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ChinaMissileChronology

Lastupdate:June2012

2012
18May2012
TheDepartmentofDefensereleasesthe2012MilitaryandSecurityDevelopmentsInvolvingthePeoplesRepublic
ofChinareport.ThereporthighlightsthatthePLAAirforceismodernizingitsgroundbasedairdefenseforces
withconventionalmediumrangeballisticmissiles,whichcanconductprecisionstrikesagainstlandtargetsand
navalships,includingaircraftcarriers,operatingfarfromChinasshoresbeyondthefirstislandchain.According
totheDepartmentofDefensesreport,ChinawillacquireDF31Aintercontinentalballisticmissiles(ICBMs)and
enhanced,silobasedDF5(CSS4)ICMBsby2015.Todate,Chinaisthethirdcountrythathasdevelopedastealth
combataircraft,aftertheU.S.andRussia.J20isexpectedconductmilitarymissionsby2018.Itwillbeequipped
withairtoairmissiles,airtosurfacemissiles,antiradiationmissiles,laserguidedbombsanddropbombs.J20
stealthfighterisadistinguishedexampleofChinesemilitarymodernization.
OfficeofSecretaryofDefense,AnnualReporttoCongress:MilitaryandSecurityDevelopmentsInvolvingthe
PeoplesRepublicofChina2012,distributedbyU.S.DepartmentofDefense,May2012,www.defense.gov;Office
oftheAssistantSecretaryofDefense,DavidHelvey,PressBriefingon2012DODReporttoCongressonMilitary
andSecurityDevelopmentsInvolvingthePeoplesRepublicofChina,distributedbyU.S.DepartmentofDefense,
18May2012,www.defense.gov;ChengduJ20MultiroleStealthFighterAircraft,China,AirforceTechnology,
www.airforcetechnology.com.
15April2012
NorthKoreashowsoffapotentialnewICBMinamilitaryparade.DubbedtheKN08,themissilesaredisplayedon
whatappeartobeChinesemadetransportererectorlaunchers(TELs),specificallytheWS51200.Accordingto
JeffreyLewisandJoshuaPollack,HubeiSanjiangSpaceWanshanSpecialVehicleCo.,asubsidyofChinaAerospace
ScienceandIndustryCorporation(CASIC)exportedclassisandotherpartsforamissiletransportvehiclewhich
couldbeincontraventionofChinasnationalexportcontrollawsandUNSecurityCouncilresolutions.Geng
Shuang,aspokesmanfortheChineseEmbassyinWashingtondeniedthatChinahadviolatedUnitedNations
sanctions.Inaddition,ChineseForeignMinistrySpokesperson,LiuWeimin,respondedChinahaskept
communicationwithrelevantcountriesonissuessuchasnonproliferation.
JoshuaPollack,NorthKoreasICBMUnveiled,ArmsControlWonk.com,15April2012;MilitaryVehicle
DisplayedinNKparadeMayBeChineseMade,TheKoreaTimes,17April2012,www.koreatimes.co.kr;Jeffrey
Lewis,MoreonDPRKTELs,ArmsControlWonk.com,23April2012;ForeignMinistrySpokespersonLiuWeimins
RegularPressConferenceonApril232012,MinistryofForeignAffairsofthePeoplesRepublicofChina,23April
2012,www.fmprc.gov.cn;LouisCharbonneau,Exclusive:ChinaFirmBoastsAboutMissileLinkedNorthKorea
Sale:Envoys,Reuters,24April2012,www.reuters.com;MarkLandler,SuspectedSalebyChinaStirsConcernat
WhiteHouse,TheNewYorkTimes,20April2012,www.nytimes.com.
4March2012
AccordingtostaterunnewsagencyXinhua,Chinaplanstoraiseitsdefensebudgetby11.2percentto106.4billion
USDin2012.TheChinesemilitarymodernizationincludesthehomebuiltJ10jetfighter,newnuclearsubmarines

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andmodernsurfacevesselsarmedwithsupersonicantishipmissiles.ChinasNationalPeoplesCongress
spokesmanLiZhaoxingassertedthattheChinesemilitarybudgetisreasonableandappropriate,andthatits
primarypurposeistodefendChinassovereignandterritorialintegrity,whichdoesnotposeanythreattoforeign
nations.Chinasregionalneighbors,suchasIndia,Indonesia,andVietnam,havebeguntostrengthentheirown
militarycapabilitiesinresponsetoChinasbuildup.
ChineseMilitarySpendingIncreasesby11.2%inlatestBudget,TheGuardian,4March2012,
www.guardian.co.uk;ChinasDefenseBudgettoGrow11.2pctin2012:Spokesman,Xinhua,4March2012,
www.xinhuanet.com;KeithB.Richburg,ChinaMilitarySpendingtoTop$100Billionin2012,AlarmingNeighbors,
TheWashingtonPost,3March2012,www.washingtonpost.com.
16January2012
ChinaAerospaceScienceandTechnologyCorps(CASC)promisesitwillensurethesuccessofallsatellitelaunches.
AccordingtostaterunXinhuaNewsAgency,Chinaplanstolaunch21rocketsand30satellitesthisyear.In
addition,CASCwilllaunchtheShenzhou9spacecrafttoconductdockingtestswiththeTiangong1space
laboratory.InordertoimprovethenewChinesenavigationsystemBeidou,CASCwilllaunchsixmoresatellites.
ChinatoLaunch21Rockets,30Satellitesin2012,Xinhua,18January2012,www.xinhuanet.com;XuTianran,
ChinatoLaunch30Satellites,GlobalTimes,20January2012,www.globaltimes.cn;21Rockets,30Satellitesto
beLaunchedin2012,TheCurrentDigestoftheChinesePress,16January2012.

2011
27December2011
ChinaannouncesthattheBeidousatellitenavigationsystemisoperational.Accordingtotheprojectsspokesman,
RanCheng,Beidouofferslocation,timingandnavigationdatatoChinaandsurroundingareas.Since2000,China
hasbeendevelopingthesystem,whichithopeswillbeanalternativetoAmericanGPS.TheBeidounetworkcan
giveChinatheaccuracytoguidemissiles,smartmunitions,andotherweaponsinaregionalconflict.Italsooffers
redundancyandindependenceshouldtheU.S.restrictChineseaccesstoGPS.AccordingtotheChinasspacewhite
paperreleasedinDecember,ChinaaimstocompletetheglobalBeidousatellitenavigationsystemby2020.Itwill
becomprisedoffiveGEOsatellitesand30nonGEOsatellites.
DavidLague,NewSatellitestoExtendChinasMilitaryReach,Reuters,29December2011,www.reuters.com;
DougRichardson,ChinasBeidouSatnavSystemBecomesOperational,JanesMissiles&Rockets,6January2011,
www.janes.com;ChinaGPSRivalBeidouStartsOfferingNavigationData,BBCNews,27December2011,
www.bbc.co.uk;InformationOfficeoftheStateCouncilofthePeoplesRepublicofChina,ChinasSpaceActivities
in2011,29December2011,www.china.org.cn.
21December2011
TheBBCreportsthatFinnishauthoritiesseize69Patriotsurfacetoairmissilesand160tonsofexplosivesona
BritishregisteredcargoshipdestinedforShanghai,China.Themissilesaredisguisedasfireworks.Chinese
ForeignMinistryspokesmanLiuWeiminsaidthetransportationofmissilesisnotrelatedtoChina,andthatthe
BritishshiploadedwithPatriotmissileswasonitswayfromGermanytotheROK[RepublicofKorea].
FinlandFindsPatriotMissilesonChinaboundShip,BBCNews,21December2011,www.bbc.co.uk;Ministry
ofForeignAffairsofthePeoplesRepublicofChina,ForeignMinistrySpokespersonLiuWeiminsRegularPress
ConferenceonDecember232011,23December2011,www.fmprc.gov.cn;ChinaDeniesLinkWithMissiles
SeizedinFinland,Reuters,23December2011,www.reuters.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
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independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

9November2011
StaterunnewsagencyXinhuareportsthatChinasuccessfullylaunchedtheremotesensingsatelliteYaoganXII.A
LongMarch4Brocketputthesatelliteintoorbit.WhileChinesemediaassertedthesatelliteissolelytoconduct
scientificexperiments,carryoutsurveysonlandresources,anddisastermonitoring,Janesarguesthesatelliteis
tobeusedformilitaryreconnaissancemissions.
ChinaLaunchesRemoteSensingSatellite,Xinhua,9November2011,www.xinhuanet.com;YaoganSeries
(China),SpacecraftDefence,JanesSpaceSystemsandIndustry,20January2012,www.janes.com;DwayneA.
Day,StaringintotheEyesoftheDragon,TheSpaceReview,14November2011,www.thespacereview.com.
18October2011
AdayafterTaiwanesePresidentMaYingjeoumadeastatementsayingTaiwanmayconsiderapeaceagreement
withChina,LaiShinyuan,headofTaiwansMainlandAffairsCouncil,saysthattheagreementwillonlybe
consideredifChinaremovesapproximately1,600missilescurrentlytargetingtheisland.Todate,Beijinghasnot
renouncedthepossibilityoftheuseofforceagainstTaiwan.
TaiwanUrgesChinatoRemoveMissiles,DefenseNews,18October2011,www.defensenews.com;China
WelcomesTaiwanPresidentsPeaceProposal,Reuters,26October2011,www.reuters.com;FrankChing,China
TaiwanPeaceAgreement,TheKoreaTimes,28October2011,www.koreatimes.co.kr.
27September2011
TheChinaDailyreportsthattheIndonesianNavywilluseChinesemadeC705missiles.Accordingtothe
IndonesianDefenseMinistrysecretarygeneralvicemarshalErisHaryanto,themissileswillbeproducedbyboth
countriesjointly,andtheChineseStateAdministrationforScience,TechnologyandIndustryforNationalDefense
(SASTIND)willprovidetechnologyassistance.SASTINDandtheIndonesianDirectorateGeneralofDefense
Capabilitiesstartedcooperationon22March2011.TheC705missileisbeingdevelopedbytheChinaAerospace
ScienceandIndustryCorporation(CASIC).TheC705missileisdesignedforsurfacetargets,whichcouldreacha
rangeof110to120kilometers.
C705(China)SurfacetosurfaceMissiles,JanesNavalWeaponSystems,29January2012,www.janes.com;
IndonesianNavytoUseChineseMissiles,TheJakartaPost,26September2011,www.thejakartapost.com;
C705[IndonesiaDecidestoInstallC705Missile,ChinaWill
ProvidetheTechnologyJointly],TheChinaDaily,27September2011,www.chinadaily.com.
24August2011
TheUnitedStatesDepartmentofDefensereleasesitsannualreportentitled,MilitaryandSecurityDevelopments
InvolvingthePeoplesRepublicofChina2011.ThereportestimatesthatChinasmilitarymodernizationhasmade
drasticimprovement.ThereportsuggeststhatthePLAisobtaininglargenumbersofhighlyaccuratecruise
missiles,manyofwhichhaverangesinexcessof185km.MichaelSchifferdeputyassistantsecretaryofdefense
says,thepaceandscopeofChina'ssustainedmilitaryinvestmenthaveallowedChinatopursuecapabilitiesthat
webelievearepotentiallydestabilizingtoregionalmilitarybalances,increasetheriskofmisunderstandingand
miscalculation,andmaycontributetoregionaltensionsandanxieties.SchifferalsourgesChinatoimproveits
militarytransparencyandopenness.XinhuaNewsAgencyreportsthatChineseViceForeignMinisterFuYing
respondstothecriticisminaninterviewwithGermanmagazine,DerSpiegelbytellingtheworldnottoworry
aboutChinasmilitaryambitions.Shesays,[theWestanditsallies]arenotgoingtoseeaU.S.oraSovietin
China.
OfficeofSecretaryofDefense,MilitaryandSecurityDevelopmentsInvolvingthePeoplesRepublicofChina
2011,AnnualReporttoCongress,distributedbytheUnitedStatesDepartmentofDefense,24August2011,
www.defense.gov;AmericanForcesPressService,JimGaramone,ChinaReportNotesMilitaryModernization,

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

U.S.DepartmentofDefense,24August2011,www.defense.gov;MoHonge,ViceFMUrgesWesttoDemolish
WallofDistrustwithChina,XinhuaNewsAgency,24August2011,www.xinhua.net.
27July2011
ChinasMinistryofDefensespokesmanSeniorColonelGengYanshengconfirmsthatChinaiscurrentlyrefittingan
oldaircraftcarrierthatitboughtfromanothercountryandwilluseitforresearch,experimentsandtraining
purposes[].AccordingtoCol.
Geng,thereisnotaquestionofwhenthisshipislaunched,itwillbedecideduponthescheduleofthe
refurbishmentproject.Col.GengreiteratesthatChinasnationaldefensepolicywillnotchange.However,somein
theregionfeelthreatenedbythedevelopment."China'snextmoveshavetobewatchedcarefully,orthere
eventuallycouldbeanegativeimpactonmaritimesafetyinAsia,"saidYoshihikoYamada,aprofessoratJapan's
TokaiUniversity.
[China'sFirstAircraftCarrierConvertedforResearchTesting
andTraining],ZhongguoGuangbowang[CNR](China),28July2011,www.cnr.cn;BenBlanchardandBenjamin
Lim,ChinaBuildingAircraftCarriers;NeighborsWorried,MSNBC,27July2011,www.msnbc.com;JeremyPage,
ChinaSaysCarrierWontAlterNavalStrategy,TheWallStreetJournal,28July2011,www.wsj.com.
10June2011
TheMalaysianInsider,basedonWikileaks,assertsthataMalaysiancompany,ElectronicsComponentLimited
(withlinkstoIran)hastriedtopurchasegyroscopesusedforguidingmissilesfromChinesefirmVibTelIndustrial.
AccordingtoPamDurham,thedirectorofMissileThreatReductionattheU.S.StateDepartment,ECL[Electronics
ComponentLimited]isassociatedwithanetworkofIraniancontrolledfrontcompaniesthatprocuresensitive
goodsonbehalfofanumberifIranianentitiesofproliferationconcern.ThereportsaysthatChineseofficialswill
investigatethecase.
ShannonTeoh,Wikileaks:MalaysianFirmTriedtoBuyChinaMissileParts,TheMalaysianInsider,10June
2011;IranSpeedsUpMissileDevelopment,UnitedPressInternational,14June2011,ww.upi.com.
27May2011
JanesInternationalDefenseReviewreportsthattheChinaNationalPrecisionMachineryImport&Export
Corporationhasbegunmarketingarocketsystemthatallowsan8x8mobilelaunchertotransportandlauncha
podoffourSY400[400]400mmguidedrocketsandapodcontainingoneBP12A[BP
12A]600mmlongrangeguidedmissile.AccordingtoJanes,bothsystemsare
basedontheWanshanSpecialVehicleCompanys(WSVC)WS24008x8crosscountrychassis,whichhasagross
vehicleweightof41tonnes,andvariesinitsapplication.WanshanSpecialVehicle,alsoknownasHubeiSanjiang
SpaceWanshanSpecialVehicleCO.,Ltd[]isastateownedvehicleand
chassismanufacturingcorporation,whichissubordinatedtoChinaSanjiangSpaceGroup[].
Chinahasusedthisclassisforalargegroupofrocketartilleryapplications.Nocommentsaremadefromthe
Chinesegovernment.
ChristopherFFoss,ChinaDevelopsModularLongRangeRocketSystem,JanesInternationalDefenseReview,
27May2011,www.jdet.james.com;BP12A[BP12AShortRangeTactical
SurfacetoWeaponSystem],ChinaNationalPrecisionMachineryImport&ExportCorporation,
www.cpmiec.com.cn;400[SY400Eagle400GuidedRocketWeaponSystem],China
NationalPrecisionMachineryImport&ExportCorporation,www.cpmiec.com.cn;WS2400,WanshanSpecial
VehicleCompany[],www.wstech.com.cn;Members,ChinaSanjiang
SpaceGroup[],www.sanjspace.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

6April2011
TheNewYorkTimesreportsthatChinaissettolaunchitsfirstaircraftcarrieronitsmaidenvoyage.Staterun
Xinhuapublishes,TheChinesestatenewsagencyhaspostedphotographsofanaircraftcarrier[
70:GiantShiptomakemaidenvoyage,Chinesedreamcomestrueafter70years]under
reconstructionthatappearstoshowthewarshipnearcompletion.AccordingtotheAssociatedPress,China
purchasedthecarrierfromtheUkrainemorethanadecadeago.TheshipfirstnamedRigawhenits
constructionbeganin1985waslaternamedtheVaryag.AfterthedissolutionoftheSovietUnion,theUkraine
soldtheshiptoChinain1992whenitwasstructurallycomplete,butwithoutelectronics.AccordingtoAsiaTimes,
ChinainstalledtheshipbornemultifunctionActivePhasedArrayRadarandSeaEagleassensors,whichwerealso
equippedwithFlyingLeopard3000Navalairdefensemissilesystem.ItisnotyetknownhowChinawilloutfitthe
carrierwithmissiles.
70[GiantShiptoMakeMaidenVoyage,ChineseDreamComesTrueAfter
70Years],XinhuaPhotos,www.xinhua.net;EdwardWong,ChineseWarshipMayBeNearlyReady,TheNew
YorkTimes,7April2011,www.nytimes.com;ChinasFirstAircraftCarriertobeCompletedSoon:Reports,The
ChinaPost(Taiwan),7April2011,www.chinapost.com.tw;Chinas1stAircraftCarrierWatchedbyRegion,The
AssociatedPress,13April2011;JensKastner,MingDynastyAdmiralSpooksTaiwan,AsiaTimes(HongKong),13
April2011,www.atimes.com;ChinaAircraftCarrierConfrontedbyGeneral,BBCNews,8June2011,
www.bbc.co.uk.
16March2011
AccordingtoJanesDefense&SecurityIntelligence&Analysis,ChinasnewDongfeng16missileposesaserious
threattoTaiwan,andChinahasbegundeployinganewpatternofballisticmissilesagainstTaiwan.Taiwan
NationalSecurityBureauDirectorGeneralTsaiDershengemphasizesthattheDongfeng16isanewtypeof
ballisticmissilethathasalongerrangethananythinginChinascurrentcrossTaiwanStraightarsenal.Itis
thoughttohavearangeof8001,000km,andbutitisnotknownifithasmultiplewarheadtechnology.Chinese
militaryexpert,XuGuangyudeniestheexistenceofDengfeng16missiles.HearguesthatTaiwanismakingfalse
reportsinordertoincreaseU.S.Taiwanarmssales.JanesalsosaysthatChinahasdeployedtheDongfeng21D
missile,knownasacarrierkiller.AccordingtotheMilitaryandSecurityDevelopmentsInvolvingthePeoples
RepublicofChina2011reportproducedbytheUnitedStatesDepartmentofDefense,themissileisintendedto
providethePLAthecapabilitytoattacklargeships,includingaircraftcarriers,inthewesternPacificOcean.TheDF
21Dhasarangeexceeding1,500kmandisarmedwithamaneuverablewarhead.
DougRichardson,ChinaDeploysDF16BallisticMissile,ClaimsTaiwan,Janes:Defense&SecurityIntelligence
&Analysis,24March2011,www.janes.com;ChinasNewMissilesPoseSeriousThreattoTaiwan,OfficialSays,
BBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,16March2011,www.bbc.co.uk;ChineseTVDiscussesChinaThreattoTaiwanwith
NewDongfeng16Missiles,BBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,22March2011,www.bbc.co.uk;OfficeofSecretaryof
Defense,MilitaryandSecurityDevelopmentsInvolvingthePeoplesRepublicofChina2011,AnnualReportto
Congress,distributedbytheUnitedStatesDepartmentofDefense,24August2011,www.defense.gov.
2March2011
PakistanandChinahaveembarkedonajointventurefortheconstructionoftwomissilearmednavalvesselsin
theChineseportcityofTianjin,saysapressreleasefromtheGovernmentofPakistan.Underthejointventure
signedbetweenPakistanNavyandChinaShipbuildingandOffshoreInternationalCompany,twoFastAttackboats
capableofcarryingmissileswouldbeconstructedsimultaneouslyinPakistanandChina.[sic]Accordingtothe
GlobalTimes,ChinaandPakistanarecooperatingindifferentdefencefieldsincludingjointproductionofatrainee
aircraftandnuclearpowerplants.
PressInformationDepartment,PRNo.15,PakistanandChinaStartJointVentureofConstructingMissile

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

Boats,distributedbyGovernmentofPakistan,2March2011,www.pid.gov.pk;Pakistan,ChinaStartJoint
VentureofMissileBoats,GlobalSecurity,2March2011,www.globalsecurity.org;PakistanandChinaStartJoint
VentureofConstructingMissileBoats,GlobalTimes,3March2011,www.world.globaltimes.cn.
89January2011
DaysafterChinatesteditsJ20stealthfighter;U.S.SecretaryofDefenseRobertGatesexpressesconcernsover
Chinasrecentprogressindevelopingnewweaponssystems,whiletakingpartinanarrivalceremonyinBeijing
withChineseDefenseMinisterLiangGuanglie.They[theChinesemilitary]clearlyhavethepotentialtoputsome
ofourcapabilitiesatrisk.Andwehavetopayattentiontothem,wehavetorespondappropriatelywithourown
programs,Gatessaid.GateshopesthatthestrategicdialoguebetweentheU.S.andChinawillhelptoreducethe
riskcapabilities.GatesalsosaysthathehasbeenwaryofChineseworkonantiship,cruiseandballisticmissiles
eversincehetookthejob.Thefollowingday,ChinasMinistryofDefense,LiangGuanglie,toldreportersthat
ChinastilllaggedfarbehinddevelopednationsintermsofweaponryandrejectedclaimsthatChinasmilitary
developmentwasathreat,accordingtostaterunXinhua.However,U.S.navalintelligenceremainsunconvinced
regardingtothestatement.ViceAdmiralDavidJ.JackDorsett,directorofU.S.navalintelligence,tellsareporter
that,overtheyears,theChinesemilitarydoctrinehasahideandbidehideyourresourcesandbideyour
timestrategy.
BenBlanchardandChrisBuckley,ChinaDefenseChiefsaysMilitaryHardwareDriveNoThreat,Reuters,10
January2011,www.reuters.com;ChinasMilitaryProgressDemandsAttention,GateSays,GlobalSecurity
Newswire,10January2011,www.globalsecuritynewswire.org;AlPessin,GatesinBeijingtoDiscussUSConcerns
AboutChinasMilitary,VoiceofAmerica,8January2011,www.voanews.com;JohnPomfret,GatestoMeetwith
aChineseMilitarythatsGrownBolder,TheWashingtonPost,8January2011,www.washingtonpost.com.

2010
27December2010
AdmiralRobertF.Willard,CommanderoftheU.S.PacificCommand,revealsthatChinasnewantishipballistic
missileisnowintheearlystagesofdeploymentafterextensivetesting.Accordingtoa2009ReporttoCongress,
theU.S.ChinaEconomicandSecurityReviewCommissionstatedthattheDversionofChinasDF21medium
rangemissile(DF21D),[t]hismissileisintendedtodenyregionalaccesstosurfaceshipsoftheopposingside.
Whencombinedwithappropriatesurveillanceandtargetingsensorsystems,thismissilecouldhavethepotential
todestroyordisableaircraftcarriersandtheirassociatedbattlegroupswhileintransit.AdmiralWillardtestified
earlierthisyearthatChinaappearedtohaveachievedinitialoperationalcapabilitybutitwouldtakeseveral
moreyearsbeforefullydeployingthesystem.TheChinesegovernmentdoesnotmakeanyofficialstatementsin
responsetothereport.
U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice,2010ReporttoCongressoftheU.S.ChinaEconomicandSecurityReview
Commission,OneHundredthEleventhCongressSecondSession,November2010,distributedbyUnitedStates
ChinaEconomicandSecurityReviewCommission,www.uscc.gov;U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice,2009Report
toCongressoftheU.S.ChinaEconomicsandSecurityReviewCommission,November2009,p.141;
DF21D[U.S.CommandersaystheChineseDF21DAntishipBallistic
MissileCapabilityisOperational],RenminRibao,28December2010,www.people.com.cn;ChinaStepsUpAnti
CarrierMissileTests:U.S.Commander,AgenceFrancePresse,28December2010.
18November2010
RaoQamarSuleman,AirChiefMarshalofthePakistanAirForceconfirmsthatPakistanboughtChinesemissiles

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

andavionicstoequipits250JF17Thunderjetfighter.DuringinterviewswiththeChinaDailyandtheGlobal
Times,SulemanstatesthatChineseradarsystemsandSD10midrangehomingmissileswouldbeusedonthe
fighters[FighterChina1XiaolongAircraft]codevelopedbythetwonations.Mr.Sulemanalsorevealsthat
PakistanmayalsobuyuptofourSurfacetoAirMissiles,includingtheHQ18.SulemanexpressesPakistansdesire
tostrengthenmilitarycooperationwithChina,whileupgradingPakistansarmedforces.
SarahMcDowall,PakistanPurchasesMoreChineseDefenseMissiles,GlobalInsight,18November2010;Xu
TianranandChrisDalby,PakistanInksDealsforChineseMissiles,GlobalTimes,18November2010,
www.china.globaltimes.cn;PakistantoBuyChineseMissiles,TheStraitsTimes(Singapore),18November2010;
PakistantoArmFighterJetswithChineseMissiles,AgenceFrancePresse,18November2010;Pakistan
PurchasesMoreChineseDefenseMissiles,JanesIntelligenceWeekly,18November2010.
21October2010
TheRussianStateDumaratifiesaRussianChineseintergovernmentalagreementonthenotificationofeach
othersimpendingballisticmissileandspacerocketlaunches.Thepurposeoftheagreementistonotifytheother
partyofthelaunchofballisticmissileswhoseflightrangeexceeds2,000kmovertheothersterritory.The
officialagreementwassignedinBeijinginOctober2009,creatingamissilelaunchnotificationsysteminboth
countries.
DumaRatifiesRussianChineseMissileLaunchNotificationPact,Russia&CISGeneralNewswire,21October
2010;RussiaRatifiesLaunchNotificationAgreementwithChina,JanesMissilesandRockets,26October2010,
www.janes.com;LukeChamplin,ChinaRussiaAgreeonLaunchNotification,ArmsControlAssociation,November
2009,www.armscontrol.org;Russia,ChinaSignMilitaryCooperationProtocol,GlobalSecurity,11September
2010,www.globalsecurity.org.
24September2010
DuringaninterviewwithTaiwanesemediainNewYork,PeoplesRepublicofChinaspremierWenJiabaopraises
thatthepoliticalrelationsbetweenMainlandChinaandTaiwanhavereachedthemostpromisingpointindecades,
duetotheprogressintheireconomicties.

.[WenJiabaoindicatesthatbothsideshavecometotheagreementto
prioritizeeconomicdevelopmentbeforepoliticalissues.Bothsideswillstrengthenanddevelopcrossstrait
relationsgraduallybytacklingeasyissuesfirst.HebelievesdismantlingthemissilesthatareaimedatTaiwanis
achievable](UnofficialtranslationtoEnglish).AccordingtoJapanEconomicNewswire,Taiwanesegovernment
officialswelcomeWenscommentsasevidenceofprogress.SpeakerWangJinpyngofTaiwansmajority
NationalistPartycommentsthatWensremarksgivepositiveassistancetocrossstraightrelations.Accordingto
AgenceFrancePresse,TaiwaneseexpertsestimatethattheChinesemilitaryhasmorethan1,600missilesaimed
attheisland.However,TaiwansMinistryofNationalDefenseremainsskepticaltoWenspeacefulovertures
becauseMainlandChinahasyettorenouncetheuseofforceandmaydeploynewmissilesinthefuture.
[WenJiabao:RemovalofBallisticMissilesTargetingTaiwanWillbe
AchievedintheEnd],ChinaReviewNews(HongKong),24September2010,www.chinareviewnews.com;
[WenJiabao:RemovalofBallisticMissilesCanbeAchieved],LianheZaobao
(Singapore),24September2010,www.zaobao.com;WenJiabaoMissileCommentPromptsMixedReactionin
Taiwan,JapanEconomicNewswire,24September2010;ChinaHintsMissilesTargetingTaiwanCouldbeAxed:
Media,AgenceFrancePresse,24September2010;RobinKwong,WenHintsatScrappingTaiwanFacing
Missiles,FinancialTimes,24September2010;ChengyiLin,ThePoliticsofChinasMissileRedeployments,China
Brief,24September2010,VolumeX,Issue19,pp.1012.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

9September2010
AccordingtotheXinhuaNewsAgency,troopsfromfiveShanghaiCooperationOrganizationcountrieshave
launchedalivefiredrillinsouthernKazakhtraininggrounds.ItistheirthirdjointtrainingofthePeaceMission
2010antiterrorexercise.Theexerciseinvolves5,000troopsfromfiveofthesixShanghaiCooperation
Organizationmemberstates:China,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,RussiaandTajikistan,from925September.
Uzbekistanisnottakingpartinthedrill.Thereisnoreportoftheexactquantityofweaponsbeingusedduringthe
firingdrill,butChinasMinistryofDefenseconfirmsthattheexerciseinvolvestanks,armouredvehicles,fighter
planes,bombers,rocketsandantiaircraftmissiles.
LiXiaokun,SCOMilitaryExercisestoTargetRegionalTerrorism,ChinaDaily,14September2010,
www.chinadaily.com;RichardWeitz,ChinasGrowingCloutintheSCO:PeaceMission2010,ChinaBrief,Volume
10,Issue20,www.jamestown.org;YangLina,PeaceMission2010Concludes,OpensNewPageforSCO
Cooperation,Xinhua(EnglishEdition),25September2010,www.xinhua.net.
7August2010
XinhuaNewsAgencyreportsthatChinaconcludesafivedayairdefenseexercisewithalivefiredrillandprecision
attacksonairtargetsbygroundtoairmissiles.TheexercisetakesplaceinsevencitiesacrossHenanandShandong
provincesandinvolvesmorethan12,000personnel.TheexercisescodenameisVanguard2010.ChinaDaily
reportsthatthereareseventypesofgroundtoairweaponry,andthattheexerciseincludesanewtypeofground
toairmissileandotherstateoftheartantiaircraftguns.AccordingtothedeputycommanderofthePeoples
LiberationArmyJinanMilitaryCommand,FengZhaoju,therewerenearly200militaryaircraft,includingdrones,
reconnaissanceaircraft,fighterjetsandhelicoptersinvolvedinthemilitarydrill.
MinistryofNationalDefenseThePeoplesRepublicofChina,ChinaEndsAirDefenseExercisewithLiveFire
Drill,DefenseNews,7August2010,www.eng.mod.gov.cn;MuXuequan,ChinaEndsAirDefenseExercisewith
LiveFireDrill,Xinhua(EnglishEdition),7August2010;ChinaEndsAirDefenseExercisewithLiveFireDrill,China
Daily,7August2010.
10August2010
TheChinesenavylaunchesitsfirstaircraftcarrieronitsmaidenvoyage.XinhuaNewsAgencyreportsthatthe
refittingworkontheaircraftcarrierwillstillcontinueafteritsseatrial.PeoplesDailyreportsthatthecarrieris
expectedtoofficiallyoperatewiththeChineseNavyinAugustnextyear.TheUnitedStatesseeksexplanationfrom
Chinaregardingthetypesofequipmentinstalledontheaircraftcarrier.U.S.StateDepartmentspokesperson
VictoriaNulandsaysthatU.S.Chinarelationsshouldbeanopen,transparentrelationshipinmilitarytomilitary
affairs,howeverdoesnotbelievethatthetwocountrieshavereachedthatgoalyet.AccordingtotheBBCNews,
JapaneseDefenseMinisterToshimiKitazawaurgedBeijingtogiveinternationalcommunityaclearexplanationof
needinganaircraftcarrierwithhighmaneuverabilityandattackcapabilities.Thesocalledaircraftcarrierisjusta
purchasedhullChinahasbeenrefittingforresearchandtrainingpurposes,ChineseViceForeignMinister,FuYing
said.
BureauofPublicAffairs,VictoriaNuland,DailyPressBriefingAugust102011,distributedbyU.S.Department
ofState,10August2010,www.state.gov;MoHonge,ViceFMUrgesWesttoDemolishWallofDistrustwith
China,XinhuaNewsAgency,24August2011,www.xinhua.net.JapanMinisterSaysChinaAircraftCarriertoHave
BigImpactontheRegion,BBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,12August2011,www.bbc.co.uk:AircraftCarrierReturns
toPortafterMaidenVoyage,PeoplesDaily,15August2011,www.peopledaily.com;ChinasAircraftCarrier
NameandPurposetobeDetermined,TheEconomist,13August2011,www.economist.com..
18July2010
AnavalstudiesjournalundertheTaiwaneseDefenseMinistryreportsthatChinawillhaveapproximately2,000

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

missilestargetedatTaiwanby2011.TheanalysisofChinasattackcapabilitiesalsofoundthatifBeijingactually
decidedtolaunchthemissilesthisyear,90percentoftargetsinTaiwanwouldbedestroyed,saysthereport.
Chinahasneverrenounceditsclaimedsovereignrighttouseforceifnecessary.
TaipeiPaperSaysChineseMissilesTargetingTaiwantoApproach,BBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,18July2010,
www.bbc.co.uk;RalphJennings,ChinaonTracktoAim2,000MissilesatTaiwan:Report,Reuters,19July2010,
www.reuters.com;ChinatoTargetTaiwanWithMoreMissiles,StudyFinds,GlobalSecurityNewswire,19July
2010,www.gsn.nti.org;HsuShaohsuan,PRCsPreparationstoAttackTaiwanAccelerate:Report,TaipeiTimes,
19July2010,www.taipeitimes.com.
15June2010
AccordingtotheGlobalSecurityNewswire,Chinaisspeedingupitspreparationforlaunchingaspacecommand,
whichtheU.S.andRussiaalreadymaintain.UnnamedChineseairforcesourcesclaimthatthePeoplesLiberation
ArmyAirForcewilldevelopby2050anunmannedstealthfighterthatcanoperateinspaceandanequivalentto
theU.S.spaceshuttletobettercompetewiththeUnitedStatesinaspacearmamentraceexpectedinthefuture.
OneofthesourcesstatesthatthePLAwilluse20102030todevelopafourthgenerationfighterandmissile
attackingweapons,aswellasbuildasatelliteinformationsystemforcommandsuperiorityoverChineseairspace.
NoofficialstatementsarereleasedfromtheChinesegovernment,whichhasmaintainedinthepastthatitsspace
activitiesarecivilian.Chinasmostrecent(2006)WhitePaperonitsactivitiesinspacestates,Chinaisunflinching
intakingtheroadofpeacefuldevelopment,andalwaysmaintainsthatouterspaceisthecommonwealthof
mankind.
ChinaAcceleratesPlanningforSpace,GlobalSecurityNewswire,16June2010;ChinaGearsupPreparation
forLaunchofSpaceCommand,JapanEconomicNewswire,15June2010;ChinaGearsupPreparationsfor
LaunchofSpaceCommand,Breitbard.com,15June2010;InformationOfficeofChinasStateCouncil,FullText:
WhitePaperChinasSpaceActivitiesin2006,distributedbyChinaNationalSpaceAdministration,12October
2006,www.cnsa.gov.cn.

21May2010
Indonesiaoffersthejointproductionofmissiles,otherweapons,andnonmilitaryhardwarewithChina.
Indonesia'sDefenseMinisterPurnomoYusgiantorosaidthattheIndonesiannavyandairforcehadbeenusing
ChinesemadeC802missilesforalongtimeandtheneedforthismissilewasincreasing.TheC802istheexport
versionoftheYingJi802landattackandantishipcruisemissilewitharangeof120km.
"RIOffersChinaJointWeaponProductionVenture,"Antara(IndonesianNationalNewsAgency),21May2010,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.
12May2010
Over1,000retiredstaffandworkersoftheChinaAerospaceScienceandIndustryGroup's061BaseinZunyi,
GuizhouProvince,demonstrateandblockroadsforthreedaysdemandingthereturnofRMB20millionwhich
allegedlywereheldbackfromabout5,000retiredstaffandworkers.AlthoughalargenumberofPublicSecurity
personnelwerestandingby,noclashesoccurred.The061militaryindustrialbasehasabout20,000staffand
workers.ItdevelopscorecomponentsfortheShenzhou7spacecraftandlongrangemissilessuchasguidanceand
controlsystems.
"ChineseMissileFactoryRetireesBlockRoadinPayProtest,"BBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,textofreportbyHong
KongInformationCenterforHumanRightandDemocracy,15May2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

6April2010
NoshirGowadia,aformerB2stealthbomberengineeraccusedofhelpingChinadesignacruisemissilewith

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

stealthcapabilitiesbysellingU.S.militarysecrets,isduetofacetrialinfederalcourtinHonolulu.Gowadiais
chargeon21counts,includingconspiracy,violatingthearmsexportcontrolact,andmoneylaundering.The
prosecutorsallegethattheinformationprovidedbyGowadiawasusedtodesignanexhaustnozzlethatgivesoff
lessheat,makingitdifficultforinfrareddetectorstofindthemissile.
AudreyMcAvoy,"HawaiiMan'sChinaMilitarySecretsTrialtoBegin,"AssociatedPressFinancialWire,6April
2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2April2010
Chinareceives15batteriesofthenewS300missiledefensesystemsfromRussia.TheS300(NATOSA20
Gargoyles)cansimultaneouslytrackupto100targetsandengage12aircraftorballisticmissilesatarangeofover
15km.
"RussiashipsChina15S300MissileSystems,"AgenceFrancePresse,2April2010,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

17March2010
ChinadeploysnewRussianmadeS300PMU2longrangesurfacetoairmissilesinFujian,coveringtheentire
airspaceofnorthernTaiwan.Themissileshavearangeof200kmandsophisticatedradarfunctions.YuSytue,
Taiwan'sMinistryofNationalDefensespokesperson,however,statesthat"thesituationisfullyundercontrol,"as
Taiwan'sPatriotAdvancedCapability3(PAC3)alsocoverChinesefightersoperatingintheTaiwanStrait.
LeeShuhua,LilianWu,"NoNeedtoWorryOverChinaMissileDeployment:MND,"CentralNewsAgency
Taiwan,17March2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;LawrenceChung,"Beijing'sNewMissilesCover
TaiwanAirspace,"SouthChinaMorningPost,18March2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

7March2010
ChinainauguratesafactoryinIranforassemblingandproducingtheNasr1antishipmissile.TheNasrisbasedon
theChineseC704antishipmissile,whichwasunveiledatthe2008ZhuhaiAirShowandwasdeveloped
specificallyforIranbyChina'sHongduAviationGroup.TheNasr1appearstobetheactiveradarguidedvariantof
theC704witharangeofabout170km.Ittargetsshipsof1,0004,000tonsdisplacementandhasa95.7percent
killprobability.TheexistenceoffurtherversionsoftheC704,theC704KD,whichmayindicatesanairtosurface
application,suggeststhattheremaybeadditionalmodelsoftheNasrfamily.
DouglasBarrie,"IranianNasrMissileReflectsChineseHeritage,"AerospaceDaily&DefenseReport,10March
2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com,ReubenF.Johnson,"Teheran'sChineseConnection;ExtensiveLinkto
BeijingIncludesMissilePrograms,"WashingtonTimes,17March2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com,"China
OpensMissilePlantinIran,"UPI,23April2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

4March2010
Chinawilllaunchthefirstmoduleofitspermanentspacestationnextyear.TheorbitinglaboratoryHeavenly
Palace(Tiangong1)isexpectedtobe30feetlongandwillinitiallyserveasadockingstation.TheChinaNational
SpaceAdministration(CNSA)plansthreefurthermissionsforthenextyear.TheCNSA'slongtermobjectives
includetheestablishmentofapermanentspacestationandalunarmissionby2022.
MarkMcDonald,"ChinatoLaunchSpaceStationModulein2011,"NewYorkTimes,4March2010,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

22February2010
InafeaturestoryforthestaterunChinaDaily,severalChineseanalystsvoicetheirconcernsaboutneighboring
countriesacquiringU.S.Patriotmissiledefensesystems.AirForcecolonelDaiXuallegesthattheprovisionof

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

PatriotmissiledefensesystemsispartofaU.S.strategicencirclementofChina.NiLexiong,anexpertonmilitary
affairsattheShanghaiInstituteofPoliticalScienceandLaw,comparestheincreasingnumberofU.S.missile
defensesystemsonChina'sneighboringcountrieswiththeU.S.missiledefenseplansRussiaisfacinginEastern
Europe.Finally,TangXiaosong,directoroftheCenterofInternationalSecurityandStrategyStudiesatthe
GuangdongUniversityofForeignStudiessaysthatBeijingshouldalsobeconcernedaboutWashingtonhopingto
sellPatriotsystemstoIndiaandotherSoutheastAsiancountries.Furthermore,formerdepartmentdeputyhead
ontheRussianDefenseMinistry,Lt.Gen.YevgenyBuzhinskynotesthatChinaislikelytobuildupitsoffensive
strategiccapabilitiesintheadventofaglobalU.S.missiledefensesysteminEastAsia.
"ChinaCircledbyChainofU.S.AntiMissileSystems,"ChinaDaily,22February2010,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com;"ChinaCouldBuildUpNuclearCapabilitytoCounterU.S.MissileShield,"RiaNovosti,24
February2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

8February2010
TheChinesebornaerospaceengineerDongfanChung,73,sentencedtomorethan15yearsinprisonforacquiring
secretspaceshuttledataandotherinformationforChina.ChungworkedforRockwellInternational'sspaceand
defenseunit,whichwastakenoverbyBoeingin1996,for30yearswasfoundguiltyofspyingforChinainsix
countsofeconomicespionageandotherchargesafter300,00sensitivedocumentswerefoundathishome.The
documentsincludedplansforthefuellingsystemofaDelta4rocket,anantennasystemforthespaceshuttleand
otheraerospaceandmilitarytechnologies.Accordingtotheprosecution,ChunghadsentinformationtoChina
sincethelate1970s.ChungwasarrestedinFebruary2009.Beijinginsistedthatithadnolinkstothecaseandthat
ithadbeensetup.
"ChineseAmericanEngineerConvicted,"DeutschePresseAgentur(DPA),18July2009,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com;"ChinaDismissesUSSpyChargesasFabrication,"AgenceFrancePresse,20July2009,in
LexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com;"ChinaDeniesLinksinUSEconomicSpyingCase,"TheAssociatedPress,21July
2009,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com;PatrickJ.McDonnel,"Engineergets15YearsinEspionage;Dongfan
'Greg'ChungwasAccusedofGivingChinaInformationontheSpaceShuttle,"TheLosAngelesTimes,9February
2010,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

26January2010
The215CruiseMissileBrigadeinLuizhou,Guangxi,deploysSword10thcruisemissiles.Themissilehasarangeof
morethan1500kmandcoversVietnam,Taiwan,northernIndia,theKoreanPeninsula,andOkinawa.Themissiles
madetheirfirstappearanceduringlastyear'snationalparade.
"ChinaMissileinGuangxiCoversTaiwan,"BBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,26January2010,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

11January2010
Chinatestsgroundbasedmidcoursemissileinterceptiontechnology.ForeignMinistryspokeswomanJiangYu
statesthat"thetestwasdefensiveinnatureandtargetedatnocountry."Thespokesmanreiteratedthatthetest
wouldproducenospacedebris,orthreatenanyorbitingspacecraft.Thetestapparentlyachieveditsexpected
objectives.Thereisnoofficialwordofthemissileusedinthetest;possiblecandidatesincludeHQ9,HQ12,or
possiblyDF21variant
"ChinaConductsonGroundBasedMidcourseMissileInterception,"XinhuaNet,11January2010,inChinaview,
http://news.xinhuanet.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

2009
28December2009
ChinadeploysHQ9SAMmissilesinBaoji,Shanxiprovince.TheBaojiHQ9battalionconsistsof8launchvehicles.
ThreeotherHQ9missileshavebeendeployedinShanxiprovince.
"Kanwa:NewAirDefenseMissilesDeployedatBaoji,"KanwaIntelligenceReview,28December2009,Kanwa
InformationCenter,www.kanwa.com.

