....................................................................................................................25 3.1.3.2 Compiled works......................................................................................................................25 3.1.4 Periodicals.................................................................................................................................26 3.1.5.1 Author known......................................................26
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3.1.5.2 Author unknown.................................................26 3.1.6.1 Author known.....................................................27 27 3.1.6.2 Author unknown...................................................27

3.2 Personal Communications..............................29 3.3 Class Handouts and Study Material ...............30
3.3.2 Handouts where no reference details are available....................................................................30 3.3.3 Handouts written by class teacher.............................................................................................31

3.4 Television Programs, Motion Pictures and Videos 31 3.5 Online and Electronic Material.......................32
3.5.1 Internet sources.........................................................................................................................32 Follow the conventions shown in the examples below. . 32 3.5.1.1 Author known ......................................................32 3.5.1.2 Author is unknown................................................32 3.5.1.3 Author is unknown but the sponsoring ................33 organisation is known......................................................33 A CD-ROM database..........................................................................................................................33 3.5.3.1 Author known....................................................34 3.5.3.2 Author unknown...................................................34 3.5.3.3 Author is unknown but the sponsoring ................34 organisation is known......................................................34 3.5.3.4 An entire CD-ROM ...............................................34

3.6 Tricky Situations..........................................35
3.6.1 Referring to multiple works .....................................................................................................35 Different authors with the same surname............................................................................................35 3.6.4 When one author refers to another ...........................................................................................36 3.6.4.1 Quotations 36 3.6.4.2 Secondary referencing.........................................36 3.6.5 Work with no publication date .................................................................................................36 3.6.6 Work with an approximate publication date..........................................................................36 3.6.7 Work with an uncertain publication date...................................................................................37 3.6.8 An anonymous work.................................................................................................................37

4. NOW IT’S YOUR TURN TO .....................................38 PRACTISE!!.....................................................................38 BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................39

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Introduction – Referencing Guide 2004

1. Introduction
This guide shows you how to reference the many types of sources that you will use when you do research as part of your studies at Kempsey Campus. There are many ways to research and gather the information you will need for your academic writing. This guide will use examples from a wide variety of sources to help explain correct referencing. Your research will be presented mainly in the form of an essay or a report. When writing your essays and reports, use this guide to assist you to reference your sources • ‘in-text’ (ie inside the paragraphs of your essay or report) and • in the ‘bibliography’ that must be attached at the back. It is important to note that you are required to reference in both these ways ie in the text of your essay/report and also at the end, on a separate page - known as a Bibliography. If you are in doubt about correct referencing for any task, ask your subject teacher, that is, the person who has set the assignment.

1.1

What is referencing?

Academic referencing is a systematic way of acknowledging the sources of information in academic writing. There is no one universally correct way to reference. However, there are several referencing styles which have been developed. Different academic institutions, and faculties within those institutions, have guidelines for referencing style which students are expected to follow. The system you will use as a student at Kempsey Campus of TAFE is based on the Harvard Referencing System (also known as the ‘author-date’ system). Remember, if you study at other academic institutions, you will need to find out, and follow, the referencing style and conventions that are required by that particular institution or faculty.

Why reference?
Academic writing is broadly based on the concept of developing an argument. This is usually done by reading widely on the particular topic, critically evaluating what you
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Introduction – Referencing Guide 2004

have read, and finally, presenting your argument in the form of an essay or report. There are differences in style and structure between essays and reports, and these differences will be explained by your teachers. However, both essays and reports do require referencing. This referencing • demonstrates that you have researched and considered the ideas of others in presenting your argument • prevents you from ‘plagiarising’, which can lead to an automatic ‘Fail’ result (see 1.2 below).

1.2

What should be referenced?

• General knowledge and information that the general public could be assumed to know does not require referencing. For example: ‘The human immune system fights infections’. • However, information that the general public would have to research to learn about does need to be referenced. An example would be the information that: ‘Neutrophils fight infections by phagocytosing bacteria’. • Also, information that is contentious (arguable or an opinion rather than a fact) should also be referenced eg ‘Garlic is effective in fighting against viral infections’.

What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism is the action or practice of taking and using someone else’s thoughts, ideas or writings as if they were your own. It is, really, a form of stealing – it’s just that what is being ‘taken’ is intellectual (ideas), not material or physical. All academic institutions regard plagiarism as a serious breach of ethics and students are strongly advised to be diligent in acknowledging their sources of information. Referencing is the way in which we acknowledge that we have been informed by

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Introduction – Referencing Guide 2004

the work of others. Thorough referencing prevents plagiarism.

1.3

What is the difference between a Bibliography and a List of References?

A bibliography lists both textual references and other works which may have informed your thinking but which you did not explicitly cite (meaning, ’refer to’) in the text of your essay or report. A bibliography is comprehensive, as it lists all the reading you did, including background reading. A list of references, on the other hand, contains only the works you have cited in the text of your essay/report. In some academic institutions/faculties you may be required to include a List of References instead of a Bibliography. At Kempsey Campus, in the General Education Faculty, you are required to submit a Bibliography.

1.4 How are direct quotations used?
How much can I quote?
Direct quotes (word for word) should be kept to a minimum (no more than 10% of the essay). Avoid making your essay/report just a chain of quotes, as this does not show any evidence that you have understood or critically evaluated what you have read. (Your subject teacher will show you how to critically evaluate).

How do I set out a quote?
Occasionally, though, you may wish to use a direct quote. If the quotation is short – less than about thirty words – it should be contained within the text inside single quotation marks. For example: Marriage in Australian society may be characterised by a sense of partnership, while, at the same time, providing the opportunity for individual growth. This philosophy was perhaps best expressed by the
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Introduction – Referencing Guide 2004

poet Gibran (1923 p.37) who said ‘Love one another but make not a bond of love’. Longer quotations should be set out as separate passages without quotation marks. The passage should be indented and typed in a smaller font or narrower line spacing than the rest of your text. For example: Marriage in Australian society may be characterised by a sense of partnership while at the same time, providing the opportunity for individual growth. This philosophy was perhaps best expressed by the poet Gibran (1923 pp.37-38)
Love one another, but make not a bond of love, rather, let it be a moving sea between the shores of your souls. Fill each other’s cup, but drink not from the same cup. Sing and dance together and be merry, but let each one of you be alone, as the strings of the lute are alone, though they quiver with the same music.

