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17/04/2012

Technology
of
Metallic Materials
Text-book:
- Lecture notes - Prof. Graziano Ubertalli (portale della didattica)

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Main topics

Introduction
Hardening mechanism
Aluminium, magnesium, titanium, copper alloys
Steels and cast irons
Corrosion and prevention
Heat treatments
Technological tests, microscopy
Laboratory
Intermediate test
Final test

Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Introduction of ...

Metallic Materials

Metallic bonds
High plastic strain
Hardened after work hardening
The main alloys are ductile
They are composite metallic materials
They show a wide range of chemical,
physical and technological properties.

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Lattice Structures
Face Cubic Centered

Iron (907-1400 C)
Copper
Silver
Gold
Nickel
Aluminium
Lead
Platinum

Body Cubic Centered

Iron (< 907 C, > 1400 C)


Tungsten
Vanadium
Molybdenum
Chromium
Alcaline Metals (Na, K)

Compact Hexagonal

Zinc
Magnesium
Titanium
Zirconium
Beryllium
Cadmium
Cobalt

Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Cubic Lattice
BCC

FCC

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Hexagonal lattice
HEX, HCP

Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Comparison FCC - HEXC

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Main ordered structures


Au3Cu

AuCu

Cu

Cu

Au

Au

CuZn

Cu
Zn

Some examples of ordered


structure that respect the
stoichiometry formula.

Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Bond Energy
Strong bond

Legame
forte
Strong
bond

Weak bond
Legame
debole
Weak bond

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Thermal expansion coefficient


Coefficienti di dilatazione termica a 20 C
80

Coeff(*10E-6)

70
60

CsCl

50
40
30
20

Hg

NaCl
Pb

Al
Cu

10

Fe

MgO

-100

900

1900

2900

Temperatura di fusione (C)

Influence of lattice structure and bond energy


(melting temperature) on the thermal expansion
coefficient.
Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Bond Energy - Physical characteristics


Poisson Modulus

Melting
Temperature
(C)

Lattice

3410

CCC

0,27

Elastic
Modulus
E (GPa)
350

Fe

0,28

210

1537

CCC

Cu

0,35

112

1083

CFC

Al

0,34

70

660

CFC

42

650

EXC

15,4

327

CFC

Mg
Pb

0,4

The greater the energy bond, the higher the elastic


modulus and the higher the melting temperature.
Prof. G. Ubertalli

Crystallography
In an ordered lattice there are preferred directions
and planes that connect atomic sites. Atoms can be
represented as rigid spheres in contact with each
other. These are high packed directions and planes.
In the BCC lattice the spheres touch each other in
the direction of the main diagonals of the cube. In
the FCC lattice this happens on the diagonals of the
faces.
Along these high packed directions, plastic slip
may take place.
Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Hardening mechanism

Grains size
Solid solution
Strain hardening
Precipitation of a second phase

Alloy

#ot reinforced
[MPa]

Reinforced
[MPa]

Maximum
[MPa]

100

900

3000

Alluminium

50

350-450

700

Copper

55

600

1350

Iron

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Lattice defects

There are different types of lattice defects:


Punctual
vacancies
Linear
dislocations
Plain
grains boundaries
Volume
stacking faults
Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Vacancies
A two-dimensional representation of
a vacancy in an ordered lattice.

The amount of vacancies depends on


the temperature of the alloy in
respect to its melting temperature.

Vacancies justify the motion of


chemical elements in the lattice.

nv
n0


=e

Wv

KT

D= D 0e

Q
RT

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Dislocations
A two-dimensional
representation of an edge
dislocation.

2
5

3
6

4
7

A three-dimensional
representation of an edge
dislocation.
A TEM image of screw
dislocations near second
phase particles.
Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Schmidt's law - (max.)


A law used to derive the maximum
shear stress .
As is a generic surface obtained by
cutting a cylinder under an angle
with respect to the surface A,
perpendicular to the applied load.
We can write:
AS = A / cos
The tangential stress which works on
the inclined area AS is:
= P / AS cos
Substituting:

As

= P/A cos cos


This equation evidences that the
maxima shear stresses are obtained
for and values of:
= (90-) = 45

Which gives: = 0,5P/A .

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Dislocations
The slipping of a
complete
crystallographic
plane in a perfect
lattice could bring
about very high
tangential stresses.

1
0,75

E ne rgia

0,5
0,25
0
-0,25
-0,5
-0,75
-1
0

Pi greco

Prof. G. Ubertalli

17/04/2012

Dislocations
If we take a glance at
the two images on the
right they may seen
equal ....

2
5

.... but be careful!


A dislocation motion
has taken place!

3
6

2
5

4
7

3
6

4
7

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Grains

O tto n e ric o tto 7 0 -3 0


0 ,0 1 0 ,0 5

0 ,0 0 2

0 ,0 0 1

Petchs law.

70
|

A llu n g a m e n to %

R e siste n z a a tra z io n e [p si]

60

0 = i + kD(-1/2)

50

40

Resisten z a
30

Allu n g amen to
20
0

1000

2000

3000

A re a d e i b o rd i g ra n o [c m ^ 2 / c m ^ 3 ]

Grain size reticle


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Grains I
Grain size
(average) [
m]

Average Area
[
m2]

280
200
140
100
70
50
35
25

62.000
31.000
15.600
7.800
3.900
1.950
980
490

Number of
Grains per
A.S.T.M. Number
grains in 1 mm2 square inches at
100 X
16
1
1
32
2
2
64
4
3
128
8
4
256
16
5
512
32
6
1024
64
7
2048
128
8

N = 2(n-1)
where:
N Grains per square inches
n A.S.T.M. Number

Cast iron

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Grains II

Fine grains

Maximum
strength

Coarse grains

Transgranular

Intergranular

Te

T [C]

Fracture mechanism as a
function of the test
temperature

Grains size and


deformability
..

Prof. G. Ubertalli

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Grains III
Example
A steel with 0.2% of C (AISI 1020).
After annealing it shows a lower
and upper yield stresses of about
55 ksi and a rupture strength of 65
ksi (circles).
After a permanent deformation of
8%, the lower and upper yield
stresses
disappear
(green
triangles).
After 30-minute heating at 625 C
the yield stress of 77 ksi is reached
(blue squares).

The work hardened material shows a very low rupture strain with respect to the annealed
material. After the last type of thermo-mechanical treatment, an increase of strength is
obtained, without loss of deformability.

Prof. G. Ubertalli

Solid Solution
The increase of
the strength of
the solid solution,
induced by the
presence of
different metallic
elements in solid
solution in the
lattice.

Strenght gain in respect of iron [MPa]

1000

100

10

Cr

Mn

Co

Al, V

Mo

Si, W

Ti

Be

Ni

1
0,1

10

Solute percent in volume

Prof. G. Ubertalli

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Solid Solution II

(A)

(B)

(C)

Examples of local residual stresses (dash circles) in


case of solute atoms and edge dislocation:
(A) Substitution atom of the same type of solvent atoms.
(B) Smaller substitution atom
(C) Larger substitution atom.
Prof. G. Ubertalli

Solid Solution III


- curve of a low carbon steel characterized by
lower and upper yield strengths, the Lders bands,
strain hardening, necking and sample rupture.
Yield stress
- high
- low

L
u
d
e
r'
s

Strain hardening

B
a
n
d
s

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