9December2009
JiuquanSpaceLaunchCenterlaunchesaremotesensingsatellitetheYaoganVII.Thesatelliteisexpectedtoaid
scientificexperimentation,landresourcessurvey,cropyieldestimatesanddisasterpreventionandreduction.The
CZ2Drocketcarriedthesatelliteintoorbit.
"ChinaLaunchesYaoganVIIRemoteSensingSatellite,"XinhuaNews,9December2009,www.xinhuanet.com.

26November2009
IndonesiapurchasestheC802ChinesecruisemissiletobeinstalledonthePTPALcoastalpatrolship.TheC802is
acruisemissilewitharangeof300kilometersequippedwithinertialguidanceGPSsystem.TheC802hasbeen
exportedtoIran,Bangladesh,Pakistan,Thailand,andMyanmar.
SunJianping,"DuiShisheXiangdangManyiYinniDaliangCaigouZhongguoC802Daodan[Towardstestfire
appropriatelysatisfied,IndonesiapurchaseslargequantitiesofChina'sC802Missiles]",CASICwebsite,26
November2009,inCASIC,www.casic.cn.com.

17November2009
Chinaisdevelopinganantishipballisticmissilecapableofstrikingcarrierbattlegroupsbeyondvisualrange.The
missilewillhavearangeof900miles(1500km),andwillbefiredfromamobilelandbasedlauncher.Chinaisalso
developingabeyondvisualrange.TheradarsystemisnamedSKYwaveandiscapableofdetectingnavalvessels
upto18600miles(3000km)away.
TonyCapaccio,"ChinaNewMissileMayCreateANoGoZoneforU.S.Fleet,"Bloomberg.com,17November
2009,inBloomberg.www.bloomberg.com.

2November2009
QianXuesen,thefatherofChinaspacetechnologyprogramandcriticalactorinthedevelopmentofChina'sfirst
ballisticmissile,passesawayattheageof98.Qianretiredin1991,buthisresearchwasessentialtothe
developmentoftheCZ2FwhichwasusedforChina'sfirstmannedspaceflightmission.Qianwasbornin1911in
HangzhouZhejiangprovince.HewasawardedascholarshiptoattendgraduateschoolattheMassachusetts
InstituteofTechnology,andlaterattendedtheCaliforniaInstituteofTechnologywhereheassistedinthecreation
oftheJetPropulsionLaboratory.DuringWorldWarII,QianhelpeddesignmissiletechnologyfortheU.S.military.
However,in1955,duringtheheightofMcArthyism,hewasdeportedbacktoChina.UponreturningtoChina,Qian
beganChina'sfirstmissileandrocketresearchinstitute.
"ObituariesintheNews,"AssociatedPress,1November2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

30October2009
TheHainanSatellitelaunchcenterbeginsconstructionnearthecityofWenchang.Thiswillbethefourthsatellite
launchcenter,andwillreplacethelaunchcenterinXichang.ThelocationofthelaunchsiteintheLongloutownis
800metersfromtheseaside.Thesitewaschosen,becauseofitsproximitytotheequatorwhichaffordsenergy
savingopportunities.Thelowerthelatitudeofthelaunchthegreaterthecentrifugalforce.Thenewlaunchsite

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
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willbereadyin2013,andwillberesponsibleforgeosynchronousorbit,polarorbiting,largespacestations,and
deepspaceexploration.
"China'sFourthSatelliteLaunchCentertobeBuiltinHainan,"Spacedaily,30October2009,inSpacedaily
Dragonspace,www.spacedaily.com.

13October2009
RussiaandChinasignaballisticmissileandspacelaunchvehiclesnotificationagreement.Theagreementwas
signedbyRussianFirstDeputyDefenceMinisterAleksandrKolmakovandDeputyChiefoftheGeneralStaffofthe
ChinesePeople'sLiberationArmyMaXiaotian.Thetwonationsrecognizetheimportanceoftheagreementwhich
willstrengthencooperationandtrustbetweenthetwonations.
"PutinSaysMissileLaunchNotificationDealwithChinaWillEnhanceMutualTrust,"BBCFormerSovietUnion,
13October2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1October2009
ChinaCommunistPartyandthePeopleLiberationArmycelebratetheir60thanniversary.Thegrandmilitary
paradeshowcasestechnologicaladvancementinallbranchesofthemilitary.Amongthe108missilesthatarepart
oftheparade,thePLAdisplaysnewindigenouslydevelopedmissiles,theDF15B,DF11A,MRBMDF21C,DF31A,
andthefirstpublicappearanceoftheChangjianlongsword(CJ10)cruisemissile.Furthermore,thenewantiship
ballisticmissileDF21Dwillalsobedisplayed.Themissilehasmaneuverablefinstoimproveaccuracywhen
attackingmovingvesselsatsea.
LucyHomby,"ChinaArmyParadeMayGiveCluestoNewMissiles,"Reuters,24September2009;"Chinato
UnveilyNewMissilesTypesonNationalDay,"HindustanTimes,28September2009,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com;"ChinatoDebutFiveNewStrategicMissilesAtNationalDayParade,"BBCMonitoringAsia
Pacific,28September2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

21September2009
IndonesiapurchasedthreeChineseQianwei3portablesurfacestoairmissiles(SAM)units.TheChineseSAMunits
developedbytheChinesePrecisionMachineryImportExportCorporation(CPMIEC)willbebasedinJakarta,
Madiun,andEastJavaattheIswahyudiAirforcebase.
JonGrevatt,"IndonesiaLookstoSwiss,ChineseDealstoBolsterAirDefenses,"JanesDefenseWeekly,17
September2009,inwww.janes.com.

10September2009
AUnitedArabEmirates(UAE)HerculesC130transportaircraftisdetainedinCalcutta,India.Theaircraftiscarrying
anundeclaredmissileboundforXianyang,ShaanxiprovinceChina.TheUnitedStatesandEuropehavedelivered
numerousmissilestotheUAEfearunauthorizedtradeofsensitivemissiletechnologytoChina.U.S.andFranceare
concernedaboutthetransferofthreemissiles,FrenchMICABeyondVisualRangeAirtoAirMissile,U.S.AGM65
MaverickAirtoShipmissile,andtheA/R/UGM84Harpoonantishipmissiles.U.S.embassyofficialsinvestigated
theplaneandfoundnoU.S.Missilesonboard.TheplanecontinuedthecargodeliverytoXianyang,China.An
unidentifiedChinesedefenceofficialstatesthatthearmswerefromtheInternationalDefenseExhibitionand
ConferenceheldinAprilofthisyear.
JermeyPage,"MysteryofUAEPlaneHeldinCalcuttawithArmsBoundforChina,"10September2009,The
TimesOnline,www.timesonline.co.uk;BillGertz,"InsidetheRing,"WashingtonTimes,17September2009,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

2September2009
ChinawilldisplayfivenewtypesofdomesticallymanufacturedmissilesattheNationalDaymilitaryparadeon1
October.ThefivemissilesincludetheDF41ICMB,theJL2SLBM,aswellasconventionalcruisemissilesand
mediumandshortrangeballisticmissiles.TheDF41andJL2areChina'slatestdomesticallydesignedand
manufacturedballisticmissiles.
"NationalDayParadeWillShowcaseNewPLAArsenal,"SouthChinaMorningPostOnline,3September2009;
"ChinatoShowcaseNewMissilesDuringOctober1Parade,"RIANovosti,2September2009,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com.

18August2009
China'seffortstodevelopamaneuveringwarheadforitstheaterballisticmissilesincreasinglyconcerntheU.S.
NavyasitwouldincreasethethreattoU.S.warshipsinthewesternPacific.ConsequentlytheU.S.Navyis
undertakingmoreeffortstodefendthefleetagainstballisticmissileattacksthroughdevelopmentoftheSM3sea
basedinterceptormissileandupgradestotheAegiscombatsystem.TheweakspotofChineseantiaccess
strategies,however,remainsChina'stargetingcapability,whichcurrentlyconsistsofgroundbasedoverthe
horizonradarsthatmakethetargetingofmovingshipsonthehighseasdifficult.
LoreaB.Thompson,Ph.D.,"TheAchillesHeelofChineseAntiAccessMissiles,"StatesNewsService,18August
2009.

14August2009
China'snewXi'anH6KcruisemissilebomberisspottedatthePeople'sLiberationArmyAirForce(PLAAF)Central
FlightTestEstablishment(CFTE)atYanliangairbaseinXi'an.TheH6kisbasedintheTupolevTu16Badgerfrom
the1950sandhasundergoneseveralstepsofimprovement.Thebomberswingshavebeenredesignedand
strengthenedinordertoallowittocarrysixweaponsexternally.PossibleequippedweaponsaretheYJ62anti
shipmissile,oraTomahawktypecruisemissile.
RobertHewson,"China'sH6kCruiseMissileBomberEmergesIntoPublicView,"Jane'sDefenceWeekly,14
August2009.

6August2009
InanewstudyconcerningapossibleChineseattackinTaiwan,RandCorp.concludedthatChinamightbeableto
dominatetheairinasurpriseattack,however,theneedoflaunchingafullgroundassault,coupledwiththe
resultinginternationalandeconomicconsequencesmakesuchascenariounlikelyinthenearfuture.
DavidA.Shlapaketal.,"AQuestionofBalance:PoliticalContextandMilitaryAspectsoftheChinaTaiwan
Dispute,"RandCorporation2009,www.rand.org;PaulMcleary,"ChinaWouldDominateAirFightinTaiwan
Straights,"AerospaceDaily&DefenseReport,6August2009,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

30July2009
Since2004Chinahasconstructedabout60Type022(Hubeiclass)guidedmissilefastattackcrafts(FAC).TheType
022weighs220tonesinfulldisplacement,hasamaximumspeedof36knotswitharangeof300nauticalmiles
(nm)andisoperatedbyacrewoftwelve.BasedonacatamarandesigntheType022hasimportantfeaturesto
reduceradar,visual,acousticandinfraredsignatures.Itisarmedwitheight120kmrangeYJ83(C803)antiship
cruisemissiles(ASCMs).TheType022isasignificantsteptocontrolChina'snearseasaspartofitsantiaccess
strategy.
NanLi,"AllatSeaChina'sNavyDevelopsFastAttackCraft,"Jane'sIntelligenceReview,30July2009.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

17June2009
Attheendoftheirsummit,DmitryMedvedevandHuJintaoadoptajointdeclarationinwhichRussiaandChina
declarethattheyconsiderinternationalsecurityasindivisibleanduniversal.Countriescouldnotguaranteetheir
securityattheexpenseofothercountries'securityincludingthroughtheinstallationandglobalandregional
missiledefensesystems.Furthermore,RussiaandChinasupportthepeacefuluseofouterspaceandopposethe
deploymentofweaponsinspace.
"RussianChineseJointDeclarationSummarized,"BBCMonitoringFormerSovietUnion,18June2009,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

15June2009
LarryWortzel,vicechairmanoftheU.S.ChinaEconomicandSecurityReviewCommissionsaysinahearingbythe
panelfocusedinthePeople'sLiberationArmy(PLA)that"Chinahasmadegreatstridesmodernizingitsnaval
forces."Additionally,WortzeldescribesChina'sefforttodevelopthecapacitytodenyregionalaccessascredible.
AccordingtoWortzel,Chinesewritingsondoctrineemphasizetheneedforthecontroloftheseasthrough
missiles,electronicsandinformationtechnologiesthatspanthesurface,subsurface,airandspace.
"ChinaSeenMakingHugeStridesinNavalForce,BecomingBlueWaterNavyWithAccessDenialPowersand
GlobalReach,CommissionOfficialSays,"Space&MissileDefenseReport,15June2009,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com.

4June2009
Thenewreport"BallisticandCruiseMissileThreat"publishedbytheNationalAirandSpaceIntelligenceCenter
(NASIC)describesChina'sballisticmissileprogramasthemostactiveoneintheworld.Thereportfurthersetsthe
rangeofChina'smodifiedCSS5(DF21)mediumrange,antishipballisticmissileto900miles.Furthermore,the
U.S.intelligencecommunityestimatesthatinjustovertwomonths,China'sICMBshaveincreasedby25percent.
ThereportlistsChinashaving50landbasedmissilescapableofreachingtheUnitedStatesandfurtherestimates
thatthisnumberwillincreasewellover100inthenext15years.
"BallisticandCruiseMissileThreat",NASIC1091098509,NationalAirandSpaceIntelligenceCenterWright
PattersonAirForceBase,www.fas.org;BillGertz,"NationalSecurity,InsidetheRing,"WashingtonTimes,4June
2009,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

1June2009
LisaCurtis,seniorresearchfellowattheHeritageFoundation,testifiesbeforetheU.S.ChinaEconomicand
SecurityReviewCommissionthatChinahasprovidedmissilemanufacturingexpertiseandfacilitiestoPakistanand
isIslamabad'slargestdefensesupplier.AccordingtoCurtis,BeijinghasprovidedPakistanwithM11(DF11)short
rangemissiles,builtaballisticmissilemanufacturingfacilitynearthecityofRawalpindiandassistedwiththe
developmentthe750kmrangedsolidfuelledShaheen1ballisticmissile.ShefurthernotedthatBeijinghelped
Pakistantobuildnuclearreactors.CurtisidentifiescounteringIndianinfluenceintheregionanddivertingits
militaryforceawayfromChinaasthemajorreasonsforChineseassistancetoPakistan.
"Analyst:ChineseMilitary,OtherTiestoPakistanCrucial;BeijingShouldIntervenewithIslamabadLeaders,Strive
toAvertFurtherNukeAdvances,"Space&MissileDefenseReport,1June2009,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

22May2009
China'sMilitaryTrainingandArmsDepartmentoftheGeneralStaffHeadquartersstatesthatthePeople's
LiberationArmy(PLA)SecondArtilleryCorps(SAC)willbeassignedtosecondarymilitaryoperationsotherthan
war(MOOTW).Itsengineerswillspecializeinfutureemergenciesinvolvingtransportationfacilities.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

DavidC.Ibsy,"ChineseMissileEngineerGainSecondaryMOOTWRole,"Jane'sMissilesandRockets,22May
2009.

23April2009
Chinacelebratesthe60thanniversaryofthePeople'sLiberationArmyNavy(PLAN)andholdalargenavalparade
offthecoastalcityofQingdaointheYellowSea.TheeventwitnessedthefirstpublicappearanceofChina'snuclear
submarinesLongMarch6(Xiaclass/Type092SSBN)andLongMarch3(Hanclass/Type091nuclearattack
submarine)whichledtheparade.PLAN,however,didnotdisplayanyofitsmoremodernsubmarines.China
displayed25vesselsand31aircrafttogetherwith21vesselsfrom14foreigncountries.
YuSong,"ChineseNuclearSubmarinesMakeFirstPublicAppearanceatNavyFleetReview,"ZhongguoTungxun
She(HongKong)inBBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;and"ChinaHoldsLandmark
NavalParadetoMarkPLANavy60thAnniversary,"XinhuaGeneralNewsService,23April2009,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

22April2009
WuShengli,memberoftheCentralMilitaryCommissionandCommanderofthePeople'sLiberationArmyNavy
(PLAN),saysthatallcoastaldefenseunitshavebeenarmedwithguidedantishipandsurfacetoairmissiles,
replacingcoastalandantiaircraftartillery.AccordingtoWu,coastaldefenseunitsarebecominganewtypeof
servicearm,capableofairdefenseatkeylocationsandoveroffshorewaters.Fieldingthenewgenerationof
longerrangeshoretoshipmissilesalsoenhancestheabilitykeepenemiesoutoftherangeoftheirweapon
systems.
ChenWanjun,WuDengfeng,"WuShengliSaysNavyCoastalDefenceUnitesCompleteFullConversionto
Missiles,"XinhuaNewsAgency,inBBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;andDavidC.
Ibsy,"China'sCoastalDefencesareAllMissile,"Jane'sMissles&Rockets,22May2009.

8April2009
AgrandjuryinNewYorkCityhandeddownanindictmentonChinesenationalLiFangweiandhiscompanyLimmt
EconomicandTradeCompany,aswellassixIranianfirms,forusingNewYorkbankstofinancethesaleofhigh
strengthmetalstotheDefenseIndustriesOrganization,anarmoftheIranianmilitary.Thematerialscanbeused
forlongrangemissileandnuclearweaponsproduction,includingenginenozzlesandcentrifuges.Eightaliasfirms
thatLiusedtocircumventU.S.nonproliferationrelatedtradecontrolswerealsoidentified.Liwaschargedwith
conspiracytoconcealbanktransactionsrelatedtothesales.LiresidesinChinaandisunlikelytobeextraditedto
theUnitedStatesfortrial.
ColumLynch,"ChineseFirmIndictedinSalestoIran,"WashingtonPost,8April2009,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com;andJohnEligonandWilliamJ.Broad,"FirmisChargedwithSellingBannedMaterialstoIran,"
NewYorkTimes,8April2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;andhttp://manhattanda.org.

8April2009
ANewYorkcourtchargestheChineseexecutiveLiFangWeiandhiscompanyLimmtEconomicandTrade
Company,aswellassixIranianfirmsofusingNewYorkbankstofinancethesaleofhighstrengthmetalstothe
DefenseIndustriesOrganization,anarmoftheIranianmilitary.Thematerialscanbeusedforlongrangemissile
andnuclearweaponsproduction,includingenginenozzlesandcentrifuges.EightaliasfirmswereidentifiedthatLi
usedtocircumventexportcontrols.Liwaschargedwithconspiracytoconcealbanktransactionsrelatedtothe
sales.
ColumLynch,"ChineseFirmIndictedinSalestoIran,"WashingtonPost,8April2009,inLexisNexis,

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

www.lexisnexis.com;andJohnEligonandWilliamJ.Broad,"FirmisChargedwithSellingBannedMaterialstoIran,"
NewYorkTimes,8April2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1April2009
TheU.S.NavalInstitutereportsthatChinahasdevelopedalongrangeantishipballisticmissilethatholdsU.S.
Navyaircraftcarriergroupsatrisk.ThemissileisbasedontheDF21mediumrangeballisticmissile(MRBM)and
hasarangeof2,000km.Thereportsaysthatthenewmissileisdifficulttolocateandtrackonradarbecauseofits
complexguidancesystem,lowradarsignature,andamaneuverabilitythatmakesitsflightpathunpredictable.
MartinSieff,"BMDWatch:ChinaTargetsU.S.Carriers,"UPI,1April2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

25March2009
The2009Pentagonreportonthe"MilitaryPowerofthePeople'sRepublicofChina"statesthatChinahasthemost
activemissileprogramintheworld.Chinaisconstantlymodernizingitsintercontinentalballisticmissiles(ICBMs)
andstarteddeployingthenewDF31andDF31AICMBs.Furthermore,twoofthenewJinclass(Type094)ballistic
missilesubmarines(SSBNs)arebelievedtohavealreadyenteredintoservice.Inaddition,Chinaisdevelopingquiet
attacksubmarines,advancedantishipcruiseandballisticmissiles,wireguidedandwakehomingtorpedoesas
antiaccessandareadenialweapons,extendingitscapacitiesbeyondthenation'sborders.
JimGaramone,"China'sMilitaryCapabilitiesContinuetoGrow,ReportSays,"DefenseDepartmentDocuments
andPublications,25March2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

8March2009
TheChinaAerospaceScience&IndustryCorp.(CASIC)announcestheestablishmentofascholarshipworth
5millionRMBforaerospaceresearchinthefiveprestigiousuniversities:TsinghuaUniversity,HarbinInstituteof
Technology,BeihangUniversity,BeijingInstituteofTechnology,andNorthwesternPolytechnicalUniversity.The
scholarshipwillbeavailableforundergraduateandpostgraduatestudents.CASICisacentrallyadministered,
stateownedcorporationwhichfocusesonresearchanddevelopmentofmissilesystems,launchvehicleandother
aerospaceequipment.
"ChineseCompanyEstablishesScholarshipforAerospaceResearch,"XinhuaGeneralNewsService,8March
2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3March2009
China'slargethrustcarrierrocketLongMarch(ChangzhengorCZ)5useslessfuelforthesameloadthananyother
rocketexceptBoeing'sDelta4Heavy,saysLiangXiaohong,vicepresidentoftheChinaAcademyofLaunchVehicle
Technology.Therocketisstillunderdevelopmentandscheduledtobebroughtintoservicein2014.Its"carrying
capacityfactor"(akeyparameterreflectingarocket'sperformance)is0.0146,comparedto0.0175oftheDelta4
Heavy.Thehigherthefactor,thelessfuelisneeded.TheLongMarch5hasapayloadcapacityof25tonsandis
expectedtosendlunarrovers,largesatellitesandspacestationsintospace.Therocketwillbelaunchedfroma
newsatellitelaunchcenterinWenchang,thesouthernmostislandofHainan,whichwillalsobeoperationalin
2014.
"China'sJumboRocket'CarryingCapacityFactor'World'sSecondLargest,"XinhuaGeneralNewsService,3
March2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

15February2009
TaiwanMainlandAffairsCouncil(MAC)ChairwomenLaiShinyuanstatesthatChinahasincreasedthenumberof
shortrangemissilestargetingTaiwantoabout1,500.AccordingtoLai,Chinaincreasedthenumberofmissileslast
yearalthoughtensionseasedaftertheelectioninTaiwanofPresidentMaYingjeou."Inthisperiodofwarmth,a

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

warwon'tbreakout,butdon'tforgetChinastillhas1,500missilesaimedatTaiwanmorethan1,500and
that'snotright,"Laisaid.
RalphJennings,"ChinaIncreasesMissilesPointedatTaiwanto1,500"TaipeiTimes,inBBCMonitoringAsia
Pacific,15February2009,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

5February2009
AccordingtotheUnitedStatesOfficeofNavalIntelligencethePeople'sLiberationArmyNavy's(PLAN)submarines
completedtwelvepatrolmissionsin2008comparedwithsevenin2007,andtwoin2006.Comparedwithwestern
naviesthePLAN'ssubmarinesactivityrateremainslow,whereasitishighercomparedwiththeRussianFederation
Navy,whichcompletedsevenmissionsin2008.AccordingtoJane'sNavyInternationalnoneofthePLAN'sballistic
missilesubmarines(SSBNs)hasconductedanydeterrentpatrols.China'sXiaclassSSBNbecameoperationalin
2003;however,itsstatusisuncertain.FurthermorefiveofthenewJinclassSSBNsremainunderconstructionat
HuludaoShipyardinLiaoningprovince,thefirstofwhichbecameoperationalin2007.
TimFish,"ChinaStepsupSubmarinePatrols,"Jane'sNavyInternational,5February2009.

2008
27December2008
Chinasendswarshipsoutsideitsterritorialwatersforthefirsttimeincenturies.Threeshipsarebeingsentfrom
SanyainHainanprovincetohelpwithinternationaleffortstocombatpiratesandprotectChinesevesselsinthe
GulfofAden,offtheSomalicoast.TheflagshipofthefleetistheWuhan,amultipurposemissiledestroyer
equippedwith16antishipmissiles,48surfacetoairmissiles,closeinweaponssystemsandahelicopter.One
othershipwasidentifiedastheHaikou,thePeople'sLiberationArmyNavy'slatestdestroyermodel.
"ChinaDeploysAntiPirateWarships,"UPI,27December2008,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

17November2008
TheTaiwaneseMinisterofNationalDefenseChenChaominstatesthatChinadeploysnewYJ62Asubsonicanti
shipcruisemissilesalongitssoutheasterncoast.TheYJ62Ahasamaximumrangeof400kmandcanalsobeused
asalandattackcruisemissile(LACM).ThisputstheentireTaiwanareaanditsmaritimeterritorywithinrange.
DeborahKuo,"China'sNewMissileDeploymentBeingMonitored:Defense,"CentralNewsAgencyTaiwan,"
17November2008,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

12September2008
IndoAsianNewsServicereportsthatChinaactivelyhelpsBangladeshtobuildupamissilearsenal.Concerningits
missileprogramBangladeshdependsalmostentirelyonChinesehardwareandtechnology.Thefirstmissiletest
wasconductedon12May2008andsuccessfullyfiredaC802Aantishipcruisemissilewithactiveparticipationof
Chineseexperts.IndiaaccusesChinaofarmingSouthAsiannationssurroundingIndiawithmissilesystems.
"DhakaMissilesPartofBeijing'sEncirclementofIndia:Expert,"IndoAsianNewsService,12September2008,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2September2008
TheUnitedStatesTreasuryDepartmentliftssanctionsagainstChinaGreatWallIndustryCorp.TheChinese
government'sinternationalaerospacetradingcompanywasaccusedofsupplyingIranwithballisticmissile
technologyin2006.GreatWallIndustryconvincedtheTreasuryDepartmentthatithadimplementedreforms.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

FurthermoreChinarecognizedUnitedStateslawandinternationalagreementsagainstmissileproliferation.The
TreasuryDepartmenthadfrozenGreatWallIndustry'sassetsintheUnitedStatestopreventitfromdoingbusiness
intheUnitedStates.
CraigCovault,"U.S.LiftsSanctionsAgainstChinaGreatWallIndustryCorp,"AerospaceDaily&DefenseReport,2
September2008,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2007
24November2007
TheEastandSouthChinaSeafleetsofthePeople'sLiberationArmyNavy(PLAN)holdalargescalecampaignlevel
exercise.TheexercisewasconductedeastofTaiwanandnorthofthePhilippinearchipelago.Theobjectiveswere
toenvelopeandsimulateapincerattackonTaiwanfromthesea.KiloclasssubmarinesboughtfromRussia
successfullylaunchedRussianmadeSSN27"Club"antishipcruisemissilesforthefirsttimeduringtheexercise.
TheSSN27cancarrya250kgwarheadandhasarangeof220km.
"PLAExerciseMakesPincerAttackonTaiwan;TwoMajorFleetsSent;'ChanceEncounter'withKittyHawk,"
MingPaoHongKong,24November2007,inBBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,24November2007,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com.

4November2007
Inastatementduringthe17thCongressoftheChineseCommunistParty,ChinesePresidentandchairmanofthe
CentralMilitaryCommission(CMC)HuJintaourgestheSecondArtilleryForce(SAF;orSAC,theSecondArtillery
Corps),China'sstrategicmissiletroops,toimproveitscapabilitiesquickly.HualsopraisedtheSAFforits
modernizationprogressinrecentyears.
"China'sHuJintaoUrgesStrategicMissileForcetoImproveCapability,"BBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,4
November2007,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

13September2007
PakistantriestobuyairtoairmissilesfromtheFrenchcompanyMBDAandradarsfromThalesfortheJF17jet
fighteritisdevelopingwithChina.Throughthisdeal,thetechnologycouldbetransferredtoChinadespitethe
EuropeanarmsembargoonChina.Becausethesamemissilesandasimilartypeofradararealsobeingusedby
Taiwan'sFrenchbuiltMiragejetfighters,thedealcouldcompromisetheeffectivenessofTaiwan'sdefenses.
JohnLeicester,"Report:PossibleFrenchArmsSaletoPakistanCouldHelpChinaCircumventEUWeapons
Embargo,"TheAssociatedPress,13September2007,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

26July2007
ChinastatesthatreportsaboutChinesemissilesbeingshippedtoIraqthroughIranaremisleadingandwrongly
discreditChina.ForeignMinistryspokesmanLiuJianchaomadethestatementafteraU.S.militaryspokesmanin
BaghdadsaidChinesemademissileswerefoundinIraq.LiuJianchao'sstatementdoesnotruleoutthepossibility
thatChinesemissilescouldbeinIraq,butpointedoutthatChinahasstrictexportcontrolsanddoesnotsell
weaponstononstateentitiesorindividuals.
"ChinaDeniesReportsThatitsMissilesHaveEndedUpinIraq,"AssociatedPressWorldstream,26July,2007,in
LexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

20July2007
ChinarevealsthenewDF25mediumrangeballisticmissileaspartofitsmilitarybuildupofnuclearand
conventionalforces.TheDF25hasarangeof2,000milesandcancarryuptothreenuclearwarheads.Inaddition,
anewversionoftheDF21shortrangeballisticmissile,theCSS6,wasrevealed.TheDF21isChina'sfirstantiship
ballisticmissiledesignedtotargetU.S.aircraftcarriersandotherwarships.
BillGertz,"NewChineseMissiles,"TheWashingtonTimes,20July2007,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3June2007
ChinaparticipatesintheannualShangriLadialogueonAsiaPacificsecurityinSingaporeforthefirsttime.The
leaderoftheChinesedelegation,Lt.Gen.ZhangQinsheng,rejectsthenotionofaChinesethreattotheregion.U.S.
SecretaryofDefenseRobertGatesofferstobriefChinaontheU.S.missiledefensesystemasassurancethat
China'snucleardeterrentisnotthreatened.Inthepast,ChinahadcriticizedAmericanandJapanesemissile
defenseplansagainstNorthKoreanmissiles.
"U.S.MayShareMissileInfoWithChina,"AgenceFrancePresse,3June,2007,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com,"PLAinShangriLa,"IndianExpress,4June2007,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

7May2007
ChinateststhePL12activeradarguidedairtoairmissilefromaJ11B,aswellastwovariantsoftheKD88
tacticalairtosurfacemissileandtheantiradiationmissile(ARM)YJ91.TheKD88,initsfinalstageof
development,isturbojetpoweredwithaventralintake.TheKD88willprovidethePeople'sLiberationsArmyAir
Force(PLAAF)withanindigenousfamilyofweaponstomeetrequirementscurrentlybeingmetbybuyingRussian
products.
CraigBarrie,"ChineseRockets;AirtoSurface,AirtoAirMissileProgramsProgressTowardUseinMultiple
Platforms,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,7May2007,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

9April2007
AviationWeek&SpaceTechnologyreportsthatChinaisacceleratingflighttestingofnewmediumandlongrange
ballisticmissiles.BasedoninformationprovidedbyU.S.AirForceDefenseSupportProgram(DSP)missilewarning
spacecraft,Chinaisdemonstratingawiderangeofnewtactics.Accordingtothereport,China'smissiletesting
equalsthescaleoftheSovietUnion'smissilebuildupofthe1960sandisnearwartimeproductionofmissiles.
CraigCovault,"EyesonChinaandIran;DSPMissileWarningSpacecraftProvideCriticalIntelligenceon
AggressiveChinesePace,AsFinal$400millionSatelliteisReadiedtoBeginTransitiontoSBIRS,"AviationWeek&
SpaceTechnology,9April2007,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

23March2007
TheChinaNationalPrecisionMachineryImport&ExportCorporation(CPMIEC)confirmsthatChina'sP12tactical
surfacetosurfacemissile(SSM)systemisundergoingitsfinaltests.Thesolidpropellantmissilehasarangeof50
to150kmandhasalaunchweightofaround2,070kg,ofwhich450kgisthewarhead.
On19ApriltheCPMIECstatesthattheP12willbeofferedontheexportmarket,alongwiththeB611,whichisalso
asolidpropellantSSM.TheB611hasarangeof60to260km,andalaunchweightof2,183kgofwhich480kgisthe
warhead.
ChristopherFoss,"ChineseP12TacticalSSMSysteminFinalTrials,"Jane'sDefenceWeekly,23March,2007;
ChristopherFoss,"ChinaApprovesNewSurfacetoSurfaceMissilestoExport,"InternationalDefenceReview,19
April2007.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

5March2007
ChinaintroducestheindigenouslydevelopedPL12activeradarguidedairtoairmissile,whichwillbecarriedby
thenewJ10fighterjet.Themissileisinitsfinaldevelopmentstages.ThePL12hasthecapabilityofhittingtargets
beyondvisualrange,andisbeingdevelopedbyaChinesemissilemanufacturerinLuoyang.Russianfirmsarealso
providingseveralcomponentstothedesign(includingtheseekerandinertialnavigationsystems).Atthesame
timetheJ11B,aversionoftheSukhoiSu27FlankerwithChineseradar,isalsobeingequippedwiththePL12.
ThiscombinationposesagreaterthreattoTaiwanthanthePL12/J10combination,astheJ11BwillcarrysixPL
12andfourinfrareddogfightmissiles.Furthermore,itsradarhasalongeracquisitionrangeandawidercombat
radius.TaiwantriestocounterChina'slatestweaponsbybuying218ofthelatestRaytheonAIM120C7advanced
mediumrangeairtoairmissiles(Amraam)fromtheUnitedStates.Thisdealispartofa$421millionweapons
package,whichalsoincludes235RaytheonAGM65G2Maverickairtogroundmissiles.
DouglasBarrie;AmyButler,"MissileBooster;BeijingandTaipeiPlayTitForTatinGuidedWeapons
Development,Acquisition,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,5March,2007,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

2March2007
TheU.S.OfficeofNavyIntelligence(ONI)publishesareportconcerningChina'snavalbuildup.Accordingtothe
reportChinaisdevelopingfivenewnuclearpoweredmissilesubmarines(SSBNs),identifiedasType094,each
equippedwith12new8,000kmrangeJL2missiles.Withseatrialsalreadybeingconducted,themissilesarelikely
tobedeployednextyear.China'sbroadernuclearforcesbuildupalsoincludesthedeploymentofthenewlong
rangelandbasednuclearmissilesDF31andDF31A,aswellaslandattackcruisemissiles.ONIstatesChinais
workingtoachieveaforceof120longrangenuclearmissiles.Thesecouldalsocarrymultiplewarheads,asChinais
thoughttohavealreadyacquiredtheneededtechnology.Furthermore,theONIreportsaysthisbuildup"will
provideChinawithamodernandrobustseabasednucleardeterrentforce."Inadditiontoasubmarineforce,
surfaceshipsarealsobeingdevelopedtodefendsealinesofcommunication(SLOCs).AccordingtoONI,Chinais
likelytooperateanaircraftcarrierby2020.
BillGertz,"ChinaExpandsSubFleet;MilitaryBuildupIncludesNuclearMissileBoats,"TheWashingtonTimes,2
March2007,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

22January2007
ChinaincreasesthenumberofmissilesaimedatTaiwanto900.TheseincludetheshortrangeM11(300km)and
M9(600km)missiles.AccordingtoaU.S.intelligencesource,ChinaalsostartstodeployDonghai(EastSea)cruise
missiles,similartotheU.S.Tomahawkcruisemissile.ChinesemissileforcesmainlyoperateinFujian,Guangdong,
andJiangxiProvince.RogerCliff,aseniorresearcheratRandCorporationstatesthatTaiwan'sairforce,fuel
depots,andradarstationswouldnotsurviveafirstmissilestrikefromChina.
"ChinaHasDeployed900MissilesTargetingTaiwan:Newspaper,"DeutschePresseAgentur,22January2007,in
LexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

11January23March2007
Chinaconductsanantisatellitemissiletest,usingagroundbasedmediumrangeballisticmissile.Themissileis
launchedfromXichangSpaceCentertodestroyanagingFengYun1C(FY1C)polarorbitsatellite(launchedin
1999)about865kmabovetheearthand4degreeswestoftheXichangSatelliteLaunchCenter,throughkinetic
impact.Thesuccessfultestcomesafterthreemisseson30November2006,20April2006,and26October2005.
Australia,Canada,theUnitedStates,Japan,SouthKorea,theUnitedKingdom,andRussiaformallyexpresstheir
concernaboutthetestofanantisatellite(ASAT)weapon.TheASATtestisregardedasamessagetotheUnited
StatesafteritrejectedChina'sandRussia'sUNproposaltobanallspacebasedweapons.On16March,2007,

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
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Chinaassertsthatthetestdidnottargetanyspecificcountryandcallsforthesigningofanewinternationaltreaty
onpeacefulutilizationofouterspace.
On23MarchJane'sIntelligenceDigestreportsthattheASATtesthasproducedalargeamountofdebris,
threateningU.S.reconnaissancesatellitesaswellastheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS).
CraigCovault,"ChineseTestAntiSatelliteWeapon,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,17January2007,
www.aviationweek.com,"ChinaWantsNewInternationalTreatyonPeacefulUseofSpace,"ThePressTrustof
India,16March2007,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;CaitinHarrington,"ChineseASATTestRekindles
WeaponsDebate,"Jane'sDefenceWeekly,19January,2007;"ChinaThreatensUSIntelligenceSatellites,"Jane's
IntelligenceDigest,23March2007.

5January2007
Chinarevealsitsnewestgenerationoffighteraircraft,theJian10,developedbytheChinaAviationIndustry
CorporationI(AVICI).Additionally,newfourthgenerationairtoairmissilesareintroduced.Chinaisthefourth
countryintheworldtodevelopitsownadvancedfighteraircraft.
ZhangYi,Xinhua."ChineseAgencySaysJian10FighterPlane"HistoricLeap",inBBCMonitoringAsiaPacific,5
January2007,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

2006
29December2006
Initsnewlyreleasedwhitepaperonnationaldefense,ChinawarnsthatthesituationinNortheastAsiaisgetting
"morecomplicatedandserious."WithU.S.Japaneseeffortstobuildaregionalmissiledefensesystem,aswellasa
U.S.Japanesemissilebeingdeveloped,ChinabelievesitspositionintheregionandinfluenceoverTaiwanisbeing
affectednegatively.Futhermore,thewhitepaperstatesthatthecapabilitiesofthePLA'sSecondArtilleryCorps(or
SAC,China'sstrategicnuclearmissileforce)increasedsignificantly.
EdwardCody,"ChinaOffersaGlimpseofRationaleBehinditsMilitaryPolicies,"TheWashingtonPost,30
December2006,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

21November2006
TheU.S.ChinaEconomicSecurityReviewCommissionpublishesareportstatingthatChina'smilitarybuildupaims
atsinkingU.S.aircraftcarriersanddenyingU.S.forcestoaccesstotheAsiaPacificregion.DanielBlumenthal,a
formerPentagonofficial,commentedonthereportstatingthatChina'sweaponsincludetentypesofballisticand
cruisemissiles,andthatapproximately800missilesareaimedatTaiwan.AccordingtoBlumenthal,China'snew
DF21Cballisticmissileiscapableofattackingshipsatseaanddefeatingshipbornemissiledefenses.
BillGertz,"ChinaBuildupSeenAimedAtU.S.ships,"TheWashingtonTimes,22November,2006,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

8November2006
AformerdefensecontractorandIndianborncitizen,NoshirS.Gowadia,providestechnicalassistancetoChinain
developingacruisemissileexhaustsystem,includingaradarevadingstealthexhaustnozzle.Inaddition,hehelps
ChinamodifyacruisemissilesoitcaninterceptU.S.airtoairmissiles.Mr.Gowadiaischargedwithspyingina
federalindictmentreleasedbyprosecutorsinHawaii.Hepleadsnotguilty,andhistrialisscheduledforJuly.
BillGertz,"ChinaBoughtBomberSecrets;ExContractorChargedAsSpy,"TheWashingtonTimes,23November,
2006,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

31October2006
AtChina'sinternationalairshowinZhuhai,thestateownedChinaAerospaceScienceandIndustryCorporation
(CASIC)showsitscompleteantishipmissileproductionlineforthefirsttime:TheC701(YJ7inChina),acompact,
lightweightmissileusedbysmallattackcraftorbymobilelandbasedbatteries;theC704;theC801/802(YJ
8/82),China'smostsophisticatedantishipmissile;andtheC602(YJ62),technicallyanantishipcruisemissile.At
theshow,ChineseDefenseMinisterColonelGeneralCaoGangchuanshowsinterestinthenewRussianKh31P
supersonicantishipmissile,madebytheTacticalMissileCorporation.TheTacticalMissileCorporationalready
suppliesChinawithsuchdesignsastheKh31supersonicantishipmissile,theRVVAEairtoairmissileandtheKh
59airtosurfacemissile.AccordingtoDirectorGeneralBorisObnosov,Chinaisalsointerestedinaftersale
servicing.
StephanieWong,"World'sAviationIndustryGathersForKeyChineseAirShow,"AgenceFrancePresse,31
October,2006,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com;"ChineseMilitaryInterestedinRussianMissiles,"Russia&CIS
MilitaryNewswire,1November2006,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

5September2006
ChinatestsaDongfeng31ICBM,fromtheWuzhailaunchsitetoanimpactsiteintheTaklimakandesert.China
informsRussiaaboutthetestinadvance.Russianspacecontroltracksthemissilestatingthattheheadsectionof
themissileflewabout2500kilometers.TheDongfeng31willbereadyfordeploymentthisyear,anditsimproved
version,theDongfeng31A,willbeputintoservicein2007.
"ChinaLaunchesOneMoreIntercontinentalBallisticMissile,"TASS,5September,2006,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com.

3August2006
ThefirstofthenewChineseType051CLuzhouclassguidedmissiledestroyer(DDG)Shijiazhuang,currentlyfitted
inDalian,isbelievedtohaveatacticalmissiledefense(TMD)capabilityandisabletodefeatairthreats.Itis
expectedtojointheNorthernfleetformissiledefenseduties.Themainarmamentconsistsof48S300F(SAN6
'GrumbleC')surfacetoairmissiles.
DavidIsby,"ChineseLuzhouclassConstructionPointstoTMDcapability,"Jane'sMissilesandRockets,3August
2006.