1.5

How do I reference fully?

The easiest way to approach referencing is to prepare for it from the moment you begin your research. This preparation will save you rushing around madly the day before your essay or report is due, trying to find your sources again so that you can complete your bibliography. Do the following 2 things and you will never find yourself in this situation: 1 As soon as you find a source, list the details that you’ll need for the bibliography. Check the relevant part of Section 2 to see what you’ll need to include. For instance, if you are using a book by a single author, look up Section 2.1.1. It shows that you will need the publishing information (name of publisher, place & date of publication, edition/volume number if there is one) as well as the author’s surname and initials and the title of the book. So be sure to take note of this before you return books to libraries etc. 2 Keep a record of the author, date and page number as you are reading and taking your notes. One method of doing this is by taking notes under the following headings: Who Said? What ? When? Page Number 7

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So, if you had read a book by Robert Cook published in 1997 that stated on page 67 that 95% of teenagers aged between 13-18 years used marijuana at least once per week, your notes might look like this: Who Said? What? When? 1997 Page Number 67

Cook, R 95%13-18 years Marij. at least 1 per week

The two essential types of referencing that you will use are: • In-Text • The Bibliography (presented at the end of your essay or report on a separate page). The remainder of this booklet takes a more detailed look at both in-text and bibliographical referencing. • • For compiling the bibliography refer to Section 2. For referencing in-text refer to Section 3.

 Note that the item numbers are cross-matched between Sections 2 and 3.

What if a source type I have used isn’t listed in this guide?
If you come upon a source type that is not listed here (eg an Act of Parliament), ask a teacher for help – or use some of the sources we used to compile this guide. You will find them listed in the bibliography at the back.

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Section 2 – Compiling the Bibliography - Referencing Guide 2004

2 Compiling the Bibliography
At the end of your assignment you will need to start a separate page and put the heading: Bibliography This is where you provide complete details about the sources that you have used in your assignment. The bibliography should provide enough specific details to allow your reader to physically access the same source that you have used. It should also follow the conventions of a recognised system. The system described here is the Harvard system.

Bibliographies are always alphabetical
SIMPLE SAMPLE: Here is an example of a simple bibliography where all the items are books, so they are set out as explained in Section 2.1. You will find a longer example at the back – it’s the bibliography showing the research that was done to compile this Reference Guide. Notice how the second line of any long entry is indented – this helps the reader scan the list. Bibliography
Brown, D.J. 1993, Contemporary Australian Health, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Brown, P.L., Jones, W.T. & Barrow, L.N. 1996, Television Violence, Bridge, Sydney. Brown, S.W. (ed) 1991, Beating the Big C, Random House, Sydney. Freud, S. 1933, Interpretation of Dreams, Norton Press, New York. Harris, J. 1998, The Nurture Assumption, The Free Press, New York. Jung, C.G. 1923, Awakening the Shadow, Brown Publishing, New York. Zimbardo, P.G. 1992, Psychology and Life, 13th Edition, Harper Collins, New York.

Remember, some academic institutions /faculties will require a reference list instead of a bibliography.  A bibliography refers to both textual references and other works which may have informed your thinking but which may not have been explicitly cited. 9

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Section 2 – Compiling the Bibliography - Referencing Guide 2004

A reference list includes only works cited in the text.

 Both bibliographies and references lists are alphabetical. The way that you record reference details in your bibliography will depend on the source of the information. For that reason, each source will be considered separately in the following guidelines.

2.1
2.1.1

Published Printed Works
Books by a single author
To document references for books, include: • Author’s surname and initials • Year of publication • Title of publication – this should be in italics (or underlined if your bibliography is handwritten) • Title of series, volume number, edition (if applicable) • Publisher followed by city of publication eg’s Brown, D.J. 1993, Contemporary Australian Health, Melbourne
University Press, Melbourne. Zimbardo, P.G. 1992, Psychology and Life, 13th Edition, Harper Collins, New York.

2.1.2

Books by multiple authors
Document as for single authors, using the punctuation shown in this example: eg
Brown, P.L., Jones, W.T. & Barrow, L.N. 1996, Television Violence, Bridge, Sydney.

2.1.3

Edited books
Some books have an array of different authors listed inside the cover, but it’s not clear which parts each of them wrote, nor is it clear that they all co-authored the whole book. In these cases, there is usually an editor named clearly on the cover and on the title page inside. Document such books as for authored books, but show that an editor put the book together by using ‘ed’ in brackets after the editor’s name: eg
Brown, S.W. (ed) 1991, Beating the Big C, Random House, Sydney.

2.1.3.1

Translated works Even though your in-text reference will only cite

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Section 2 – Compiling the Bibliography - Referencing Guide 2004

the person whose ideas you are using (in the following example, Nietzche’s), your bibliography should tell your reader whose translated version you used (here, it’s Kaufmann’s): eg 2.1.3.2
Nietzche,1954, The Portable Nietzche, trans, W. Kaufmann, Penguin Books, New York.