28July2006
TheArmedwingofHezbollahfiresaradarguidedC802antishipcruisemissileatanIsraelinavalgunboat
blockadingLebanon.ThesupplytrailgoesfromChinatoIran,andintoLebanonthroughSyria.Influencedbythe
U.S.useoflongrange,landattackcruisemissilesduringOperationDesertStorm,ChinaandIranstarted
developingsimilarweaponsystems.IranstartedimportingChineseC802antishipcruisemissiles.By1996when
ChinasuspendedthedealduetoU.S.pressure,Iranhadreceivedabout75oftheexpected150missiles.TheC802
cancarrya165kgwarheadoverarangeof120km.
MichaelRichardson,"TheArmsTradeDeliverstoLebanon,"SouthChinaMorningPost,28July,2006,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com;"ChinaDoesNotDenyHezbollahUseditsMissiletoAttackIsraelU.S.Senator,"China
BusinessNewsOnLine,11August,2006,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

13June,2006
TheU.S.governmentissuessanctionsonfourChinesecompaniesandoneU.S.companyunderExecutiveOrder
13382,forsupplyingIran'smilitarywithmissilerelatedandotherdualusecomponents.TheChinesecompanies
areBeijingAliteTechnologiesCompanyLtd.,LIMMTEconomicandTradeCompanyLtd.,ChinaGreatWallIndustry
Corporation(CGWIC),andChinaPrecisionMachineryImportExportCompany,whiletheU.S.company,G.W.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

AerospaceCo.,isaU.S.representativeofficeofCGWIC.Thesanctionsprohibittransactionsbetweenthe
designatedcompaniesandU.S.entities,andfreezethecompanies'assetsinU.S.jurisdictions.AllfourChinese
companieshavebeensanctionedbytheU.S.governmentinthepastforsimilaractivities,undertheIran
NonproliferationActandotherexecutiveorders.
JaneMorse,"StateDept:US,ChineseCompaniesSentMissilePartstoIran,TreasurySays,"USFedNewsService,
IncludingUSStateNews,13June2006,inProquestwww.proquest.com.

23May2006
ThePentagonreleasesitsannualreporttocongressonChina'smilitarypower.ThereportstatesthatChina's
futuremilitarystrategy,althoughtheprimaryfocusremainsonTaiwan,aimsatenhancingitspowerprojection
capabilitiesinordertoincreaseitsinfluenceinAsia.AccordingtothePentagon'sreport,thePLAwillfocusonlong
rangetargetsbydevelopingnewlongrangecruisemissiles,precisionweapons,guidancesystemsandantisatellite
(ASAT)capabilities.Furthermore,ithighlightsChineseweaponpurchasesfromRussiaincludingtheNovator3M54E
(SSN27BSizzler)antishipmissileandtheS300PMU2longrangeairdefensesystem.
Inaddition,Chinaisupgradingitsnuclearintercontinentalballisticmissiles(ICBM).Thenewthreestage,road
mobile,solidfueled,7,250kmrangeDF31willbecomeoperationalthisyear,whilethe11,270kmrangeDF31A
willbecomeoperationalnextyear.Moreover,theJL2submarinelaunchedballisticmissile(SLBM),whichwill
primarilybedeployedinthenewType094submarines,willfollowby2010.
AnnScottTyson,"FortifyingItsLongRangeMilitaryArsenal,"TheWashingtonPost,24May2006,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com;RobertWall,DouglasBarrie,"MissileMovement:ChinaProgresseswithLongRangeBallistic
AirDefenseMissileModernization,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,29May2006,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

18May2006
Jane'sMissilesandRocketsreportsthataccordingtoareportbytheTaiwaneseMinistryofNationalDefense,
China'sgroundlaunchedlandattackcruisemissile(LACM)capabilityisnowoperational.The821stMissileBrigade
ofthePLAisLuorong,Guangxiprovince,isinchargeofthenewcruisemissiles.ThetypeoftheLACMisbelievedto
betheDH10.
DavidIsby,"ChineseLACMsEnterService,"Jane'sMissilesandRockets,18May,2006.

1May2006
ChinabuysVympelRWAEAA12'Adder'advancedradaractivehomingairtoairmissilesfromRussia.China
alreadybought1,500andwillprocureanadditional100in2006.TheRWAEwillbeequippedtotheSu27,theSu
30MKK,andtheSu30MK2aircraftinChineseservice.
DavidIsby,"ChinabuysairtoairmissilesfromRussia,"Jane'sMissilesandRockets,1March,2006.

10April,2006
AviationWeekandSpaceTechnologyreportsthataradarguidedversionoftheChineseC701cruisemissilewas
recentlytestedinIranduringmilitaryexercises.RecentmilitarycooperationbetweenChinaandIranincludes
transfersofC701andC802antishipcruisemissiles,calledtheKosarandNoorinIran,respectively.TheC701
withradarguidedcapabilitieswasfirstexhibitedin2004byChinaPrecisionMachineryImportExportCompanyat
anairshowinZhuhai,China.
DouglasBarrie,"FiringAway;MissileInIranianExerciseUnderscoresExtentofGuidedWeaponTiesBetween
TehranandBeijing,"AviationWeekandSpaceTechnology,10April2006,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

7April2006
ThePLAsuccessfullytestsanewsurfacetoairmissilesystem(SAM)atadesertsiteinnorthwesternChina.Two
targetsweredestroyed,onesimulatingahighaltitudereconnaissanceaircraftandtheothersimulatingamissileof
unspecifiedtype.ThemissilesarebelievedtobeanimprovedversionoftheHQ9SAM.
"China'sPLAtestsPatriotclassSAM,"Jane'sMissilesandRockets,7April2006.

7March2006
OnSaturdayChinaannouncesanincreaseofitsmilitarybudgetforthisyearby14.7percent,to283.8billionYuan
(35.1billiondollars).ChineseForeignMinisterLiZhaoxingdefendstherisingofChina'smilitarybudget,claiming
thatChina'srapiddevelopmentwouldposenothreattoothernations.Taiwan'sDefenceMinistryrespondsstating
thatChinahasdeployed784missilestargetingTaiwan.ChenChanghua,intelligenceofficerofthedefense
ministrysays,"Withthoseweapons,themainlandiscapableoflaunchingfiveroundsofattacksforconsecutively
10hoursatourairports'runways,powergenerationplantsandmilitarylogisticunits."
"Chinadefendsmilitaryspending,claimingitposesnothreat,"DeutschePresseAgentur,7March2006,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3March2006
Taiwan'sMinistryofNationalDefense(MND)estimatesthat700800ChineseDF11(M11)andDF15(M9)short
rangeballisticmissiles(SRBM)aretargetingTaiwan.ThemissilesarelocatedatLepingandGanxianinJinagxi
province;atMeizhouinGuangdongprovince;andatYonganandXianyouinFujianprovince.Taiwan'sMND
estimatesthatthenumberofmissileswillbeincreasedto1,800by2010.
WendellMinick,"TaiwaneseMNDwarnsifincreasedballisticmissilethreatby2010,"Jane'sMissilesand
Rockets,3March,2006.

1March2006
ArmyLt.Gen.MichaelMaplestellstheSenateArmsServicesCommitteethat"oneofChina'stopmilitarypriorities
istostrengthenandmodernizeitsstrategicnucleardeterrentforcebyincreasingitssize,accuracyand
survivability,"andthatChinesemissileexpansionwill"enhancetheircoercionanddeterrencevalueandovercome
ballisticmissiledefenses."Gen.MaplesalsosaidthatBeijingisbuildingasubmarinelaunchedballisticmissile,the
8,000milerangeJL2,andhasbeenflighttestingitandtwootherlongrangemissiles.Deploymentisexpectedin
thenextfouryears.
BillGertz,"ExpandedinfluenceseenasChinesemilitarygoal,"TheWashingtonTimes,1March2006,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

9February17May,2006
On9February,aFloridafederalgrandjuryindictstwomenchargedwithattemptedillegalexportofmilitary
equipmenttoChina.KoSuenMoo,aTaiwaneseSouthKoreancitizen,andMauriceSergeVoros,aFrenchnational,
havebeenaccusedofviolationsoftheArmsExportControlActincludingtheattemptedexportofanF16fighter
jetengine,Blackhawkhelicopterengines,cruisemissiles,andairtoairmissilestothePRC,andfacesentencesof
upto20yearsinprison.

On11March,theAlbany,NYFederalDistrictCourtindictsJunWangofAlbany,forconspiracytoviolatethe
InternationalTrafficinArmsRegulations(ITAR),andtheExportAdministrationAct.Wangallegedlytriedtoexport
electronicsusedinunmannedaerialvehicle,missile,andtorpedoflightcontrolsystemstoChinawithoutanexport
license.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

On17MayKoSuenMoopleadsguiltytobeingacovertChineseagent,conspiracytobrokerandexportU.S.
defenseitemsandattemptingtopaya$500,000bribetowinreleasefromcustody.Moofacesupto30yearsin
prisonandfinesof$2millionatsentencing,whichwasnotimmediatelyscheduled.
"TwoChargedinPlottoExportMissileComponentsandMilitaryAircraftEnginestoPeople'sRepublicofChina,"
USFedNewsService,IncludingUSStateNews,9February,2006,inProquest,www.proquest.com;JerrySeper,
"TwoIndictedinChinaWeaponsPlot,ArmsExportActViolationsCited,"TheWashingtonTimes,11February,
2006,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com;"ManChargedinPlottoIllegallyExportTechnologywithMissile,
UnmannedAerialVehicleApplicationstoChina,USFedNewsService,IncludingUSStateNews,23March,2006,in
Proquest,www.proquest.com;CurtAnderson,"TaiwanManPleadsGuiltyinArmsCase,"AssociatedPressOnline,
17May2006,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

17January2006
Jane'sDefenseWeeklyreportsthatthePLAisequippingits600kmrangeDF15(CSS6)shortrangeballisticmissile
andtheDF21(CSS5)2,150kmrange,or2,500kmfortheDF21Amodel,mediumrangeballisticmissilewith
terminalguidancecapabilities.Thelatestversion,theDF21Cislikelytobeequippedwithmaneuveringreentry
vehicles(MRVs)withradarorinfraredseekers.
TedParsons,"ChinaDevelopsAntiShipMissiles,"Jane'sDefenceWeekly,17January2006.

14January2006
China'sparticipationintheEuropeanUnion'sGalileoglobalnavigationsystemraisesserioussecurityissueswith
theUnitedStates.GalileotechnologycouldimproveprecisionstrikecapabilitiesofChina'snewlandattackand
antishipcruisemissiles,longrangesurfacetoairmissiles,andantiradiationmissilescurrentlyunder
development.
TheChinesegovernmenthasalreadyinvestedabout$240millionintheproject.
SethG.JonesandF.StephenLarrabee,"Let'sAvoidAnotherTransAtlanticFeud,"TheInternationalHerald
Tribune,14January2006,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2005
26December2005
U.S.StateDepartmentspokesmanAdamEreliannouncesthattheBushadministrationhasimposednewsanctions
onChinesecompaniesitbelieveshaveaidedIran'smissileprogram.ThecompaniesincludeNorthIndustries
Corporation(NORINCO),ChinaAerotechnologyImportandExportCorporation(CATIC),HongduAviationIndustry
Group,theLimmtMetallurgyandMineralsCompany,Ounion(Asia)InternationalEconomicandTechnical
CooperationLtd.andtheZiboChemetEquipmentCompany.Thesanctionseconomicimpactwilllikelybelimited
however,duetothefactthatthecompaniesarealreadybarredfromdoingbusinesswiththeUnitedStates.
BillGertz,"U.S.PutsSanctionsonChineseFirmsforAidingTehran,"TheWashingtonTimes,27December2005,
inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;DavidE.Sanger,"U.S.toPunish9CompaniesSaidtoHelpIranonArms,"The
NewYorkTimes,28December2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1820October2005
U.S.SecretaryofDefenseDonaldRumsfeldtravelstoBeijingandbecomespartofthefirstU.S.delegationtovisit
theheadquartersofChina'snucleararmedforces,theSecondArtillery.DuringhistripRumsfeldtellsasymposium
attheChineseMilitaryAcademyforSciencethatChina'sexpandingballisticmissileforcesgives"causefor
concern"among"anumberofcountrieswithinterestsinthisregion."SecondArtillerycommanderGeneralJing

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

ZhiyuanassuresRumsfeldthatChinawillabidebyits"nofirstuse"policywithregardstoitsnuclearweapons.The
U.S.DepartmentofDefensealsoaskedtovisitChina'smilitarycommandcenterinWesternHillsbutthisrequest
wasturneddown.
ThomShanker,RumsfeldTellsChinaitsMilitaryBuildupWorriesNeighbors,TheNewYorkTimes,21October
2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;"Rumsfeld'sPartingShot;'ChinaisExpandingitsBallisticMissileForces
andThoseForcesareEnabledtoReachManyAreasoftheWorld,WellBeyondthePacificRegion...aNumberof
Countries...areAskingQuestionsAboutChina'sIntentions,'"TheStraitsTimes(Singapore),21October2005,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;BillGertz,"China'sMilitaryCenterOffLimits;BeijingWon'tAllowRumsfeldto
TourWesternHills,"TheWashingtonTimes,15October2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

14October2005
AfterthesuccessfulofChina'sShenzou6mannedspacecrafton12October,theRussianFederalSpaceAgency
(Roskosmos)issuesastatementonitsofficialwebsitewhichsaysthat"RussiadoesnotcooperatewithChinainthe
fieldofmissiletechnologies."
InterfaxAVNMilitaryNewsAgencywebsite,13October2005in"RussiaHasnotHelpedChinawithRocket
TechnologySpaceAgency,BBCWorldwideMonitoring,14October2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1September2005
TheInformationOfficeofChina'sStateCouncilissuesawhitepaperonBeijing'sofficialnonproliferationpolicy
entitled"China'sEndeavorsforArmsControl,DisarmamentandNonproliferation."Thedocumentstateswith
regardstomissileproliferationthat"Chinaadvocatestheestablishmentofafairandnondiscriminatory
multilateralmechanismuniversallyacceptedbytheinternationalcommunityinthefieldofmissilenon
proliferation."ThewhitepaperalsosaysthatwhileChinaisnotamemberoftheHagueCodeofConductAgainst
BallisticMissileProliferation(HCOC)itismaking"jointefforts"withallsubscribingstatesandrelevantpartiesto
preventballisticmissileproliferation.
XinhuaNewsAgency,1September2005,in"ChineseAgencyCarries"Text"ofWhitePaperonArmsControl,
Nonproliferation,"BBCWorldwideMonitoring,1September2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

14July2005
MajorGen.ZhuChengdu,adeanatChina'sNationalDefenseUniversity,tellsTheWallStreetJournalandThe
FinancialTimesthat"iftheAmericansdrawtheirmissilesandpositionguidedammunitionintothetargetzoneon
China'sterritory,Ithinkwewillhavetorespondwithnuclearweapons."Maj.GenZhumadethecommentsThe
ChineseForeignandDefenseMinistriesdeclinedtocommentinresponsetoMajorGen.Zhu'sremarks.
JosephKahn,"ChineseGeneralThreatensUseofABombsifU.S.Intrudes,"TheNewYorkTimes,15July2005,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;ChuaChinHon,"ChinaGeneral'sNukeThreat;SaysifU.S.AttackedChinaOver
Taiwan,ItCouldHitBackwithNukes,"StraitTimes(Singapore),16July2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

18June2005
AccordingtoJapanesegovernmentsourcesChinatestlaunchesitsJuLang2submarinelaunchedballisticmissile
(SLBM)fromanuclearsubmarineinwatersnearQingdao.TheSLBM,whosetechnologyisbasedofftheDongFeng
31intercontinentalballisticmissile,landsinaChinesedesertseveralthousandkilometersaway.
ChinaTestFiresNewSubmarineLaunchedMissile,TheDailyYomiuri,18June2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

4June2005
DuringthefirstsessionoftheShangrilaDialoguesecurityforumheldattheShangrilaHotelinSingapore,U.S

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

DefenseSecretaryofStateDonaldRumsfeldcriticizesChinaforlackoftransparencyontheamountitsmilitary
spending.DuringhisspeechRumsfeldasks"SincenonationthreatensChina,onewonders:Whythisgrowing
investment?Whythesecontinuinglargeandexpandingarmspurchases?"
DavidBoey,"U.S.BlastsChina'sDefenceSpending;RumsfeldAlsoQuestionsWhyBeijingHasSoManyMissiles
AimedatTaiwan,"TheStraitsTimes(Singapore),5June2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

18May2005
AccordingtoJane'sDefenceWeekly,China'sPolyTechnogieshasbuiltaprototypestageFB6AMissileLaunch
Vehiclemobileairdefensesystem.Thesystemissaidtobe"nearlyidentical"toUnitedStatesBoeingAvengerair
defensesystem.
ChristopherF.Foss,"ChinaDevelopsFB6AAirDefenceSystem,"Jane'sDefenceWeekly,18May2005,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

3May2005
ChineseCommunistPartyCentralCommitteeTaiwanWorkOfficeDeputyDirectorWangZaixisaysthatBeijingis
willingdiscussits"missileissue"withTaipeiaslongassuchnegotiationsoccurunderthepretextofthe"one
China"principle.
XinhuaNewsAgency,3May2005,in"Readyto"DiscussMissileIssuewithTaiwanunderoneChina,"BBC
Monitoring,3May2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

18March2005
Ukraine'sprosecutorgeneralSvyatoslavPiskuntellstheFinancialTimesthatUkraineexported6ofitsX55(Kh55)
cruisemissilestoChinain2001.ProsecutorgeneralPiskunsaysthataUkranianbusinessmanhadbeenarrested
lastyearformakingtheexportandthatthedealhadbeenorchestratedbytwoRussianbusinessmen.TheX55has
arangeof3000km,givingChinatheabilitytouseittotargetcountriesasfarawayasJapan.
UkraineAdmitsExportingMissilestoIran,China,TheFinancialTimes,18March2005,inOSCDocumentID
EUP20050318000151.

18February2005
SeniorU.S.intelligenceofficialstelltheSenateSelectCommitteeonIntelligencethatChinaissignificantly
enhancingitsmissilecapabilityinordertostrengthenitshandintheTaiwanStraitandtheregionmoregenerally.
CIADirectorPorterJ.GosstellsthecommitteethatChinacontinuestodevelopmorerobustsurvivablenuclear
armedmissiles...foruseinregionalconflict."DIADirectorViceAdmiralLowellJacobytestifiesthatChina'sis
increasingthecapabilityandnumbersofitsballisticmissilearsenalinorderto"enhancetheircoercionand
deterrencevalueandovercomeballisticmissiledefensesystems."
BillGertz,"ChineseMilitaryBuildupAssessedasThreattoU.S.,"TheWashingtonTimes,18February2005,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;EricSchmit,"RumsfeldWarnsofConcernAboutExpansionofChina'sNavy,"The
NewYorkTimes,18February2005,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

18January2005
TheNewYorkTimesreportsthatinJanuary2005theU.S.StateDepartmentissuedaonepagenoticeinthe
FederalRegisteridentifyingeightcompaniessanctionedbytheBushadministrationfortransferringmissilerelated
technologytoIraninviolationofthe2000IranNonproliferationAct.AmongthecompaniespunishedincludeChina
NorthIndustryCorporation(NORINCO),ChinaGreatWallIndustry,andChinaAeroTechnologyImportandExport
Corporation(CATIC).TheFederalRegisternoticedidnotdisclosethespecifictechnologybelievedtohavebeen

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

transferred.
DavidE.Sanger,"U.S.isPunishing8ChineseFirmsforAidingIran,"TheNewYorkTimes,18January2005,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2004
8October2004
InaplenarymeetingoftheMissileTechnologyControlRegime,the34membersdonotmentionChinasbidtojoin
thesupplierregime.AccordingtoaU.S.official,thisimpliesthatthemembersarenotsatisfiedwithChinasefforts
tomeetnonproliferationstandards,andwouldbeconcernedaboutChinasabilitytocarryouttheMTCRs
guidelines.Chinajoinedanothersupplierregime,theNuclearSuppliersGroup,earlierthisyear,buthasalsobeen
sanctionedrecentlyonmultipleoccasionsforproliferationactivities.
WadeBoese,"MissileRegimePutsOffChina,"ArmsControlToday,November2004,inProquest,
www.proquest.com.

24September2004
TheU.S.governmentsanctionstheChinesegovernmentrunentitiesChinaXinshidaiCompanyandChinaNewEra
Group,formissiletechnologyproliferationtoanunnamedrecipient.Thecompaniesrespondbycallingthe
sanctions"groundless".
MureDickie,"USImposesSanctionsonChineseArmsGroup,"FinancialTimes,24September2004,inProQuest,
www.proquest.com;WorldSourcesOnline,"ChineseCompaniesIssueStatementProtestingUSSanctions,"Xinhua,
30September2004,inProquest,www.proquest.com.

17September2004
AccordingtoareportinJanesMissilesandRockets,Chinatestsanewindigenouslydevelopedlongrangeland
attackcruisemissile.Thenewmissile,designatedtheDongHai10,hasarangeofmorethan1500kmandhasa
GPSbasednavigationsystemabletohittargetswithaccuracywithina10meterradius.Thereportalsomentions
anotherlandattackcruisemissile,theYingJi63,whichitpredictswillbefieldedwithinthenextfewyears.
"ChinaTestsNewLandAttackCruiseMissile,"JanesMissilesandRockets,17September2004;MureDickieand
KathrinHille,"ChinaTestsNewLongRangeMissile;NewThreatToTaiwan,"FinancialTimes,21September2004,
inProQuest,www.proquest.com.

18August2004
InteraeroInc.,aU.S.aircraftpartssupplier,pleadsguiltytothechargesoftransferring$40,000worthofsensitive
missilerelatedequipmenttoasupplierinChina,whichinturnplannedtotransshiptheequipmenttoIran.The
transfers,whichhappenedinsixinstallmentsin2000and2001,violatedU.S.exportcontrollawsandwillresultin
a$500,000fine,aswellas5yearsofcorporateprobation.
"FirmPleadsGuiltytoExportingMissileParts,"TheWallStreetJournal,18August2004,inProQuest,
www.proquest.com.

1June2004
TaiwansmilitarymagazineproducesadefensereportstatingthatChinaisimprovingtheLongMarch1D(CZ1D)
rocketwhichiscapableofdeliveringanuclearwarhead.TheCZ1Drockets200kmpayloadisupto1,000kg,and
its500kmpayloadis600kg.Thisrocketisusedprimarilyasaspacelaunchvehicle.Chinaisalsomodifyingits

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

nuclearcapableDongfan4(DF4)andCZ4Dmissiles.
LinChangsheng,"AMajorPower'sLongSword(RedNuclearTerrorinAsia[aspublished]),"TaipeiCh'uanCh'iu
FangWeiTsaChih,1June2004,in"TaiwanMilitaryMagazineDiscusses'HiddenPower'ofPRCSecondArtillery,"
OSCDocumentCPP20040702000196,p.5155.

25May2004
AccordingtoaXinhuanewsreport,theChineseMinistryofCommercehavefinedtwoChinesecompaniesfor
violatingChinesemissiletechnologyexportcontrolregulations.Accordingtothereport,thefineschargedtothe
companiesamountedto,"millionsofyuan."
"TwoChineseCompaniesFinedForViolatingRegulationsonMissileExportControl,"Xinhua,25May2004,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3April2004
TheBushAdministrationannouncesnewsanctionsunderthe2000IranNonproliferationAct,penalizing13foreign
companiesincludingChinaNorthIndustriesCorp.andChinaPrecisionMachineryImportExportCompany,aswell
ascompaniesin6othercountries.Thesanctionsreportedlypunishtransfersofsensitivelongrangemissile
technology,andwillpreventUScompaniesfromtradingwiththosecompaniesforaperiodoftwoyears.
JudithMiller,"USImposesSanctionsonCompaniesAidingIranWithArms,"TheNewYorkTimes,3April,2004,
TheInternationalHeraldTribune,17April2004,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

17March2004
AmericanintelligenceofficialsstatethattheChinesemilitaryhasheldfivemissiletestssincethebeginningofthis
year,involvingfournewmissiletypesincludingthenewDongFeng31IntercontinentalBallisticMissileaswellas
othermediumandshortrangemissiles.ThetestshavecomeinthemonthsleadinguptotheTaiwanese
presidentialelectionswherearevisedreferendumonthepossiblepurchaseofU.S.missiledefensesystemswillbe
votedon.TheoriginalreferendumincludedlanguagecallingforthedeescalationofChinesemissilesaimedat
TaiwanandanendtoChineseaggression.Thiswordingwasomittedinthenewreferendumpartiallybecauseof
U.S.pressureagainstsuchaprovocativemeasure.Evenso,Chineseofficialsbelievethepurchaseofmissile
defensesystemscouldrepresentstepstowardsTaiwaneseindependence.
BillGertz,"ChinaFlexesMissileMuscleOnEveofTaiwanVote,"WashingtonTimes,18March2004,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com,WadeBoese,"Taiwan,China,andUSinArmsReferendumImbroglio,"ArmsControl
Today,March2004,inProQuest,www.proquest.com.

4January2004
AHongKongnewspublicationreportsthattheChinesePeoplesLiberationArmySecondArtilleryCorpshas
recentlyundergonemajorhighlevelpersonnelrestructuring.Thecorps,whichisinchargeofChinasnuclearand
nonnuclearballisticmissilearsenal,underwenttherestructuringlastDecemberfollowinganannouncementby
TaiwanesePresidentChenShuiBianaboutaprecisenumberofballisticmissilesbeingaimedtowardsTaiwan.This
causedspeculationofaninformationleak,leadingtotheformalannouncementoftherestructuringonDecember
26.ThenewsreportalsoacknowledgedacontinuingChinesemilitaryplantostreamlineoperationsasanother
reasonfortherestructuring.
HongKongHsiangKangShangPao,"ChineseArmyCarriesOut"Rare"HighLevelRestructuring,"inBBC
MonitoringAsiaPacific,4January,2004,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

2003
26November2003
GaoZhan,mostnotablyaChinesehumanrightsactivist,pleadsguiltytochargesthatsheillegallysoldsensitiveUS
missiletechnologytotheChinesegovernmentinabusinesstransaction.Shefacesupto13yearsinprisonforthe
USgovernmentcontrolledIntel486DXmilitarymicroprocessorsalestoaChinesegovernmentcontrolleddefense
firmspecializinginradardesign.However,JohnFrankenstein,aChinesedefensespecialist,arguesthatthesechips
arealreadyobsoletecomparedtothecurrentChinesedefenseindustrystandard,andwouldbeofnosignificant
usetotheChinesemilitary.
DavidRennie,"IGaveUSMissileSecretstoChina,SaysHumanRightsActivist,"TheDailyTelegraph,27
November2003,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;SpencerS.Hsu,"ScholarSaysUSUnharmed;GaoDefends
HumanRightsEfforts,AppealsForSympathy,"TheWashingtonPost,28November2003,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

18September2003
TheBushAdministrationimposesanewsetofsanctionsofChineseexportfirmsfortransfersofmissiletechnology,
accordingtoStateDepartmentofficials.Thenewsanctions,reportedlytheharshesttodate,willalsotargetthe
ChinesegovernmentbyprohibitinganykindofmissilerelatedtechnologytransferstoChina,includingUSsatellites
beinglaunchedonChineserockets.Additionally,thesanctionswouldbanallChineseimportsfromChinaNorthern
IndustriesCorp.(Norinco)amongotherkindsofimports,andwouldrepresentlostsalesofbillionsofdollars,
accordingtoUSofficials.
BillGertz,"USTagsChinaWithStiffPenalties,"TheWashingtonTimes,19September,2003,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com;WadeBoese,"USImposesMoreProliferationSanctions,"ArmsControlToday,October2003,
inProQuest,www.proquest.com.

30July2003
AccordingtotheUSDepartmentofDefensesannualreporttoCongressontheMilitaryPowerofthePeoples
RepublicofChina,BeijingisnotonlytargetingitscoastalstockpileofdeployedshortrangemissilesatTaiwan,but
alsoatUSforcesinOkinawa.ThereportestimatesChinascoastalstockpileofmissilesataround450,andsaysthat
itcontinuestogrowatarateofabout75peryear.ItalsostatesthatChinaisintheprocessofconfiguring
mediumrangemissilestargetingOkinawathatcouldbedeployedfurtherinland.Thereportconcludesthatone
goalofthebuildupwasto"complicateUnitedStatesinterventioninaTaiwanStraitconflict."
BillGertz,"PentagonSaysChinaRefittingMissilestoHitOkinawa;BeijingAlsoReportedlyExpandingItsArsenal
ForTargetingTaiwan,"TheWashingtonTimes,31July,2003,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com,ThomShanker,
"USSaysChinaisSteppingUpShortRangeMissileProduction,"TheNewYorkTimes,31July,2003,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

4July2003
TheBushAdministrationimposessanctionson6ChineseentitiesincludingChinaNorthernIndustriesCorp.
(Norinco)andChinaPrecisionMachineryImport/ExportCorp.,foravarietyoftransferstoIraninvolvingsensitive
WMDandmissiletechnology.Thematerialstransferredwerenotspecified,butwereinviolationofthe2000Iran
NonproliferationAct.ThesesanctionscomeatatimewhenUSleadersareintalkswithseniorChinesediplomats
regardingtheNorthKoreannuclearprogram.
BillGertz,"USSetsSanctionsForIranArmsSales;Chinese,NorthKoreanFirmsTargeted,"4July2003,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com;DavisE.Sanger,"USPenalizes6AsianFirmsForHelpingIranArmItself,"TheNewYork
Times,4July2003,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.


9May2003
AccordingtoofficialsintheBushAdministration,sanctionsarebeingleviedagainstNorthChinaIndustriesCorp.
(Norinco),oneofChinasbiggestmilitaryindustryconglomerates.NorincohasbeenaccusedofsellingtoIran
specialtysteelwhichcouldbeusedfortheproductionofmissiles.Thetwoyearsanctionswouldprohibitany
NorincotransactionswithUSentities,atareportedcostof"hundredsofmillionsofdollars."
BillGertz,"ChineseFirmHitWithUSSanctions;CompanySoldMissileSteeltoIran,"TheWashingtonTimes,23
May2003,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;MichaelDobbsandGlenKessler,"USPenalizesChineseFirmOver
AllegedMissileAidtoIran,"TheWashingtonPost,23May2003,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

5March2003
BoeingCo.andHughesElectronicCorp.,twocompaniesaccusedofillegaltransfersofUSspacelaunchtechnology
toChinainthemid1990s,settletheircasesbypayingtheUSgovernmenta$32millionsettlement.TheUSState
Departmenthadpursuedthecasebecauseofitscontentionthatsuchtransferscouldhelpcontributetothe
Chineseintercontinentalballisticmissileprogram.Inadditiontothesettlement,thecompaniesagreedtohirea
specialexportcontrolscomplianceofficer.
RenaeMerle,"Hughes,BoeingSettleWithUS,"TheWashingtonPost,6March2003,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

7February2003
AccordingtoareportinJapansDailyYomiuri,ChinasuccessfullytestsamediumrangeDongFeng21ballistic
missilewithMultipleIndependentlyTargetedReentryVehicle(MIRV)technology.Thetestisthefirstsuccessful
demonstrationofChineseMIRVcapability,andisthoughttohavebeendevelopedasaresponsetothefurtherUS
developmentofaballisticmissiledefensesysteminEastAsia.
HiroyukiSugiyama,"ChinaSuccessfullyTestsMultiWarheadMissiles,"TheDailyYomiuri,8February2003,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

27January2003
IndianForeignMinisterYashwantSinhaexpresseshisconcernoverIndianintelligencereportsaboutcontinuing
ChineseassistanceinthePakistanimissileprogram.ThereportsdescribeChinesemissiletechnologyproliferation
occurringviathirdpartieslikeNorthKorea,whichSinhastatedmayaffectthefutureofSinoIndianrelations.
EdwardLuce,"ClaimsofChinaPakistanNuclearLinksTroubleIndia;NewDelhiVoicesConcernOverIntelligence
ReportsThatBeijingContinuesToSupplyTechnology,"FinancialTimes,28January,2003,inProQuest,
www.proquest.com.

2January2003
USIntelligenceofficialsdisclosethattheBushAdministrationhasaskedIsraeltostopthesaleofantiradarHarpy
UAVstoChina,citingconcernsaboutthegrowingthreattoTaiwan.Thetransfersweremadesometimein2002,
butduetoUSconcerns,Israelhasagreedtocancelallremainingcontractsforexportsofarmsandothersecurity
equipmenttoChina.
BillGertz,"IsraelAskedtoStopArmsSalestoChina;USSeekstoCurbThreatToTaiwan,"TheWashingtonTimes,
3January2003,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

2002
20November2002
AccordingtoUSintelligenceofficials,Chinatestfiresanewsupersonicantishipcruisemissile.Themissile,called
theYingJi83(C803),hasarangeofabout250km,muchfartherthanUSofficialshadanticipated.
BillGertz,"ChineseMissileHasTwicetheRangeUSAnticipated,"TheWashingtonTimes,20November,2002,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;MichaelFiszer,JerzyGruszczynski,"ChinaTestsNewAntiShipCruiseMissile,"
JournalofElectronicDefense,January2003,inProQuest,www.proquest.com.

25August2002
PRCPremierZhuRongjisignsintoeffectanew24articlelistofmissileexportcontrolregulationsentitledthe
RegulationsofthePeoplesRepublicofChinaontheExportControlofMissileandMissilerelatedtechnology.The
listcomesafterprolongedpressureonBeijingfromtheUStocurbproliferationtocountrieslikeIranandPakistan.
Theregulations,whichusetheoriginalMissileTechnologyControlRegimestandardlimitingexportsofmissiles
with500kgpayloadsand300kgranges,willalsoaddressdualusetechnologiesandcomponentsaswellthrougha
yetunpublishedcontrollistspecifyingproblematicitemsandtechnologies.Thenewmeasurescomeatatime
whenChineseleadersarehopingtoimproveSinoUSrelations,especiallybeforeapresidentialsummitsettotake
placeinOctober.
JamesKyunge,"ChinaListsMissileTechnologyExportRules;WeaponsLicencesTriumphForWashingtonIn
MovestoPreventSupplyofMilitaryTechnologiesto'AxisOfEvil,"FinancialTimes,26August2002,inProQuest,
www.proquest.com;MengYan,"RulesReleasedonMissileExports,"ChinaDaily,26August2002,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com;RoseGordon,"ChinaIssuesMissileExportControls,"ArmsControlToday,September2002,in
ProQuest,www.proquest.com.

12July2002
ThePentagonreleasesareportwhichsaysthatChinaisupgradingtherangeofitsmissiles,andhasdeployedallof
its350shortrangemissilesalongtheTaiwanStrait.Thereportsdisclosesthatall20CSS4liquidfueled
intercontinentalballisticmissiles(ICBMs)willbereplacedbylongerrangeCSS4Mod2s,andthatChinawillstart
deployingthenewsolidfueledDF31ICBMmiddecadealongwithnewsubmarinelaunchedICBMs.Thereport
alsodeclaresthat,apartfromTaiwan,thecoastalbuildupalsoposesathreattoJapanandthePhilippines.
SecretaryofStateColinPowell,however,statesthathedoesnotseethereportedChinesemilitarybuildupasa
causeforconcern.
BillGertz,"ChineseBuildupTargetsTaiwan;PentagonReportsonNuclearThreat,"TheWashingtonTimes,13
July2002,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;VernonLoeb,"ChinaBuildupSaidtoTargetTaiwan,US;Pentagon
SaysBeijingsMilitarySpendingIncreasesOptionsforMissileAttacks,"TheWashingtonPost,13July,2003,in
ProQuest,www.proquest.com.

25June2002
AccordingtoWesternandRussiansources,ChinaandRussiaareinnegotiationsforatransferofeightnewRussian
submarines,worthareported$1.6billion.TheProject636Kiloclasssubmarineswouldcomeequippedwiththe
SSN27Klub(Sizzler)longrangeantishipcruisemissilesystem,andwouldbepartofalarger$4billionarms
acquisitionpackageincludingadditionalSovremnnyclassdestroyerscapableoffiringSSN22Moskit(Sunburn)
supersonicantishipcruisemissiles.Theseacquisitions,whichmaytakeplaceoverthenext45years,couldvastly
improveChinasabilitytoblockadeTaiwanandthreatenUSwarships.
JohnPomfret,"ChinatoBuy8MoreRussianSubmarines;$1.6BillionDealWouldAidaBlockadeofTaiwan,
ChallengeUSPowerinRegion,"TheWashingtonPost,25June,2002,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.


20May2002
AccordingtoaWashingtonTimesreport,theUSgovernmentsanctionsChinesecompaniesincludingNorinco,
ChinesePrecisionMachineryImport/ExportCorporation,fortheproliferationofcruisemissiletechnologytoIran,
inviolationofthe2000IranNonproliferationAct.ThetechnologymayberelatedtoIransnewgroundlaunched
antishipcruisemissileprogramthatisbasedontheChineseSilkworm.ThetwoyearsanctionswouldbarUS
companiesfrombusinessdealingswiththesanctionedChineseentities.
BillGertz,"ExportingWeaponsDrawUSSanctions;China,EuropeFirmsSelltoIran,"TheWashingtonTimes,20
May2002,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;AlexWagner,"WashingtonLeviesSanctionsforWMDRelated
TransferstoIran,"ArmsControlToday,June2002,32.5,p.31,inProQuest,www.proquest.com.

21February2002
DuringanofficialvisittoBeijing,PresidentBushpushesforastrongerChinesecommitmentagainstmissile
proliferation,butnoconclusionisreached.USofficialshadbeenpressuringChinatoformulatestrictdomestic
exportcontrollawstolimitthesalesofmissilesanddualusemissilecomponents,aswellandchemical,biological,
andnuclearweaponstechnologytocountrieslikeIran,Pakistan,andNorthKorea.Theissuewasnotresolved
becauseofadisputeoverthegrandfatheringofChinesecontracts,andtherefusaloftheUStoallowAmerican
companiestolaunchsatelliteswithChineserockets.
JimVandeHeiandCharlesHutzler,"BushsChinaVisitShowsAntiterrorCampaignisToughSell,"TheWallStreet
Journal,22February2002,inProQuest,www.proquest.com;"DavidRennie,"BushAsksChinatoCurbMissile
Sales:USPresidentThanksJiangForHelpinWaronTerrorismasLeadersHoldStrainedMeeting:Unsatisfactory
Answers,"NationalPost(Canada),22February2002,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

9January2002
AccordingtotheWashingtonTimesanewNationalIntelligenceCouncilreportstatesthatChinaisconvertingits
silobasedICBMarsenaltomobileplatforms,andmayimproveitsstrategiccapabilitiesbydevelopingmultiple
warheadtechnology.ThereportalsoprojectsthattheChinesearsenalwillgrowfromitscurrentlyestimated20
warheadstoabout75100warheads.ThereportalsogoesontosaythatChinamayhaveabandonedthelong
rangeDongFeng41programinfavoroffurtherupgradingtherangeofitsnewDongFeng31ICBM.
BillGertz,"ReportUpgradesChinasThreatasaNuclearPower,IntelligenceCouncilPredictsDeploymentof
MultipleWarheads,"TheWashingtonTimes,11January2002,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;BillGertz,
"IntelligenceReportSeesChinaGreatlyIncreasingMissileForce;AlsoCitesLongRangeArmsofNorthKorea,Iran,
Iraq,"TheWashingtonTimes,10January2002,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2001
31August2001
TheBushAdministrationdecidestoimposesanctionsonChineseNationalMachineryandEquipmentImportand
ExportCorporation(CMEC)forsupplyingPakistanwithmissilecomponentsforitsnuclearcapableShaheen1and2
ballisticmissileprograms.ThesanctionswillbeimposedafterChinaspledgeinNovember2000tostopsuch
proliferationactivity,andbeforePresidentBushsupcomingfirstofficialvisittoChina.Thesanctionswillprevent
UScompaniesfromlaunchingsatellitesonChineserockets,andwillforbidanytransfersofUStechnologytothe
Chinesesatelliteindustry.
RobinWright,"USToSanctionChineseFirm;Asia:WashingtonSaysTheArmsMakerHasSoldPartsToPakistan
inViolationoftheAccordReachedinBeijing,"LosAngelesTimes,1September2001,inProQuest

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

www.proquest.com;BillGertz,"BeijingBreaksPledge,HelpsPakistanArm,"TheWashingtonTimes,6August2001,
inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com.

28July2001
SecretaryofStateColinPowellmeetswithChineseleaders,discussingallegedmissileproliferationtoPakistan
amongothersubjects.USdiplomatshadfiledformalcomplaintsaboutmultipletransfersofnuclearcapable
missilesandmissiletechnology,whichChineseofficialsdeny,andhavenotrepliedtoUSrequestsforclarification.
Chineseleaders,however,doagreetoconsultwithUSexpertsondomesticmissileexportguidelines.Theissueof
grandfatheringoldcontractsisstillcontentiousthough,andPowellhasnotruledoutsanctionsasaresponseto
continuedproliferation,amarkedpolicyshiftfromtheClintonadministration.
StevenMufsonandPhilipP.Pan,"US,ChinaSetForMoreTalks;PowellRaisesRights,ArmsIssues,"The
WashingtonPost,29July2001,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com;JohnPomfret,"USProtestsExportsofMissiles
ByChina;BeijingDeniesSales;PowellToRaiseIssueonVisit,"TheWashingtonPost,27July2001,inProQuest
www.proquest.com.

10June2001
Chinatestfiresanewtypeofairlaunchedlandattackcruisemissile,calledtheHongNiao(RedBird).Military
expertssaythatthenewmissileisanextendedrangeversionoftheC802antishipcruisemissile,witharangeof
atleast177km,andisthoughttobeahybridofRussianKh55,USTomahawk,andIsraelicruisemissile
technologies.
"ChinaTestFiresLandAttackCruiseMissile,"TheStraitsTimes,10June,2001,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com.

June2001
TheJournalofElectronicDefensepublishesareportthattheChinesemilitarysCSS7missilesmaybemuchmore
ofathreattoTaiwanthanpreviouslybelieved,becauseoftheuseofextremelyaccurateAmericanGPSguidance
systems.ThereportstatedthatthelowcostGPSsystemscouldbeeasilyorderedfrom32Americanmailorder
companies,andhadastandardaccuracyof15meters95%ofthetime.
KennethB.Sherman,"GPSMayHeightenCSS7Threat,"JournalofElectronicWarfare,June2001,inProQuest
www.proquest.com.

15May2001
AssistantSecretaryofStateforAsianandPacificAffairsJamesKellymeetswithChinesearmscontrolandforeign
policyofficialstomakethecasefortheproposedmissiledefensesystem.Chineseofficialsmaintainthatthe
systemwouldendangerglobalsecurity,andthatitwould"harmotherswithoutbenefitingtheUnitedStates
itself."
ErikEckholm,"ChinaUnconvincedasMissileTalksEnd,"TheNewYorkTimes,16May2001,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com.

1May2001
AtaspeechattheNationalDefenseUniversity,PresidentBushannouncesplanstopulltheUSoutoftheAnti
BallisticMissileTreatyandcallsforthedeploymentofamissiledefensesystem"toprotecttheUnitedStatesand
itsalliesfromroguenuclearnations."TheannouncementpromptedDemocratsfromtheUSHouseof
RepresentativestoexpressalarmaboutapossiblenewarmsracewithChina,whichisthoughttohave
approximately20nuclearcapableICBMsinitsarsenalandmayseektoexpanditsdeterrencecapability.SunYuxi,
aspokesmanfortheChineseForeignMinistry,saysthatalthoughopposedtothedevelopmentofamissile

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

defensesystem,ChinaiswillingtoengageinnegotiationswiththeUS.
BillSammon,"BushScraps72TreatyforaShield;TargetsPactsonABMsasanObstacle,"TheWashington
Times,2May2001,inLexisNexiswww.lexisnexis.com;CarlaAnneRobbins,"BushSpeaksofLeavingABMPact,
BuildingaMissileDefenseSystem,"TheWallStreetJournal,2May2001,inProQuestwww.proquest.com;"China
WillingtoNegotiateWiththeUSonTMD,NMD:FMSpokesman,"Xinhua,10May2001,inLexisNexis
www.lexisnexis.com.

21April2001
AccordingtoaWallStreetJournalreport,theBushAdministrationshasdecidednottoselladvancedantimissile
systemequippedAegisdestroyerstoTaiwan,butwillkeepthepossibilityopendependingondevelopmentsin
ChineseTaiwaneserelationsandtheChinesemissilebuildup.SomeseniorPentagonofficialshadoriginallypushed
foramoreovertconnectionbetweentheAegissaleandpressureonChinatocurbmissiledeploymentsalongthe
Taiwanstraits,buttheWhiteHouseelectedtousealessforcefulapproach.
NeilKing,Jr.,"BushDefersSaleofAegistoTaiwan,"TheWallStreetJournal,21April2001,inProQuest
www.proquest.com.

28February2001
USofficialsaccuseHuaweiTechnologiesCompany,aprivateChinesetelecommunicationsfirm,ofsellingfiber
optictechnologytoIraqtorebuildandimproveitsantiaircraftmissilesystems.SuchsalesgoagainstUNsanctions,
andaccordingtoofficialscreatedathreat,resultinginthebombardmentofIraqiairdefensesbyUSandBritish
warplanespatrollingthenoflyzoneinFebruary.Chinesegovernmentofficialsannouncetheymaybewillingto
investigatetheincident.
JohnPomfretandPhillipP.Pan,"ChineseFirmisFocusofUSIraqiSuspicions,"TheWashingtonPost,1March
2001,inProQuestwww.proquest.com;JohnPomfret"ChinaShiftsStance,MayProbeUSClaimsThatItAssisted
Iraq,"TheWashingtonPost,28February2001,inProQuestwww.proquest.com.

5February2001
AccordingtoaseniorUSmilitaryofficial,theChinesemilitaryiscontinuingtoaddshortrangemissilestoits
arsenaldeployedalongtheTaiwanstraits,bringingtheestimatedtotalupto300missiles.Theofficialalsostated
thatChinacontinuestoreceivehighlevelmissiletechnologyfromRussia,namingtheRussiancompany
Rosvooruzheniyeas"becomingChinasmajorsupplier."Inadditiontoadvancedballisticmissiletechnology,Russia
hasalsobeensupplyingtheChinesemilitarywithstrategicnuclearwarheadtechnology.
BillGertz,"ChinaAddingMissilesAimedTowardTaiwan;USWarnsofIncreasingDestabilization,"The
WashingtonTimes,5February2001,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2000
21November2000
InresponsetoapledgefromChinatorigorouslycontrolitsmissileexports,theUSgovernmentagreestoresume
issuinglicensesforUScommercialspacelaunchesinChina.Chinapromisestoconfigureitsexportcontrol
standardsclosertotheMTCR,andpledgesnottohelpothercountries"inanyway"developnuclearcapable
ballisticmissiles.ThespacelaunchlicenseshadbeensuspendedsinceFebruary.
CarlaAnneRobbinsandAndyPasztor,"UStoEaseSpaceLaunchSuspensioninChinaAfterPledgeofMissile
Control,"TheWallStreetJournal,22Nov2000,inProQuest,www.proquest.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

28September2000
ThePentagonapprovesthesaleofa$1.3billionarmspackagetoTaiwan,including200AdvancedMediumRange
AirtoAirMissiles(AMRAAM),whichunderanunusualclausewillnotbetransferredunlessChinadevelopsa
similarairtoairmissilecapability.Thereasoningbehindtheclauseistopreservestabilityoftheregionalmilitary
balance.
"MissileSaletoTaiwanHasUnusualClause,"TheNewYorkTimes,AssociatedPress,30Sept2000,inProQuest,
www.proquest.com.

11July2000
DuringDefenseSecretaryWilliamS.CohensvisittoChina,ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanSunYuxilinks
continuedChineseproliferationofmissiletechnologytoU.S.decisionstocontinuepursuingmissiledefense.
ChineseofficialsspecificallyconnectWashingtonsconstructionofamissiledefensesystemcoveringTaiwanto
BeijingsfuturetransferstoPakistanandMiddleEasterncountries.Conversely,theClintonadministrationtiesU.S.
missiledefenseeffortswithChinesemissilebasebuildupsacrosstheTaiwanStrait.
JohnPomfret,"ChinaAgainDemandsUSDropMissileDefensePlan;BeijingLinksWeaponExportstoAmerican
VerdictinSystem,"TheWashingtonPost,12July,2000,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2July2000
AccordingtoaU.S.intelligencereport,ChinaiscontinuingtosupplymissilematerialsandtechnologytoPakistan,
althoughitisnotbelievedtoshippingcompletedmissilesystemsasinthepast.Thereportscomeinthecontextof
CongressconsideringabilldesignedtopunishChinaforitsproliferationactivities,whiletheClintonadministration
istryingtonormalizetraderelationswithChina.
ThomasE.Ricks,"ChinaStillAidingPakistansMissileProgram,ReportsIndicate,"TheWashingtonPost,2July,
2000,inProQuest,www.proquest.com;DavidE.SangerandEricSchmitt,"ReportsSayChinaisAidingPakistanon
MissileProject,"TheNewYorkTimes,2July,2000,inProQuest,www.proquest.com.

16May2000
AccordingtoaspokesmanfortheRussianmilitaryindustrialcomplex,a24missileshipmentofRussianMoskit
(Sunburn)antishipcruisemissilesarrivesinChina.Theshipmentisthefirstoftwotobemadethisyear.
ITARTASSNewsAgency,"FirstLotOfRussianMoskitMissilesShippedToChina,"16May,2000,inBBC
MonitoringFormerSovietUnionEconomic,inProQuest,www.proquest.com.

10May2000
Inaninterview,ChinaschiefarmsnegotiatorShaZhukangwarnsthatiftheUSgoesaheadwiththedeploymentof
theatermissiledefense,Chinawillrespondwithmeasureslikeproducingmorenuclearwarheadsanddeveloping
moreeffectiveevasionmethodsfortheirmissiles.Shaalsodescribestheprojectedmissiledefensesystemas
"threateningtoChina."
JanePerlez,"ChinaLikelytoModernizeNuclearArms,USBelieves,"TheNewYorkTimes,12May2000,in
ProQuest,www.proquest.com.

1March2000
InastatementtotheControlYuan,theTaiwanesearmystatesthatPatriotantimissilesystemsdeployedinTaiwan
shouldhavethecapabilitytointerceptChineseMseriesmissiles.AlthoughalargeconcentrationofChinese
missilesaredeployedonly200kmfromTaiwanandwouldallowforlittlereactiontime,Armyofficialsdisplayed
confidenceinthePatriotsystemsquickresponsetime.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

CentralNewsAgency,"TaiwanArmySaysItsPatriotsCanInterceptChineseMSeriesMissiles,"inBBC
MonitoringAsiaPacific,1March2000,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

12February2000
AChinesenationalisdetainedbycustomsofficialsatLosAngelesInternationalAirportfortryingtoleavethe
countrywithsensitivecomponentsusedinmissileguidancesystems.Themanhadtoldundercoveragentsthatthe
technologywastobeused,"bytheChinesegovernmentonmissileandreconnaissancesystems."
"ManArrestedWithMissileGuidanceGear,"TheNewYorkTimes,15February2000,inProQuest,
www.proquest.com.

12February2000
TaiwansChiefofGeneralStaffTangYaomingtellsreportersthatearlierinthedayChinasailedaRussianbuilt
SovremennyclassdestroyerthroughtheTaiwanStraitenroutetoitsportofdelivery.Theshipisthefirstoftwo
suchdestroyerstobedeliveredthisyear,botharmedwithRussianantishipSunburncruisemissiles.
CraigS.Smith,"NewChineseGuidedMissileShipHeightensTensions,"TheNewYorkTimes,9February2000,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;"TaiwanReportsonNewChineseWarship,"TheNewYorkTimes,Reuters,12
February2000,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1999
8December1999
AtaNationalDefenseIndustrialAssociationluncheoninWashington,D.C.,aChinesedefenseofficialannounces
ChinesemilitaryplanstodeployamodifiedversionoftheDongFeng31,calledtheJuLang2,onitsballisticmissile
submarines.
PenningtonWayIV,"ChineseOfficial:NewDF31MissileToGoOnSubmarines,"DefenseDaily,9December
1999,inProquest,www.proquest.com.

1October1999
AlongwithitsnewDongFeng31,ChinaparadesanewversionofitsshortrangeM11missileattheNationalDay
militaryparade.Thenewmissile,alsocalledtheCSS7Mod2,hasalongerrange,largerwarhead,andgreater
accuracythanearlierM11s,andisbeingdeployedinlargenumbersintheTaiwanstraitsregion.
BillGertzandRowanScarborough,"InsidetheRing,"TheWashingtonTimes,8October1999,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

15September1999
TheHongKongStandardreportsonanewunclassifiedUSintelligencereportthatChinatransferredM11short
rangeballisticmissilestoPakistan.USStateDepartmentDeputySpokesmanJamesFoleysaysthatthetransfers
couldleadtoadditionalsanctionsunderexportcontrollaws.
"ChineseMissilesSuppliedtoPakistan,"HongKongStandard,15September1999,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com;"USDeterminesImposingSanctionsonChina,PakistanforMissileTransfers,"TheTimesof
India,16September1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3August1999
AXinhuanewsreportstatesthatChinatestedanewgroundtogroundlongrangemissile.USmilitaryexpertssay

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itwasprobablytheDongFeng31,amobileplatformmissileabletodelivera1,500poundnuclearwarheada
distanceof5,000miles.
SethFaison,"InUnusualAnnouncement,ChinaTellsofaMissileTest,"TheNewYorkTimes,3August1999,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

20July1999
AccordingtoanintelligencereportcitedinTheWashingtonTimes,Beijingisallowinganincreaseintransfersof
missilecomponentsandpossiblysomeUSorigintechnologytoNorthKorea,inresponsetotheNATObombingof
theChineseembassyinBelgrade,Yugoslaviaearlierthisyear.AccordingtoareportinaHongKongnewspaper,
unexplodedcruisemissilesrecoveredfromthesameembassyattackalsomayhaveprovidedChinathechanceto
extractadvancedtechnologytoenhancetheircruisemissileprogram.
BillGertz,"MissilePartsSenttoNorthKoreabyChineseCompanies;ResponsetoEmbassyBombingSeen,"The
WashingtonTimes,20July1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;TaiYangPaowebsite,"ChineseCruise
MissilesOnlyFiveYearsBehindUSAHongKongPress,"inBBCSummaryofWorldBroadcasts,23August1999,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

25May1999
IntheCoxReport,aUScongressionalpanelcomestotheconclusionthatChinahasstolenplansformissilesand
guidancesystemsforsomeofthemostsophisticatedweaponssystemsintheUSarsenal.Thetechnologymay
havebeenafactorinimprovedguidanceanddesignfortheChineseLongMarchrocket,whichmayalsobeused
forlaunchinglongrangemissiles.Inaddition,USdesignedminiaturizationtechnologycouldgiveChinathe
capabilitytoequipmobileplatformlaunchedmissilesliketheDongFeng31withnuclearwarheads.Also,the
reportconcludesthatChinaplanstoaddupto100moreICBMstotheirdeployedmissileforcewithinthenext15
years,asignificantincreasefromthecurrentestimateofaround30.
JohnJ.Fialka,"ChineseStoleHighLevelNuclearData,"TheWallStreetJournal,25May1999,inProquest,
www.proquest.com;WalterPincus,"ChinaMayAdd100MissilesOver15Years,"TheWashingtonPost,26May
1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;StephenFidlerandJamesKynge,"ChinaCouldUseStolenUSN
technologyinThreeYears,LongAwaitedCongressionalReportWarnsBeijingCouldSoonLaunchMissilesFrom
MobileSilos,"FinancialTimes,26May,1999,inProquest,www.proquest.com.

7April1999
AccordingtoaWisconsinProjectforArmsControlreport,militarytechnologytransferredtoChinasince1988
throughlegalexportchannelsamounttomoreofasecuritythreatthantherecentallegationsofChinese
espionagetoacquireUSwarheadandreentryvehicledesigns.Amongothertechnology,thereportcitesprecision
machinetoolsandvibrationtestinggearcomponentsusedtodevelopC802andC801cruisemissiles,andother
typesoflongrangemissiles.
BillGertz,"ChinaGainsFromUSNukeSales;ReportSaysMilitaryExportsMoreDamagingThanThefts,"The
WashingtonTimes,7April1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;WalterPincusandVernonLoeb,"Chinese
StoleDataonReentryVehicles;USIntelligenceAssessesLosses,"TheWashingtonPost,22April,1999,inProquest,
www.proquest.com.

8March1999
EnergySecretaryBillRichardsonordersthefiringofWenHoLee,aChineseAmericanweaponsdesigneratLos
AlamosNationalLaboratory,overallegationsofprovidinginformationabouttheUSdesignedW88warheadto
theChinesegovernmentinthelate1980s.TheW88istheUSarsenalsmostadvancedminiaturizedwarhead.
WalterPincus,"SpySuspectFiredatLosAlamosLab,"TheWashingtonPost,9March1999,inProquest,

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

www.proquest.com;DavidE.SangerandErikEckholm,"WillBeijingsNuclearArsenalStaySmallorWillIt
Mushroom?"TheNewYorkTimes,15March1999,inProquest,www.proquest.com.

5March1999
AseniorChineseofficialstatesatapressconferencethattheUSprovidingTaiwanwithmissiledefenseequipment
couldbethelaststrawinUSChinarelations.TherecenttransferofPatriotantimissilesystems,aswellasthe
anticipatedsaleofAegisdestroyers,wouldenhanceTaiwansantimissilecapabilities.Theofficialalsonotedthat
closerUStieswithTaiwanandJapanwouldamounttoapolicyofcontainment.
JohnPomfret,"ChineseWarnUSNottoArmTaiwan;OfficialSaysTransferofMissileDefensesCouldBe'Last
Straw,"TheWashingtonPost,6March1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

25February1999
ThePentagonreleasesareport,whichconcludesthatthediversionofChinasmissilesandothermilitaryresources
totheTaiwanStraitsregionisshiftingthebalanceofpowerbetweenChinaandTaiwaninChinasfavor.Thereport
statesthattheChinesemilitaryscurrentgoalsincludefurtherdevelopmentofadvancedantishipcruisemissiles,
longrangelandattackcruisemissilesandshortrangeballisticmissiles,aswellasacquiringmissiledefenses,space
weapons,and"informationwarfare"capabilities.Accordingtothereport,"by2005,China'sPeople'sLiberation
ArmywillpossessthecapabilitytoattackTaiwanwithairandmissilestrikeswhichwoulddegradekeymilitary
facilitiesanddamagetheisland'seconomicinfrastructure."
BillGertz,"ChinaStrengthensPositionNearTaiwan;MissileMovementsWorryPentagon,"TheWashington
Times,26February1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

10February1999
AccordingtoTaiwaneseofficials,theChinesemilitarydeploysmorethan100additionalballisticmissilesalongthe
StraitsofTaiwan.Thenewmissilestriplethepreviousnumberdeployedinthatregion,andaccordingtoofficials,is
aclearresponsetodiscussionsofaUS"missiledefenseumbrella"thatwouldcoverTaiwan.
JohnPomfret,"ChinaAimsMoreMissilesAtTaiwan;USDefenseConceptInfuriatesBeijing,"TheWashington
Post,11February1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

9February1999
AccordingtoTaiwaneseDefenseMinisterTangFei,Chinaismakingsignificantprogressindevelopingacruise
missilecapability.Athisfirstconferenceasdefenseminister,TangsaysthatthenewChinesecruisemissilesare
similartoUSTomahawksandRussianSSN22s,andthatcruisemissiles"willeventuallyposeafargreaterthreat
thanballisticandnucleararms."
CentralNewsAgency,"NewDefenseMinisteronChineseCruiseMissileThreat,"inBBCMonitoring,11February
1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

26January1999
TheTaiwanesenewspaperChinaNewsreportsthatanewPatriotmissilebasewillopeninTaiwanovertheChinese
NewYearholiday,inresponsetothethreatfrommainlandChineseMclassmissiles.
"MissileBaseToOpenOverLunarNewYear,"ChinaNews,26January1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

26January1999
APentagonintelligencereportsaysthattheChinesemilitaryconductedexercisesinDecember1998,simulating
missileattacksonTaiwanandUStroopsinJapanandKorea.Accordingtothereport,thesimulatedfiringsofCSS5
(DongFeng21)andCSS2(DongFeng3)missiles"areasignthatChinaiswillingtogotowarwiththeUSoverthe

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issueofTaiwan."
BillGertz,"ChineseExerciseTargetsTaiwan;MissilePracticeAimsatUSForces,"TheWashingtonTimes,26
January1999,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

12January1999
AChineseforeignministryofficialcallsforabroadeningoftheAntiBallisticMissileTreatyintoamultilateral
accordincludingnationsotherthantheUSandRussia.TheshiftinpolicyreflectstheClintonadministrations
recenteffortstocontinueresearchonpossiblenationalandtheatermissiledefensesystems,andrepercussions
suchsystemswouldhaveonSinoJapaneseandCrossStraitsrelations.Accordingtotheofficial,developmentofan
AntiBallisticMissilesystemmayresultinChinadevelopingmorepowerfulandcapablemissiles.
StephenFidlerandTonyWalker,"ChinaUrgesBroadeningofMissileTreaty,"FinancialTimes,13January1999,
inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;"ChinainMissileWarning,"CourierMail,14January1999,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

1998
10December1998
AccordingtothePakistaninewspaperAusaf,ChineseofficialsandmembersoftheAfghanTalebangovernment
cometoamilitaryaccord,allowingChineseexpertsaccesstoexamineintact,unexplodedUScruisemissilesin
Afghanistan.
Ausaf,"Taleban,ChinaSignDefenseAccord;ChineseExamineUSMissiles,"inBBCSummaryofWorld
Broadcasts,12December1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

12November1998
USofficialsprotestmissiletechnologytransfersfromChinatoIranataBeijingmeetingtodiscusstheMTCR.
AccordingtoUSintelligenceandnationalsecurityofficials,transfersincludedtelemetryequipmentusedintesting
mediumrangemissiles,liketheIranianShahbab3,orshortrangetacticalmissiles.Atthesamemeeting,Chinese
officialsprotestTaiwanplanstoacquireUSantimissilesystemsasaviolationoftheAntiBallisticMissileTreaty.
BillGertz,"USProtestsChinaArmsMove;ShipmentofMissileTechnologytoIranCausesConcern,"The
WashingtonTimes,7December1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

21July1998
PentagonintelligenceofficialstellTheWashingtonTimesthatChinawilladd8newCSS4Mod2(DongFeng5a)
ICBMstoitsstockpilebytheendofthisyear,addingtothe18nuclearcapablelongrangeballisticmissilestheCIA
reportedChinahasalreadydeployed.
BillGertz,"ChinaAdds6ICBMstoArsenal;Plans2MoreBeforeMovingitsOnlyPlant,"TheWashingtonTimes,
21July1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

14July1998
TheWashingtonTimesreleasesdetailsofanintelligencereportstatingthatSinoUScollaborationon
rocket/satellitetechnologyin1996mayforma"technologybridge"toenableChinatodeploymultiplereentry
vehiclesonstrategicmissiles.Thereportspeculatesthatthemultiplewarheadtechnologycouldbeadaptedfor
usewithCSS4orDongFeng41missiles.
BillGertz,"USTechnologyBuildsBridgeforChinaMissile;BeijingCouldBeAbletoDeployMultipleWarheads,"
TheWashingtonTimes,14July1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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27June1998
ChinesePresidentJiangZeminandPresidentClintonagreetoredirectballisticmissilesaimedateachotherscities
ata25June2JulysummitmeetinginBeijing.IntheframeworkofspiralingSouthAsiatensions,thetwo
presidentsalsoagreeonajointstatementpledgingnottoexportanynuclearcapablemediumandlongrange
missilestoIndiaorPakistan.Alsoatthesummit,PresidentZeminassentsto"activelystudy"joiningtheMissile
TechnologyControlRegime.
JohnM.Broder,"ClintoninChina:TheOverview;TiananmenCommentLeadstoClintonJiangDebate,"TheNew
YorkTimes,27June,1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

16June1998
TheWashingtonTimesdivulgesdetailsofa27MayintelligencereportoncontinuingdiscussionsbetweenChina
andIranaboutsalesofmissiletechnology.TheChineseassistancewillhelpIrandeveloptwomediumrange
ballisticmissilesystems,theShahab3andShahab4,andashortrangemissilesystem,theNP110.Thesame
WashingtonTimesreportdisclosesa14MayintelligencereportonavisittoLibyabyChinesemissiletechnicians,
purportedlytoassistwithaLibyanmissileprogram.
BillGertz,"ChinaAssistsIran,LibyaonMissiles;NewFindingsContradictWhiteHouse,"TheWashingtonTimes,
16June,1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

20May1998
TheUSHouseofRepresentativesvotestostopAmericanexportsofsatellitesandsatellitetechnologythatcould
improvetheaccuracyofChineselongrangenuclearcapableballisticmissiles.ThevotechallengesPresident
ClintonsdecisiontowaivesanctionsimposedonChinaafterthe1989TiananmenSquareincident.
EricSchmitt,"HouseVotestoProhibitSatelliteExportstoChina,"TheNewYorkTimes,21May1998,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1,2May1998
AccordingtoaCIAreport,13ofChinas18CSS4longrangestrategicmissilesarearmedwithnuclearwarheads
andtargetingUScities.ThereportstatesthatthisconfigurationindicatesthatChinaregardstheUSasits"major
strategicadversary."Ona2MayCNNprogram,DefenseSecretaryWilliamS.Cohenrespondsbysayingthatthe
Chinesemissilethreatwasnotamajorconcern,andexpressedconfidenceinSinoUSrelationsandtheUSnuclear
deterrent.
BillGertz,"ChinaTargetsNukesatUS;CIAMissileReportContradictsClinton,"TheWashingtonTimes,1May
1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;JoyceHowardPrice,"CohenNotBotheredbyChinasMissiles;Plentyof
AbilitytoRetaliate,"TheWashingtonTimes,3May,1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

13April1998
TheNewYorkTimesreferencesanunreleased1997PentagonreportstatingthattwoUScompanies,Hughes
ElectronicsandLoralSpaceandCommunications,hadsharedadvancedmissileguidancetechnologywithChina
thatsignificantlyaidedtheguidanceandcontrolaspectsofitslongrangemissileprogram.Theinformationhad
beengivenwhilesearchingforatechnicalproblemthatcausedaChineseboostedLoralsatellitetoexplodeduring
takeofffromaChineselaunchsitein1996.Thereportconcludedthatbecauseofthetransfer,"USnational
securityhasbeenharmed."
JeffGerth,"USBusinessRoleinPolicyonChinaisUnderQuestion,"TheNewYorkTimes,13April,1998,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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7April1998
TheRussiancompanyProgressstartsproductionofabout503M80EMoskit(Sunburn)antishipcruisemissilesfor
saletoChina.ARussiandefensesectorofficialstatesthatthemissiles,alongwithtwoSovremennyclass
destroyers,areexpectedtobedeliveredinlate1999.AccordingtoretiredUSNavyrearadmiralEricMcVadon,the
weaponsrepresenttechnologyan"orderofmagnitude"superiortoTaiwanscurrentcapabilities.
"RussianFirmStartsTurningoutMissilesforChina,"ITARTASSNewsAgency,7April1998,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

27March1998
USPentagonofficialsannouncethatChinaisdevelopinganewshortrangemissilecalledtheCSSX7(DongFeng
11),anuclearcapabletwostagesolidpropellantmissilewitharangegreaterthan185miles.
BillGertz,"PentagonConfirmsDetailsonIranianMissiles;Russia,ChinaProvidedTechnology,"TheWashington
Times,27March1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

12March1998
AleakedintelligencememostatesthattheClintonadministrationplanstoofferChinaadvancedmissile
technology,expandedcommercialandscientificspacecooperation,andsupportfortheirbidtoenterintothe
MissileTechnologyControlRegime(MTCR).Inexchange,Chinawouldagreetoprovideassurancesthatitwillnot
tohelpPakistanandIranwiththeirmissiledevelopmentprograms.Thedealwouldwaivesanctionsimposedfor
humanrightsviolationsfromthe1989TiananmenSquareincident.Proponentsofthedealsaythatitwouldhelp
curbweaponsproliferationandencouragecommercialtiesbetweentheUSandChina,butcriticspointtoChinas
previousviolationsofMTCRrules,whichithadpledgedtofollowinthepast.
TimWeiner,"USWeighsDealtoHaltMissileGearSalestoChina,"TheNewYorkTimes,19March,1998,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;TomRhodes,JamesPringle,"USOffersChinaMissileAidinReturnforArms
ExportCurb,"TheTimes,19March1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

20January1998
DuringameetingbetweenChinesePresidentJiangZeminandDefenseSecretaryWilliamS.CoheninBeijing,Jiang
givesconcreteassurancesthatChinawillstopsalesofC802andC801antishipcruisemissilestoIran.Cohen,
whopressedfortheassurances,saysthiswillhelpassurethesecurityofUSshipsinthePersianGulf.The
assurancescomeinthewakeofUScongressionalpressureforPresidentClintontotakeafirmerstanceonthe
issueofChineseweaponsproliferation,andapreviousUSChinasummitagreementtohaltthemissileexports.
BillGertz,"ChinatoHaltMissileSalestoIran;CohenCounterpartBacksUpPromiseMadeatSummit,"
WashingtonTimes,20January,1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;BillGertz,"ChinesePresidentVowsto
HaltMissilestoIran,"WashingtonTimes,21January,1998,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1997
10December1997
AnarticleinFlightInternationalsaysthatRussiaisworkingtogetherwithChinatodevelopavariantoftheZvezda
StrelaKh31P(AS17Krypton)antiradiationmissileknownastheKR1.AccordingtothearticletheRussiantactical
missiledesignhousehasalreadygivenChinaasmallnumberofthemissilesandthattheseKR1missilesmayin
factbethesameastheChineseYJ91cruisemissiles.
"RussiaandChinaCombineonKR1,FlightInternational,10December1997,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.


25November1997
TheRussianItarTassNewsAgencyquotesRussiantheChiefNavalStaffassayingthatfourdestroyerswhichRussia
planstoselltoChinamaybeequippedwithstateoftheart"Yakhont"missilescapableofdestroyingaircraft
carriersandothersurfacewarships.ItarTassgoesontosay"nonavyintheworldhasthemeanstocombatthis
missile."
"RussianDestroyersBuiltforChinaMayCarryNewMissile,"JapanEconomicNewswire,25November1997,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

23October1997
U.S.DepartmentofDefenseSpokesmanKennethBacontellsreportersthatChinahas"asmallnumberof
intercontinentalballisticmissilesthatareprobablycapableofreachingtheUnitedStates."
"ChineseMissilesCouldHitU.S.,PentagonSays,JapanEconomicNewswire,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

18October1997
TheNewYorkTimesreportsthatChineseForeignMinisterQianQichenhaspromisedU.S.SecretaryofState
MadelineAlbrightthatChinawillstopsellingC801andC802cruisemissilestoIranatameetingthattookplacein
advanceofsummittotakeplacebetweenChinesePresidentJiangZeminandU.S.PresidentBillClinton.
StevenErlanger,"U.S.SaysChinesewillStopSendingMissilestoIran,"NewYorkTimes,18October1997,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

23September1997
AgroupofAmericanproliferationspecialists,includingformerscienceadvisortoPresidentReaganandNational
DefenseUniversityresearcherSethCarustellaSenatesubcommitteethatolderU.S.missiletechnologyisreadily
availabletopotentialproliferatorsthroughdeclassifiedfiles,informationontheinternetandmilitarysurplus
dealers.CarusidentifiesChinaasaparticularproblemsinceBeijinghasbothtakenconsiderableadvantageofU.S.
surplusmilitarytechnologytoenhanceitsownarsenalandhasreadilysolditsowntechnologyothercountries
suchasPakistan.
BillGertz,"BallisticMissileswithinEasyReachforManyNations;Internet,SurplusSalesLowerBarriers,"
WashingtonTimes,23September1997,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

10July1997
AccordingtotheWashingtonTimesaclassifiedPentagonreportsaysthatChinaisupgradingitsintermediate
rangeballisticmissilenuclearforcethatisdesignedtohittargetsinRussiaandthroughoutEastAsia,including
India,TaiwanandJapan.
BillGertz,"NewChineseMissilesTargetAllofEastAsia",WashingtonTimes,10July1997,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

9July1997
AccordingtoIndiasPioneernewspaperIndianintelligencereportsindicatethatChinaissellingM11missilesto
PakistanandthatIslamabadisusingthetechnologytobuilditsownmediumrangeballisticmissiles.Aspokesman
forthePakistaniMinistryofForeignAffairsdeclinedtocommentontheIndiannewspaperreport.
Pakistan"MakingNuclearWarheadswithChineseHelp,"DeustchPresseAgentur,9July1997,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com;"PakistanWithholdsCommentonNukeWarheadsDevelopmentReports,"DeutschePresse
Agentur,9July1997,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

31May1997
TheU.S.StateDepartmentissuesa25pageunclassifieddocumenttoCongressofficiallystatingthatitbelieves
ChinahassoldC802shipbasedantishipcruisemissilestoIran.Thereportwasissuedtoinorderrespondtoa
numberofquestionsthatNewYorkRepublicanCongressmanGeraldB.H.SolomonaskedSecretaryofState
MadelineAlbrightinFebruary.ThereportalsosaysthatChina"hasadvertised"alandbasedversionoftheC802
butdoesnotexplicitlyconfirmwhetherBeijingactuallytransferredthemissiletoIran.
ThomasW.Lippman,"U.S.ConfirmsChinaMissileSaletoIran,"WashingtonPost,31May1997,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

1996
29October1996
TaiwanesenewspaperTzuliWanPaosaysthattheTaipeismilitaryintelligenceestimatesthatChinawouldbegin
massproducingitslongrangeDF31ballisticmissilethefollowingyearandwilldeploythemissilebytheyear
2000.
"MainlandPlansforDongfeng31MissileProductionViewed,"TaipeiTzuliWanPao,29October1996,OSC
DocumentIDFTS19961029000157.

23July1996
ACIAsourcetellstheWashingtonTimesofanagencyclassifiedreportthatstatesthattheChinaPrecision
MachineryImportExportCorp.(CPMIE),deliveredmissilerelatedcomponentstoSyriainearlyJune1996.The
reportsaystheCPMIEmadethedeliverytoScientificStudiesandResearchCenter,aSyriancompanythatworks
onballisticmissiles,weaponsofmassdestructionandadvancedconventionalarmsprograms.
"ChinasArsenalGetsaRussianBoost;DealforICBMTechnologytoU.S.,ClassifiedPentagonReportSays,"
WashingtonTimes,20May1996,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

2021May1996
AWashingtonTimesarticlestatesthatthereisasecretDefenseIntelligenceAgencyreportwhichpositsthatChina,
pretendingtobuyspacelaunchers,isactuallyreceivingtechnologyandpartsfromRussiasSS18intercontinental
ballisticmissiletechnology.ThereportsaysthatthetechnologyisflowingtoChinaoutsideofofficialRussian
controls.ThenextdayU.S.SecretaryofDefenseWilliamPerrysaysthatWashingtonwarnedbothRussiaandthe
Ukrainethatit"wouldbesignificantmistake"iftheysoldtheSS18missiletechnologytoChina.
"ChinasArsenalGetsaRussianBoost;DealforICBMTechnologytoU.S.,classifiedPentagonReportSays,"
WashingtonTimes,20May1996,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com."U.S.WarnsRussia,UkraineonChinese
MissileRequests,"DeutschePresseAgentur,21May1996,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

2May1996
AnunnamedBeijingsourcetellstheHongKongnewspaperSingTaoJihPaothatChinanolongerkeepsitsmissile
basesatfixedlocationsandhasanArmypeoplejointsystemwherebythemilitaryworkswithlocalpoliceto
ensurethesecrecyofthemissileslocations.
"MainlandChinaReassessesMilitaryExercises,TakesPrecautionsAgainstLeaksofMilitarySecrets,"SingTaoJih
Pao,in"MainlandSeekstoControlLeaksofMilitarySecrets,"OSCDocumentIDFTS19960502000147.

22March1996
ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanShenGuofangcallsWashingtonssaleofStingerantiaircraftmissilesto

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
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Taiwan"irresponsible".
TanTarnHow,"ChinaSlamsU.S.DecisiontoSellMissilestoTaiwan,"StraitsTimes(Singapore),22March1995,
inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

815March1996
ChinatestsfourM9ballisticmissileswhosenorthwestTaiwanStraittargetzoneswerewithinafewdozenmilesof
Kaohiung,TaiwanslargestportandnorthernKeelungharbor.ThetestscomelessthantwoweeksbeforeTaiwans
firstdirectpresidentialelectionon23MarchandarewidelythoughttobeanattemptbyBeijingtodiscourage
votersfromsupportingcandidateswhoChinabelievehaveaproindependenceagendasuchasTaiwanese
PresidentLeeTenghui.
PatrickE.Tyler,"ChinaSaysManeuverswillLastThroughTaiwansElections,"NewYorkTimes,16March1996,
inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;ChooLiMeng,"ChinasFourthMissileLandsWestofKaohsiung:Taiwan,"
StraitsTimes(Singapore),14March1996,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1995
24December1995
TheTaiwanTimesreportsthatChinaperformedthreemoreTaiwanStraitmissiletestson21December.Thistime
however,BeijingfiredthemissilesundetectedovertheislandofTaiwan,whereasprevioustestshadbeen
conductedtothenorthoftheRepublicofChina.
ChinaHoldsMoreMissileTests,TaiwanTimesReports,DeutschePresseAgentur,24December1995,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com;HoYuenHua,"ChinaFires3MissilesOverTaiwan,SaysReport,"StraitsTimes,25
December1995,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1525August1995
ChinaconductsanotherseriesofmissiletestsbelievedtobeareactiontoTaiwanesePresidentLeeTenghuisMay
visittotheUnitedStatesandtohiscallforTaiwantobeaccordedmembershiptotheUnitedNations.
"ChinaConcludesMissileTestsoffTaiwan,"DeutschePresseAgentur,25August1995,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

2127July1995
ChinaconductsaseriesofmissiletestsbelievedtoincludeasmanyassevenMclassandDongfengclassshortand
intermediaterangeballisticmissileswithintheTaiwanStrait.On27JulyChinasXinhuaNewsagencyannounces
thatBeijinghadcompleteditsmissile"training."
DennisEngbarth,ChinaEndsMissileTestsEarly,SouthChinaMorningPost(HongKong),27July1995,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com;"ChinaFiresTwoMoreMissiles,"DeutschePresseAgentur,25July1995,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

22June1995
AccordingtoaNewYorkTimesarticlearecentlyfinishedCIAreportsaysthatChinadelivereddozens,oreven
hundredsofguidancesystemsandcomputerizedmachinetoolstoIran.TheCIAreportgoesontosaythatBeijing
alsogavePakistanpartsthatcouldbeusedinbuildingM11ballisticmissilesoverthepastthreemonths.Chinese
ForeignMinistryspokesmanChenJiandeniestheallegationsandsaysthatChinawill"liveuptoitspromiseand
commitment."
ElaineSciolino,"C.I.A.ReportSaysChineseSentIranArmsComponents,"NewYorkTimes,22June1995,inLexis

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com;TonyWalkerandJurekMartin,"ChinaRejectsReportsofMissilePartsandSupply,"
FinancialTimes,23June1995,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

31May1995
JapaneseChiefCabinetSecretaryKozoIgarashisaysatanewsconferencethatTokyo"assume(s)thatChina
conductedanICBMexperimentattheendofMay."Igarashisstatementcomesinresponsetoaquestionabouta
SankeiShimbunreportclaimingthatChinatestedaDongfeng31missileon29May.
"ChinaTestsNewICBM,"YomiuriShimbun,1June1995,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;"ChinaTested
MobileMissilewithLongRange,JapanSays,"NewYorkTimes,31May1995,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

28May1995
AccordingtoXinhuaNewsAgencyChineseForeignMinistrySpokesmanShenGuofangsaysthatChinahas
cancelleditsmissiletechnologycontroltalkswiththeUnitedStatesinresponsetoWashingtons22Maydecision
toallowTaiwanesePresidentLeeTenghuitovisittheU.S.
"ChinaCancelsMissileControlTalkswithU.S.,"DeutschePresseAgentur,28May1995,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

23February1995
ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanChenJianstatesthattheChinaopposesaU.S.Japanesejointmissiledefense
projectandbelievesitcould"triggeranewroundinthearmsracearoundtheworld."Earlierintheweekon21
FebruaryU.S.PentagonspokesmanKennethBaconinsistedthatthemissiledefensesystemwas"notaimedat
China."
"ChinaWarnsAgainstJointU.S.JapaneseMissileDefenceProject",DeutschePresseAgentur,23February1995,
inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;"U.S.SaysAsianMissileDefenceSystemNotDirectedatChina,"Deutsche
PresseAgentur,22February1995,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1994
30November1994
ChinaconcludesitssecondmajorarmsdealunderwhichU.S.$400millionworthofmilitaryequipmentwassoldto
Myanmar(Burma).Thefirstagreement,aninitialdefensepackageworthU.S.$1.2billion,includedarmored
vehicles,trucks,rocketlaunchers,antiaircraftartillery,andsurfacetoairmissiles.
BertilLintner,"$400MDealSignedbyChinaandMyanmar,"Jane'sDefenceWeekly,3December1994;"Burma
Orders400milliondollarsinChineseArmsJane's,"AgenceFrancePresse,30November1994,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

30November1994
ChinalaunchestheDongfanghong3(DFH3)satellite.Thesatellitewaslostinsubgeosynchronousorbitafter
Chineseofficialsuseditspropulsionsystemwhentheapogeekickstagefailed.
FederationofAmericanScientists'WorldSpaceGuide,"ChinaandCommunicationsSystemsDFH3",
www.fas.org;"ChinaHasLost,"AviationWeekandSpaceTechnology,16January1995,p.16,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com;"ChinaSuccessfullyLaunchesNo.3DongfanghongTelecommunicationsSatellite,"British
BroadcastingCorporation(BBC),1December1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

6November1994
AccordingtoareportissuedbyZhengmingmagazine,bannedfrompublicationsincethesummerof1994,China's
limitednucleararsenalisaimedatbigcitiesinenemycountries.ThemagazinequotedHeZhaxiu,aprofessorat
theChineseAcademyofSciences,whosaidthatthese"softtargets"wouldbedifficulttodefendastheyare
concentratedpopulationcentersofeconomyandordinarymilitarypower.He,theformersecretarytoQian
Xuesen,honorarychairmanoftheChinaAssociationforScienceandTechnologyandknownasthe"fatherof
NuclearMissileDevelopment,tookpartinformulatingthenuclearstrategybutwouldnotrevealhowmany
nuclearweaponsChinahasinitsarsenal.
"ChinaAimsNukesatBigCityEnemies,MagazineSays,"JapanEconomicNewswire,6November,1994,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1November1994
TheUnitedStateswaivesthe24August1993missilesanctionsagainstChina'sMinistryofAerospaceIndustry
(MAI)fornationalsecurityreasons.U.S.UndersecretaryofStateLynnDavisissuesadeterminationthatwaivesthe
sanctionsagainst9ChinesefirmsidentifiedassubsidiariesofMAI.ThesanctionsagainstthePakistaniMinistryof
Defense,however,remaininplaceandaresettoexpireinAugust1995.
DianneE.Rennack,"China:USEconomicSanctions,"CRSReportforCongress,1July1996,p.31;"TheCredibility
ofChina'sNonproliferationPledgesAndUnitedStatesSanctions:19841996,"compiledbytheminoritystaff,
SenateGovernmentalAffairsCommittee,Summer1996;"USNonproliferationSanctionsAgainstChinaand/or
ChineseEntities,"31July2003,NuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.

18October1994
InthefirstvisittoBeijingbyaU.S.DefenseSecretarysincethe1989Tiananmencrackdown,SecretaryWilliamJ.
PerryencouragesChinatobemoreopenaboutitsdefensebudgetandstrategicplanning.HestatesthatChina's
strengtheningofitsarmedforcespairedwithsecrecyhasledmanynationstobesuspiciousofChina,butthe
tensioncouldbeeasedwithamoretransparentdefensebudget.PerryalsosaidthatChinaneedstorestrainits
saleofmissilesandotherformsofmilitarytechnology,citingthatthearmsracebetweenIndiaandPakistancould
leadtoanuclearconflictalongChina'ssouthernborder.Aspartofareciprocalexchangeofinformation,Perry's
aidesconfirmthatChinaiswillingtosenddefenseofficialstothePentagontoreviewtheirmilitaryplansuntilthe
year2000.
MichaelR.Gordon,"U.S.toChina:BeMoreOpenonArmsPlan,"NewYorkTimes,18October1994,p.14,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

12October1994
Accordingto"TheMilitaryBalance,"anannualreportissuedbytheInternationalInstituteforStrategicStudies
(IISS),Chinaisdeveloping"anumberofnewnuclearweapons."ThereportstatesthatChinahasconductedtwo
nucleartestsinthepast12monthsandthatitistheonlynationonearthtohavedonesoduringthistimeperiod.
[TheOctober8thtestingwasconductedaftertheIISSreporthadbeenprinted.]Thereportstatesthatthe
"differencesinyieldstestedsuggestthatanumberofnewweaponsarebeingdeveloped."Thefirstmissilebeing
developedisadualpurposemissilecapableofbothsubmarine(JL2)andgroundlaunches(DF31).Bothhavean
estimatedrangeof8,000kilometers(5,000miles).Thesecondmissile,DF41,isestimatedtohavea12,000
kilometer(7,500mile)range.Whileallthreemissileshavesolidfuelpropulsion,onlytheDF31andDF41canbe
firedfrommobilelaunchers.TheDF41isexpectedtobeinservicebytheyear2000;however,noreportsconfirm
asubmarinedevelopmentforthelaunchingoftheJL2.IISSanalystColonelAndrewDuncansaysthatvirtuallyany
missilehasthepowertobedualpurposeinbothconventionalandnuclearcapabilities.ColonelDuncanmaintains
thatthereis"notsufficientinformationavailabletoknowtheChineseplan."