Compiled works These are books where each chapter or item is contributed by a different author or where someone compiles a collection (or ‘anthology’) of works such as poems or short stories. List the author etc of any item that you use, then show the details of the book it was printed in. . eg’s Tulving,E.T., 1983, ‘Memory Systems’ in Roediger,
H.L., Weldon, M.S. & Challis, B.H. (eds), 1989, Varieties in Memory and Consciousness, Lawrence Erlaum Associates, New York. Utemorrah, D. ‘Mary’s Plea’ in Mafia-Williams, L.(comp.) 1993, Spirit Song, Omnibus Books, South Australia

Note: the title of the shorter item (poem, chapter, article) is in inverted commas, but the title of the book is in italics (equivalent to underlining if you are handwriting the bibliography)

2.1.4

Periodicals
A ‘periodical’ is a printed publication that is issued ‘periodically’ ie daily, weekly, monthly etc. It includes magazines, professional journals and so on. In your bibliography, details of each article you use should be shown separately, and should include: • Author’s surname and initials • Year of publication • Title of article(in single quotation marks) • Title of periodical (italicised) • Title of series, if applicable • Volume or issue number, if applicable • Page numbers of entire article eg’s Hill, S.R. 1999, ‘Working more and enjoying life less’, Journal of
Social Psychology, vol.12, pp.23-28. Shea, T.W. 1959, ‘Barriers to economic development in traditional societies: Malabar, a case study’, Journal of Economic

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History, vol.19, pp. 504-522.

Notice: there is minimal capitalisation in the title of the article.

2.1.5

Newspaper articles
Use the conventions shown for periodicals in 2.1.4 above, since newspapers are essentially this sort of source. 2.1.5.1 Author known eg Leech, G. 1993, ‘Call for research shake-up’, The
Australian, 11 August, p.13.

2.1.5.2 Author unknown Here, the title becomes the first entry, and is used to determine where in the alphabetical order of the bibliography this source should be listed. eg ‘Drink driving – a national disgrace’, Sydney
Morning Herald, 15 January 2000, p26.

2.1.6

Sponsored works (eg company reports, brochures)
A sponsoring organisation is usually a company that pays for a report or paper to be written, or a government or nongovernment organisation that pays people to conduct research on their behalf. 2.1.6.1 Author known Follow procedures for books (see 2.1.1) or periodicals (2.1.4), depending which category your source best fits. eg’s
Vukovic, A. 2003, IT Graduate Outcomes Survey 2003, TAFENSW, Sydney Davis, J. 2004, Peregrine Pursuits, summer 2004, Peregrine Adventures, Sydney

2.1.6.2

Author unknown Follow procedures for books (see 2.1.1) or periodicals (2.1.4), depending which category your source best fits, but show the sponsoring organisation as the author. eg’s
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, 1998, The Future of Self Determination, ATSIC Publishing, Canberra.

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Section 2 – Compiling the Bibliography - Referencing Guide 2004

TAFENSW, 2001, Longitudinal Study of IT&T Graduate Career Paths Survey 2001,TAFENSW, Sydney

2.1.7

Literary works
These follow the conventions for books. Literary works on film can be referenced using the conventions shown in 2.4. 2.1.7.1 Novels eg 2.1.7.2 Plays eg
Shakespeare, W. 1977, The Collected Works of Shakespeare, 19th Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Hemingway, E. n.d. The Sun Also Rises, Fiesta, New York.

2.1.7.3

Poems eg
MacKellar, D. 1986, The Poems of Dorothea MacKellar, Omnibus Press, South Australia.

2.2

Personal Communications (eg interviews)

Personal Communications are NOT listed in the bibliography. However, you can make reference, in-text, to ideas and opinions gathered this way.

2.3
2.3.1

Class Handouts and Study Material
Study booklets
Follow procedures for sponsored works (2.1.6). Where the author is unknown, use the name of the educational institution as the author. eg’s
Blackwell, L.J. 2004, Introduction to Computing, North Coast Institute of TAFE, Kempsey Campus.

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Open Learning Australia, 2004, Accounting B - Learner’s Guide, Open Learning Australia, Melbourne.

2.3.2 Handouts where no reference details are available
Provide as much detail as you can so that the source can be located. The heading on the handout is used as the title; the fact that it was a handout is shown in brackets, and the year it was handed out is given as the date. Give the details of the subject and the institution that conducted the class as well. eg
Aboriginal Spirituality (handout) 2003, Aboriginal Identity 0064X, Tertiary Preparation Certificate, North Coast Institute TAFE, Kempsey Campus.

2.3.3

Handouts written by class teacher
Acknowledge the teacher as the author. eg
Fatnowna, G. (handout) 2004, Aboriginal Kinship, Aboriginal Identity 0064X, Tertiary Preparation Certificate, North Coast Institute TAFE, Kempsey Campus.

2.4

TV Programs, Motion Pictures and Videos
For a recording of a TV show, use the date the program was aired:
A Current Affair (video recording) 18 January 2003, Australian Consolidated Press, Sydney, Director, Megan James.

Follow the patterns shown in the examples below:

For a video recording, use the date it was produced. Sometimes, you will not be able to find the individual producer or director’s name – make sure you at least indicate the company or organisation that produced it.
Babakiueria (video recording) 1991, Australian Broadcasting Commission, Sydney.

Even if you view a video copy of a film, indicate that it was produced as a motion picture, and name the producer: 14

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Section 2 – Compiling the Bibliography - Referencing Guide 2004

The Dead Poet’s Society (motion picture) 1992, Fox Studios, Los Angeles, Producer, Peter Weir.

Note: ‘ producer’ is preferred; however ‘director’ is satisfactory if the producer is unknown.

2.5

Online and Electronic Material

The World Wide Web now makes it possible for us to bring a wide variety of material right to the ‘desktop’ of a computer. This variety - especially the different ways the information is structured and presented - can pose some referencing challenges. Likewise, because this is still a relatively new phenomenon, the conventions for referencing are still being developed.

What are the basics of referencing online material?
However, you will be on the right track when using and citing Internet sources if you observe the following two guidelines, as the American Psychological Association has suggested to their students and professionals (2003): 1. Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited; whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages. 2. Provide addresses that work.