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

InternationalInstituteforStrategicStudies(IISS),MilitaryBalance19941995,(London,UnitedKingdom:
Brassey'sLtd.,1994),p.165,"ChinaDevelopingNewNuclearWeapons:IISS,"AgenceFrancePresse,12October
1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

8October1994
Chinacontinuestestinganewsetofballisticmissilewarheads.Thetest,similartotheoneinJune,entails
explodinganucleardeviceunderneaththedesertattheLopNortestingsite.OneChinesescientistdefendsthe
testbystatingthatifChinaobeystheinternationalrequesttostoptestingnuclearweapons,thenitmeansChina
wouldhavetocancelitsballisticmissileprogramwithoutdevelopingitssecondgenerationballisticmissiles.
PatrickE.Tyler,"ChineseTestAtomicBombUnderground,"NewYorkTimes,8October1994,p.3,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

6October1994
StevenD.Dorfman,presidentofHughes'TelecommunicationsandSpaceSector,saysthatwhiletheliftingofU.S.
imposedsanctionsontheexportofadvancedsatellitecomponentstoChinais"astepintherightdirection,"the
damagetheycausedis"irreparable."Dorfmanalsostatesthathiscompanyhaslostinvestmentsopportunitiesin
ChinatootherforeigninvestorssuchasGermany.BeforetheUnitedStatesplacedsanctionsonChina,Hugheswas
intheprocessofnegotiatingadealthatwouldhavegiventhemanedgeinChina'sburgeoningsatellitemarket.
"Wearedeterminedthatsatelliteswouldbecomeapurelycommercialentity,"hesays."Satellitesarenot
weapons,theydonotbelongonthemunitionscontrollist."
"DamagefromChinaSanctions'Irreparable,'HughesExecSays,"AerospaceDaily,7October1994,p.33,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

4October1994
ChinafurtherclarifiesthenatureofitsadherencetotheMTCRinajointstatementwiththeUnitedStates.China
agreestoworktogetherwiththeUnitedStatestopromotethenonproliferationofmissiles,andtopromoteaban
ontheproductionoffissilematerialsfornuclearweaponsorothernuclearexplosivedevices.Itlaterincluded
thoseverbalassurancesinaFebruary1992lettertotheBushadministration.Theletteriscurrentlyclassified.In
thatdocument,Chinamakestwokeycommitments.First,Chinaagreestocompletelybantheexportofgroundto
groundmissiles;thispledgegoesbeyondtheMTCR'srequirementswhichonlycallfora"strongpresumptionof
denial"forsuchexports.Second,Chinaagreestotheconceptofinherentcapability,whichstatesthatthemissile
wouldbeincludedinthebanifitcouldgeneratesufficientenergytodelivera500kgpayloadatleast300km,
regardlessofitsdemonstratedoradvertisedcombinationofrangeandpayload.Thissecondcommitmentfrom
ChinaisespeciallyimportantbecauseitwasaimedatpreventingtheexportofmissilesthatcouldviolatetheMTCR
iftheirrangeandpayloadwereadjusted.Forexample,ChinaarguedinthepastthatitsM11missileexportsto
PakistandidnotviolatetheMTCRbecausetherangeandpayloadofthemissile(290km/800kg)donotstrictly
meettheMTCRparametersof300km/500kg.
"JointUnitedStatesPeople'sRepublicofChinaStatementonMissileProliferation,JointUnitedStatesPeople's
RepublicofChinaStatementonStoppingProductionofFissileMaterialsforNuclearWeapons,"4October1994,
NuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.

4October1994
The"JointStatementonMissileNonproliferation,"issignedbytheUnitedStatesandChina.Aspartofthedealto
secureChina'ssignature,theUnitedStatesannouncestheliftingoftheAugust1993sanctionsonChineseentities.
Uponsigningthestatement,U.S.SecretaryofStateWarrenChristopherstates:"theUnitedStateswillmovetolift
thesanctionsitimposedagainstChinainAugust1993fortransferringmissilepartstoPakistan.Oncethesanctions

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

arelifted,Chinahasagreednottoexportgroundtogroundmissilescoveredbytheagreement.Ineffect,this
communiqutodaygoesbeyondtheMTCRrequirements.ItrepresentsaglobalandverifiablebanonChinese
exportsofmissilescapableofarangeofatleast300kilometersandapayloadofatleast500kilograms.Thisisa
veryimportantstepforward,andIurgeyounottoletthecomplexityofitblindyoutotheachievementthat
resultedheretoday.ThisagreementalsoresolvesapreviousdifferenceofopinionbetweentheUnitedStatesand
ChinaontheinterpretationoftheMTCR.Underthetermsofthisagreement,ChinaacceptstheMTCRdefinitionof
amissile'sinherentcapability.Thatmeansthatanymissilethathastheinherentcapabilitytobemodifiedtomeet
theMTCRthresholdsisalsounderthecontroloftheregime.Bothofourcountrieshavereaffirmedourrespective
commitmentstotheMTCRguidelinesanditsparameters.Asasecondstepinthisregard,theUnitedStatesand
ChinaalsohaveagreedtoholdfurtherindepthdiscussionsontheMTCR,includingdiscussionofChina'spossible
MTCRmembershipinthenearfuture."
"TheCredibilityofChina'sNonproliferationPledgesandUnitedStatesSanctions:19841996,"compiledbythe
minoritystaff,SenateGovernmentalAffairsCommittee,Summer1996.

7September1994
AccordingtoaU.S.Navycommander,IranisacquiringfourorfiveChinesemissileboatsasameanstoupdatetheir
military.ViceAdmiralDouglasJ.Katzsaysthatthe114footlongHugongmissileboatsarecapableofcarryinganti
shipmissiles,thoughtheyhaven'tyetbeenequippedwithsuchmissiles.Westernmilitarysourcesarealso
speculatingthatIranmaypurchasealargermissilecraftfromBeijing.
NabilaMegalli,"IranNowHasChineseMissileBoats,U.S.CommanderSays,"AssociatedPress,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

3September1994
InthefirstvisittoRussiabyaChinesepresidentin37years,JiangZeminandBorisYeltsindiscussedthere
targetingofRussianandChinesenuclearmissilesawayfromtheirrespectivecountries.Thevisit,saysMikhailBely,
headoftheAsiadepartmentinRussia'sforeignministry,is"proofoftherecentdeepeninginpoliticaland
economictiesbetweenRussiaandChina."Thetwoalsosignjointdocumentsonavoidingnuclearwarsand
enhancingoverallbilateralties.
"ChinaandRussiaAgreetoCeaseAimingMissilesateachother,"AgenceFrancePresse,23August1994,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com,"YeltsinConferswithChineseLeaderonRetargetingMissiles,"DeutschePresse
Argentur,3September1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;"Russia,ChinaSignJointStatementstoBoost
Ties,"JapanEconomicNewswire,3September1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

28August1994
China'sLongMarch2E(CZ2E)rocketlaunchestheOptusB3satellitebuiltbyHughes.Thecommunications
satelliteisownedbyAustralia'sOptusCommunicationsLtd.TheOptusB3,inconjunctionwiththeOptusB1,will
provideAustraliaandNewZealandwithdata,telephone,television,andothertelecommunicationservicesonceit
reachesitsorbitalstation.
JapanEconomicNewswire,28August1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;"ChinagetsAustralia'sHughes
builtOptusB3offtheGroundatlast,"AerospaceDaily,30August1994,p.336,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

21July1994
China'sLongMarch3(CZ3)rocketlaunchestheApStar1satellitebuiltbytheU.S.basedHughesCorporation.The
HongKongbasedAsiaPacificTelecommunicationsSatelliteCompany,aconsortiumofChinesebackedcompanies,
operatesthesatellite.
"ApstarLaunched,"FlightInternational,27July1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.


13July1994
PresidentClintonwaivessanctionsfortheEchostarsatellite'sexportforlaunchfromChina.
ShirleyA.Kan,"China:PossibleMissileTechnologyTransfersfromU.S.SatelliteExportPolicyActionsand
Chronology,"CRSReportforCongress,5September2001,p.44.

12July1994
RussianDefenceMinisterPavelGrachevandChineseDefenceMinisterChiHaotiansignanagreementinMoscow
topreventmilitaryclashesalongtheirborder.Intheagreement,bothcountriesvowtousediplomaticaction,
ratherthanviolence,toresolveconflictssuchasmaneuvers,accidentalmissilefirings,andunintendedfrontier
violations.
"Russia,ChinaSignAccordtoPreventBorderClashes,"AgenceFrancePresse,12July1994,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

10June1994
Chinaconductsits40thnucleartest.Thetestdoesnotincreasetheirnuclearcapabilities,butratherservesasway
todevelopsmaller,higherexplosiveyield,andmoreaccuratewarheadsforthedevelopmentofasetofmore
advanced"secondgeneration"ballisticmissiles.
EvanS.Medeiros,"UseChina'sBombTesttoStartNewTalks,"ChristianScienceMonitor,21June1994,p.19,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

26April1994
RussiahasgivenChinaalistof44advancedweaponsforreferenceinpurchasingweapons,accordingtoRussia's
GeneralStaffHeadquarters.ArepresentativefromRussia'sMinistryofForeignEconomicRelations,identifiedas
Atonchev,saysthat"accordingtothelateststatistics,Russiaowes1.5bndollarstomainlandChina,ofwhich1bn
dollarsisloansand500mresultsfromthechangeintheformofclearingforeignexchange.TheRussian
governmentofferedtopayoffthedebtswithweapons.RussianPremierViktorChernomyrdinwilldiscussthe
matterwiththemainlandhierarchyduringhisvisittoBeijinginlateMay."Onthelistarefivekindsofnewfighters:
TheSukhoiSu27andSu30,theMig29andMig31,andtheTu22M3andthe"Arrow"10Mand"Needle"air
defensemissilesystems.TheGeneralStaffHeadquartersstressedthattheweaponstheyselltoChinaaremainly
defensive.Thelistdoesnotincludestrategicweaponssuchasrocketsandnuclearweapons,theysay.
"RussiaReportedlyOfferstoPayDebttoChinawithMostModernWeapons,"BritishBroadcastingCorporation
(BBC),28April1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

25April1994
TheClintonadministrationissettoapprovetheAlliedSignalsaleoftheGarrettgasturbineengine.Some
nonproliferationspecialistsfeartheenginescouldbeusedtodevelopalongerrangecruisemissileabletohit
JapanorIndiawithpotentialnucleardeliverycapability.However,otherexpertsassertthattheGarrettengines
involveneithermilitarysecretsnorcuttingedgetechnology,andpointoutthatsuchenginesareeasilyavailableon
theinternationalmarketfromothersuppliers.
KevinFedarko,"ConfoundedbytheChinesePuzzle,"TimeMagazine,25April1994,p.39.

24March1994
TheBangladeshnavycarriesouttheirfirstexerciseintheBayofBengalbytestinganunspecifiednumberof
Chinesemissiles.Eachmissileisfiredfromoneoftwofrigatesandmissileboats,bothprovidedbyChina.Thetest
iscarriedoutinthepresenceofBangladeshiPrimeMinisterKhaledaZia.WhilethedefenceministryofBangladesh

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

issecretiveabouttheirweaponsarsenal,diplomaticsourcessaythatChinaisamajorsupplierofarmsto
Bangladesh.
RahmanJahangir,SaudiGazetteCorrespondent,"BangladeshTestsChineseMissilesinBayofBengal,"
Moneyclips(GCC)Ltd.,25March1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

17March1994
InabriefstatementissuedbyBeijing'sForeignMinistry,Chinadenieshavingtransferredadvancedmissile
technologytoNorthKorea.AnunnamedForeignMinistryspokesmancalledtheWallStreetJournal'sreportonthe
transferofChinesetechnologytoNorthKorea"totallygroundless."
"ChinaDeniesTransfer,"Jane'sDefenceWeekly,26March1994;"DeniesProvidingMissileTechnologyto
DPRK,"XinhuaNewsAgency,17March1994;"ChinaDeniesGivingNorthKoreaMissileTechnology,"UnitedPress
International,17March1994.

15March1994
TheU.S.DefenseIntelligenceAgencyanalystsreportthattheysuspectChinahasbeenaidingNorthKoreabuilda
newlongrangemissile,citingthediameterofthemissileasevidence.TheissuefurthercomplicatesChina'sMost
FavoredNationStatus,whichissetforCongressionalrenewalinJune.PresidentClintonhassaidhewillpush
Congresstorevoketheirstatusiftheyfailtoshowsignificantimprovementintheirhumanrightsrecord.The
NorthKoreanmissile,theTaepoDong2,hasadiametersimilartoChina'sCSS2missile(DF3),whichleadsofficials
tobelievethattheonlywayNorthKoreacouldbuildamissileofsuchproportionsisthrougheitherphysical
transferorwiththehelpofengineersfamiliarwiththeprogram.AnalystsattheCentralIntelligenceAgency
disagreeandquestionwhatwouldmotivateChinatotransferadvancedmissiletechnologytoNorthKorea.
ThomasE.RicksandJackieCalmes,"ReportsthatChinaaidedNorthKoreaonMissilesComplicatesTradeIssue,"
WallStreetJournal,15March1994,p.A3inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1114March1994
ThevisitofU.S.StateDepartmentofficialstoChinafailstobreaktheimpasseinthenegotiationstogetChinato
signtheMTCR.TheU.S.offerstoliftthesanctionsonChina,whichwereimposedon25August1993forsellingM
11missilestoPakistan,ifChinaformallysignstheMTCRandcomestoanunderstandingconcerningfutureChinese
missileandmissiletechnologytransferstoPakistan.ChinawantstheUnitedStatestoremovethesanctionsbefore
itsignstheMTCR,andsaidthatitalreadyabidesbytheMTCR.Inasubsequentstatement,U.S.Undersecretaryof
StateforInternationalSecurityLynnDavisstatedthattheUnitedStatesiscloselywatchingChinaandiswillingto
imposestrictersanctionsifChinastepsoutofline.
InsidethePentagon,24March1994.pp.910;DefenseDaily,23March1994,p.436;"U.S.toContinue
SanctionsAgainstChina,"ArmsControlToday,April1994,p.28.

7March1994
U.S.SecretaryofStateWarrenChristopherannouncesinCanberra,Australia,thattheClintonadministrationis
liftingthebantoallow$1billionworthofsatellitelaunchesbyChina'sLongMarchboostersafterHughes
CorporationagreedtoremoveasensitivedecryptionchipfromtheirOptusB3communicationssatellite.OptusB3,
aHughesHS601,wasbuiltfortheAustralianNationalSatelliteSystem(Aussat)andisareplacementfortheOptus
B2,whichwasdestroyedinaLongMarch2EaccidentlastDecember.CraigEllevsen,anAussatofficial,saysthathis
companydidnotrealizethatthechipwastheonlyholdupinthespacecraft'slaunchandthatthesatellitedoes
notneedthechipinordertofunction.EllevsenmaintainsthatthechipwasbuiltinHughes'questforongoing
productdevelopmentandthatAussatneverwantedit.Transferringthechip,whichfunctionstoguardthe
satellitessteeringcontrols,isaviolationofMTCRguidelinesandisautomaticallyblockedbytheStateDepartment.

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TheremovalofthechipshiftstheauthoritytoapprovethesatellitefromtheStateDepartmenttotheCommerce
Department.
MichaelMechamandMichaelA.Dornheim,"ChipRemovalClearsWayforChineseLaunches,"AviationWeek
andSpaceTechnology,14March1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com;ElaineSciolino,"U.S.MovestoEase
BeijingSanctions,"NewYorkTimes,8March1994,p.8,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

8February1994
ChinasuccessfullylaunchestwosatelliteswiththenewLongMarch3A(CZ3A),anewlydevelopedrocketdesigned
toliftheavierloads.Itiscapableoflaunchinga2.5tonsatellitebeyondthe1.4toncapabilityofthestandardLong
March3(CZ3)model.LongLehao,vicepresidentoftheChinaAcademyofRocketCarrierTechnologyandgeneral
architectoftheLongMarch3A,saidthatthelaunchmarks"anewstageinthedevelopmentofChina'srocket
technology."
"SpaceProgrammeDirectorCommentsonChineseRocketLaunch,"BritishBroadcastingCorporation,2March
1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com,PeterNordahl,"Events,"ChristianScienceMonitor,9February1994,p.
24,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1February1994
MilitarytiesbetweenChinaandRussiaareintroubleduetoadisputeoverthesaleofadvancedfighteraircraftsby
MoscowtoBeijing.AsRussiaisoneofChina'sbiggestsuppliersofarmsanddefensetechnology,thedisputestands
toharmChina'smodernizationoftheirweaponsarsenal.Thedisputeisregardingthepurchaseofasecondbatch
ofRussianSu27fighteraircraftsbyChina'sairforce.Chinahadpurchased26Su27stwoyearsago,andBeijing
baseddiplomatswereundertheimpressionthattheyweretopurchase24more.Undertheagreement,Russia
begantobuildtheaircrafts.Butnow,ChinesemilitaryofficialshavetoldRussiathattheyareonlyinterestedin
purchasingtheproductionrightsandtechnologytoproducetheSu27s,whichRussiafindstobedetrimentalto
theirownsecurityandcommercialinterests.ThedisagreementcouldaffectotherdealsthatChinaandRussiaare
negotiating,suchasChina'spurchaseofsurfacetoairmissiles.
"StalledJetDealThreatensSinoRussianTies,"CentralNewsAgencyTaiwan,1February1994,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

27January1994
Chinaisreplacingnuclearwarheadsonintermediaterangeballisticmissiles(IRBMs)withconventionalloads.
Accordingtomilitarysources,theDongFeng21(DF21)isbeingreconfiguredtobetterprepareChinaintheevent
ofalimitedlocalwar.
"ChinaSwitchesIRBMstoConventionalRole,"Jane'sDefenceWeekly,29January1994.

27January1994
MichaelMcCurry,aStateDepartmentspokesperson,saysthatafterthreedaysoftalksonnuclear
nonproliferation,theUnitedStatesandChinahavefailedtoreachanagreement.TheUnitedStatesfocusedonits
proposalofa"cutoffintheproductionoffissilematerialfornuclearweapons,"McCurrysays,whiletheChinese
sidefocusedonitsownproposalforatreatyamongthefivenuclearpowersforanagreementonnofirstuseof
nuclearweapons.Neithersideagreedoneitherproposal.Anotherproposaldiscussedatthetalkswasbilateral
agreementonmissilenonproliferation.Reachinganagreementonthispossibilitywouldpreventthetransferof
missilesandmissiletechnologytoPakistan,McCurrysays,however,negotiatingtheagreementwilltaketime,he
says.Atthesametime,ChinadisapprovedoftheU.S.decisiontodeployPatriotmissilesinSouthKorea.Ina
briefinginBeijing,ChineseforeignministryspokesmanWuJianmianexpresseshisdisapproval,statingthat"the
preservationofpeaceandstabilityontheKoreanPeninsulameetsthevitalinterestsoftheKoreannationand

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promotespeaceandsecurityinthisregion."HealsostatesthatChinafindstheactionstobedetrimentaltopeace
ontheKoreanPeninsula.
U.S.,ChinaFailtoAgreeonNonProliferation,"AgenceFrancePresse,27January1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com;VladimirFedoruk,"ChinaProtestsAgainstAmericanPatriotsinSouthKorea,"RussianInformation
AgencyITARTASS,27January1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

25January1994
JiuJiyuan,presidentoftheChinaAerospaceCorporation(CASC)andadministratoroftheChinaNationalSpace
Administration(CNSA),statesthatU.S.sanctionsimposedonChinainAugust1993fortheallegedNovember1992
saleofmissilepartstoPakistanarehurtingChina'sspaceprogram.AccordingtoJiu,theU.S.sanctionshavecaused
delaysinthedevelopmentoftheDongFangHong3(DFH3)satellite,lossoflaunchsales,andhavedamagedthe
reputationofChinesespaceorganizations.
AndrewLawler,SpaceNews,14February1994,pp.1,25.

18January1994
China'sstaterunGreatWallIndustrialCorporation(CGWIC)signsthecontracttolaunchitsfirstU.S.satellite.The
contractissignedwithHongKongbasedAsiaPacificSatelliteCommunicationsCo.,whowilllaunchaHughes
InternationalCorporationHS601satellite,theApstar2,intospaceaboardtheLongMarch2E(CZ2E)rocket.
Duringthesigningceremony,CGWICPresidentZhangTongcallsforaremovalofU.S.sanctionsonCGWICand
providinglicensestootherrelatedsatellites.Zhangstatesthatendingtheban"wouldnotonlybenefitsatellite
owners,butalsoprotecttheinterestsofU.S.satelliteproducers."
"ChinatoLaunchFirstU.S.SatellitesinceSanctionsLastYear,"UnitedPressInternational,19January1994,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

6January1994
TheClintonadministrationannouncesitissettoliftabanonthesaletoChinaoftheEchostarsatellite,worth$150
million,andanAsiasatIIsatellite,worth$55million.BothsatellitesarebuiltbyMartinMarietta.Inexchange,
Chinaagreestobegintalksonissuesregardingweaponsproliferation.TheU.S.governmenthasbeenunder
pressurefromtheU.S.businesslobbytoliftthesanctionsthatwereimposedonChinaduringthesummerof1993
becauseofChina'ssaleofM11missiletechnologytoPakistan.
BobDavisandRobertS.Greenberger,"ClintonSettoCutChinaTextileQuotas,LiftBanonSaleofSatellitesto
Beijing,"WallStreetJournal,6January1994,p.A2.

5January1994
TheJapanesenewspaperSankeiShimbunreportsthatChinahasdevelopeditsfirstintercontinentalballisticmissile
capableofreachingU.S.territory,citingU.S.militarysources.TheChinesedesignedmissilecouldbecapableof
carrying810independentlytargetednuclearmunitions.
AndrewVarlamov,"ChinaDevelopsaNewBallisticMissile,SankeiShimbun,"TheRussianInformationAgency
ITARTASS,5January1994,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1993
29December1993
PakistaniPrimeMinisterBenazirBhuttosaysthattheUnitedStates'standonChineseM11missilesalesto

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Pakistanisbasedon"erroneous"information.ShegoesontosaythatneitherPakistannorChinahadviolatedthe
MTCRintheirdealings.ThesecommentscomeontheheelsofavisitbyBhuttotoBeijing."ChinaandPakistan
havenotviolatedtheparametersoftheMTCRagreement.Andweregrettheimpositionofsanctions,"Bhutto
says.ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanWuJianminsaysthesanctionsthatresultedfromU.S.suspicionsofM
11missiletransferswere"entirelyunjustifiedandshouldbelifted."
SheilaTeft,"China,PakistanbandtogetherinoppositiontoUSsanctions,"ChristianScienceMonitor,30
December1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

22December1993
FlightInternationalreportsthatitislikelytheChineseareenlistingRussianscientiststohelpChinadevelopSS24
andSS25ICBMs.AccordingtoFlightInternational,"Themultipleindependentlytargetedreentryvehiclecapable
SS24,whichisrailmobileorsilobased,andthesinglewarheadroadmobileSS25havearangeofover10,000km
(5,400nm)andpinpointaccuracy.Bycomparison,theCSS4,themostsophisticatedChineselandbasednuclear
missile,hasarangeof11,000km,butissilobased,hasasinglewarheadanduncertainaccuracy."
"ChinausesRussianknowhowonICBM,"FlightInternational,22December1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

19November1993
TheUnitedStatesapprovesthesaleofasupercomputertoChina.Thesupercomputerhadbeenbarredfrombeing
tradedtoChinaasapartofthesanctionsleviedagainstChinainresponsetoM11missilesalestoPakistan.
"U.S.ApprovesSaleofSupercomputertoChina,"AgenceFrancePresse,19November1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

17November1993
ChinesePresidentJiangZeminsaysthatlinkingpoliticswithtradestatusisaColdWarrelicthatshouldbe
discarded.ThisstatementisinrelationtothreatsbytheU.S.CongresstolinkChina'sMFNstatustoitshuman
rightsandmissileproliferationrecords."U.S.Chinarelationsareatacrucialjuncture,Ihopethroughmymeeting
withPresidentClintonwewillenhanceourmutualunderstanding...toputSinoU.S.relationsonanormaltrackand
tohaveanewstart,"PresidentJiangsaid.
KathyWilhelm,"ChinesePresidentSaysLinkingPolitics,TradeisColdWarRelic,"AssociatedPress,17
November1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

17November1993
SecretaryofStateWarrenChristopher,attheopeningoftheAsianPacificEconomicCooperation(APEC)meeting,
citedU.S.sanctionsagainstChinaforM11missilesalestoPakistanasoneofseveralsituationsthatare
complicatingU.S.Chinarelations.ChristopheralsocitedhumanrightsproblemsandMFNstatusasotherthings
potentiallymakingtherelationshipmorecomplicated."Astable,prosperousChinaisinthelongterminterestof
theUnitedStates,(But)recentproblemshavecreatedtheriskofadownwardspiralinourrelationship,"
Christophersaid.
"U.S.warnsChina,NorthKoreaduringtradeforum,"UnitedPressInternational,17November1993,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

11November1993
TheClintonadministrationofferstolifttradesanctionsonChinaifBeijingpromisestoendlongrangemissilesales
toPakistan.ThesanctionswereoriginallyimposedbecauseofChinesesalesofM11ballisticmissilecomponents
toPakistan.AfterameetingbetweenChineseViceForeignMinisterLiuHuaqiuandU.S.UndersecretaryofState

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PeterTarnoff,oneofficialsaysabouttheChinese:"Theyshowedreceptivityforthefirsttime."
R.JefferySmith,DanielWilliams,"U.S.OfferstoWaiveChinaTradeSanctions;PledgeNottoExportM11
MissilesSought,"WashingtonPost,11November1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

20October1993
TheBBCreportsthatRussiansourceshaveconfirmedthatChinareceivedfivesetsofS300PMU1surfacetoair
missiles.TheS300PMU1'scapacitiesexceedthoseoftheU.S.madePatriot.Russianexpertsaretrainingthe
Chinesetousethemissiles.AccordingtotheRussianofficials,Chinaislikelytousethemissilesaspartofitsair
defensestrategy;featuresoftheS300PMU1described.
"Russiadelivers"advancedsurfacetoairintercept"missilestoChina,"BritishBroadcastingCorporation,28
October1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

21October1993
U.S.governmentofficialsrevealsuspicionsthatChinaisproducingamultiplenuclearwarheadoralightweightone
thatcouldbemountedonballisticmissiles(ICBM).TheseallegationsareinrelationtorecentreportsthatChina
hiredmorethan1,000formerSovietnuclearscientists.
MikioIkuma,"U.S.saysChinabuildingadvancednuclearwarheads,"DailyYomiuri,24October1993,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

14October1993
ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanWuJianmendeniesU.S.allegationsthatChinahaspurchasedU.S.based
weaponstechnologyfromIsrael.WuJianmendismissestheU.S.allegationsas"groundless."Thetechnologiesin
questionincludecomponentsforairtoairmissiletechnologyandotherarms.
"ChinadeniespurchasesofU.S.armstechnologyfromIsrael,"UnitedPressInternational,14October,1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

13October1993
TheLondonBasedInternationalInstituteforStrategicStudiesreleasesreportsayingChinahasmorethan100
landbasednuclearcapableballisticmissiles.Thisnumberis50percenthigherthanpreviousestimates.
DavidWhite,"Chinamissiletotalisrevisedupwards,"FinancialTimes,13October1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

12October1993
TheCIA,inawrittenreporttoCongress,accusesIsraelofsellingChinaadvancedmilitaryequipmentformorethan
adecade.Thereportsaysthatincludedamongstthatequipmentaremissilesandmissiletechnologies."Chinaand
Israelappeartobemovingforwardtoformalizingandbroadeningtheirmilitarytechnicalcooperation,"saysR.
JamesWoolsey,DirectorofCentralIntelligence.
MichaelR.Gordon,"IsraelSellingChinaMilitaryTechnology,CIAChiefAsserts,"NewYorkTimes,12October
1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

5October1993
ChinaconductsanundergroundnucleartestattheLopNortestingsite,inXinjiangProvince.U.S.officialsclaimthe
testwasdoneasapartofanattempttodevelopnewwarheadsformodernballisticmissiles.TheUnitedStates
claimsthatonlyabout10ofChina'smissileshavethecapabilitiestoreachAmerica,withtheotherslikelytargeting
RussiaandIndia.

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LenaH.Sun,"ChinaResumesNuclearTests;U.S.PreparestoFollowSuit,"WashingtonPost,6October1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3October1993
TheLondonbasedInternationalInstituteforStrategicStudiesreleasesreportsayingChinaremainsaleading
supplierofmilitaryhardwaretoAsianandMiddleEasterncountries.IncludedinthelistofhardwaretheIISSreport
claimsChinaissellingareballisticmissilessoldtoPakistan,Iran,IraqandSaudiArabia.
"Chinaunderfireforweapons'sales,"AgenceFrancePresse,3October1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

1October1993
TheUnitedStateswarnsChinathatChineseactionsandpoliciesonhumanrightsandarmsissuesisthreatening
China'sMFNstatus.TheU.S.citesChineseM11missilesalestoPakistanasoneoftheissueswithwhichtheyare
concerned.
ElaineSciolino,"U.S.WarnsBeijingasProblemGrows,"NewYorkTimes,1October1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

14September1993
JosephS.BermudeztestifiesbeforetheHouseSubcommitteeonInternationalSecurity,International
OrganizationsandHumanRights,thatChinaisworkingtoupgradeitsDongFengseriesofballisticmissilesystems.
BermudezsaystheDF25,DF31andDF41arebeingdevelopedandareexpectedtobeoperationalbytheendof
thedecade.Atthesamehearing,StephenD.BryenwarnsthatU.S.sanctionsimposedbecauseofChinese
violationsoftheMTCRwillnotbeeffectiveifU.S.alliesdonotimposethesamesanctions.Itisbelievedthat
NORINCOintendstomakelargescalepurchasesatanarmsshowinGermanyattheendofthemonth.
"Mainlandonweaponssellingspree,USmissileexpertsays,"CentralNewsAgency(Taiwan),15September
1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

27August1993
Chinathreatenstostopcomplyingwiththemissileexportcontrolsthatitisaccusedofviolating.ViceForeign
MinisterLiuHuaqiutellsAmbassadorJ.StapeltonRoy"TheU.S.side,ignoringtherepeatedclarificationsmadeby
thegovernmentsofChinaandPakistanandinvokingdomesticlegislation,haswillfullyimposedsanctionsagainst
sovereignstates...(putting)SinoU.S.relationsinseriousjeopardy."
"ChinaAccusesU.S.ofNakedHegemony,"JapanEconomicNewswire,27August1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

26August1993
ChinadenounceseconomicsanctionsimposedbytheU.S.governmentas"entirelyunjustified,"claimingthatthe
U.S.informationonwhichthesanctionsreliedwasbasedon"inaccurateinformation."ChineseForeignMinistry
spokesmanWuJianminsays"TheUnitedStatesinsistedonimposingsanctionsonChinaindisregardofChina's
repeatedstatement.Thisisentirelyunjustifiedandwearestronglyopposedtoit."
LenaH.Sun,"ChinaSaysU.S.SanctionsAre'Entirelyunjustified';BeijingDeniesArmsControlViolations"
WashingtonPost,26July1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

25August1993
TheClintonadministrationbarstheexportofsomehightechnologygoodstoChinaandPakistanaspunishment
forthesaleofChinesemissileequipmenttoPakistan.ThesanctionswillblockthesaleofU.S.satellitestoChina,

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withanestimatedcostofmorethan$500milliontoU.S.companies.StateDepartmentspokesmanMichael
McCurrysaysthatthereis"unambiguousevidence"thatChinadeliveredmissilerelatedtechnologyand
componentstoPakistanlastyear.
DanielWilliams,"U.S.PunishesChinaoverMissileSales,"WashingtonPost,25August1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

25August1993
PakistanForeignMinistryofficialsacknowledgethattheydidreceiveshortrangemissilesfromChina,butnothing
thatviolatedtheMTCR.Thespokesmansaysthatthemissileswere"tacticalshortrange"missiles,andthat
PakistanhadapproachedChinaaboutpurchasingthemin1980safterbeingattackedwithSCUDmissiles.
"PakistangotshortrangeChinesemissilesbutnoMTCRviolation:official,"AgenceFrancePresse,25August
1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

26July1993
U.S.SecretaryofStateWarrenChristopherdeliversamessagetoChineseForeignMinisterQianQichenwarning
himthatChinesemissilesalestoPakistaniscausingseriousconcerninWashingtonandmayleadtosanctionsif
Chinadoesnothaltsuchtransfers.Chinaconsistentlydismissesallegationsofmissilesalesas"groundless,"and
seniorU.S.officialssaythatChineseForeignMinisterQianQichen"wasconsistentinsayingthathisgovernment
hasnotviolateditspromise"tohonortheMTCR.
JohnM.GoshkoandWilliamBranigin,"U.S.WarnsChinaSanctionsforMissileExportstoPakistan,"Washington
Post,26July1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

26July1993
U.S.UndersecretaryofStateLynnDavismeetswithChineseDeputyForeignMinisterLiuHuaqiutodiscussM11
missilesalestoPakistan.Noneoftheofficialsinvolvedwiththediscussionscommentonthemafterthemeeting.
"ChiefU.S.ArmsNegotiatorDiscussesMissileSales,"JapanEconomicNewswire,26July1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

25July1993
WarrenChristophercallsforQianQichentoexplainChineseM11missileexportstoPakistan."There'sdisturbing
evidenceofmissileshipmentsandthat'swhyweneedanexplanation,"anofficialsaid.Ameetingbetweenthe
twoofthemfailedtosettlethequestionssurroundingU.S.allegationsofChinesemissilesalestoPakistan.
"U.S.WarnsChinaoverMissileSalestoPakistan,"Independent,26July1993,LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;
"U.S.ChinaMeetingFailstoSettleMissileSalesQuestion,"AgenceFrancePresse,25July1993,LexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

21July1993
TheUnitedStatesthreatenstoplacesanctionsonChinaifChinesemissileswereshippedtoPakistan.Inresponse,
Chinareiteratesitspledgetoabidebyinternationalarmsagreements."TheU.S.sideshouldstopmakinganissue
ofit,"aForeignMinistrystatementsays.
"ChinaRespondstoU.S.ThreatOverMissileSales,"AssociatedPress,21July1993,www.lexisnexis.com.

21July1993
TheClintonadministrationthreatenstoimposesanctionsonChinaifChinacontinuestosellmissilestoPakistan.
TheissuefollowingstrongevidencethatChinaisshippingM11missiletechnologytoPakistanwillberaisedby
USSecretaryofStateWarrenChristopherwhenhemeetswithhisChinesecounterpartQianQicheninSingapore.

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LynnDavis,UndersecretaryofStateandtheClintonadministration'schiefarmsnegotiator,willalsodiscussthe
matterinBeijing.
"SanctionsthreattoChinaoverMissiles,"FinancialTimes,21July1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

29June1993
AChineseForeignMinisterdeniesallegationsofChineseM9andM11missilesalestoPakistan."Mr.Clinton's
governmentbelievesthatChinahassoldM9andM11missilestoPakistan,SyriaandIran,"theofficialsaid."This
issheerfabrication;ChinahaslongundertakentoabidebytheguidelinesandparametersofMTCR.Thepositionof
China'sremainsunchanged."
"ChinasaysmissilesalestoIran,Syria,Pakistan,"sheerfabrication,"BritishBroadcastingCorporation,30June
1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

27May1993
U.S.officialsannouncethatChinahasreceiveddozensofsurfacetoairSA10antiaircraftandantishipmissiles
fromRussia.ThefastflyingSA10,namedGrumblebytheWesternallies,isbilledbytheRussiansassimilartothe
U.S.PatriotmissilealthoughU.S.analystsbelieveitislesssophisticated.TheSovietsdevelopedittodownbombers
atupto88,000feetbutadaptedittointercepttacticalmissiles.
RuthSinai,"ChinaAcquiresRussianMissiles,"AssociatedPress,27May1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

21May1993
ChinapromisesIsraeliForeignMinisterShimonPerezthatChinadoesnotintendtosellanymissilesormissile
technologytoMiddleEasterncountries.WesternmilitaryobserverssayChinasoldSilkwormmissilestoIranduring
the1980s.TheU.S.governmenthassaidChinawasplanningtosellmissilestoSyriaoneofafewMiddleEastern
statesstilltechnicallyatwarwithIsraelbutnoevidencehasemergedthattheywereeverdelivered."The
(Chinese)foreignministrytoldme...thatChinadoesnotintendtosellmissilestotheMiddleEasterncountriesthat
areatwarandthatChinawillbevery,verycarefulnottosellweaponsthatwouldendangerthesecurityofour
country,"IsraeliForeignMinisterShimonPerezsays.
"Chinatoshow'restraint'inarmssalestoMiddleEast,"JerusalemPost,23May1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

21May1993
PakistaniofficialsdenyreceivingM11missilesfromChina.Theofficialscallaccusationsofmissiletransfers
betweenChinaandPakistan"motivatedandspeculative.""IcategoricallydenythatPakistanhastakenM11
missiles,"SecretaryGeneraloftheMinistryofForeignAffairsAkramZakisays.
"PakistanDeniesReceivingChineseM11Missile,"AgenceFrancePresse,21May1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

19May1993
IsraeliintelligenceclaimsthatIranisbuildingadvancedmediumtolongrangesolidpropellantsurfacetosurface
missileswithtechnicalsupportfromChina.Thedealincludestechnologytransfers,allowingIranianstoassemble
themissilesthemselves.
"Iran/Chinainsecretmissileproject,"FlightInternational,19May1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

14May1993
U.S.intelligenceagenciesdeliverabriefingtotheSenateForeignRelationsCommitteeshowingChinaissellingM

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11ballisticmissilesandM11ballisticmissilecomponentstoPakistan.Administrationofficialsdescribetheweight
oftheevidencepresentedtothemas"heavy"butstoppedshortofcallingitconclusive.
AnnDevroy,R.JefferySmith,"U.S.Evidence'Suggests'ChinaBreaksArmsPact;ReportComesonEveofTrade
StatusDebate,"WashingtonPost,18May1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

7May1993
China'sForeignMinistrydeniesChinaissellingmissilestoPakistaninviolationofitspromisetotheUnitedStates
tostop.AccordingtotheofficialXinhuaNewsAgency,theForeignMinistrycallsU.S.allegations"groundless."
"ChinadeniessellingmissilestoPakistan,"PlainDealer,8May1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

6May1993
TheU.S.issuesastrongstatement,warningChinathatifitdoesn'tstopmissilesalestotheMiddleEasttheU.S.
mayrevokeMFNstatusforChina.JoeSnyder,aStateDepartmentspokesman,saidtheU.S."continue(s)to
monitorcloselyandcarefullyreportssuggestingtheChinesearenotabidingbytheirMTCRcommitments."Ifsuch
adeterminationweremade,Snydersaid,theClintonadministration"willnothesitatetotaketheactionrequired
underU.S.proliferationlaw.AlongwithChinesehumanrightsandtradepractices,China'scommitmentto
nonproliferationisoneofthefactorswetakeintoconsiderationinourdeliberationsonmostfavorednation
status."
"U.S.WarnsChinaonMissileSales,HumanRights,"MednewsMiddleEastDefenseNews,17May1993,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

6May1993
U.S.officialsannouncetheyhavesatelliteimagesofnewChinesesurfacetosurfacemissilesinPakistan.Satellite
photosofthePakistaniportofKarachishowthatChinahasnotstoppedtheshipmentsoftheM11missilessince
theybeganlastfall.Asaresultoftheseimages,theU.S.threatenstoimposenewtradesanctionsonChinain
retaliation.
"USAccusesChinainSaleofMissiles,"TorontoStar,6May1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;"U.S.says
Chinacouldfacesanctionsformissileviolations,"AgenceFrancePresse,6May1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

30April1993
AChineseForeignMinistryspokesmandeclaresthatChinastronglyopposesconditionsbeingattachedtoitsmost
favorednationtrade(MFN)status.ConditionsbeingconsideredbyWashingtonincludetyingMFNstatusto
Chinesecontrolsonmissileproliferation.
"China;China"ResolutelyOpposed"toanyconditionsonitstradingstatus,"BritishBroadcastingChannel,30
April1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

20April1993
TheInternationalCampaignforTibet(ITC)claimsChinaisdumpingnuclearwasteontheTibetanplateauandhas
builtmissilessitesthere.TheITCclaimsthat"China'spositioningofnuclearandnonnuclearweaponsonthe
TibetanplateauhasputmanyofIndia'smajorindustrialandmilitaryfacilitieswithinstrikingdistanceofshort
rangemissiles,'saidthereportentitledNuclearTibet."
TonyWalker,"China'dumpingNwasteinTibet':Indianindustrialandmilitaryfacilitieswithinmissilerange,
saysreport,"FinancialTimes,20April1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

15April1993
AugustoPinochettravelstoChinatoattempttosellChilean"Rayo"missiles."Rayo"missilesaregroundtoground
missileswitharangeof40kilometers.
"Chile:PinochetFliestoChinatoDiscussArmsSales,"IPSInterPressService,15April993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

1April1993
ChinaprovidesSouthAfricawithtechnologythatwouldextendtherangeofSouthAfrica'snuclearcapablemissile
to2,000miles.SouthAfricarecentlyadmittedtoitsweaponsprogramandhassaidthatithassincebeen
abandoned.
"News:ChinaGaveSouthAfricaMissileTechnology,"FTEnergyNewslettersEnergyEconomist,1April1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3March1993
TheSouthChinaMorningPostreportsthatadiplomaticsourcesaysChinaisacquiringadvancedsurfacetoair
missilesfromRussia."TheChinesearealreadyinstallinglaunchersfortheS300s,whichseemstoindicatedeliveries
willberelativelyswift,"asourcesaid.ThesourcessaidBeijinghadrecentlyenteredintoagreementswithMoscow
forthepurchaseofatleast100S300missiles,oneofthebestdefensesystemsintheRussianarsenal.Specially
adaptedforhighaltitudemaneuvers,theS300,alsoknownastheSA10,wentintooperationabout10yearsago.
TheweaponhasbeensoeffectivethatitiscomparedtotheUnitedStates'Patriotmissile.
"MainlandtobuymissilesfromRussia,"SouthChinaMorningPost,3March1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

1March1993
IndianExternalAffairsMinisterDineshSinghtellsChinathattheChinesesupplyofsophisticatedarmsandmissiles
thatgobeyonddefensepurposesthreatensIndiansecurity.Mr.Singhsaysthattheseactionsmaynegate
confidencebuildingmeasuresbetweenChinaandIndia.
"SouthAsia;ChinatoldmissilesforPakistanthreatenIndia,"BritishBroadcastingChannel,3March1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

24February1993
BeforetheSenateGovernmentAffairsCommittee,CIADirectorJamesWoolseytestifiesthatChinacontinuestobe
aproliferationthreat.WoolseysaysthatChinacontinuestoobtainmissiletechnologyfromRussianandUkraine.
"Pekingremainsmajorconcerninweaponsproliferation,"CentralNewsAgencyTaiwan,25February1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

18February1993
ChinadisplaysanadvancedseaskimmingmissileatanarmsshowinAbuDhabi.Chineseofficialssaythatthe
missilehasdrawninterestfromIranandotherGulfStates.TheC802multipurposeantishipmissilehasarangeof
120kilometers(75miles)comparedwith110kilometers(69miles)fortheU.SHarpoonmissile,accordingtoJeng
Deyun,headoftheChinesedelegationtotheshow.Thesixmetermissilecanbedeployedonwarships,coastal
basesandaircraftforattackingships,includingdestroyers,escortvessels,landingcraftandothertargets.
"IraninterestedinnewChineseantishipmissile,"AgenceFrancePresse,18February1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

14February1993
TheChinaNorthIndustriesCorp.,ChinaNationalPrecisionMachineryImportandExportCorp.andChina
ShipbuildingTradingCompanyltd.attendanarmsshowinAbuDhabi.OndisplayareRedArrow8antitank
missiles,amultiplerocketlaunchersystemwitharangeof80kilometers,mainbattletanks,andarmored
personnelcarriers.
"AbuDhabiArmsShowOpens,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,14February1993,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

4February1993
WuJianmin,aChineseForeignMinistryspokesman,deniesthatChina,SyriaandIranarecooperatingoncruise
missiledevelopment.ThedenialisaresponsetotheU.S.DepartmentofDefensereport.
"ChinadeniesrumoredcooperationwithSyria,Iranformissiledevelopment,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNews
Service,4February1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1February1993
PentagonofficialsconfirmthatformerDefenseSecretaryCheneyreceivedintelligencebriefingsprovingthatIsrael
hadtransferredPatriotMissiletechnologytoChina.Mr.CheneywastoldthatinreturnforthePatriottechnology,
ChinagaveIsraelinformationontheChineseMlineofmissiles,includingtheM9andM11missiles.
DavidA.Flughum,"DefenseDepartmentConfirmsPatriotTechnologyDiverted,"AviationWeek&Space
Technology,1February1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1February1993
AviationWeek&SpaceTechnologyreportsthatcruisemissilespresentthebiggestproliferationthreataccording
toareportcirculatingtheU.S.DepartmentofDefense.Amongothers,thereportlistsChinaashavingcruise
missileswithlowobservableorstealthcapablemissiles.
"CruiseMissilesBecomingTopProliferationThreat,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,1February1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

31January1993
Chinaannouncesanewdestroyerhasentereditsnavalfleet.Thedestroyerwasdeemedreadyaftersuccessful
missileteststookplaceatsea.
"NewDestroyerEntersChineseNavy,"AgenceFrancePresse,31January1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

30January1993
AU.S.analystsaysSyria,ChinaandIranaredevelopingcruisemissilesthatwillbeoperableby2000accordingtoa
newPentagonreport.ThereportnotesthatChina'scruisemissilesareofparticularconcernbecauseofChina's
nuclearcapabilities.
SidBalmanJr,"Syria,IranandChinadevelopingcruisemissiles,"UnitedPressInternational,30January1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

18January1993
AviationWeek&SpaceTechnologyreportsthatChinaisusingsecretlyacquiredPatriotairdefensetechnologyto
improvethelesseffectiveSovieteratechnologyithaspurchasedinthepast.TheanalystsaidthattheChinese
haveaprogramintacttoimprovetheSovietSA10andSA12surfacetoairmissileswithPatriottechnology.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

DavidA.Flughum,"ChinaexploitingUSPatriotsecrets,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,18January1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

12January1993
TheU.N.condemnsIraqiforcesforcrossingtheborderwithKuwaitandraidingaweaponsdepot.Amongstthe
weaponstaken,IraqseizedfourChineseantishipSilkwormmissiles.
PressAssociationLimited,12January1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

8January1993
TheBBCreportsthataWesterndiplomaticsourceclaimsthatChinaistradingmissiletechnologyandanuclear
powerstationtoIraninreturnforMiG29fighterjets.IranandChinareportedlyreachedanagreementonthe
tradeattheendoflastyear.
"China;China'splantopurchaseMiGsfromIranandusethemtoupdateitsfighters,"BBC,8January1993,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

8January1993
TheUnitedStatescallsforChinatoimplementstifferguidelinesinthecontrolofmissileproliferation.TwoU.S.
senatorsmetwithPrimeMinisterLiPengtoconveytheU.S.desireforChinatoabidebythenewrulesinthe
MTCR.DefenseSecretaryDesignateLesAspinalsoconfirmedthattheClintonadministrationdoesnotintendto
reconsidertheagreementoftheBushadministrationtosellF16stoTaiwan.
MichaelChuganiandWillyWoLapLam,"USurgesmissilerulesonBeijing,"SouthChinaMorningPost,9
January1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

5January1993
CIADirectorRobertGatesconfirmsinareportthatthereisevidenceChinahasobtainedPatriotmissiletechnology.
Thereportsaysthatwhiletherearedifferentviewsontheissue,thereareindicationsthatChinadidreceiveat
leastsomePatriottechnology.Thismarksthefirsttimeanofficialconfirmedthattherehadbeenillegaltransfers
ofmissiletechnologytoChina.
"ChinahasPatriotMissileTechnology:Gates,"AgenceFrancePresse,5January1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

1992
29December1992
TheJapanesepaperYomiuriShimbunreportsthatseveralhundredtechnicalexpertsfromtheformerSovietUnion
areworkingatmilitaryplantsinChina,helpingtoimprovethereliabilityandaccuracyofChinesemissiles.
VasilyGolovnin,"Yomiuri:SeveralHundredMissileSpecialistsWorkInChina,"TASSTheRussianInformation
Agency,29December1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

23December1992
TheChinesegovernmentordersFrancetoclosedownitsconsulateintheSouthernChinesecityofCanton,also
knownasGuangzhou,inGuangdongProvince.TheorderisretaliationtoFrenchsalesof6020005jetfighters
worth$2.6billionand1,000missilestoTawian.ThemoveisseenasawarningtootherEuropeancountries
consideringsimilarsales.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

KathyWilhelm,"ChinaOrdersFrancetoCloseCantonConsulate,"AssociatedPress,23December1992,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

17December1992
RussianPresidentBorisYeltsin,inBeijingonavisit,declaresthatthereare"greatprospects"forenhancing
ChineseRussianmilitarycooperation.RecentreportsoutofRussiaclaimthatChinaistryingtobuymilitary
hardware,includingSAM300groundtoairrockets,theRussianequivalentoftheU.S.Patriotmissile.
AlanCooperman,"Yeltsin:"GreatProspects"forMilitaryCooperationwithChina,"AssociatedPress,17
December1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

16December1992
HuaDi,aformerleadingmemberofChina'sballisticmissileprojects,writesinareportthatChinaisdevelopinga
newlandmobileICBMcapableofreachingthecontinentalUnitedStatesaswellasalongrangesubmarine
launchedballisticmissile(SLBM),AccordingtoHua,theChinesegovernmenthopesthenewICBMwillbecome
operationalbytheendofthe1990sforpossibledeploymentbefore2010,withthenewSLBMsreadyforuseby
themid1990s.
RyoichiHamamoto,"China'sExpandingBallisticMissileProgram;ICBMCapableOfReachingU.S.CouldBe
ReadyForDeploymentBefore2010,"DailyYomiuri,16December1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

7December1992
TheUnitedStatespostponesadecisiontosellasupercomputertoChinabecauseofallegationsthatChinasoldM
11missilestoPakistan.WashingtonbelievesthatChinamayhavebrokenagreementswiththeU.S.insellingM11
missilesorrelatedmissilecomponentstoPakistan.However,theU.S.governmentsaysitcannotconfirmwhether
ChinahadsoldbannedmissilestoPakistanornot.
"USPostponesSellingComputertoChinese,"CourierMail,7December1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com;"WashingtonWillNotConfirmSaleofChineseMissilestoPakistan,"AgenceFrancePresse,7December
1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

7December1992
ChinadeniessellingM11MissilestoPakistan.AChineseForeignMinistryofficialdescribestheallegationsas
"groundless."
"ChinaDeniesSellingMissilestoPakistan,"TorontoPost,Reuter,7December1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

6December1992
FormerPakistanichiefofstaffMirzaAslamBergsaysinaninterviewthatChinadidsellPakistanM11missilesthat
didnothavenuclearcapabilities.Hesaidthe"missileshavearangeoflessthan300kilometers(180miles),were
notbuilttocarrynuclearwarheadsandwerenotpreciseenoughtocarryoutthattypeofmission."
"ChinasoldIslamabadM11missiles;formerofficial,"AgencePresseFrance,6December1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

5December1992
PakistaniofficialsdenytheyviolatedanyrulesgoverningarmscontrolinresponsetoclaimsbyU.S.officialsthat
ChinasoldPakistannuclearcapableM11missiles."Wehaveviolatednoruleorregulationbutwewillgiveafull
statementlater,"theofficialstated."Wewillgiveacompletereactionintwoorthreedays,"headded.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

AnwarIqbal,"Pakistandeniesbreachofrulesoverarmssales,"UnitedPressInternational,5December1992,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

4December1992
IntelligenceanalystsaretryingtodetermineifnewPakistanimissilesareChineseM11missiles,oriftheyare
shorterrangemissiles.TheM11missileswouldcontradictChinesecommitmentstonotsellmediumrange
missilestoPakistan,howeveriftheyaretheshorterrangemissiles,theyarenotinviolationofanyChinese
statements.CongresshaspromisedsanctionsifChinadoesselltheM11missilestoPakistan.
R.JefferySmith,"ChinaSaidtoSellArmstoPakistan;M11MissileShipmentMayBreakVowtoUS,"
WashingtonPost,4December1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3December1992
ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanLiJianyingissuesastatementsayingthattheallegationsmadeintheLos
AngelesTimesregardingRussianarmssalestoChinaareexaggerated.HegoesontoreiteratethattheChinese
Russianrelationshipisanormalexchangeofeconomic,cultural,scienceandengineeringcooperation.Someof
thatscienceandengineeringexchangedoesincludemilitaryhardware.
ItarTass,"ReportsonuseofRussianTechnologyExaggeratedOfficial,"TheRussianInformationAgency,3
December1992,www.lexisnexis.com.

30November1992
TheLosAngelesTimesreportsthatRussia'sextensivesalesofadvancedmilitarytechnologytomainlandChinaare
enablingPekingtoobtaincoreelementsofthehightechnologydefenseindustriesthatmadetheSovietUniona
superpower.AccordingtotheTimes,"now,officialssay,thereisevidencethatthesaleshavewidenedandthat
Chinaisacquiringabroadcapabilitytodesign,produceandsustainitsownmodern,cuttingedgeweapons
systems.""TheChinesearetryingtotransferahightechnologyindustrialbasefromRussiatoChina,"aseniorU.S.
officialwasquotedassaying."It'sbothpeopleandtechnology,fornewguidancesystems,cruisemissiles,anti
submarinewarfare,andmissiletesting."
"Russia'sMilitaryTransfertoChinaWidens,"CentralNewsAgency(Taiwan),1December1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

23November1992
MednewsreportsaU.S.governmentofficialclaimsthatChinaisseekingtopurchaseequipmentintheUnited
StatesandEuropeforanewprojecttobuildastrategiccruisemissile.TheChinesegovernmenthassigneda
contractwithGarrettEnginestopurchaseaturnkeyfactorytobuildadvancedturbofans,akeytechnologyto
cruisemissile.Theremaybelittlethegovernmentcandotostopthedealfromgoingthrough,sincethis
technologywasdecontrolledbytheCommerceDepartmentseveralyearsagoandthusrequiresnoexportlicense
forChina.
"Chinaseekscruisemissiles,"MednewsMiddleEastDefenseNews,23November1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

10November1992
LiDaoyi,China'sambassadortotheU.N.,deniesChinasoldmissilesandothermilitaryequipmenttoIraq.Lidenies
theaccusationsinaphonecallwithIsraeliambassadorGadYa'acobi,whotelephonedhimafterreadingofthe
allegedweaponstransferinAmericanandIsraelinewspapers.
"ChinadeniesgivingmissilestoIraq,"JerusalemPost,11November1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

18October1992
TheNewYorkTimesallegesthatRussiaissellinghightechnologymissileguidance,rocketenginesandother
advancedweaponstoChina."Reexportisabigproblem,"apentagonsourcesays."Youdon'tknowwhatthe
Chinesewilldowiththestuffoncetheygetthehightechcapabilities."WashingtonofficialsalsoclaimthatRussia
issellingtechnologytoChinathatcanbeusedtoenrichuranium.TheofficialalsosaysthatRussiahassoldS300
surfacetoairmissilestoChina.
MichaelR.Gordon,"MoscowisSellingWeaponstoChina,U.S.OfficialsSay,"NewYorkTimes,18October1992,
inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

7October1992
U.S.governmentofficialsannouncethatRussiahasagreedtosellmobileSS25ICBMs,andmediumrangeBackfire
bomberstoChina.ARussianofficialadmittedthatthedealwasconcludedthreeweeksago,andthatthenumber
ofmissilesandbombersincludedwassignificant.TheSS25isanewtypeofICBMwhichmadeitsdebutina
RevolutionDayanniversaryparadeinMoscowin1990.Ithasbeenregardedasa"specialthreat"bytheUnited
Statesbecauseofitsmobilityanditsabilitytocarrymultiplenuclearwarheads,justoneofwhichhasadestructive
capacityequaltothatof60Hiroshimabombs.TheSS25hashighaccuracyandarangeof10,500kilometers.It
wasfirstdeployedaround1985.TheUnitedStatesinsistedonmakingitsubjecttodeploymentlimitationsduring
negotiationsovertheSTARTtreaty,whichtheU.S.Senaterecentlyratified.Backfirebombershavearangeof4,000
kilometers,maximumspeedofMach1.8andaweaponsloadof12tons.
SakiOuchi,"RussiasellingICBMs,;BomberstoChina,"DailyYomiuri,9October1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

21September1992
AviationWeek&SpaceTechnologyreportsthataccordingtoHuaDi,avisitingscholaratStanfordUniversitywho
servedasascientistandmissiledesignerwiththePeople'sLiberationArmy(PLA)fromthe1960sthroughthe
1980s,Chinaisdevelopinganewlongrangeballisticmissileequippedwithatwometricton,highexplosive
warheadasoneelementofathreeprongedtechnologyprogramtomodernizeconventionalforcesofthePLA.
ThiswouldgiveittheoffensivepunchtoenforceterritorialclaimsintheSouthChinaSea.
DavidA.Fulghum,PaulProctor,"ChineseCovetingOffensiveTriad,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,21
September1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

15September1992
StateDepartmentspokesmanRichardBoucherannouncesthattheUnitedStatesreceivedinformationthata
JapanesefirmillegallysoldanelectronbeammachinethatmayhavehelpedChinamakebettermissiles.Boucher
assertedthatthesaleoftheequipmentconcernsapossibleviolationofJapaneselawandsaidWashingtonwill
shareanyfindingsintheU.S.probewithJapaneseauthorities.Theallegedsalestookplacein1985,andalthough
salestoChinaatthattimewouldhaveviolatedthelaw,salestoHongKongatthattimewouldhavebeenlegal.
TheJapanesefirmaccusedoftheillegalsalesistheToshibaMachineCompany,whichclaimstheydidnothingin
violationofthelaw.
"U.S.ProbesJapanSaleofElectronBeamMachinetoChina,"JapanEconomicNewswire,17September1992,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;AndrewPollack,"ChinaJapanlinkonmissilesseen,"NewYorkTimes,16
September1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

11September1992
TheBushadministrationnotifiesCongressthatitiswaivinglegislativerestrictionsonsatelliteprojectsforChina.
StateDepartmentspokesmanRichardBoucherannouncesthatU.S.satellitesmaybelaunchedwithChinese

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rockets,includingtheDongFangHong3.
"USWavesExportRestrictionsonSatellitesforPeking,"CentralNewsAgencyTaiwan,11September1992,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

4August1992
TheInterPressServicereportsthataRussianofficialresponsibleforarmscontrolpolicyconfirmedRussia'sintent
tosellsurfacetosurfaceandsurfacetoairmissilestoChina.Theofficialsaidthatthemissileswouldbeoflimited
rangeandposenonewthreattoAsia.
JohnHelmer,"Russia:GovernmentlikelytosellmissilestoChina,"IPSInterPressService,4August1992,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

8August1992
TheNewYorkTimesreportsthatIranhascommittedmorethan$7billiontoacquirefighterjets,missiles,tanks,
andnucleartechnologyfromChina,NorthKoreaandRussia,accordingtoofficialswhomonitorcountry'sefforts.
Thesecretiveprogram,whichbeganin1988,hasbeensocostlythataWesternEuropeanembassyinTeherantold
itsgovernmentrecentlythattheIranianeconomyissooverstretchedthatitdoubtsitcouldhonoritsdebts.
YoussefMIbrahim,"Iransaidtocommit$7billiontosecretarmsplan,"NewYorkTimes,8August1992,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

18June1992
RobertS.Norris,aseniorresearcheratNationalResourcesDefenseCouncil,saysthatmostofChina'sdeliverable
nuclearweaponsconsistofballisticmissileswithrangesbetween1,400and13,000kilometers."Becauseoftheir
range,thevastmajorityoftheseareaimedatAsiantargets."HealsosaysthatChinamayhaveasmanyas10
ICBMscapableofreachingEuropeorNorthAmerica.
"RedChinahas250325nuclearwarheads,"CentralNewsAgency(Taiwan),18June1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

17June1992
TheU.S.DepartmentofCommercetakesstepstotightenU.S.controlsonexportsofmissiletechnologytoChina
and20othercountriesintheMiddleEastandSouthAsia.AspokesmanfortheCommerceDepartment'sBureauof
ExportAdministrationsaidthattheU.S.moveintendstofurtherpreventproliferationofmissiletechnology.The
CommerceDepartmentalsoamendeditsexportadministrationregulationstoincludeChinaandothercountries
onalistthatissubjecttoU.S.exportcontrolsonmissiletechnology.
"UStightenscontrolsonexportsofmissiletechnology,"CentralNewsAgency(Taiwan),19June1992,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

14June1992
SecretaryofStateJamesBakerannouncesthatChinais"livinguptotheircommitment"tocurbmissileand
technologytrade.Chinapledgedseveralmonthsagotoworktostopshipmentsofmediumrangemissilesto
severalMiddleEastcountries.BakeralsosaysthathehasnoinformationtosupportallegationsthattheChinese
areusingNorthKoreaasamiddlemantosellthosemissilestotheMiddleEast.
"Chinarespectingcommitmentsonarmstransfers:Baker,"AgenceFrancePresse,15June1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

22May1992
Chinaconfirmsthatittestedaonemegatonnuclearbomb.Thetest,equivalenttoonemilliontonnesofTNT,took

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placeundergroundinthedesertofnorthwestChina.Itisthemostpowerfultesttheworldhasseeninmorethan
20years.ThehugeundergroundnuclearblastsetoffbytheChinesemilitarywasthetestofawarheadforanew
intercontinentalballisticmissilethatisunderdevelopment,U.S.officialssaid.AChineseICBMwithaonemegaton
warheadwouldcarryaboutthesameexplosivepowerastheSS18Mod5,themostadvancedmissileinthe
nucleararsenaloftheformerSovietUnionthatcarriesnumerouswarheadscapableofdeliveringupto900
kilotonsofexplosivepower.DepartmentofMinesandEnergyseismologistDavidLovesaidthatthedepartment's
equipmentshowedtheearthtremorcausedbythetestwasequaltothatofanearthquakemeasuringaboutseven
ontheRichterscale.
MarkDouglas,"ChinesedetonatehugeNbomb,"Advertiser,23May1992.<www.lexisnexis.com;BillGertz,
"NuclearblastwastestfornewChineseICBM,"WashingtonTimes,23May1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

14May1992
TheU.S.StateDepartmentsaysithasnoevidencethatChinaisviolatingtheMTCRbysellingmissilesormissile
componentstoPakistanorSyria.TheStateDepartmentdidsaythatitwillcontinuetocloselymonitorChinese
missiletradeandtransfers.TheStateDepartmentwill"continuetostudyanyreportsofChinesetransfersof
militarytechnologyandtomonitorChinesebehaviorclosely."
"UStokeepmonitoringPeking'smissilesales,"CentralNewsAgency(Taiwan),18May1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

7April1992
TheTorontoStarreportsthatitwasChineseofficialswholeakedthesaleofPatriotmissiletechnologyfromIsrael
toChinatoAmericanintelligenceofficialsalastmonth.ChineseattachesintheNetherlandsandSyriaseparately
toldU.S.diplomatsinmidtolateMarchthatChinahadreceivedsensitivedataontheantimissilemissilefrom
Israel,accordingtoU.S.militaryandcivilianintelligencesources."They(theChineseattaches)didnotsaywhat
(Patriot)technologywasprovided,"saidamilitaryintelligenceofficial.HesaidU.S.intelligenceanalystsbelieved
theinformationwasofficiallypassedontotheUnitedStatesto"limitthedamage"fromU.S.concernsofChina's
proliferationofballisticmissilesandtechnologytodevelopingcountries.
"Chineseconfirmtradeinsecrets;officialssay,"TorontoStar,7April1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

6April1992
WuKeli,PresidentofGreatWallIndustries,offerstolaunchIsraelisatelliteintospacewithaChineserocket.This
hasraisedconcernsinWashington,asitcomesontheheelsofaU.S.investigationintothepotentialIsraeli
transferofPatriotmissiletechnologiestoChina."Ourrocketisverycosteffectiveandwearepreparedtooffer
guaranteesagainstanytechnicalproblems,"WusaidinanArmyRadiointerview.Referringtotherecent
controversyregardingallegationsofPatriotmissiletransfersfromIsraeltoChina,WusaidChinais"notinterested
inPatriotMissiles."
"OffertolaunchIsraelisatelliteswithChineserocketsraiseseyebrows,"UnitedPressInternational,6April1992,
inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

3April1992
TheUnitedStatesissuesareportclearingIsraelofanywrongdoinginregardstoPatriotMissilerelatedtransfersto
China.ThereportstatesthatIsraeldidsellsomesensitiveequipmentthough.China,Israel'sbiggestcustomerof
weaponsexports,gotmostoftheexports,butChileandSouthAfricaalsoboughtsystemswhichcontainedthe
Americantechnology.Theyincludedheatseekingairtoairmissiles,radarandjammingdevices,andantitank

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missiles.
SawaN,"USClearsIsraelonPatriotSalesClaims,"HeraldSun,3April1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

29March1992
TheSundayTelegraphreportsthatSaudiArabia,notIsrael,soldPatriotmissiletechnologytoChina,TheBritish
papersaidMossad,Israel'sintelligenceagency,hasevidencethatPatriottechnologywasgiventoChinese
technicianswhomaintainandserviceChinesemissilesinSaudiArabia.
"Report:U.S.ToldSaudisLeakedPatriotSecretstoChina"AssociatedPress,29March1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

28March1992
IsraeliofficialsannouncethattheU.S.delegationinvestigatingitsPatriotMissilebatteriesfoundnoevidencethat
IsraeltransferredtechnologytoChina.IsraelagaindeniesaccusationthatitsoldairtoairSidewindermissilesto
China.
JacksonDiehl,"U.S.teamwrapsupcheckofPatriotmissilesinIsrael,"ChicagoSunTimes,29March1992,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

23March1992
TheU.S.dispatchesa15memberfactfindingteamtoopeninvestigationsintoaccusationsthatIsraelsoldPatriot
missiletechnologytoChina.TheteamismostlyU.S.Armymissilespecialists.
"IsraelVisit,"USAToday,23March1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

22March1992
AChineselaunchofaLongMarch2Erocketfails.Thecommerciallaunchvehicleisamodifiedintercontinental
ballisticmissile.Thestraponengine,whichappearedonChinesetelevisiontohavecaughtfire,wasoneoftwo
boosterrocketsontheoriginalmissile.
DanielGreen,"FailureGroundsChineseSpaceHopes,"FinancialTimes,23March1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

17March1992
DefenseSecretaryDickCheneypressesIsraeliDefenseMinisterMosheArensaboutPatriotmissilesalestoChina.
TheIsraelisagaindenytheallegationsandagreetoallowU.S.inspectorsintoIsraeltocheckthePatriotbatteries
Israelalreadyhas.
EricSchmitt,"CheneyPressesIsraelionChinaMissileAidIssue,"NewYorkTimes,17March1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

14March1992
DefenseMinisterMosheArensadmitsinaninterviewwithCNNthatIsraelissellingarmstoChina.TheAssociated
PressreportsIsraelhelpedChinadeveloptheguidancesystemfortheCCS2,amediumrangemissiletheChinese
soldtoSaudiArabia.
AlonPinkas,"ArensadmitsarmsarebeingsoldtoChina,"JerusalemPost,15March1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

14March1992
AStateDepartmentinvestigationdeterminesIsraeldidimproperlyresellAmericanequipment.Thatequipment
includesAmericanairtoairmissilestoChinathatwerebasedontheSidewinder.Inawrittenstatement,Israeli

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PressCounselorRuthYaronsaysthat"theallegationsinvariouspressreportsaresensitivematterswhichare
subjecttonegotiationsbetweenthegovernmentofIsraelandthegovernmentoftheUnitedStates."
DavidHoffman,R.JefferySmith,"IsraelArmsSalesIllegal,U.S.Finds;StateDept.SaysTechnologyExportRules
WereIgnored,"WashingtonPost,14March1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

13March1992
TheBushadministrationlaunchesaninvestigationintointelligencereportsclaimingIsraeldidsellPatriotMissile
technologytoChina.Israelcontinuestodenyeversellingsuchequipment.
LaurenceJolidon;JohannaNeuman,"Israelmissilechargesprobed,"USAToday,13March1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

12March1992
IsraeldeniesaWashingtonTimesreportthatithadsoldaPatriotmissileorPatriotmissiletechnologytoChina.A
defenseministryspokesmantellsIsraeliradiothestorywas"lies"and"totallybaseless."
"IsraelDeniesSellingPatriotMissiletoChina,"Moneyclips,12March1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

9March1992
TheU.S.announcesitsintentiontoliftsanctionsthatwereimposedlastJuneonChinesecompaniesinvolving
missiletechnologyproliferation.ThestatementsaysthattheU.S.expectsChinatoannounceitsadherencetothe
guidelinesandparametersoftheMTCR.Thestatementread"Ouractioncomesfollowingreceiptofaletteron
February1fromPRCForeignMinisterQianQicheninresponsetoaletterfromSecretaryBaker.Thisletter
confirmedthatChinawillabidebytheMTCRguidelinesandparameters,asagreedinBeijinglastNovemberduring
theSecretary'strip."
"China'sAdherencetoMissileControlGuidelines,"DepartmentofState,9March1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

27February1992
AssistantSecretaryofDefenseforInternationalSecurityAffairsJamesLilleycallsforChinatocurbballisticmissile
andnucleartechnologyexports.Mr.Lilley'scallsarearesultofrecentallegationsofChinesemissilesalestoIran.
HewentontosaythathehopesBeijingwouldtakea'wisecourse'ofcurtailingdeliveriesinkeepingwithits
decisionlastyeartoadheretotheNuclearNonProliferationTreatyandcomplywithwesternguidelineson
missilerelatedsales.
DavidWhite,"PentagonurgespressureonBeijingoverhightechweaponsales,"FinancialTimes,27February
1992.inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

25February1992
U.S.officialsdeclarethataninvestigationofIsraelfindsnoproofofPatriotmissiletechnologytransferstoChina.
StateDepartmentspokeswomanMargaretTutwilerannounces"IsraelhasacleanbillofhealthonthePatriot
issue."ShewentontodecryleaksfromU.S.governmentofficialsas"irresponsible,"sayingthat"Thosewholeaked
intelligencereportsoweboththeUnitedStatesgovernmentandtheIsraeligovernmentanapology."
JohannaNeuman,"Israelclearinmissilesaleprobe,"USAToday,3March1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

24February1992
TheBushadministrationliftstradesanctionsitimposedonChinabecauseofitsroleinexportingmissile
technologytothirdworldcountries.TheadministrationsaidthatitalsoexpectsChinatopledgeadherenceto

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internationalguidelineslimitingsuchexports.
GeraldF.Seib,"BushLiftsSanctionsagainstChinaInExpectationofCurbonMissileSales,"WallStreetJournal,
24February1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

22February1992
Chinaannouncesitwillcomplywithinternationalguidelinesonthesaleofmissilesandtechnologyaspartofadeal
torepaytheUnitedStatesforliftingsomesanctionsimposedonPekinglastJune.Washingtonrecentlysaiditwas
liftingthesanctions,whichwereimposedbecauseofevidenceChinawassupplyingmissilestoSyriaandPakistan.
"ChinaComplies,"Independent,23February1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

13February1992
ChinadeniesreportsitmadeadealtosellIranpartsthatcouldbeusedinthedevelopmentofmediumrange
ballisticmissiles."Thatisatotallygroundlessandfabricatedallegation,"theForeignMinistrysaidinresponseto
questionsaboutthereports.ThebriefstatementwascarriedbythestaterunXinhuaNewsAgency.
"ChinaDeniesSellingIranKeyPartstoMissileDevelopment,"AssociatedPress,13February1992,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

3February1992
MednewsreportsthatattheInternationalSymposiumonArmsProliferation,heldattheUniversityofWisconsinin
December1991,HuaDi,aprominentChinesescientist,confirmedthatChinawasinstallingIsraeliguidancekits
andothertopequipmentonitsballisticmissiles."ThereisnorealchanceoflimitingChineseballisticmissiles.They
areoneofthemostimportantsourcesofincomefortheChinesetreasury."Hewentontosaythat"China'sM11
missilesarebeingdevelopedstrictlyforexportastheyhavenopracticaluseinChinesedefenseplanning."
"ChinaexportsIsraelimissiletechtoArabstates,"MednewsMiddleEastDefenseNews,3February1992,in
LexisNexis,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

31January1992
AmericanintelligencereportsindicatethatChinaiscontinuingtosellmissiletechnologytoSyriaandPakistan
despitestatementsbyChineseleadersthattheyarewillingtocurbmissileexports,accordingtosenior
Administrationofficials.BeijinghasrecentlydeliveredtoSyriaabout30tonsofchemicalsneededtomakeasolid
fuelmissileandplanstodeliveranadditional60tonsinMarchorApril.DefenseSecretaryDickCheneycallsthe
amountoftechnologyandchemicalsbeingtransferred"significant."DefenseIntelligenceAgencyDirector
LieutenantGeneralJamesR.ClapperJr.saysthat"Chinaiscurrentlyassistingmanyofthenationsthatweestimate
willacquireaballisticmissilecapabilitybytheendofthedecade."OfficialsalsoreportthatChinasoldguidance
unitstoPakistanthatcouldbeusedtocontroltheflightofM11missiles.
ElaineSciolinoandErikSchmitt,"ChinaSaidtoSellPartsforMissiles,"NewYorkTimes,31January1992,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

24January1992
ChinaandIsraelestablishformaldiplomaticrelations.
"China,IsraelForgeTies;BeijingtoParticipateinMideastPeaceTalks,"HoustonChronicle,24January1992,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

22January1992
MiddleEastsourcesreportthatSyriaandIranareactivelypursuingChineseM9missiles.TheM9,asolidfuel

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missilewithaplannedrangeof600km(325nm),isaimedatexportmarkets.Themissilewillcarryan800kg
warheadwitha500kghighexplosivecore.
"Syria,IranwanttobuyChina'sM9,"FlightInternational,22January1992,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1991
30December1991
ChinaagreestojointheNuclearNonProliferationTreaty.Chinaisthelastmajornuclearpowertosignthetreaty.
"ChinatoSignPact,"FinancialTimes,30December1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

14December1991
IndianForeignMinisterMadhavsinhSolanki"underlinedtheinherentdangerin(Chinese)inputstoPakistan's
nuclearweapon'scapacityandmissilestechnology"intalkswithChinawithChineseforeignministerQianQichen.
IndianforeignministryspokespersonAftabSethdescribesthetalksas"candid,"reiteratingthatIndiaisconcerned
withChineseassistancetoPakistan"inareasthatcouldaffectoursecurityandhastenanarmsraceintheregion."
"IndiaWarnsChinaofDangerinSellingArmstoPakistan,"TheTorontoStar,15December1991,inLexisNexis
AcademicUniverse,www.lexisnexis.com.

12December1991
ArkansasGovernorandpresidentialcandidateBillClintoncriticizestheBushadministration'spolicyonChina,citing
China'spoorrecordwithmissileandtechnologyexportsasexamplesofitsoverallfailure.
GovernorBillClinton,"ANewCovenantforAmericanSecurity,"FederalNewsService,12December1991,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

12December1991
CentralIntelligenceAgencyDirectorRobertGatessaysinaninterviewwiththeWashingtonPostthatChinais
supplyingnuclearandmissiletechnologytothethirdworld,butthatChina"occasionallybackedoff,"underU.S.
pressure.HesaidthatChinaismotivatedbymoneytomakethesales.
"GatesSaysCIAtoFocusonUnconventionalArmsBuildup,"AgenceFrancePresseEnglish,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

9December1991
TheU.Nvotes1500toestablishaninternationalregistryofconventionalarmstransfersoftanks,warplanes,
missiles,warshipsandartillery.China,aswellasmanyofitsmajorarmsclients,isabsentforthevote.
PeterJamesSpielmann,"U.N.toEstablishConventionalArmsRegistry,"TheAssociatedPress,9December
1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

November1991
ChinadisplaysSilkwormmissiles,targetdrones,electronicinstruments,andotherdefenseequipmentattheDubai
91AerospaceandDefenceExhibition.RepresentedatthearmsshowareChinaGreatWallIndustryCorporation
andChinaPrecisionMachineryImport&ExportCompany,bothcompaniesthatweresanctionedbytheBush
administrationinSeptember.NORINCOdisplaysapowerfulnewmultiplelaunchrocketsystem,theWM80,which
officialssayisbeingmarketed"throughouttheMiddleEast."Thenewsystemwillbecapableofripplelaunching
eightlongrangerocketswithin40seconds,todistancesof80kilometers.NORINCOclaimsaCEPfortheWM80of

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1.5%meaningthatunderoptimalconditions,rocketsfiredatmaximumrangewillstray1200metersfromtarget.
"ChineseSellJammers,newMLRs,"MednewsMiddleEastDefenseNews,25November1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

21November1991
ChinastatesitwouldaccedetoapactcoveringsalesofmediumrangemissilesiftheUSliftedsanctionsimposed
ontwoChinesecompaniesinJune.
DavidMutch,"AsiaandthePacific,"ChristianScienceMonitor,22November,1991,www.lexisnexis.com.

18November1991
ChinaannouncesthatitwillonlyconsiderabidingbyregulationsintheMTCRiftheU.SliftssanctionsonChinese
companiesandendsitsfreezeonU.S.computerandsatelliteexports.
NancyDunne,"Sanctions'ifBeijingfailstoprotectcopyright,'"TheFinancialTimes,19November1991,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

17November1991
JamesBakerstatesthatChinaagreestoabidebyMTCRGuidelinesinreturnfortheliftingofsanctionsoverthe
saleofhighspeedcomputersandsatellites.Undertheagreement,BeijingpledgestoapplyMTCRguidelinesto
"anyexportofmissilesandrelatedtechnology."BakerstatedthatheunderstandsthistoapplytotheM9missiles
toSyriaandtheM11missilesalestoPakistan.TheChinesepromiseisconditionedontheU.S.agreeingtolift
sanctionsontwoChinesecompanies.ChinaalsoagreestoproposeratificationoftheNuclearNonProliferation
TreatytothePeople'sCongressbytheendoftheyear.
"ChinaAgreestoArmsPact,"HeraldSun,18November1991,inLexisNexisAcademicUniverse,www.lexis
nexis.com;AgenceFrancePresse,HobartMercury,20November1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

16November1991
ChinacarriesoutamissileexerciseintheYellowSea.ChinesenewsservicesreportthatChinaconducteda37hour
drillfromanunnamedbaseinnortheastShandongProvince.56airtoairmissileswerefiredin41sorties.
"ChinaCarriesoutRareAirtoAirMissileDrillinYellowSea,"AgenceFrancePresseEnglish,18November1991,
inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

14November1991
TheChineseForeignMinistryannouncesthatChinaisnowwillingtotalkwithcountriesregardingconcernsabout
China'smissileexports.TheannouncementcomesonedaybeforeU.S.SecretaryofStateJamesBakerisscheduled
toarriveinChinafortalks.
"ChinaPreparedtoHoldConsultationonMissileSales,"JapanEconomicNewswire,14November1991,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

30October1993
U.S.officialsandnuclearexpertsaccuseChinaofsellingmaterialsfornuclearbombsandthemissilescapableof
deliveringthemtoMiddleEastcountries.GaryMiholinoftheWisconsinProject,aU.S.basedresearchinstitute,
claimstheChinesearesupplyingM9andM11ballisticmissilesundera10yearmilitarytechnologytransfer
agreementbetweenBeijingandTehran,whichwassignedlastyear.Inadditional,MilholinclaimsthattheChinese
arealsohelpingIranbuildanuclearreactoratEsfahanandtrainingIraniannuclearengineers.
SimonTisdal,"China'helpsIrantomakeNbomb,'"TheGuardian,31October1993,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

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18October1991
China,alongwiththeotherfourmembersoftheU.NSecurityCouncil,agreestocommonguidelinesforarms
exportcontrols.Theguidelinestakeintoaccounttheselfdefenseneedsandthethreatconfrontingarecipient
nation,butaimtodenyexportswhichwouldaggravateanyconflict,increasetensioninaparticularregion,
encourageterrorism,orunderminetheeconomyofarecipientstate.
VictorMallet,"Bigfivearmsexportersagreerulesonsales,"FinancialTimes,19October1991,inLexisNexis
AcademicUniverse,www.lexisnexis.com.

15October1991
ChinadeniesareportbytheSundayTimesnewspaperinLondonthatChinaisnegotiatingtosupplyIranandSyria
withfactoriesdesignedtoproduceballisticmissiles.AForeignMinistryspokesmanlabeledthereportas
"nonsense."
"ChinaDeniesMissileDealwithIran,Syria,"AgenceFrancePresseEnglish,15October1991,inLexisNexis
AcademicUniverse,www.lexisnexis.com.

13October1991
TheSundayTimesreportsthatWesternintelligencesourceshavediscoveredIranispurchasingfactoriesfrom
Chinatomanufactureanewgenerationofballisticmissiles.ThereportnotesthatSyriahascompletedadealwith
ChinatopurchaseM9missileswitharangeof600km.
JamesAdams,"SyriaandIranshoparoundformissilefactories,"SundayTimes,13October1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

5October1991
TheChineseForeignMinistrydeniesareportfromtheInstituteofInternationalandStrategicStudies(IISS),aU.K.
basedthinktank,thatChinasoldballisticmissilestoIraq,Iran,andSaudiArabialastyear.TheForeignMinistry
callstheclaims"totallygroundless."
"BeijingDeniesDeliveringMissilestoIraq,Iran,SaudiArabia,"AgenceFrancePresseEnglish,5October1991,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

15September1991
TheBushadministrationimposessanctionsagainstChina.Diplomatssaythatthesanctionsareintended"asa
meansofconvincingtheChinesethatitisnotintheirinteresttobesellingballisticmissilesandnuclear
technology."ChinaGreatWallIndustryCorporationandChinaPrecisionMachineryImportExportCompanyare
barredfromdoingbusinessintheU.S.
"BushImposesSanctions,"MednewsMiddleEastDefenseNews,15September1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

11August1991
ChinesePrimeMinisterLiPengannouncesthatChinaisreadyinprincipletosigntheNuclearNonProliferation
Treaty.Underthetermsofthetreaty,ChinawillbethefifthandfinalnuclearweaponstatetosigntheNPT,after
theUnitedStates,Russia,theUnitedKingdom,andFrance.
T.R.Reid,"ChinaPlanstoSignPactonAArms;PremierSignalsSteponNonProliferation,"WashingtonPost,11
August1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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23July1991
JapandefendsitsaidtoChinaproclaimingthatsuchassistancedoesnotviolateJapan'spolicyofnotprovidingaid
tonationsthreateningworldpeacebyexportingarmsornuclearweapons.ForeignMinistryspokesmanTaiZo
WatanabewasrespondingtoaquestionastowhetherornotChina'ssalesoflongrangemissilestoPakistanand
itsplantoexportmissilestoSyriaviolatedJapanesepolicy."TheResponseoftheChinesegovernmentwaspositive
inprincipleandthat'ssomethingwearesatisfiedwith,"hewentontosay.
"JapanDefendsChinaAidasnotBreachingAntiarmsRules,"JapanEconomicNewswire,23July,1991,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

19July1991
PresidentBushpledgestomakesignificantchangestohisChinapolicy.Amongotherthings,Bushpledgesto"ban
exportsofhighspeedcomputersandsatellitesuntilChinaassuresitwillceasesellingnuclearmissiles."
ElizabethLesly,"AtRenegadeDemocratsUrging,BushMakesMajorChangesinChinaPolicy,"StatesNews
Service,19July1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

15July1991
ChenGuoQiang,PressSecretaryoftheChineseEmbassyinWashington,inanopenletter,denouncesallegations
ofarmsshipmentstotheMiddleEastviaCyprusas"totallyunfounded"inresponsetoaWashingtonTimesarticle
dated12July.Hesaysthe"seeminglysubstantialevidenceonlyservesallthemoretoconfuseandmisleadthe
Americanpublic."
"AllegationsofChina'sArmsShipmentsthroughCyprusDenounced,"TheXinhuaGeneralOverseasNews
Service,15July1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

5July1991
WoZian,anaidetoChinesePremiereLiPeng,affirmsChinahasnointentionofsellingmissilestoSyria.LiPengis
onafivedayMiddleEastdiplomatictour.
"NoMissilesforSyria,ChineseOfficialssays,"AgenceFrancePresse,5July1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

4July1991
CypruscategoricallydeniesbeingatransitpointforChineseandNorthKoreanweaponsheadedfortheMiddle
East.CyprusgovernmentspokesmanAkisFantissays:"WehavenoindicationthatanyM9soranyotherChinese
surfacetosurfacemissileshavebeendeliveredtoSyriaandwehavenoinformationabouttheuseofCyprusasa
channeloraconduit."
"CyprusDeniesBeingArmsTransitStation,"TheXinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,4July1991,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

2July1991
TheBushadministrationaccusesChinaandNorthKoreaofsellingmissilestotheMiddleEastbyusingCyprusasa
transshipmentpoint.AccordingtoU.S.intelligenceofficials,ChinaandNorthKoreauseCyprustoavoiddetection
bytheUnitedStates.
BillGertz,"China,N.KoreaSecretlyDeliverMissilestotheMideastviaCyprus,"WashingtonTimes,2July1991,
inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1July1991
TheStateDepartmentannouncesthatChinamaybefacingnewsanctionsasaresultofmissilesitsoldtoPakistan.