Do I use the referencing conventions shown elsewhere in this Guide?
Documents available via the Internet include • articles from periodicals (e.g. newspaper, newsletter, or journal) • complete documents that are probably also available in printed form in libraries and in the offices of the organizations that produced them (e.g. research paper, government report, online book or brochure) – these are mostly what we call ‘sponsored works’, because an organization has supported their production • documents developed specially for publishing on the Web (e.g. Web page, newsgroup, bulletin board).
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Section 2 – Compiling the Bibliography - Referencing Guide 2004

Where necessary, use the conventions for the particular text type as shown elsewhere in this Reference Guide (eg Periodicals – section 2.1.4, Sponsored works – section 2.1.6) then add the additional internet/web information as shown below.

Is it the homepage or the document that matters most?
Remember that web pages are often visually ‘busy’ and crowded – your task is to concentrate on providing the details for the actual document from which you gathered some ideas. This document could be posted, perhaps, on another website, or available in book form in a library. It will still tell you the same thing - so it’s the document itself which your reader needs to be able to track down.

Try to provide the following details in your bibliography to help your reader do this locating:  the author/s of the document you are referring to (where possible – this won’t always be clear)  the date of publication of the document itself (if shown)  a document title or description  an address (in Internet terms, a uniform resource locator, or URL)  the date you retrieved it (if you print out the information, this date is usually shown on the bottom of each page) and the date the site itself was last updated, if that is shown Examples are shown in 2.5.1 below.

Does the URL matter?
The URL is the most critical element: if it doesn't work, readers won't be able to find the cited material, and the credibility of your research will suffer. The most common reason URLs fail is that they are copied incorrectly; the second most common reason is that the document they point to has been moved or deleted. The components of a URL are as follows:

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It is important to provide the long address that takes your reader right to the document you used (not to the home page of the organization that posted the information), because home pages consist mainly of links, and it’s not your reader’s job to search these links looking for the document you are citing. The easiest way to write out the URL correctly is to copy it directly from the address window in your browser and paste it into your bibliography – one of the benefits of learning to use a computer to help do your essays and reports! Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines; instead, break the URL at a ‘neat‘ place eg after a slash or before a full stop.

Note: Test the URLs in your references before submitting your final draft. If the document you are citing has moved, update the URL so that it points to the correct location. If the document is no longer available, you may want to substitute another source (e.g. if you originally cited a draft and a final published version now exists) or drop it from the bibliography altogether.

2.5.1

Internet sources
While conventions for online and electronic sources are still developing, it seems that most universities are now using the term ‘retrieved’ to indicate the date you gathered the information from this sort of source.

Author known eg
Canavan, P. 2000, Successful Management, http://www.now.management.gofast.NZ [retrieved 18 January 2004, updated 1 January 2004].

2.5.1.2

Author is unknown eg
The Price of Freedom, 1999, http://www.timor.people.struggle.com.au [retrieved 4 January 2003, updated 12 December 2002].

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2.5.1.3

Author is unknown but the source organisation is known. eg
Greenpeace, 1999, The Logging Must Stop! http//www.greenpeace.logging.com.au [retrieved 4 January 2000].

2.5.1.4

Online forums These are not the most reliable sources, since they are hard to authenticate; nevertheless, if you do need to cite such a source, check out Guffey’s approach as shown in points 10 & 11 at http://www.westwords.com/guffey/apa.html .

2.5.2

A web based database
Refer to sources from databases that you access on-line in much the same way as you do other sources, but add the name of the database as well, and give enough information (eg web address or number of the actual article) for your reader to find the source. eg
Carroll, A. 2000, ‘Mappers Right’, National Geographic, vol. 197, retrieved 3 June 2002 from Infotrac database, http://web2.infotrac.apla.galegrou…n_2_0_A65805283? sw_aep=north-coast Blackburn-Brockman, E. & Belanger, K. 2001, ‘A national study of CPA recruiters' preferences for resume length’ The Journal of Business Communication, 38 (1), 29, retrieved February 28, 2003, from InfoTrac College Edition database, Article No. A71327300.

2.5.3

A CD-ROM database
When you are referring to an author or article from the CD, follow the conventions for the type of text you found on the disk (eg an article, a sponsored work). These conventions are shown elsewhere in this Guide. Then, adapt the entry as shown below to make it clear that the material was found on a CD. Include the publishing or selling organisation, their city, and the date of publication or production.

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CDs, unlike the web and online databases, don’t have their information updated without you knowing about it, so there is no need to mention the date you actually retrieved the information. The key dates are the date the particular document stored on the CD was written, and the year the CD itself was published (shown last). 2.5.3.1 Author known eg’s
Begley, S. 1997, ‘Odds on the Greenhouse’, Newsweek, 1 December, Proquest Resource One, CD-ROM, UMI, Springville, 1998. Cashman, K.V. 1999, ‘Volcano’, World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia, CD-ROM, World Book Inc., Chicago, 1999. Graham, P.W. 1996, ‘The Immune System’, Modern Medicine, CD-ROM, University of NSW, Sydney, 1999.

2.5.3.2

Author unknown. eg
‘Chronic Fatigue Syndrome’, 1996, Microsoft Encarta, CD-ROM, 2000.

2.5.3.3

Author is unknown but the sponsoring organisation is known If it is clear that the item was sponsored by an organisation, they can be used as the author. (See 3.1.6 for an explanation or sponsoring organisations)

2.5.3.4

An entire CD-ROM The publishing organisation becomes the author in this situation, and only one date (the date of production or publication) is necessary. eg
University of New South Wales, 1998, Study Skills, CD-ROM, Unisearch Multimedia, Sydney.

2.6

Tricky Situations

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2.6.1

Referring to multiple works
Where you have referred to two authors at the same time to argue your case (see 3.6.1), list each work separately in your bibliography.

Different authors with the same surname
The bibliography differentiates authors with the same surname because it provides other details like initials and dates: eg Brown, D.J. 1993, Contemporary Australian Health, Melbourne
University Press, Melbourne. Brown, P.L., Jones, W.T. & Barrow, L.N. 1996, Television Violence, Bridge, Sydney. Brown, S.W. (ed) 1991, Beating the Big C, Random House, Sydney.