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ChineseAmbassadorZhuQizhensaidinastatementaweekagothatChinahadsold"alimitedamountof
conventionalweapons,includingatinynumberofshortrangetacticalmissiles."TheStateDepartmentsaysthatif
itisfoundthemissilesviolaterestrictionsmadebytheU.S.andtheinternationalcommunityin1987,then
sanctionwouldbelevied.
"U.S.WeighsSanctionsonChinaArmsSales,"USAToday,2July1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

25June1991
SenateMajorityLeaderGeorgeJ.Mitchell(DMaine)unveilsa"consensus"Democraticproposalthatwouldrenew
mostfavorednation(MFN)tradestatusforChina,conditioningitonimprovementinChina'shumanrightsand
tradepractices,andmandatingimmediateterminationiftheChinesegovernmentexportsballisticmissilesto
Syria,IranorPakistan.Inaddition,thebillrequiresthatthepresidentcertifywithin15daysofenactmentthat
Chinahasnotexported"certainballisticmissilesorlauncherstoSyria,IranorPakistan."Shouldsuchsalesoccurin
thecomingyearMitchellsaid,MFNwouldbeterminatedimmediately.
GuyGugliotta,"MitchellTiesChinaTradetoConditions,"WashingtonPost,26June1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

20June1991
ChinaacknowledgesthatitsuppliedshortrangemissilestoPakistan.ForeignMinistryspokesmanWuJianmen
declinestonametheweaponssuppliedtoPakistan,butsaidthat"averysmallnumberofshortrangetactical
missileshadgonetoPakistan.
RaymondWhitaker,"PakistanBoughtChineseMissiles,"Independent,21June,1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

19June1991
ChineseofficialsinformU.S.UndersecretaryofStateforInternationalSecurityAffairsReginaldBartholomewthat
BeijingisconsideringjoiningtheMTCRandNPT.
"ChinasaidtoweighSigningInternationalArmsAccord,"NewYorkTimes,19June1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

16June1991
TheWhiteHouseannouncesthatPresidentBushimplementedapreviouslyannounceddecisiontoimpose
restrictionsonexportsofhighperformancecomputersandbanthetransferoftechnologyforsatelliteslaunched
onChineserockets.TheWhiteHousesaysthestepsarebeingtakenbecauseofChina'smissileexports.Thereport
saysthattwoChinesecompanieshadtransferredmissiletechnologytoPakistanandthattheUnitedStateswould
imposesanctionsonthemtheChinaPrecisionMachineryImportExportCorporationandtheChinaGreatWall
IndustryCorporation."WehaveexpressedurgentconcerntotheChinesegovernmentaboutexportsofmissile
technology,"aWhiteHousestatementsaid.
"BushCallsTradeDealforChinaaStepForRights,"TheSt.LouisDispatch,17June1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

16June1991
Chinaunveilsadevastatingfuelairexplosivebombaspartofitsrangeofultrahightechnology'smartweapons'at
aParisAirShow.ThemovecomesonlydaysafterUnitedStatesSecretaryofStateJamesBakerwarnedChinanot
toexporthightechnologyweaponstoSyria.Chinaalsodisplaystheirlatestmissilesattheshow,whichwas
attendingbytheChinaNationalAeroTechnologyImportandExportCorporation(CATIC)andtheChinaPrecision

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MachineryImportandExportCorporation(CPMIEC).
AdamMajendie,"ChinaOutArmsWarning,"TheObserver,16June1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

16June1991
LiuHuaqiu,theChineseViceForeignMinister,deniesreportsthatChinahassoldballisticmissilestoSyria.ButLiu
confirmedthesaleofwhathecalled"shortrangemissiles"toPakistan,anotheritemofseriousU.S.concern,and
gavenoindicationthatBeijingiswillingtocancelormodifythisagreementthat"happenedinthepast."
DonOberdorfer,LenaH.Sun,"ChineseWarnU.S.AboutTradeStatus;BeijingRejectsConditions,Revocation,"
WashingtonPost,16June1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

15June1991
TheU.S.sendsRichardBartholomew[alsoreferredtoasReginaldBartholomew],UndersecretaryofState,to
Beijingfortalksonweaponsproliferation,amidgrowingconcerninthewestthatChinesearmssalesmayleadtoa
destabilizingweaponsraceinAsia.
YvonnePreston,"BeijingPressedonArmsSales,"FinancialTimes,15June1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

12June1991
SecretaryofStateJamesA.BakerwarnsChinathattherewillbe"profoundconsequences"forSinoU.S.relationsif
BeijingsellsnewlydevelopedballisticmissilestoSyriaandPakistan."Wehavemadeitclear(toChineseleaders)
thattherewouldbepotentiallyprofoundconsequencesforourbilateralrelationshipiftheyweretochangethe
missileexportpolicythattheyhavepresentedtous,"Mr.BakertoldaSenateappropriationssubcommittee.
"BakerWarnsChinaAgainstSellingNewMissiles,"TheNewYorkTimes,13June1991;"BakerwarnsBeijingof
'profoundconsequences'ofmissilessalestoPaki,"AgenceFrancePress,12June1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

10June1991
WesterndiplomatsandexpertsareconcernedbyindicationsthatChinaisseekingtoincreaseitsshareofthe
worldmarketformissiles.TheChinesemilitary,theexpertssay,maybeginshipmentsoftwonewkindsofmissiles
toSyriaandPakistan,andperhapstoothercountriesaswell.Thenewmissiles,whicharesaidtobemoreaccurate
thantheSovietdesignedScudsusedbyIraqinthePersianGulfwar,arethoughttobeattheendofthe
developmentstageandcouldbedeployedsoon.TheMissileTechnologyControlRegime,anagreementthatChina
hasnotjoined,definesmediumrangemissilesasthosethattravelapproximately188miles.ButaChinesemilitary
encyclopediadefinesamediumrangemissileasonethatcantravel625miles.Ifthatisthedefinitionthatthe
Chinesegovernmentisusing,itspromisenottosellmediumrangemissileswouldcoverneithertheM9northe
M11.
NicholasKristof,"Chinasaidtoplannewarmssale;U.S.isconcerned,"TheNewYorkTimes,6June1991,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

7June1991
ChinaconfirmsthatitwilltakepartinaconferenceproposedbyU.S.PresidentGeorgeBushaimedatcontrolling
armssalestotheMiddleEast."It'stheconsistentpositionoftheChinesegovernmentthatproper,fair,practicable
measuresshouldbetakentoachieveinternationalarmscontrolanddisarmamentinacomprehensiveand
balancedmanner,"theforeignministrysaid."TheChinesegovernmentagreeswithPresidentBush'sproposal,"it
said."Wearewillingtostudythisimportantissuewillallthecountriesconcernedonanequalfooting."

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

PeterRiddell,"Chinaconfirmsattendanceatarmscontrolconference,"AgenceFrancePressEnglish,8June
1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

5June1991
PresidentBushblocksU.S.companiesfromparticipatinginfurthersatellitelauncheswiththePeople'sRepublicof
ChinabecausethecountryisbelievedtobetransferringM11ballisticmissiletechnologytoPakistan.
"BushblocksUSlaunchersinChina"FlightInternational,5June1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

27May1991
TheBushadministrationblockshightechnologyexportstoChina.Thebanwillstopa$30millionsaleofcomputer
workstations,andwillbanthesaleofmissilerelatedtechnologiesaswellassatelliteparts.Themoveisin
retaliationtoChineseexportsofadvancedweaponstoPakistanandAlgeria.
EdwardLucas,"BushCutsHighTechExportstoChina,"Independent,28March1991,atLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

MayJune1991
WashingtonasksSaudiArabiatodestroyitsarsenalofChinesemadeCSS2surfacetosurfacemissilesasapartof
theBushadministration'sMiddleEastarmscontrolplan.TheSaudishaveignoredtherequestthusfar.
LeslieSusser,"ChineseFirecrackers."JerusalemReport,4July1991,atLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

28May1991
PresidentBushannouncesnewsanctionsonChina.Thesesanctionsstipulatethat:1.)Licenseswillberefusedto
companiesthathaveappliedtosellChina20highspeedcomputers,valuedat$30millionthatcanbeusedfor
missileflighttesting;2)AslongastheUnitedStatesisnotsatisfiedthatChinaisabidingbyinternational
regulationsrestrictingtheflowofballisticmissileandnucleartechnology,licenseswillnotbegrantedtoAmerican
companiesseekingtotakepartinsevenproposedsatellitelaunchesbyChina.Nosuchlicenseshavebeen
requested;3)Americancompanieswillbebarredfromsellinganymissiletechnologyorequipmenttothestate
runChinesePrecisionMachineryImportExportCorporation.TheWhiteHousesaysthisactionisinresponsetothe
Chinesecorporation'ssaleofmissiletechnologyandequipmenttoPakistan.AndrewRosenthal,"BushRenewing
TradePrivilegesForChina,butAddsMissileCurbs,"NewYorkTimes,28May1991,atLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

20May1991
AccordingtoU.S.intelligencesources,ChinaisnegotiatingthesaleofM11missiles,capableofcarryingchemical
andnuclearwarheads,toPakistan.AseparatereporteddealwithSyriawouldprovidewithChineseM9missiles,a
longerrangeforerunneroftheM11,bytheyearend.
TomPost,FrankGibneyJr.,DanielGlick,"GettingFedupwithChina"Newsweek,20May1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

7May1991
ChineseAmbassadortotheUnitedStatesZhuQichensaysthatChinahaslongadopteda"serious,prudentand
responsibleattitudeonthequestionofexportofmilitaryproducts."HegoesontosaythatChinastandsin
principlefora"just,reasonableandeffectiveinternationalcontrolofsalesofmilitaryproducts,includingthesale
ofmissiles.However,thisshouldbeworkedoutthroughcomprehensiveconsultationsonequalfootingamongthe
internationalcommunity,ratherthandecidedbyafewcountries."Theremarksweremadeataluncheon
sponsoredbytheWorldMediaAssociation.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

"ChineseAmbassadorStressesMutualBenefitsofMFN,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,7May1991,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

6May1991
PresidentBushbarstheexportofU.S.componentsforaChinesedomesticcommunicationssatellite.Hisactions
stemfromsuspectedChineseexportsofweaponsofmassdestructiontodevelopingnations.Thesatellitein
questionistheDongFangHong3(DFH3),andtheWhiteHouseintendstoraiseitsconcerns"abouttheactivities
oftheChinesecompaniesinvolvedinDongFangHongwiththeChinesegovernment."TheU.S.isengagedin
intensivetalkswithBeijingaboutproliferationissuesaimedatpersuadingChinatocomplywithinternationally
acceptedguidelinesonmissileandmissiletechnologyexports.TheChinesegovernmenthaspledgedtobe
"prudentandresponsible"withsuchsales,buttheadministrationisupsetaboutrecentreportsthatChinais
helpingAlgeriabuildanuclearreactorandpreparingtosellballisticmissilesandtechnologytoPakistan.
"ChinaRebuffed,"AviationWeekandSpaceTechnology,6May1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

5May1991
IsraelclaimsthatSyriahaspurchasedChineseM9missiles.
RichardEllis,"Syriagoesonpounds10bnshoppingspreeforarms,"SundayTimes,5May1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

30April1991
WhiteHousePressSecretaryMarlinFitzwaterstatesthatPresidentBushdoesnottoapprovearequesttolicense
theexportofU.S.satellitecomponentstoChinaforaChinesedomesticcommunicationssatellite,theDongFang
Hong3(DFH3).ThisdecisionisaresultofconcernoverChineseproliferationactivities.Undersanctionscontained
intheForeignRelationsAuthorizationActFiscalYear199091,licensingoftheseexportsisprohibitedunlessthe
Presidentdeterminesittobeinthenationalinterest.
"StatementbyPressSecretaryFitzwateronRestrictionsonU.S.SatelliteComponentExportstoChina,"Public
PapersofthePresident,30April1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

25April1991
ChinadeniesareportthatChinaissellingmediumrangemissilestoPakistan.Chinaalsoannouncesthatitis
supplyingAlgeriawithnucleartechnologybutdeniesitishelpingitproducefuelfornuclearweapons.
DavidMutch,ChristianScienceMonitor,26April1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

6April1991
TheU.S.lodgesofficialprotestswithBeijingandIslamabadamidfearsofaleapinthearmsraceinSouthAsia
regardingthepossiblesaletoPakistanofaChinesemissilecapableofcarryingnuclearwarheads.U.S.officialsare
unsurewhetherthedeliveryhastakenplace,butbelievethatChinaandPakistanhavebeendiscussingthesale.
TherangeoftheM11couldbeincreasedwithareductionofthepayload,makingitaviolationoftheMTCR.
MarkTran,"Armsmovedrawsprotest,"TheGuardian(London),6April1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

5April1991
U.S.officialsannouncetheybelievethatChinaisintheprocessofsellingPakistananewmissilecapableofcarrying
nuclearwarheads.TheM11missiletheexportversionoftheChineseDF11isbelievedtohaverangeofabout
180milesandcapabilityofcarrying'heavypayload.'U.S.intelligenceagenciesannouncethattheyhavespotted
whatappeartobeanumberoflaunchvehiclesforChinesemadeM11ballisticmissilesinPakistan,contraryto

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

Beijing'spledgestoWashington.
R.JefferySmith,"ChineseMissileLaunchersSightedinPakistan,"WashingtonPost,6April1991;JohnJ.Fialka,
"PakistanSeeksChineseMissiles,USBelieves"WallStreetJournal,5April1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com

27March1991
ChineseforeignministerQianQichenstates,"Onthequestionofcontrolofmissiles,recentlyinTokyo,a15nation
meetingonmissiletechnologycontrolregimewasconvened,butChinadidnotattendthatmeeting.Those
countriesthatdidn'tattendthemeetingshouldnotbecalledupontoassumecorrespondingobligationstoan
agreementreachedamongsomeothercountries."ConcerningChina'sarmsexports,Chinahasalwaysactedina
veryprudentandresponsibleway,and,actually,IthinkIcansaythatChina'sarmssalesarevery,verylimited.We
hopethatthelargestweaponsexportersintheworldcanadoptpracticalandeffectivemeasuresofselfrestraint.
Nownuclearweaponsproliferationisprohibitedintheworld.Wealsohaveinhandaconventiononprohibitionof
biologicalweapons,whilenegotiationsonaconventiononprohibitionofchemicalweaponsarealsounderway.
However,therearenoprovisionsconcerningconventionalweapons.Wehopethatthelargestweaponsexporters
intheworldcanexerciserestraint."QianalsonotesthatChinahasnotsignedtheMissileTechnologyControl
Regime(MTCR)anddidnotattendarecentmeetinginTokyoofthe15signatoriesoftheagreement."Those
countriesthatdidnotattendthemeetingshouldnotbecalledupontoassumecorrespondingobligationstoan
agreementreachedamongsomeothercountries,"Qiansaid.U.S.SecretaryofStateRichardSolomonsaidearlier
thismonththat"wehavethemissiletechnologycontrolregimeandtheChinesehaveindicatedthattheywill
honorthoseparameters."
"QianQiChenPressConference,"TheBritishBroadcastingCorporation,29March1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com;JamesL.Tyson,"ChinaWillIgnoreUSPressuretoStopSellingItsMissiles,"ChristianScience
Monitor,29March1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

20March1991
JapaneseDeputyForeignMinisterHisashiOwadaasksChinatocooperateincontrollingtheinternationaltradein
arms,includingnuclearandchemicalarms,missiletechnology,andconventionalarms.
"OwadaUrgesChinatoCooperateonArmsControl,"Japan,Inc.22March1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

11March1991
TheBritishRoyalNavysuccessfullyshootsdownaChinesebuiltIraqiSilkwormantishipmissileduringseawarfare
inOperationDesertStorm.
"BritishNavyDownsIraqiSilkworm;NumerousEnemyVesselsEngaged,"AviationWeekandSpaceTechnology,
11March,1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

March1991
TheUnitedStatesisseekingChina'scooperationineffortstocontrolarmsexportstotheMiddleEastinthe
aftermathofthePersianGulfWar,aseniorU.S.officialsaid."Aswetrytofindsomemultilateralmechanismto
preventtheinflowofweapons,China'sgoingtohavetobeaplayer,"saidRichardH.Solomon,assistantsecretary
ofstateforEastAsia.Solomon'svisitislinkedtoWashington'smovetodiscussthepostwarpoliticalchangeswith
permanentmembersoftheU.N.SecurityCouncil.
LenaH.Sun,"U.S.AsksChinatoReduceArmsSalestoMideast,"WashingtonPost,13March1991,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

31January1991
TheHongKongpaperTangtaion26JanuarycarriedanarticleontheuseofChinesemademissilesintheGulfwar.
ThearticlesaidthatsomeU.S.TomahawkcruisemissileshadbeenbroughtdownbyIraqwithChinesemade
Hongqi3groundtoairguidedmissiles,whichhadbeensuppliedbyChinatoIraqduringtheIranIraqWar,
althoughBaghdadhadnotusedthematthattime.
"ChineseMissilesPlayRoleinGulfWar,"TheBritishBroadcastingCorporation,January31,1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

23January1991
Chinacontinuesrocketdevelopmentinhopesofsendingamantospace.TheoxyhydrogenengineofChina'sLong
March3rocketcouldberestartedunderavacuumandinweightlessconditionsinspace,andthishasenabledthe
mostcrucialtechnologyofChinesecarrierrocketstoreachthemostadvancedworldstandards.Atpresent,the
deliverycapacityofChina'srocketforearthsynchronousorbithasreached1,400kg.Chinaissteppingupeffortsto
manufactureLongMarch1DandLongMarch3Arockets.ThelaunchingoftheLongMarch2Erockethasbeen
successful.By1992,itisestimatedthatChinawillhaveadeliverycapacityofbetween300kgto8,000kgfora
nearearthorbit,ofbetween1,400kgto2,500kgforasynchronousorbit,meetingtheneedsoflaunching
satellitesofvarioustypes,aswellastechnologicallypreparingforlaunchingspacecraftofmorethan4,000kginto
asynchronousorbit.TheBBC,quotingfromanunnamedChinesenewspaper,carriedthefollowingquotefromthe
Chinesegovernment:"ItcanbepredictedthatthroughtheceaselesseffortsofChina'sastronauticstechnology
workers,theerainwhichChinesewillbeflyingintheirownspacecraftanddevelopingouterspace,isnotfaroff."
"MannedChinesespaceflight"nottoofaroff,"BritishBroadcastingCorporation,31January1991,inLexisNexis
AcademicUniverse,www.lexisnexis.com.

22January1991
Chinasuccessfullylaunchesitsfirst120kilometerhigh,lowlatitudesoundingrockettodayatalaunchingpadin
Haikou,thecapitalofHainanProvince.Therocket,named'WeaverGirl3',waslaunchedat18:23(Beijingtime)
today.The4.87meterrocket,whichweighs285kilograms(kg)andhasapayloadof45kilograms,became
operationalasaresultofmorethantwoyearsofjointeffortbytheChineseAcademyofSciencesSpaceCenterand
threerelatedunits.Dataobtainedfromtheprobescanbeusedasaltitudeenvironmentalparametersforthe
developmentofcarrierrockets,ballisticmissiles,manmadesatellites,andmannedspacecraft.
"ChinaLaunchesSoundingRocket,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,22January1991,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

14January1991
AreportinaU.K.dailynewspaperindicatesthattheSaudidefenseministryisresistingAmericanattemptsto
inspectChinesesuppliedCSS2(DF3)ballisticmissilesafterintelligencereportssaidChinamighthavesuppliedup
toadozennuclearwarheadstobefittedonthemissiles.Intelligencereportsindicatethat36missilesaredeployed
westofalKharj,southofRiyadh.Thereportsalsosayhalfofthemarelikelytohavebeenfittedwithchemical
warheads.
AdelDarwish,"CrisisintheGulf:NuclearWarhead,"Independent,14January1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

11January1991
Chinafliestheprototypeoftwonewaircraft,theK8andtheFT7,inNanchang,thecapitalofJiangxiProvince.The
FT7willbecapableofteachingChinese,andotherthirdworldpilots,howtofireAmericanbuiltAIM9
(sidewinder)airtoairmissilesandMK82bombs,theFrenchR550strandofmissiles,andotherWestern

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
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ordinance.
"ChinaMarketsNewTrainers,"MednewsMiddleEastDefenseNews,22July1991,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

1990
24October1990
FrenchmanufacturerThomsonCSFhasbeenclearedtosellradarsandmissilestoChina.TheFrenchgovernment
saysthatdespitethearmsembargothathasbeeninplacesincetheTiananmencrackdownin1989,thatFrance
wouldhonoracontractsignedbetweenChinaandFrancebefore1988.
"FrancetoSendChinaMissiles,"FlightInternational,24October1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

15October1990
FrenchintentionstocompleteacontracttosellmissilesandradartechnologytoChina,despitethearmsembargo
thathasbeeninplacesincethe1989Tiananmenincidenthavemetoppositionwithintheglobalcommunity."The
Frencharelongontalkandshortonaction.Theymakealotofnoiseaboutsanctionsbutcontinuebehindothers
backs,"onenonEuropeanCommunitydiplomatsaid.Jane'sDefenseWeeklyquotesthevalueofthedealatmore
than$70million."Youdon'tthinkothercountriesarenottryingtosellweaponstotheChinese?"AFrenchsource
said.
"FrenchWeaponsContractWithChinaStirsupEC,"JournalofCommerce,15October1990,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

30September1990
InastatementissuedbyXinhuainBeijing,anunidentifiedforeignministryspokesmandismissesthechargesthat
ChinasoldchemicalstoIraqas"totallygroundless."
"Chinese'MaySell'ChemicalstoIraq,"Advertiser,1October1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

30September1990
ChinadeniesreportsthataprivateChinesecompanyhasagreedtosellchemicalstoIraqthatcanbeusedin
missilefuels.Thereport,inaBritishpaper,accusesNORINCOofsupplyingthechemicalstoIraq.
SimonLong,"ChinaDeniesSaleofArmsMaterials,"Guardian,1October1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

29September1990
ABritishnewspaperreportsthatChinasoldlargequantitiesofararechemicalusedformissilefuels,chemical
weaponsandpossiblynuclearweaponsinviolationoftheU.N.tradeembargo.TheIndependent,initsSunday
editions,saidithaddocumentsshowingthataround20SeptemberasubsidiaryofNORINCOagreedtosupply
seventonsoflithiumhydridetoIraqforabout$1.15million.
SueLeeman,"ChinaSuppliedRareChemicaltoIraq,NewspaperSays,"TheAssociatedPress,29September
1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

21July1990
SaudiArabiaandChinaestablishofficialdiplomaticrelations.Therelationshipeffectivelyendstherelationship
SaudiArabiahashadwithTaiwan.TaiwanForeignMinisterFredrickChienaccusesChinaofusing"silverbullet"
diplomacy,sayingthatChinapromisedadiscountof$710milliononanarmspackagevaluedat$6.6billionthat

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
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includesintermediaterangeballisticmissiles.
AbdullahAlFhehri,"China,SaudiArabiaEstablishDiplomaticRelations,"TheAssociatedPress,21July1990,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

14June1990
TheU.K.basednewspaperTheIndependentreportsthatwithinthelastweek,ChinahasagreedtohelpEgyptto
modernizeitsproductionofsurfacetoairandsurfacetosurfacemissilesaspartofanaccordworthhundredsof
millionsofpounds,diplomaticsourcesinCairosay.Undertheprotocol,ChinawillupdateEgypt'sSaqrmissile
factory,enablingittoproducenewerversionsofSovietantiaircraftmissiles,thesurfacetosurfaceSCUDBand
SilkwormandthethreetypesofEgyptianSaqrrockets.ThedealisexpectedtodoubleEgypt'sproductionofthe
SilkwormDF4,a50milerangemissilewitha1,000lbwarhead.EgyptianChineseresearchcooperationisexpected
toincreasetherangeoftheSilkwormDF4to90miles.EgyptisalsoexpectedtobeginproducingtheSilkwormDF
5,witharangeof170miles.
AdelDarwish,"ChinatoUpdateEgypt'sMissiles,"Independent,14June1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

6June1990
AccordingtoIsraeliIntelligenceServices,theSaudiArabianDF3surfacetosurfacemissilesarenowoperational.
Themissilesarestoredattwosites.Eachsitehasfourconcretelaunchersaswellas60missilesstoredinshelters
ateachsite.IsraelsaysthatonesiteislocatedatAlSulaiyil,500kmsouthofRiyad,theothersiteisatAlJoffer,
100kmsouthofthecapital.
"SaudiCSS2MissilesNowOperational,"FlightInternational,6June1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

6June1990
BushadministrationofficialshaveexpressedconcerntotheChinesegovernmentoverreportsthatChinahas
continuedtosellpoisongas,intermediaterangemissilesandotherweaponstoSaudiArabiaandothercountries
intheMiddleEast,StateDepartmentofficialstellaSenatesubcommittee.InabriefingregardingChina'smost
favorednationtradingstatus,SenatorJosephBidensayshewastoldhereceivedbriefingsfromadministration
officialsthatChinacontinuedtoselltheweapons,despiteassurancesthatitwouldnot."Therehasbeen....agood
dealofbriefingthatsomeofushavereceivedthattheChineseareengagedinseveraldangerousmilitary
relationshipswithcountriesintheMiddleEastandSouthwestAsia,"Bidensaid."Wehaverumorsorreportsthat
somethingsmaybegoingonandweraisedthematterwiththeChineseauthoritiesandmakeclearthattheseare
mattersofseriousconcern,"theStateDepartmentstopChinaofficer,AssistantSecretaryRichardSolomonsaid.
SolomonwentontosaythatChinahasreassuredtheU.S.thatallsalesofIntermediaterangeballisticmissiles
wereceasedlastyear."MaybeyoushouldgetthesamebriefingsthatIget,thenyouwouldn'thaveanydoubts.
AndIdon'tgetthemfromtheChinese;IgetthemfromtheU.S.government,"saysBiden,inresponseto
Solomon'sstatements.
StephenKurkjian,"ChinaContinuesToxicArmsandMissileSales,U.S.Says,"BostonGlobe,7June1990,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

11April1990
TheChinesedefensecompanyNORINCOunveilsthesecondgenerationRedArrow8antitankguidedweapon
systemforthefirsttimedeployedonaHarbinAircraftZ9Haitun.Themissileishelicoptermountedwitharange
of100mto3,000m.RedArrow8usesopticalaiming,infraredtrackingandsemiautomaticwireguidance.China
PrecisionMachineryImport&ExportCorp.(CPMIEC)releasesdetailsoftheC802rocketboosted,airbreathing
antishipseaskimmingmissile.TheC802hasa15kmminimumrangeanda120kmmaximumrangeatspeedsof

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Mach0.8to0.9.Themissilefliesat2030mabovethesea,descendinginitsterminalphasetobetween5and7m.
Thesystemhasasolidrocketlaunchboosterandaturbojetcruiseengineandusesactiveradarhoming.The
380mmdiametersystemweighs715kgandis6.4mlong.Itcanbelaunchedfromaircraft,ships,orcoastaldefense
batteries.NORINCOrevealsa273mmlongrangerocketthatisbeingdevelopedinatruckmountedeightround
launcher.Therocketis4.5mlongandweighs519kginclusiveofa150kghighexplosivewarhead.Thefiringinterval
oftheeightweaponsis2secondsandhasarangeof80km.CPMIECrevealsasimilarrocket,theWS1nonguided
rocket.The320mmtruckmountedweaponisfiredfromafourroundlauncherwithaminimumrangeof20km
andamaximumrangeof80km.Accuracyis1.25%ofrange.Thewarheadweighs150kgandtherocketweighs
520kg.NORINCOhasalsorevealedthe81L,a40tubesystemwithanautomaticreloadsystem.Ittakes18stofire
all40rockets,andreloadtakes3minutes.Rocketshavearangeof20kmand30km.
"ChinaRevealsHaitunMissileFit,"FlightInternational,11April1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;
"ChinaReleaseAntiShipMissileData,"FlightInternational,11April1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;
"ChinaFieldsNewMissileSystems,"FlightInternational,11April1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

8April1990
TheChinesesuccessfullylaunchaU.S.satelliteintoorbit.ThesatelliteislaunchedontheChinesebuiltLongMarch
IIIrocket,bringingChinaintotheinternationalspacemarket.The135footrocketwaslaunchedfromtheXinchang
launchsite,insouthwesternSichuanProvince.U.S.AmbassadortoChina,JamesLilley,inaceremonytocelebrate
thelaunch,saysthatit"symbolizesthepositiveelementsoftheU.S.Chinarelationship."Healsosaidthatthe
satellitewillbringthe"communicationsrevolution,"tomillionsofpeoplepreviouslyoutsidethereachofmodern
communicationstoChinaandtherestofAsia.
DanielSoutherland,"ChinaLaunchesU.S.BuiltSatellite;EntryIntoInternationalMarketBoostsBeijing'sCash
Flow,Prestige,"WashingtonPost,8April1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

4April1990
ChinaunveilsthePL9mobilesurfacetoairmissileattheFIDAE90exhibitioninChile.ThePL9isdesignedand
producedmissilebyNORINCO.ThesystemissimilartotheU.S.ChaparralmountingfourAtolltypesurfacetoair
missilesona360degreetrackablelauncheratopasixwheeledWZ551Darmoredvehicle.Targetacquisitionisvia
a360degreescanradarmountedonthetoprearofthemissileturret.Thefourmissilesarestackedinpairson
eachsideoftheturret,onthefrontofwhichisanelectroopticalsting/laserrangefinderwindow.Theradar
envelopeis18kmrangeatupto6,000maltitude,withanopticalrangeof10km.ThePL9infraredguidedmissile
is3mlongwithadiameterof160mmandweighs120kgsatlaunch,includinga10kgwarhead.Maximumspeedof
thePL9isMach2.NORINCOsaysthattheweaponskillprobabilityis0.8.Themaximumaltitudeofthemissileis
5,000m,andthemaximumlaunchrangeis8.5kmforanapproachingtarget,or5.5kmforotheraspects.The16t
vehicleis6.6mlongand2.8mwideandhasa19kwengine.Thecrewhasthreeoperatorsandtwo
drivers/mechanics.FIDAEisanaerospaceanddefenseexhibitionheldinChile.
"ChineseUnveilPL9AtFIDAE,"FlightInternational,4April1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

30March1990
TheBushadministrationseeks,butfailstoobtain,reassurancefromChinathatBeijingwillnotsellmediumrange
missilestotheMiddleEast.DeputyspokesmanRichardBouchernotesthatChineseleaderspledgedtopursuea
"prudentandresponsibleattitude.""Youarewellawareoftheimportanceweattachtostoppingmissile
proliferation.OurdialoguewithBeijingonmissileproliferationcontinues.Beijinghassaidthatitwillfollowa
prudentandresponsibleattitudeandwewilllookforactionsconsistentwiththestatement."Hesaid.An
administrationofficialalsosaysthatashipmentofmissilesthatwastransportedthroughBeijinglastweekand
suspectedtohavebeenshippedfromtheportofTianjin,nowappearstonothavegonetoTianjin.Thenew

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analysisfromintelligenceagenciessuggeststhatthemissileswerenotsoldtoanothercountry.
"U.S.UrgingChinaNottosellMissilestoMideast,"TheAssociatedPress,30March1990,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com;MichaelR.Gordon,"BeijingAvoidsNewMissileAssurances,"NewYorkTimes,30March
1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

29March1990
TheBushadministrationannouncesplanstoaskChinaifiscontinuingtosellmissilestotheMiddleEastandwillbe
veryconcernediftheanswerisyes.WhiteHousepresssecretaryMarlinFitzwatersaystheU.S.hasno
independentknowledgethatChinaissellingmissilesinthetroubleregion.TheWashingtonPostquotedWestern
diplomatssayingthatChinahasbeenshippingshortrangeballisticmissilesfromtheportofTianjin,probablyfor
saletotheMiddleEast."Ifit'struewe'dbeveryconcernedaboutit."
"AdministrationWillAskChinaIfItIsSellingMissilesInMideast,"AssociatedPress,29March1990,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

28March1990
WesterndiplomatsaccuseChinaofshippingshortrangeballisticmissilestotheMiddleEast.Afterevaluating
reportsfromwitnesseswhosaidtheyhadseentheweaponsbeingtransported,saidtheybelievetheweapons
wereshortrangeballisticmissilesthatareproducedhereforexportandwerebeingtakentotheportofTianjin,
probablyforshipmenttoMiddleEastcountries.ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanLiZhaoxingdismissedthe
reportsaying"don'tbelieveinrumors."AChinesedefenseministryofficialsaid"wehavenoinformationonthat."
OnSaturdayandMondaytwoconvoysofmissiles,launchersandotherequipmentweretransportedatnight
acrossPekingunderpoliceescort,boundforTianjin,some75mileseastofthecapital."Theycertainlyweren'tbig
tubesoftoothpaste"awesterndiplomatsays.
DanielSoutherland,"ChinaSaidtoSellMissiles;ShipmentReportedBoundforMiddleEast,"WashingtonPost,
29March1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com;AndrewHiggins,"ChinaPoisedtoResumeMissileExports,"
Independent,29March1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

27March1990
WesterndiplomatsannouncethattheybelieveChinahasbegunexportingshortrangeballisticmissiles,probably
toIranorIraq,toraisecash.OfficialsatChina'sDefenseMinistrysaytheyareunawareofanymissilesales.
"ChinaSellingMissiles,DiplomatsSay,"St.LouisPostDispatch,28March1990,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

8March1990
AsiaSat,acommunicationsatelliteintendedtoprovidetelevisionandtelephoneservicethroughouttheFarEast,
willbelaunchedaboardaChinesemadeLongMarchIIIrocketfromtheXinchangmissilerangeinChina's
southwestSichuanProvince.DeliveryofthesatellitehadbeenheldupbyU.S.sanctionsonhightechnology
transfersaftertheTiananmencrackdownlastyear.
GaryAderman,"ChinatoLaunchU.S.madeSatelliteinApril,"UnitedPressInternational,8March1990,in
LexisNexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

22February1990
ChinesePresidentandCommunistPartyLeaderJiangZeminmeetswithtopChinesescientistsintheGreatHallof
thePeopletopraisethemfortheirroleinthemodernizationofChina.Hesays"ManyofChina'ssophisticated
technologies,suchastheatomicbomb,thehydrogenbombandmissiles,havebeenbuiltthroughChina'sown
effortsanddespitetheblockadeimposedbyforeigncountries.IbelievethattheChinesepeoplehavehigh

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aspirationstodoevenbetterworkinscienceandtechnologydespiteallthedifficulties."
"TopChineseLeadersMeetScientists,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,22February1990,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

1418February1990
AdelegationfromtheChineseAerospaceindustrytakespartintheFifthAnnualAsianAirShowinSingapore.China
exhibitsvariouskindsofaircraft,guidedmissiles,satellites,enginesandairborneequipment.Chinesedelegates
alsoholdtradetalkswithotherparticipantstoenterintoexchangeoftechnology.
"ChinatoTakePartinAsianAirShow,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,12February1990,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

8February1990
SenatorJesseHelmscallsChineseleaders"gangsters,"andtellsDeputySecretaryofStateLawrenceEagleburger
thatdespitethecontactsandtheeasingofcertainsanctions,Chinacontinuestosendtechnologyforballistic
missilesandnuclearweaponstoMiddleEastnations.DefendinghiscoverttriptoChinashortlyafterthe
Tiananmenincident,EagleburgersaysintestimonybeforecongressthattheU.S.needs"abetterbalancebetween
ourfascinationwiththeChinaofthe1970sandtoday'smoodofdisappointmentandhostility."Hegoesontosay
thattheadministrationseeksChina's"returntoreformandopennessbycontinuingtopursuethecontacts...that
encouragedsuchreforminthefirstplace."
"LawmakersCriticizeEagleburgerforChinaTrips,"JapanEconomicNewswire,8February1990,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

3February1990
TheBushadministrationordersaChinesegovernmentcorporationtosellaSeattleaircraftpartsmanufacturer
aftergovernmentinvestigatorsreporttheChinesefirmcoulduseitsnewacquisitiontogainsecretU.S.aircraft
enginetechnology.ChinaNationalAeroTechnologyImport&ExportCorp.(CATIC)hasbeen"tryingtogetmilitary
secrets.""WeareconcernedoverCATIC'spastactivities.OurconcernisCATICusingthispurchaseasafrontto
penetrateintoother,morepromisingareasofsecurity."Asenioradministrationofficialsays.InChina,CATIC
manufacturesmilitaryplanesandmissiles.AdministrationofficialssaythattherewasnoevidencethatCATIChad
gainedanyU.S.secretsoverthepasttwomonths.
StuartAuerbach,"PresidentTellsChinatoSellSeattleFirm,"WashingtonPost,3February1990,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

21January1990
TehranradioannouncesanarmsagreementIranhasreachedwithChina.Chinawillmaketransfersofmilitary
equipmenttoIran,likelytoincludeavarietyofmissiles,includingtheChinesedesignedSilkwormantishipmissile
andanextendedrangeSCUD.TheagreementissignedbyIranianDefenseMinisterAkbarTorkan,andtheDeputy
DirectorofChina'sCouncilofScienceandTechnology,GeneralJiangXua.
"10YearArmsAgreementwithChina,"MednewsMiddleEastDefenseNews,5March1990,inLexisNexis,
www.lexisnexis.com.

11January1990
U.S.StateDepartmentspokeswomanMargaretTutwilerannouncesthattheBushadministrationdoesnotbelieve
ChinawillsellmoremissilestocountriesintheMiddleEast.TutwilerquotesaChinesestatementfrom9December
thatcallsaccusationsthatChinaissellingmissilestotheMiddleEast"groundless."Tutwilersaysthat"Chinese

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leadershavesaidthatthePRCtakesaprudentandresponsibleattituderegardingweaponssales,includingthe
saleofmissiles.Wetakethesepublicstatementsatfacevalue.WeexpectChinesearmssalespolicytobe
conductedinaccordancewiththesestandards."
WolfBlitzer,"ChinaisnotlikelytoSellMissilestoSyria,SovietsSay,"JerusalemPost,12January1990,inLexis
Nexis,www.lexisnexis.com.