2.6.3

Same author; same year
Sometimes, the same author will write more than one publication in the same year. For example, two articles by the author DJ Smith were published in the same year - 1993. The most common option used here is to add a letter after the year.
Brown, D.J. 1993A, Contemporary Australian Health, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Brown, D.J. 1993B, Indigenous Health, Oxford University Press, London.

2.6.4

When one author refers to another
2.6.4.1 Quotations List both the quoted author and the author who found and quoted the comment. For instance, for the example used in 3.6.4.1, you would list both Hall and White, as shown below: Hall’s own referencing should provide you with White’s details
Hall, J.D. 1993, Environmental Responsibility, Harper Collins, New York. White, S.J. 1987, This Delicate Planet, Sun Books, Melbourne.

2.6.4.2

Secondary referencing Only the book which you have actually read is listed. For instance, for the example used in 3.6.4.2, you would list only Taylor, as shown below:
Taylor, D.G. 1998, Theories of Management, Prentice Hall, New York.

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2.6.5

Work with no publication date
Replace the year with the intials ‘n.d.’ eg
Field, K. n.d., The Taming of Parramatta, Antipodean Press, Sydney.

2.6.6

Work with an approximate publication date
Use the initial ’c.’, which stand for ‘circa’, meaning ‘approximately’ eg
Sommers, E.C. c.1855, A Harsh Land, Oxford Press, Oxford.

2.6.7 Work with an uncertain publication date
Use a question mark to show the uncertainty. eg
Harlow, W.T. ?1874, The Mystery of Personality, Camden Publishing, London.

2.6.8

An anonymous work
Use the title of the work in place of the author’s or sponsoring organisation’s name, if neither of these is known. Don’t use the term ‘anon’, unless that is shown as the author (this sometimes happens with literary works). Follow the procedures, then, for whatever type of source it is eg book, periodical, video, etc. The following example is for an anonymous book. eg
Nepal and its People, 1990, Garland Publishing, London.

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Remember, a bibliography also includes those sources that have informed your thinking for your essay/report, but may not have been cited in your text.

The next Section – Section 3 – shows you how to cite any of these sources in the text of your essay or report.

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3 In-Text Referencing
This is the referencing you include in the text of your essay or report. There are three critical pieces of information that your reader should be able to find in the text of your essay/report: 1) Whose idea was it? 2) What year was it said/written? 3) On what page number did you find the information? The following points show how this information should be conveyed to your reader.

3.1
• • •

Published Printed Works

In-text referencing for published printed works should always indicate: Author’s surname Year of publication Page number(s)

What if there is no author?
If there is no individual author, use the first item of the bibliography entry for this source. (This is why it helps to compile your bibliography as you go – doing so makes it easy to work out what to put ‘in-text’ – the first item, plus the date and page). Sometimes, the first item in the bibliography entry will be the name of the sponsoring organisation; other times, it will be the title of the article. Section 2 explains the requirements for most situations.

What if it doesn’t make sense to refer to a page number?
There are 2 main situations where this will arise: 1 If there is no specific page, or group of pages, that you can refer to because the source is not marked that way (eg some internet sources) or because the source type doesn’t have page numbers (eg videorecording), then 23

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you don’t include a page number. 2 If the idea you are acknowledging came from a whole publication, you don’t need to show page numbers. i.e. Sometimes, a central theme of an entire published work may be cited. In this case, page numbers are not included. For example:
Human personality evolves from a complex interaction between the forces of nature and nurture (Zimbardo, 1996).

Note: ‘pp.’ refers to ‘pages’, while ‘p.’ means ‘page’.

3.1.1

Books by a single author
Use the author’s surname, date and the page (p) or pages (pp) on which you found the information. There are several ways this information can be included, for example: Put all the details in brackets, not in your words: eg The assumption that a child’s personality is largely moulded
by parental nurturing has been challenged (Harris,1998, pp. 1-33).

Mention the author in your words: eg Harris (1998, pp.1-33) argued against the assumption that
parents significantly influence the personality development of their children.

Mention the author and the date in your words. eg It was argued by Harris in 1998 (pp.1-33) that parents do not
mould the personality of their children to any significant extent.

Note: use the latter 2 approaches more than the first. These 2 approaches show that you understand that this is the author’s argument, not necessarily outright ‘fact’.

3.1.2

Books by multiple authors
The first time you reference this work, list all the authors. Follow the order of their names as shown on the book’s title page. For subsequent references to the same work, you may use the first author’s name, followed by ‘et al ‘ (a Latin term meaning ‘and others’).

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For example: The first reference to a work may read:
Brown, Jones and Barrow (1996, pp.45-50) argued that violence on television might encourage children to use violence in the playground.

or
It has been suggested that violence on television may encourage children to use violence in the playground (Brown, Jones & Barrow, 1996, pp. 45-50).

or
Some research, such as that reported in Brown, Jones and Barrow in 1996 (pp.14-50), suggests that violence on television may encourage children to use violence in the playground.

Subsequent references to that same work may then be written:
Brown et al (1996, p.101) concluded that a strong correlation was found between excessive viewing of violence on television in childhood and violent behaviours in adult life.

or
A strong correlation has been reported between excessive viewing of violence on television in childhood and violent behaviours in adult life (Brown et al, 1996, p.101).

or
The conclusion reached by Brown et al in their 1996 (p.101) publication was that excessive viewing of violence on television correlated strongly with violent behaviours in adult life.

3.1.3

Edited books
Refer to the editor or editors just as if they were the author (follow the conventions shown in 3.1.2 above) 3.1.3.1 Translated works Only cite the person whose ideas you are using ie the original author (in the following example, Nietzsche). eg It has been argued that language is the only
adequate expression of all realities (Nietzsche, 1954).

Your bibliography will tell your reader whose translated version you used (see 2.1.3.1) 3.1.3.2 Compiled works These are books where each chapter or item is contributed by a different author or where 25

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someone compiles a collection (or ‘anthology’) of works such as poems or short stories. In-text, refer only to the author of the specific item that you use. The details of the book it was printed in will be listed in your bibliography (see 2.1.3.2). eg’s
Tulving (1983, p.27) argued that implicit and explicit memory systems are structurally distinct. In Mary’s Plea, Utemorrah yearns to “smell / the smoke / of burnt grass” (verse 1, lines 7-10)

Note: The forward slashes represent the end of a line of a poem. When drama is written in verse form, the same convention applies.

3.1.4

Periodicals
Refer in-text to the author/s of the article that you found in the journal or magazine, and give date and page details for that article. eg’s
It has been reported that the number of hours spent in the workplace by Australian employees has increased by 8% since 1985 (Hill, 1999, pp.23-28). Shea (1959, pp.504-522), in an early study of urban Aboriginal populations in Sydney, argued that governments needed to provide greater financial assistance to Aboriginal communities.

Section 2.1.4 shows you the full entry for the bibliography.

3.1.5

Newspaper articles
Use the conventions shown for periodicals in 3.1.4 above, since newspapers are essentially this sort of source. 3.1.5.1 Author known eg
Rimington (2000, p.11) reported that the political unrest in Indonesia has been heightened by the recent fighting in Lombok.

3.1.5.2 Author unknown Here, the title becomes the author. eg
Arrests for driving while under the influence of alcohol increased during the 1999 Christmas holiday period by 24% over the same period in the previous year. (Sydney Morning Herald, 15 January 2000, p.26).

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The Sydney Morning Herald (15 January 2000, p.26) reported that…

Section 2.1.7 shows you the full entry for the bibliography.

3.1.6

Sponsored works (eg company reports, brochures)
A sponsoring organisation is usually a company that pays for a report or paper to be written, or a government or nongovernment organisation that pays people to conduct research on their behalf. This category often includes brochures, annual reports, surveys, statistical reports etc. If no specific author’s name is on the title page of a sponsored work, then use the name of the sponsoring organisation as the author in-text. For example:
A publication of the Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander Commission (1998) supported the argument that…

3.1.6.1 Author known Follow procedures for books (see 3.1.1) or periodicals (3.1.4), depending which category your source best fits. eg’s
Vukovic (2003) outlined the main destinations for graduates of information technology training between 1999 and 2002. Promotional work has been done by Davis (2004) to increase the levels of tourist activity in the Antarctic region.

Section 2.1.6.1 shows you how to set out the bibliography for these sources. 3.1.6.2 Author unknown Follow procedures for books (see 2.1.1) or periodicals (2.1.4), depending which category your source best fits, but show the sponsoring organisation as the author. eg’s
Previous work by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (1998) will now be superseded. TAFENSW surveyed its IT graduates in 2001 to determine the career paths they are most likely
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pursue.

3.1.7

Literary works
These follow the conventions for books. Literary works on film can be referenced using the conventions shown in Section 3.4. 3.1.7.1 Novels You may wish to take a direct quote from a novel that you are analysing. eg
The only salvation, for Hemingway, is to go on, to endure; performing to the end, self-appointed tasks. For example (page 123, Ch14)
Perhaps as you went along you did learn something. I did not care … All I wanted to know was how to live in it.

Notice: the three points of ellipsis (…) are used to mark the omission of words in quoted material. Note also that the longer quote is indented, and written in a smaller font without quotation marks. (See 1.4 for details)

3.1.7.2

Plays You may be required to discuss acts, scenes, lines or verses from a play. Acknowledge both the playwright and the lines using the following conventions: eg
Shakespeare’s tragic heroine, Juliet, learns from her nurse that Romeo has killed Tybalt. In Act 3, Sc 2, line74, in answer to Juliet’s question, she cries “It did, it did; alas the day, it did! “ Shakespeare’s tragic heroine, Juliet, learns from her nurse that Romeo has killed Tybalt. In answer to Juliet’s question, she cries “It did, it did; alas the day, it did!” (Act 3, Sc 2, line74)

or

3.1.7.3

Poems When referring to extracts from a poem use the terms ‘verse’ or ‘stanza’, and ‘lines’. eg
MacKellar’s passion for the Australian landscape is evidenced in the poem, My Country, verse 2, lines 14:
I love a sunburnt country / A land of sweeping

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plains/ Of rugged mountain ranges/ Of droughts and flooding rains/”

or

MacKellar’s passion for the Australian landscape is evidenced in the second stanza, lines 1-4, where she extols the strength of the earth:
I love a sunburnt country / A land of sweeping plains/ Of rugged mountain ranges/ Of droughts and flooding rains/”

Note: The forward slashes represent the end of a line of a poem. When drama is written in verse form, the same convention applies.

3.2 Personal Communications
Where information is obtained by letter, interview, email etc, it is referenced in the text only (personal communication is not listed in the bibliography). Examples:
It is claimed that addiction to gambling is on the increase in Australia, particularly amongst females aged 18-30 years (Barrow, Dr L. Psychologist, 2000, personal communication, 14 January).

or
In a telephone conversation on 3 January 2000, Dr L Barrow, Psychologist, suggested that …

or
In an email communication on 4 January 2000, Dr L. Barrow, Psychologist, claimed that…

Note that the in-text reference information is: 1) Name 2) Position, occupation or role 3) Date By including the position, occupation or role of the person with whom you have had the personal communication, the reader can then judge the degree of expertise of that person for the particular topic. For example, information regarding the history of the Dunghutti Nation obtained by interview with a Dunghutti Elder would be more reliable than

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information obtained from your local mechanic who may not be a Dunghutti Elder.

3.3 Class Handouts and Study Material
Academic research demands that you gather information from a wide variety of sources beyond that which is presented to you in class. However, you may, at times, wish to use handouts and study material that your teacher/lecturer has provided as a small part of the research that you use for your essays/reports. In this case there are set procedures for in-text referencing of that material.

3.3.1

Study booklets
Follow procedures for sponsored works (3.1.6). Where the author is unknown, use the name of the educational institution as the author. eg’s
Blackwell (1998, pp.1-15) suggested that students should attempt to gain a basic understanding of computer hardware. Recent changes to accounting procedures have been designed in response to growing concerns about corporate ethics. (Open Learning Australia, 2004, pp 66-73)

3.3.2 Handouts where no reference details are available
Once you have worked out how this can be written up in the Bibliography (see 2.3.2), then you are ready to decide what details to use in-text. As always, choose the first item in the bibliography entry as the author. Include the date it was handed out. Unlike many other sources, you need to show in-text what source type it is (handout). eg You are a student in the Tertiary Preparation Certificate (TPC) course in 2000 and you have been given some handouts taken from published sources by Garth Fatnowna for a class on Aboriginal Spirituality. The author of the information is unidentified. The in-text reference should read:
There is a strong spiritual connection between Australian Aboriginal people and the earth (‘Aboriginal Spirituality’, handout, 2000).
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3.3.3

Handouts written by class teacher
Acknowledge the teacher as the author. eg You are in the same class and you are given a handout that has been made by the teacher. In this case the teacher assumes the role of the author for referencing purposes. The in-text reference should read:
Extended family relationships are extremely important in Australian Aboriginal culture (Fatnowna, handout, 2000).

3.4 Television Programs, Motion Pictures and Videos
In-text references to these sources should include the title, date of production and the format. Note that television programs are identified as video recordings. For example:
The pressures on youth to conform to parental expectations were illustrated poignantly in The Dead Poets’ Society (motion picture, 1992).

or
The video recording Babakiueria (1991) highlighted many of the stereotypes that hindered racial harmony in Australia.

or
There is increasing confusion amongst retailers regarding the implementation of the GST (A Current Affair, video recording, 18 January 2000).

Section 2.4 shows you how to list these in your bibliography.

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3.5

Online and Electronic Material

For online media (World Wide Web sources such as internet articles, online databases and forums, or electronic media such as CD-ROMs) in-text referencing should contain enough information to match it to the bibliography. From there, your reader can access your references.

3.5.1

Internet sources
While conventions for online and electronic sources are still developing, it seems that most universities are now using the term ‘retrieved’ followed by the date written as ‘day month year’ to indicate the date you gathered the information from this sort of source. However, the guidelines have also changed away from the need to show this retrieval date in-text: it is enough that you have shown this in your bibliography. Nevertheless, It is very important that you include the date of publication of the document itself, as your reader will want an indication of the currency of the information. Some referencing guides do not recommend including page numbers for online material, as page numbers may vary according to the browser used. Also, online search facilities make it possible to scan documents for the key words of the quoted material. However, it is still useful to include a page number if there is one, especially for long documents. Follow the conventions shown in the examples below. 3.5.1.1 Author known eg or
It has been argued that successful managers actively assist their staff in coping with an ever-changing work environment (Canavan, 2000, pp.1-4). Canavan (2000, pp.1-4) argued that successful managers actively assist their staff in coping with an ever-changing work environment.

3.5.1.2

Author is unknown Use the title of the article as the author, and give the publication date (of the document you referred to) and a page number if there is one. eg
The Australian military forces in East Timor have provided stability and hope for a country whose people have paid for their independence with their

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blood (The Price of Freedom, 1999, p.12).

3.5.1.3

Author is unknown but the sponsoring organisation is known Use the organisation as the author. (See 3.1.6 for an explanation of sponsoring organisations.) eg
The environmental damage caused by logging in Brazil is devastating the ecosystems of the entire planet (Greenpeace, 1999, pp.13-18).

Section 2.5.1 shows you how to complete the bibliography for these internet items. 3.5.1.4 Online forums These are not the most reliable sources, since they are hard to authenticate; nevertheless, if you do need to cite such a source, check out Guffey’s approach as shown in points 10 & 11 at http://www.westwords.com/guffey/apa.html .

3.5.2

A web-based database
Refer to sources from databases that you access on-line in much the same way as you do other sources, ie author, date and page number if possible. If the individual author can’t be found, use the approaches shown in 3.5.1.2 & 3.5.1.3 The bibliography details (see Section 2.5.2) will point your reader to the location of the information. eg
The villagers of the Mazaruni River region have used the power of their ancient local knowledge combined with modern mapping technology to substantiate their land rights claim (Carroll, 2000, pp.1-2). Blackburn-Brockman & Belanger (2001, p56) contend that a 10page resume is too long.

A CD-ROM database

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When you are referring to an author or article from the CD, follow the conventions for the type of text you found on the disk (eg an article, a sponsored work). These conventions are shown elsewhere in this Guide. You will notice that the bibliography entry for CD-ROMs requires two dates - the date the particular document stored on the CD was written, and the year the CD itself was published (shown last). In-text, the first of these dates - the date the document was written - is the relevant one. 3.5.3.1 Author known eg’s
Graham claimed that 21st century life will lead to an increase in diseases of the immune system. (1996, p.21). It has been claimed that the Greenhouse effect is overstated (Begley, 1997).

3.5.3.2

Author unknown. The title of the article – being the first entry in the bibliography – becomes the ‘author’ for in-text referencing purposes. Give the publication date (of the document you referred to) and a page number if there is one. eg
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome can be diagnosed through blood and urine tests (‘Chronic Fatigue Syndrome’, 1996).

3.5.3.3

Author is unknown but the sponsoring organisation is known If it is clear that the item was sponsored by an organisation, they can be used as the author. (See 3.1.6 for an explanation or sponsoring organisations)

3.5.3.4

An entire CD-ROM The publishing organisation becomes the author in this situation. eg
Organisation and time management are the keys to effective study (University of New South Wales, 1998).

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3.6
3.6.1

Tricky Situations
Referring to multiple works
In this case, use semicolons to separate the authors’ names with surnames in alphabetical order. For example:
Dreams may provide an insight into what is happening in the dreamer’s unconscious mind (Freud,1933; Jung, 1928).

or
Both Freud (1933) and Jung (1928) argued that dreams may provide an insight into what is happening in the dreamer’s unconscious mind.

Each work is separately listed in the bibliography.

Different authors with the same surname
The bibliography differentiates authors with the same surname because it provides other details like initials and dates, as shown in Section 2.1 eg:
Brown, D.J. 1993, Contemporary Australian Health, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Brown, P.L., Jones, W.T. & Barrow, L.N. 1996, Television Violence, Bridge, Sydney. Brown, S.W. (ed) 1991, Beating the Big C, Random House, Sydney.

In-text, use the different authors’ initials to distinguish one from the other. Separate the two with a semicolon. eg
(Brown, D.J., 1993; Brown, S.W., 1991)

If the reference is not contained within parentheses (brackets) the initials come before the surname. eg
A report from S.W. Brown (1991, p.34) suggested that death from lung cancer was decreasing. D.J. Brown (1993, p.16), however, argued that all cancer-related deaths were increasing.

3.6.3

Same author; same year
Sometimes, the same author will write more than one publication in the same year. For example, two articles by the author DJ Smith were published in the same year - 1993. The most common option used here is to add a letter after the year. eg
Brown (1993A, p.62) contends that cancer rates among non-

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indigenous people are increasing, while they are remaining static among indigenous populations around the globe (1993B, p4).

3.6.4

When one author refers to another
3.6.4.1 Quotations When one author quotes another author, and you want to use the same direct quote, the procedure is:
White (1987, p.56, quoted in Hall, 1993, p.35) argued that Australia would benefit from a reduction in levels of government.

In this case both authors are listed separately in the bibliography (see Section 2.6.3.4). 3.6.4.2 Secondary referencing At other times, you might wish to refer to, but not quote, the work of a particular author that has been mentioned in a work that you are reading, even though you have not read the original. The procedure in this case would be:
Gregory (1996, cited in Taylor, 1998, pp.12-16) suggested that schools should do more to educate students about the dangers of drug abuse.

In this case, only Taylor, whose book you have read, is listed in your bibliography (see Section 2.6.4.2).

3.6.5

Work with no publication date
Replace the year with the initials ‘n.d.’ Choose one of these options
Field (n.d. p.57) found that…

or or

It was found that…(Field, n.d. p.57). Field, whose study was conducted in an unknown year (p.57) reported that … .

3.6.6

Work with an approximate publication date
Use the abbreviation ‘c’ (for ‘circa’, meaning ‘about’). eg or
Sommers (c. 1855) reported…

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It was reported that…(Sommers c. 1855).

3.6.7 Work with an uncertain publication date
Use a question mark to show the uncertainty. eg or
Harlow (?1874) contended that… It was contended that … (Harlow, ?1874).

3.6.8

An anonymous work
Use the title of the work if the author or sponsoring organisation is unknown. Show the date and page number/s just as you would for any source type. eg
The people of Nepal have, for many years, suffered various forms of persecution (Nepal and its People, 1990, p.27).

Don’t use the term ‘anon’, unless that is shown as the author (this sometimes happens with literary works).

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4.

Now it’s your turn to practise!!

Section 2 of this guide has provided many examples of the different types of entries required for a bibliography. All those examples are listed throughout Sections 2.1 to 2.6. Exercise: Select one example from each section (ie one each from 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 & 2.6) and sort them into correct alphabetical order to create a sample bibliography under the heading below.

Bibliography

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Bibliography - Referencing Guide 2003

Bibliography
Abilock, D. 2002 Noodle Tools - Quick Cite! http://www.noodletools.com/quickcite/citcdrom.html [retrieved 15 February 2004] American Psychological Association, 2003, APA Style.org -Electronic References, http://www.apastyle.org/elecmedia.html [retrieved 15 February 2004] Champion, L., 1997, Style Guide, North Coast Institute of TAFE, Port Macquarie Charles Sturt University, A Guide to Writing Better Essays, 1989, Mitchell Printery, Bathurst. Columbia University Press, 1998, Basic CGOS Style, http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html [retrieved 15 February 2004, updated November 2002]. Germov, J. 1994, The User Friendly Guide to Essay Writing, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Newcastle. Guffey, M.E. 2003, APA Style Electronic Formats, http://www.westwords.com/guffey/apa.html , [retrieved 15 February 2004, updated September 2003]. Harnack, A. & Kleppinger, E., 2003, Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources, Chs 5-8, http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/shrttoc.html, [retrieved 28 January 2004]. Munro, C. 2004, Referencing and Style Guides, http://www.newcastle.edu.au/services/library/training/referencing. html#general [retrieved 14 February 2004, updated 5 February 2004] University of New England, n.d. Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.une.edu.au/tlc/alo/frequently.htm [retrieved 14 February 2004] University of New England, 2002, Referencing – The Author-date System, http://www.une.edu.au/tlc/referencing.pdf [retrieved 14 February 2004] University of Queensland Cybrary – Tutorial on Writing Output Styles, 2003 http://www.library.uq.edu.au/endnote/stylestutorial6/contents.html [retrieved 14 February 2004, updated 24 December 2003]. University of Southern Mississippi, 2003, APA Style Guide, 5th Edition, http://www.lib.usm.edu/research/guides/apa.html [retrieved 15 February 2004, updated November 2003]. University of Texas at San Antonio Library, n.d., Internet 101/102 Untangling the Web, http://www.lib.utsa.edu/Research/Internet101/web5.html, [retrieved 28 January 2004]. Web Extension to American Psychological Association Style (WEAPAS) Proposed Standard for Referencing Online Documents in Scientific Publications, Revision 1.5.2 http://www.beadsland.com/weapas/ [retrieved 15 February 2004, updated 15 October 1998].
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