1989
27December1989
ChinesePresidentYangShangkunsaysthatChinawillcontinuetosupplySaudiArabiawithmediumrangeballistic
missiles,Egypt'ssemiofficialMiddleEastNewsAgencyreports.ThereportquotesYangassayingChina"was
determinedtosupplySaudiArabiawithmissiles,accordingtothecontractsignedbetweenthetwocountries."
"YangSaysChinaWillSellSaudiArabiaMissiles,"UnitedPressInternational,27December1989,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

12December1989
SyriaandChinahaveagreedtoacontractwherebyChinawillsell140M9missilestoSyriafor$170million.The
Chinesedeniedthedealexistedon11December."ForeignnewsservicessaidthatChinaispreparingtosellM9
missilestoSyria.Thisreportisgroundless,"Chinesenationaltelevisionnewsreported."ExceptforSaudiArabia,
whereasmallnumberofmidrangemissilesweresold,Chinahasneversold,norisplanningtosell,missilestoany
MiddleEastcountry,"theChinesemediareportsaid.
KennethKaplan,"SyriaChinaSignMissileDeal,"JerusalemPost,12December1989,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

11December1989
PresidentBushsayshewas"verypleased"thattheChineseForeignMinistryannouncedthatitwouldnotsell
missilestoanyMiddleEastcountries.NationalSecurityAdvisorBrentScowcroftraisedtheissueofproliferationin
visitswithChineseleadersovertheweekendinBeijing.
"BushWelcomesChina'sPromiseonMissileExports,"FinancialTimes,11December1989,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

810December1989
NationalSecurityAdvisorBrentScowcroftandDeputySecretaryofStateLawrenceEagleburgertraveltoBeijingto
talkwithChineseofficialsaboutChina'splanstoexportmissilestocountriesintheMiddleEast.Thevisitisan
efforttoconvinceChinanottosellM9missilestoSyria.Themissiles,whichhavearangeof600miles,couldhit10
MiddleEastcountries,includingIsrael.
GeoffreyBarker,"ChinaTripMissileLink,"Advertiser,12December1989,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

23November1989
ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanJinGuihuasaysthatreportsChinaintendstosupplySyriawithmediumrange
surfacetosurfacemissilesis"utterlygroundless."HewentontosaythatChinahadlongagotakenaserious
attituderegardingthesellingofmissilestoothercountries.DespiteafewmissilestoSaudiArabia,Chinahasnot
soldmissilestoanyothercountries,hesaid.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

"ForeignMinistrySpokesman:ReportonChina'sProvisionofMissilestoSyriais'UtterlyGroundless,'"Xinhua
GeneralOverseasNewsService,23November1989,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

9November1989
AsenioradministrationofficialsaysthattheU.S.isconcernedthatChinamaydropitscommitmentsnottosell
mediumrangemissilesorthetechnologytomakethem.Administrationofficialssaidthattheywereawareof
reportsthatChinawassellingmediumrangemissilestotheMiddleEastandelsewhere.
MichaelR.Gordon,"U.S.FearsthatChineseMayAgainSellMissiles,"NewYorkTimes,9November1989,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

20September1989
TheXinhuaNewsAgencyreportsthatChinawillsoonbeequippedwithnewadvancedweaponry,including
strategicmissiles,shiptoairmissilesandhelicoptergunships.Thereportssaysthattheequipmenthasbeen
produceddomesticallyandwillmeettheneedsofChina'sgroundforces,navy,airforce,secondartillerybrigade
andothertechnicalforces.
"NewArmsAnnouncedforChina,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,20September1989,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

1August1989
ChinahasagreedtosellSyriaanunlimitednumberofmissiles,accordingtotheUnitedArabEmiratesnewspaper
AlIttihad."SyriasignedanagreementwithChinaonMay18forreceivingChinesemadeM9surfacetosurface
missiles"thenewspapersaid.
"China'toSellSyriaMissiles,'"Independent,1August1989,atLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

13April1989
ElebraElectronica,aBrazilianfirm,hassignedatechnologytransferagreementwithChinafortheproductionof
LongMarchIIIsatellitelaunchingrockets,a90metervehiclecapableofcarryinga4.5tonnepayload.China
PrecisionMachineryImportandExportCorp.(CPMIEC)andtheGreatWallCorp.areinvolvedontheChineseend
ofthedeal.CPMIECdesignedandbuilttheLongMarchII,whileGreatWallCorp.launchedthem.Thedealis
reportedlyworthmorethan$2billion.
"ElebratoBuildChineseRocket;LongMarchIIICouldCompetewithEurope'sArianespace,"Intelligence
ResearchLtd.,13April1989,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

8March1989
WesterndiplomatssaythatChinaishelpingIranbuildafactorytobuildmissiles.Constructionhasgoneaheadon
thefactory,despiteaU.N.sanctionedceasefireon20August.Speakingonaconditionofanonymity,onesource
said"it'samissileplantandtheChinesearelendingsupporttobuildit."Itisbelievedtheplantwillproduce
surfacetosurfacemissileswitha500milerange.Jane'sWeaponsSystemssaysthatChinadoesnothaveasurface
tosurfacemissilewitha500600milerange;howevertheSovietUnionhasproducedaseriesofmobile,land
basedmissileswitharangeof540miles.
RichardPyle,"ChineseReportedlyHelpingBuildIranianMissileFactory,"AssociatedPress,8March1989,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

27February1989
InameetingwithChinesePrimeMinisterLiPeng,PresidentBushraisesconcernsaboutmissileproliferationbut
didnotspecificallymentiontherecentsaleofChineseintermediaterangemissilestoSaudiArabiaorantiship

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
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SilkwormmissilestoIran.AccordingtoWhiteHousePressSecretaryMarlinFitzwater,LireaffirmedChina's
promisetotheReaganadministrationlastyeartoact"responsibly"initsarmssales.
PhilGailey,"BushTreadsLightlyonIssueofHumanRightsinChina,"St.PetersburgTimes,27February1989,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

24February1989
SouthAfricaannouncesthatitispurchasingdefensiveradar,aircraft,andmissilesfromChina.
"ChineseArms;BorderDisputebetweenZimbabweandSouthAfrica,"TheTimes,24February1989,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

24February1989
TheU.S.StateDepartmentannouncesthatithas"noevidence"tobackupaNewYorkTimesarticlefrom23
February1989thatallegessophisticatedChineseballisticmissileswerebeingshippedthroughNorthKoreato
controversialcountriessuchasSyria,IranandLibya.TheannouncementbytheStateDepartmentismadeinan
attempttoavoidanarmsdisputeinthedaysleadinguptoPresidentBush'svisittoBeijing.StateDepartment
spokesmanCharlesRedmansaid,"WebelievethePeople'sRepublicofChinaunderstandstheconcernswehave
expressed,andourconstructivedialoguewiththemthusfarprovidesabasisforoptimismwithregardtothe
proliferationofballisticmissilesandtheircomponenttechnology."Hewentontosay"thereisnoevidencethat
intermediaterangeballisticmissilesbuiltinChinahavebeensenttoanycountrybesidesSaudiArabia,either
directlyorindirectly."
MartinWalker,"WashingtonActstoAvoidArmsRowwithChina,"Guardian,24February1989,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

23February1989
NewYorkTimescolumnistWilliamSafireallegesthatChinesemissilescontinuetobesoldtoMiddleEastern
countries.SafirewritesthatChinesemissilesarebeingshippedbyrailthroughnorthernChinatoNorthKorea,
wheretheyarethenshippedoutoftheNorthKoreanportatNampo.Theallegeddestinationforthesemissiles
includesSyria,Libya,andIran.AlthoughtheChineseassuredCarluccilastSeptemberthattheywerenotselling
missilesorweaponstotheMiddleEast,byshippingthemtoNorthKorea,andhavingNorthKoreashipthemtothe
MiddleEast,theChinesearenotbreakingthatpromise.
WilliamSafire,"ThoseChineseMissiles,"NewYorkTimes,23February1989,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

6February1989
Chineseindustrialandtradeorganizationsmakeastrongpitchtosellmilitaryhardwareandspacelaunchservices
attheDubai89Airshow.ChinesePrecisionMachineryImportandExportCorporation(CPMIEC)displaysawide
rangeofmissilesthatareonsaleattheshow.MissilesondisplayincludetheHQ28andHQ2Jsurfacetoair
missiles.The2Bisanupdatedversion,equippedwithadigitalguidancesystemanddesignedtobeoperatedand
launchedfromamobilelaunchplatform.The2Jmodelisdesignedtobelaunchedfromafixedlaunchpad."We
attendanumberofshowseachyear,"YangJishi,vicepresidentofCPMIECsaid."Ourpresenceheredoesn't
necessarilymeanweareconcentratingoureffortsonsalesinthegulfarea."
"ChineseMakeStrongPitchtoSellMilitaryHardware,LaunchServices,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,6
February1989,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

6February1989
Pakistantestfiresitsfirstsurfacetosurfacelongrangemissile.Analystsbelievethatthemissilewasproduced
withChineseaidandtechnology.IndiabelievesthatPakistandidreceiveoutsideassistance."Itisdifficultto

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believethatacountrythathardlyproducesbicyclescanmakeextremelyaccuratesystems,"saidretiredair
commodoreJasjitSingh.
AhmedRashid,"PakistanHasTestedFirstMissile,ArmyChiefSays,TorontoStar,6February1989,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

1988
15November1988
AtanarmsexhibitioninBeijing,Chinadisplaysitslatestweaponryforarmsbuyers.TheChinesePrecision
MachineryImportandExportCorporationsaysitisputtingsixnewmissilesonthemarketduringthefourday
AsianDefenseTechnologyExposition,orAsiandex88.
KathyWilhelm,"ChinaShowsoffArmsforSale,"AssociatedPress,15November1988,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

8October1988
TheLiberationArmyDailyreportsthattheChineseNavyisdevelopinganewtypeofshiplaunchedmissile.The
navyisdevelopinganewtypeofshipbasedstrategicmissileandhasmadebreakthroughsintechnologiesand
launchingcapabilitiesoftacticalmissilesthereportsays.Thereportalsocitedahighlevelnavalofficerassaying
thatChinahasachievedstrongermissileoffensivecapabilitiesinexperimentswithsubmarinelaunchedmissiles
conductedinSeptember.
"China'sNavyStrengthensMissileOffensiveCapability,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasService,8October1988,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

30September1988
TheSenatepassesanamendmenttotheForeignAidAppropriationsBilltoprohibitU.S.assistancetothemissile
programofChinainanymanneruntilthepresidentcertifiestotheCongressthatChinaisnotsupplyingmissilesto
Iran,Iraq,Syria,Libya,orSaudiArabia.ThemeasureisaimedatstoppingCongressfromapprovinglicensingfor
ChinatolaunchthreeU.S.satellitesintospace.
"HelmsonSatellite,"CentralNewsAgencyTaiwan,4October1988,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

17September1988
SenatorRobertDoledeliversaspeechontheSenatefloorregardingChinesearmssales.SenatorDoleremains
skepticalofChinesepromisestocurbmissilesalesandtechnologytransfers."Frankly,however,manyofusinthe
SenateremainskepticalaboutChinesearmssalespoliciesanddisturbedbypastarmstransferstoIranandSaudi
Arabiaamongothers."Hewentontosay,"IfirmlybelievetheSenateandtheAmericanpeopledeservetoknow
moreaboutthenatureoftheseassurancesbeforetheUnitedStatescommitstofurthermilitaryandtechnology
transferagreementswithChina."Finally,DolesaidthattheReaganadministrationshould"holdoffonsigningany
newagreementswithChinauntiltheSenateandtheAmericanpeoplehavehadachancetoseesomeevidence
thatChinaisindeedlivinguptoitsassurances."
"DoleRemainsSkepticalaboutPeipingsArm'sSalesPolicy,"CentralNewsAgencyTaiwan,17September1988,
inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

10September1988
U.S.DefenseSecretaryFrankCarluccifinisheshistriptoChinasayinghewillrecommendtotheReagan
administrationthatlicensesbeapprovedfortheexportofAmericansatellitestobelaunchedonChineserockets.

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CarluccisaidthatNationalDefenseMinisterQinJiweiwas"mostpleased"withCarlucci'srecommendations.
Beforetheexportlicensescanbeapproved,theymustgothroughCongress.
JimAbrams,"AgreementonMissiles,SatellitesHighlightCarlucciVisit,"AssociatedPress,10September1988,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

7September1988
DefenseSecretaryFrankCarluccisaysthathefeels"fullysatisfied"Chinawillbehaveina"thoroughlyresponsible
way"initsweaponssalestoforeignnations,followingtalkswithChineseleaders.Carlucciwentontosay"Inmy
opinion,thesearethebestdiscussionswehaveeverhadonthissubject,andIhopewecannowputthisissue
behindus."ChineseDefenseMinisterQinJiweiassertsthatChinesearmssalestotheMiddleEastareinsignificant
comparedtothesalesofothersuperpowers."Chinaisadevelopingcountryandeveninthefutureitwillnotsell
armamentsinlargequantities,"Qinsaid.AU.S.officialbriefingthepresssaidthattheU.S.respectsChina'srightto
haveanoverseasarmssalesprogramjustastheUnitedStatesdoes.Hewentontosay,however,"wedothink
thatmissilesfallintoaspecialcategory."
DanielSoutherland,"CarlucciRaisesMissileIssue;ChinaDismissive,"WashingtonPost,7September1988,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com;DanielSoutherland,"ChinaAssuresCarlucciOnMideastArmsSales;PekingSeen
CurbingMissileSupplyRole,WashingtonPost,7September1988,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

6September1988
ChineseDefenseMinisterQinJiweisaysChinawillcontinuetosellarmstotheMiddleEast."ItisnaturalforChina
tosellweaponstotheMideastregionanditwillcontinuetodoso."Healsowentontosaythat"theU.S.isselling
advancedweaponslikeF16s,whileChinasells"ordinary"conventionalones."Healsosaidthathis"countrywill
notbeabletodealwithhugeweaponssalesinthefutureduetoitslimitedindustrialdevelopment."Theremarks
arebelievedtobemadetocounterU.S.DefenseSecretaryCarlucci,whoisexpectedtoraisethequestionof
ChinesemissilesailstoSaudiArabia,Iran,Syria,andothercountries,inameetingwithQinthisweek.
"AsianNewsChina;ChinatoSellWeaponstoMideast,"JapanEconomicNewswire,6September1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

6September1988
ChinainauguratesitsthirdlaunchsitebyboostingaweathersatelliteintopolarorbitonthefirstLongMarch4
expendablevehicle.ThenewsiteislocatedatTaiyuan,inShaanxiProvince,southofBeijing.Westernanalysts
believethesiteisalsousedformissiletestsintotheSouthChinaSea.ChineseofficialsalsopressU.S.Defense
SecretaryCarluccitolobbytheReaganadministrationtoallowAmericansatellitestobeshippedtoChinaandbe
launchedonChinesemissiles.
"ChinaBoostsSatelliteFromNewLaunchSite,AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,12September1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com;JimAbrams,"ChinaWantstoLaunchAmericanSatellitesAboardItsRockets,"Associated
Press,6September1988,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

5September1988
TheAbuDhabibasedpaperAlIttihadreportsthatWesternmilitarysourcesaresayingthatSyriahassignedan
agreementwithChinatopurchaseM9ballisticmissiles.ThereportsaysthatSyriawillreceivethefirst
consignmentofthemissileswithinthenext18months.
"SyrianChineseMissileAgreementReportedlySigned,"BBCSummaryofWorldBroadcasts,7September1988,
inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

5August1988
TheChinesegovernmentdenouncesaresolutionintheU.S.SenatecriticizingChinesearmssalestotheMiddle
East,andcalledconcernsthatChinaisdestabilizingtheregion"abigjoke."ZengTao,spokesmanfortheNational
People'sCongress,saidtheresolutionwasunreasonableinterferenceinChina'sinternalaffairs.Zengcalledonthe
Senateto"treasuretheachievementsofthedevelopmentofSinoUSrelations."
"ChinaCallsUSSenateResolution"BigJoke,"AssociatedPress,5August1988,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

4August1988
WilliamBurns,directoroftheUSArmsControlandDisarmamentAgency,commentingontalkswithPekingonthe
saleofmediumrangemissilestoSyria,said,"TheChineseapproachtothisparticularlyvexingproblemwasfrank,
andIbelievealsopositive."On27July,theU.S.SenatepassedanonbindingresolutioncallingforPekingto
immediatelyhalt"itsirresponsibleanddangerousarmssalestotheMiddleEast."TheChineseForeignMinistryon
denouncedtheresolution,saying"Thisamendment,whichmakesabigfussaboutthesocalledarmssales,brings
harmtoSinoUSrelations."
JamesL.Tyson,"USTriestoStanchChinaArmsFlow,"ChristianScienceMonitor,4August1988,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

2August1988
ChinaandIranarereportedlyclosetosigninganoilforarmsagreement.Sourcessaytheagreementwillsenda
cargoofcrudetoChinaforfurthersuppliesofChineseSilkwormmissiles.Negotiationsareunderstoodtobeinthe
finalstagesthisweek.
"IranChinaBarterDealofCrudeforSilkwormsSaidNear,"Platt'sOligramNews,2August1988,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

16July1988
SecretaryofStateGeorgeSchultzindicateshehasreceivednoassurancesfromChina'sleadersthattheywould
curbtheirsalesofmissilesintheMiddleEastaftertwodaysoftalksinBeijing."Wedidn'tcometoanyagreements
aboutit,"Schultzsaid."ButIthinkithasbeenworthwhiletotalkaboutit,andIamsurethatthatsubjectwill
continuetobeanimportantoneonouragenda."Schultzwentontosaythat"TheChinesetoldmethattheyhad
notmadeanysaleofballisticmissilestoacountryotherthanSaudiArabia."
ElaineSciolino,"ChineseMissilesSoldinMideastWorryingSchultz,"NewYorkTimes,16July1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

9July1988
SecretaryofStateGeorgeP.SchultzcriticizesChinaforbuildingandsellingthesametypesofmissilesthat
WashingtonandMoscowareworkingtoeliminate."Thereisanironyinthatjustasweareeliminatingnuclear
armedballisticmissilesintherangeof500to5,000kilometers(310to3,100miles),theChineseareproducing
exactlythoseweapons,"Schultzsaid.
DennisD.Gray,"SchultzCriticizesChinaforBuilding,SellingMissiles,"TheAssociatedPress,9July1988,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

2July1988
SyriadeniesanydealforChinesemademissilesexistsbetweenthetwocountries.AspokesmanfortheSyrian
militarydismissedIsraelireportsofthedealas"untrue."
ThemissilesinquestionsaretheChineseM9missiles,amissileChinaspecificallydesignedforitsexportmarket.
SyriantelevisionreportsthattheIsraeliclaimsaredesignedtoblackmailtheU.S.intosellingIsraelmoreadvanced

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

Americanweaponssystems.
"SyriaDeniesDealforChineseMadeMissiles,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,2July1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

10June1988
TheXinhuaNewsAgencyreportsthatChineseguidedmissiletestslaunchedbythePLAstrategicmissileforcein
thepastfiveyearshavebeen"95%successful."
"ChinesePLAStrategicMissileLaunchings'Successful,'"BBCSummaryofWorldBroadcasts,10June1988,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

7June1988
TheChineseForeignMinistrydeniedaU.S.newspaperreportthatChinesemadeSilkwormmissilesarrivedinIran
lastmonth,sayingChinahadtriedtostoptheflowofthemissilestoIran.
"ChinaBlocksSilkworms,"FinancialTimes,7June1988,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

25May1988
ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanLiZhaoxingdeniesreportsthatChineseleadersagreedtosupplyArgentina
withtechnologyforproducingantishipandmediumrangemissilescapableofhittingtheFalklandIslands,aswell
asreportsthatChinahelpedPakistanlaunchamissile."TheallegationsaboutChina'sassistanceinPakistan's
launchingofamediumrangemissileisutterlygroundless,"hesaid.Lialsodismissedas"groundless"reportsthat
IsraelhelpeddevelopChinesegroundtogroundmissilesrecentlysoldtoSaudiArabia.
"ChinaDeniesSharingMilitaryTechnologywithPakistan,Argentina,"AssociatedPress,25May1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

14May1988
Chinesetechnicianswilloperaterecentlydeployedmobile,mediumrangemissilesystemssoldtoSaudiArabia.
TheChinesewillworkunderSaudisupervision.Chinesetechnicianswerebroughtintodeploythemissilesbecause
theweapons"cannotbeoperatedwithoutconstantsupportoftheirdesigners,"aPentagonanalystsaid.
RichardSale,"ExclusiveChinesetoOperateMissilesSoldtoSaudis,"UnitedPressInternational,14May1988,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

6April1988
ChineseForeignMinisterWuXueqiandefendsChina'sdecisiontosellmissilestoSaudiArabia.Heconfirmedthat
Chinahadsold"somenonnuclear,conventionalsurfacetosurfacemissiles"toSaudiArabia."TheSaudi
governmentmadeacommitmenttousofnotransfer,nofirstuseofthesemissiles,andtousethesemissiles
entirelyfordefensivepurposes.WebelievetheSaudigovernmentwillhonoritscommitment."Hewentontosay
thatthemissilesale"isconducivetothestabilityofthesituationinSaudiArabiainparticularandtotheMiddle
Eastingeneral.""China'sattitudeonthequestionofarmssalesisaseriousone[and]responsibleoneaswell."He
wentontosaythat"somepresstendtopickonChina,andwheneverChinasellsweapons,Chinabecomesthe
newsmaker.Howabouttheweaponsflyingaroundoverthe[Persian]Gulf?Therearemanykindsofthem.Atleast
Iknowtherearesuchweaponsasthe[Americanmade]Stingerandthe[Frenchmade]Exocet.Thesearenot
Chineseweapons.WhyisitthatsomepeoplealwaysharassChinawiththissocalledissue?"
"BeijingDefendsSaleofMissilestoSaudis;OfficialStrikesBackatCritics,"WashingtonPost,7April1988,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

4April1988
TheSundayTimesreportsthatIsraelandChinahavereachedasecretarmsdeal.IsraelhasagreedtoprovideChina
withadvancedmissiletechnology.IsraeliDefenseMinisterYitzhakRabindeniestheagreementexists.Thereport
saysthatIsraelistosupplyChinawithadvancedtrajectorycorrectedmissilesofanunspecifieddesignation.
"SecretChineseIsraelArmsDealReported,"Reuters,NewYorkTimes,4April1988,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

28March1988
ShangYaoChiissentencedtooneyearinprisonforhisroleinthemissilesmugglingplotthatinvolvedhigh
rankingChineseofficialsintheUnitedStates.Chipleadedguiltyon10Decembertoconspiringtoillegallyexport10
TOWIImissilestoChina.U.S.DistrictCourtJudgeDickinsonR.DebeviosecouldhavesentencedChitomorethan
fiveyearsinprison,butbecauseof"exemplary"cooperationinthecase,onlysentencedhimtooneyear.Defense
attorneyAlanZegassaidChiwentalongwiththeplotoutoffearthathisbrother,ananticommunistlikeChi,
wouldbeharmedwhileinaChineseprison.
DanielJ.Wakin,"ChinaMissilePlotFigureSentenced;LawyerSaysHeActedoutofFear,"AssociatedPress,28
March1988,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

24March1988
JohnH.Hall,formerpresidentandengineerofMicroPowerSystems,Inc.,testifiedinfrontoftheSenate
CommerceCommittee,saying"IhavereasontobelieveSeikomayhaveillegallytransferredcriticalballisticmissile
guidancetechnologytoChina."ThetechnologywasinventedatJapan'sHattoriSeikoCo.Groupinajointventure
withtheUnitedStates.Thetechnologiesinquestioninclude12bitaccuracydigitaltoanalogdataconverter
technology,usedintargetareainertialguidancesystemsprovidingnearperfectaccuracyforballisticmissiles."In
sum,Seiko'stakeoverofMicroPowerhasresultedinthetransferofsignificantmilitarytechnologiestoJapan,
whereexportcontrolisnotoriouslylessstringentthanintheUnitedStates,"Hallsaid.
"SeikoMayHaveIllegallyGivenChinaMissileTech,"JijiPressTicker,25March1988,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

21March1988
ChinaconfirmsthesaleofmediumrangeballisticmissilesarmedwithconventionalwarheadstoSaudiArabia.
"ChinahasprovidedSaudiArabiawithconventionalandnonnuclearsurfacetosurfacetacticalmissiles"aForeign
Ministryspokesmansaidinastatement.TheDF3hasarangeof2,200kmandhasthecapabilityofhittingany
areaintheMiddleEast."Chinadoesnotfavornorengageinnuclearproliferation,Chinadoesnotsellnuclear
weaponstoanycountry."Thespokesmansaid."WetrustthegovernmentofSaudiArabiainitscommitmentthat
theseweaponsaresolelyforthepurposeofdefense."
"ChinaConfirmsSaleofConventionalMissilestoSaudis,"UnitedPressInternational,21March1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

17March1988
TheU.S.StateDepartmentreleasesastatementclaimingChinaissellingmissilestoSaudiArabia.Themissilesare
reportedtobetheDF3,capableofcarryingnuclearweapons,althoughbothcountriesdenythatChinais
supplyingnuclearweaponstoSaudiArabia.CharlesRedman,aStateDepartmentspokesmansays"TheUnited
Statesbelievesthattheacquisitionofsuchasystemisnotintheinterestofpeaceandstabilityintheregion."He
wentontosaythepurchaseis"partofadisturbingtrendinsurfacetosurfacemissileproliferationthatthreatens
thesecurityofallstatesintheregion."Mr.RedmanalsosaidthattheSaudiGovernment"hasassuredusatthe
highestlevelthatSaudiArabiadoesnothave,nordoesitintendtoacquireanynuclearcapability."

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

DavidRampe,"U.S.SaysSaudisAreBuyingMissilesfromChina,"NewYorkTimes,18March1988,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

9March1988
TheReaganadministrationannouncestheliftingofsanctionsonthesaleofhightechnologytoChinabecauseitis
satisfiedChinaisnotsellingSilkwormantishipmissilestoIran."WeareencouragedbyChinesestatementsand
actionsregardingIran'sacquisitionofChineseantishipmissiles,Silkworms,"StateDepartmentspokesmanCharles
Redmansaid.
"ReaganLiftsHighTechBanonChinaSales,"JournalofCommerce,10March1988,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

9March1988
ChineseForeignMinisterWuXueqiantellsPresidentReaganthatChinawillsupportanembargoonIranifthe
resolutionwinsthebackingofan"overwhelmingmajority"oftheSecurityCouncil.ThePresidentthankedForeign
MinisterWufor"theChinesedirectexpressionofsupport."
JulieJohnson,"ChinaIndicatesSupportforArmsEmbargoonIran,"NewYorkTimes,9March1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

7March1988
U.S.SecretaryofStateGeorgeP.SchultzappealstoChineseForeignMinisterWuXueqianforChinatobackaU.N.
sponsoredarmsembargoonIranasan"essentialstep"towardendingthesevenyearwarinthePersianGulf.The
ChineseclaimthatsincelastNovember,theyhavestoppedsupplyingSilkwormmissilestoIran.AseniorState
Departmentofficialtoldreporters,"asfaraswecantell,fromourinformation,they[theChinese]havebeenliving
uptothatpledge."
DanOberdorfer,"SchultzAsksChinesetoJoinIranEmbargo,"WashingtonPost,8March1988,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

16February1988
HuaXiang,directorofPeking'sCenterforInternationalStudies,warnsthattiesbetweenPekingandWashington
willworsenunlesstheU.S.stops"interferenceandblackmail."ThewarningcomesinanissueofthePeking
Review,anofficialgovernmentpublication.HuawarnsthatU.S.protestsonhumanrightsabusesinTibetand
accusationsofChineseSilkwormmissilesalestoIranthreatentiesbetweenthetwostates.
"USMovesThreatensTies,ChineseOfficialCharges,"ChristianScienceMonitor,16February1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

9February1988
CharlesChangissentencedtotwoyearsinprisonforconspiracytoillegallyexportmissilestoChina.ShangYaoChi
wasalsoindictedinthecase.HepledguiltyandfacessentencingFebruary22.
DanielJWakin,"ManInChinaMissilesPlotSentencedToTwoYearsinPrison,"AssociatedPress,9February
1988,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

3February1988
ChineseofficialsurgetheU.S.toend"someirrationalpractices"regardinghightechnologytransfersinorderto
improvetraderelations.TheU.S.placedcurbsontechnologytransfersinOctoberafterChinashippedSilkworm
missilestoIran.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

RobertThomson,"ChinaUrgesUStoEaseHighTechCurbs,"FinancialTimes,3February1988,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

13January1988
U.S.officialsclaimIranhasreceivedanewshipmentofChineseSilkwormmissilesviaNorthKorea.New
intelligencereportsindicatethatthenewmissilesarenotonlylandbased,butcanalsobefiredfromships,giving
themissilesmoremobility.
DavidKShipler,"U.S.SaysIranReceivedMoreChineseMissiles,"NewYorkTimes,13January1988,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

19871986
30December1987
ThreemerchantshipsbelievedtobecarryingChinesemadearmsarereportedenroutetoIran.U.S.intelligence
analystssaytwooftheshipsleftNorthKoreanportslastweek,whileathirdleftShanghaiafewdaysago.North
KoreahasbeenacommonrouteforChinesearmsheadedtoIraninthepast.Theshipsarebelievedtobecarrying
advancedSilkwormmissiles,whichareneededforanIranianoffensiveagainstIraq.
WalterAndrews,"ThreeShipsLoadedwithChineseArmsEnroutetoIran,"UnitedPressInternational,30
December1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

27December1987
ChinadeniessellingmissilestoIran.TheU.S.accusedChinaofsellingadvancedSilkwormAntishipmissilestoIran.
AspokesmanfortheChineseForeignMinistrystatedthat:"ThereportsaboutChina'sdirectorindirectsupplyof
themissilestoIranareallgroundless."
"ChinaDeniesNewMissileSaletoIran,"CourierMail,28December1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

16December1987
TaiwanesebusinessmanShangYaoChipleadsguiltytochargesofconspiringwithhighlevelU.N.diplomatsto
illegallyexportarmstoChina.ChioriginallypledinnocentonOctober27.ChinesediplomatFanLianfengwasalso
implicatedinthecase,althoughhighleveldiplomatsnormallyenjoydiplomaticimmunity.FanlefttheU.S.shortly
afterthecasebroke.
DanielJ.Wakin,"TaiwaneseManAccusedinArmstoChinaCasePleadsGuilty,"AssociatedPress,16December
1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

19November1987
TheU.S.StateDepartmentwelcomesChinesestatementsregardingthecontroloftheinternationalsaleof
Silkwormmissiles.StateDepartmentSpokesmanCharlesRedmansaidanewChinesestatementissuedyesterday
was"consistentwithcommentsbyanumberofChineseofficialsindicatingthatChinahastakenstrictmeasuresto
preventthediversionofChineseoriginarmstoIran."RedmandoesnotknowwhatstepsChinahastakenbutsaid
that"itwouldbeapositivedevelopmentifthesemeasuresareeffectiveinstoppingtheflowofChinesearmsto
Iran."
"U.S.WelcomesChina'sMoveonMissileSales,"AssociatedPress,19November1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

18November1987
TheChineseForeignMinistryannouncesthatChinahashaltedtheinternationalsaleofSilkwormMissiles,which
havebeenusedbyIranagainstneutralshippinginthegulf."WehavetakenmeasurestopreventChinesemade
missiles(from)enteringtheinternationalmarket,"ForeignMinistryspokesmanMaYuzhenannounced."China
sellsnoweaponstoIran,includingmissiles,"Masaid.
"ChinaSaysitHasHaltedSilkwormMissileSales,"UnitedPressInternational,18November1987,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

4November1987
ChinaaccusesU.S.officialsandtheAmericanmediaofspreading"groundlessrumors"inallegingthatChinawas
sellingarmstoIran."TheU.S.presshasbeentryingtogivetheinternationalcommunitytheimpressionasifChina
hadbecomethebiggestarmssupplierforIranandhasbeenspreadingsuchrumors,"saidLiZhaoxing,aChinese
ForeignMinistryspokesman."Thisisreallyridiculous.Weexpressourstrongdissatisfactionwiththepracticeof
shiftingtoChinatheresponsibilityfortheescalationoftensionsinthegulf."
"BeijingDeniesSellingNewArmstoIran,"AssociatedPress,4November1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

3November1987
ChinapledgestotakestrictmeasurestoensurethatChinesemadeSilkwormmissilesarenotdivertedtoIran.
UndersecretaryofStateMichaelArmacostsays"Ourobjectiveistoputtheissuebehindus,"uponthecompletion
ofathreedayvisitfortalkswithChineseviceForeignMinisterZhuQizhen."Ourconcern,obviously,isthat
weaponsofChineseorigin,howevertheyaredeliveredtoIran,hitAmericanflaggedshipsandinjureAmericans,
andalsoaredirectedagainstfriendlycountriesinthe(Persian)gulf."
JaneMacartney,"ChinatoActagainstMissileDiversion,"UnitedPressInternational,3November1987,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

2November1987
ChinesePremierZhaoZiyangattackstheU.S.forcriticismofChina'shumanrightsrecordinTibetandforaccusing
ChinaofsellingmissilestoIran.ZhaosaidtheU.S.charges"arenotonlyharshwords,butthesewordsare
completelygroundless.It'sunfairtoshifttheresponsibilityoftheintensificationofthetensionsinthegulfregion
toChina."
"ZhaoBlastsU.S.CriticismonSilkworms,Tibet,"AssociatedPress,2November1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

23October1987
ChinasaystheU.S.was"notreasonable"inimposingsanctionsonhightechsalesinresponsetoallegedcontinued
saleofChinesemissilestoIran.TheXinhuaNewsAgencysaysthatit"isnotreasonableatallfortheUnitedStates
tohaltthereviewofrelaxingcontrolsofhightechexportstoChinaunderthepretextofmountingtensionsinthe
Gulf."
JimAbrams,"ChinaCondemnsSanctionsonIranianMissiles,"AssociatedPress,23October1987,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

22October1987
TheU.S.movestolimitthesaleofsomehightechnologyitemstoChinainretaliationforcontinuedChinesemissile
salestoIran.StateDepartmentspokeswomanPhyllisOakleyannounces:"Duringthisperiodofrisingtensions,...we
havedecidednottoproceedfornowwithreviewofcertainliberalizationofhightechnologyexportcontrolson
thePeople'sRepublicofChina."SenatorFrankH.Murkowskiaskedtheadministrationtoreviewalltransfersof

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

U.S.militaryrelatedtechnologytoshowthatthe"continuedtransferofSilkwormmissilestoIranmayseriously
jeopardizeU.S.Chinarelations."Murkowskiwentontosaythathewantsto"sendamessagethatU.S.military
salesshouldnot,inmyopinion,continueifChinacontinuesitsSilkwormsales"toIran.
HenryGotlieb,"U.S.LimitsHighTechSalestoChineseOverSilkworms,"AssociatedPress,22October1987,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com;MollyMoore,"U.S.ReactstoChineseSilkwormSale;TechnologyTransferDelayed;
SenateSeekstoReviewArmsDeal,"WashingtonPost,23October,1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

21October1987
ShangYaoChipleadsinnocenttochargesthathetriedtoillegallysellU.S.missilestoChina.
DanielJ.Wakin,"ManAccusedofTryingtoBuyMissilesforChineseDiplomatsPleadsInnocent,"Associated
Press,21October1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

1October1987
ShangYaoChiisarrestedforallegedlyconspiringtoillegallyexportTOWandSidewindermissiles,andblueprints
forF14fighterjetstoChina.AccordingtoAssistantU.S.AttorneyMarkS.Olinsky,Chihaslinksto"highranking
membersoftheUnitedNations(Chinese)delegationandthePeople'sRepublicofChina."Accordingtothe
complaint,thenegotiationswerewithanundercoverfederalagent,andthatnomissilesorplanschangedhands.
DanielJ.Wakin,"PlottoExportMissilestoChinaAlleged,"AssociatedPress,1October1987,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

26September1987
InaninterviewwithTomBrokaw,ChinesePremierZhaoZiyangsaysChinahasnotsoldanyweaponstoIran."We
haverepeatedlystatedthatChinahasnotsoldweaponsIran,andofcoursenomissiles.Chinahasallalongbeen
makingeffortsforanearlyendtotheIranIraqwar.Wewillneverdoanythingwhichisnotintheinterestof
reconciliationbetweenIranandIraq."HewentontosaythatChina"willmakeoureffortstopreventtheweapons
ChinaexportsfrombeingacquiredbyIranorIraqthroughotherchannels."
"ChinaHasNotSoldWeaponstoIran:Zhao,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,28September1987,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com;DanielSoutherland,"China'sPremierSaysBeijingSeekstoBlockArmsSalestoIran,
Iraq,"WashingtonPost,27September1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

14September1987
IraqdeniesthatIrancapturedChinesemadeSilkwormmissilesfromIraqinanoffensive,aswasclaimedbyIranian
officials.SaadounHammadi,presidentofIraq'sNationalAssembly,saidinastatement."TheIraniansare
absolutelynottellingthetruthwhentheysaytheyhavecapturedthesemissilesfromIraq."
"IraqDeniesIranianClaimonCapturingSilkworms,"AssociatedPress,14September1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

17August1987
Iranissaidtohavepurchased$1.6billionworthofSilkwormmissilesandunsophisticatedplanesfromChina.The
priceoftheSilkwormsisreportedat$600million,withtwodifferentcategoriesincluded,missileswitha1,000
poundwarheadandmissileswitha1,300poundwarhead.
IranSaidtoHavePurchasedArmsfromChina,"UnitedPressInternational,17August1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

27June1987
AnewshipmentofChineseBadgerbombersandSilkwormmissilesarrivesinIraqiports.Intelligencereports

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

indicatethatthelatestshipmentincludes30cratesforSilkwormmissiles.Thereportssaythattheshipment
"completesabigorder"ofChinesemadearmsthathavebeenarrivinginIraqforthepastseveralmonths.Chinais
amajorsuppliertobothsidesduringtheIranIraqwar.
MollyMoore,"ChinaSendsNewWeaponstoIraq,"WashingtonPost,27June1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

10June1987
ForeignMinistrySpokesmanLiJinhuadeniesChinesesalesofSilkwormmissilestoIran."Itisquiteobviousthat
certainU.S.newspapershavekeptonfabricatingandspreadingsuchirresponsiblereportswithulteriormotives,"
shesaidreferringtoreportinginU.S.newspapersontheIranIraqwar."Wehavealsonotedthatrecentlysenior
officialsofabigpowerhavealsomadesimilarremarksonseveraloccasions.Weareverysurprisedatthat."A
westerndiplomatrespondedbysaying"Chinahashelditselfupasaleaderinworlddisarmament,howcanyousay
you'realeaderandatthesametimebeamajorarmssupplier?"
LenaSun,"ChinaStronglyDeniesSellingArmstoIran,"WashingtonPost,11June1987,atLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

10June1987
IranianofficialsclaimtobedomesticallyproducingtheSilkwormantishipmissilestheU.S.governmenthas
accusedChinaofsellingtoIran.AmirZamini,spokesmanfortheIranianmissiontotheU.N.,saidthatIranhad
capturedthemissilefromIraqinanoffensive18monthsago.RespondingtoquestionsregardinghowIranbuilt
themissilesconsideringIraniancapabilities,heresponded"Necessityisthemotherofinvention."
"IranClaimsitMakesSilkwormMissile,"UnitedPressInternational,10June1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

10June1987
WhiteHouseChiefofStaffHowardBakercontradictsNationalSecurityAdvisorFrankCarluccibysayingthathe
believesChina'sdenialthattheysoldmissilestoIran."IaccepttheChinesegovernment'sstatementthattheydid
notgivethemorsellthemtoIran.Idonotdisputethat."Shortlyafterthestatementwasreleased,anofficialsaid
thatBakerwasmistaken."WehavenodoubtthemissilesarecomingfromChinadirectlytoIran."
"BakerSaysHeBelievesChinaonIran'sSilkwormMissiles,"UnitedPressInternational,10June1987,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

6June1987
NationalSecurityAdvisorFrankCarluccisaysthattheChinesedenysellingSilkwormantishipmissilestoIran.He
alsosaysthatIranhasreceived"somewhereover20nowandthe(final)packageisatleasttwicethatsize."He
wentontosaythatalthoughtheChinesedenythesales,"WethinktheyarecomingfromChina."
"CarlucciSaysChinaDeniesSellingMissilestoIran,"AssociatedPress,6June1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com;"CarlucciSaysChineseWillDoubleMissileDeliverytoIran,"AssociatedPress,6June1987,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

5June1987
ArableadersmeettogethertodiscusswhatactionsmustbetakenagainstChinainresponsetoChineseaidtoIran
intheIranIraqwar.IncludedintheallegationsagainstChinaarereportsthatChinahassoldSilkwormantiship
missilestoIran."OurpolicyofkeepingstrictneutralityintheIranIraqwarremainsunchanged,"aspokesmanfor
theChineseForeignMinistrysaid."OurpositionofnotprovidinganyweaponstoIranremainsunchangedalso."
However,inaseparatestatementinApril,Iran'sambassadortoChina,AlaeddinBorujerdi,didindicateIranhad

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receivedweaponsfromChina,includingmissiles.
JulianBaum,"ArabsStepupCriticismofChinaforAidingIran,"ChristianScienceMonitor,5June1987,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

1June1987
ItisbelievedthatIranandChinaareworkingtowardsanarmsagreementtoincludemissiles.Iranmayhaveasked
ChinatosupplytheHY2,Silkworm,antishipmissiletoIran.
JasperBecker,"Iran'AsksChinaformoreMissiles,'"TheGuardian,1June1987,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

27May1987
ChineseForeignMinistryofficialsdenyreportsthatChinahasbeenprovidingIranwithantishipSilkwormmissiles.
Speakingontheconditionofanonymity,theForeignMinistryspokesmansaid"it'snottrue,"incommentingabout
theallegedmissilesales.
"ChinaDeniesSellingAntiShipMissilestoIran,"AssociatedPress,27May1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

26May1987
U.S.officialsannouncethatChinahasshippedaseconddeliveryofSilkwormantishipmissilestoIran.TheChinese
missilesweredeliveredtwoweeksago,addingtoanarsenalprovidedbyChinainashipmentearlierintheyear.
"ThemissilesadddangerousdimensionstoshippingintheGulf,"saidU.S.officialsunderconditionsofanonymity.
"ChinaDeliversNewAntiShipMissilestoIran,"TheAssociatedPress,26May1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

21May1987
MountingtensionsinthePersianGulfareputtingnewpressureonChinaformissilesalestoIran."The
(Communist)Chinesedecisiontosellsuchweapons(Silkworm)toIranismostunwelcomeanddisturbing,"
AssistantSecretaryofStateforNearEastandSouthAsianAffairsRichardMurphysaid.Hewentontosaythat"We
havemadecleartobothIranandRedChinatheseriousnesswithwhichweconsidertheSilkwormthreat."The
StateDepartmentrefusestocommentonwhetherornottheU.S.haslodgedanofficialcomplaintdirectlywiththe
Chinese.
"RedChina'sArmsSalestoIranRaiseAlarminU.S.,"CentralNewsAgencyTaiwan,21May1987,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

4May1987
HunagHua,vicechairmanofthestandingcommitteeoftheChineseNationalPeople'sCongress,deniesreports
thatChinahassoldarms,includingmissiles,toContrasinNicaragua.Hecallstheaccusations"falseand
groundless."HuangstressedthatnofalsereportingwouldharmthefriendlyrelationsbetweenChinaand
Nicaragua,Mexico,orthecontadoragroup.
"ChinaDeniesReportsofChineseArmsSaleto"Contra,'"TheXinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,4May,
1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

20March1987
U.S.militaryofficialsandanalystsbelievenewIranianmissilebatteriesposeaseriousthreattocommercial
shippinginthePersianGulf.TheHY2missilesareChinesebuiltandcarry1,000poundsofexplosives.Theyare
designedtoattackshipsfromland.Theyhavearangeof50miles.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

"NewIranianMissilesMayCauseUStoEscortTankersthroughPersianGulf,"TheAssociatedPress,20March,
1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

4March1987
InresponsetoongoingdisarmamenttalksbetweentheUnitedStatesandtheSovietUnion,Chinaurgesboth
statestoincludeAsiaindiscussionsonmissilereduction.AChineseForeignMinistryofficialsaid,"Wehave
consistentlyheldthatthereductionofthemediumrangemissilesdeployedinEuropeandAsiabytheSovietUnion
andtheUnitedStatesshouldbesimultaneousandbalancedandshouldbecarriedoutaccordingtothesame
principleuntiltheirtotaldestruction."ChinaisconcernedthatthereductionofnuclearmissilesinEuropewill
simplymeanaSoviettransferofthosemissilestoAsia.
"ChineseWantMissilePacttoIncludeAsia,"UnitedPressInternational,4March1987,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

15January1987
ChinaunveilstheAirForce'snewB6Dbomber.Theplanecarriesguidedmissilesunderitswingsforattackagainst
enemywarships.
"Chinashowsitsnewbombertotheworld,"TorontoPost,15January1987,inLexisNexis,www.lexis
nexis.com.

4November1986
ChinahostsAsiandex'86,thelargestinternationalarmsbazaareverhostedbyChina.Chineselaunchrocketsand
tacticalmissilesareondisplay,whichalsoincludesmodelsofitsmissiles,fighters,tanks,mobilerocketlaunchers,
machineguns,torpedoes,mortars,andotherordnance.
"ChinaHostsBigArmsBazaar,"JournalofCommerce,4November1986,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

17February1986
AviationWeek&SpaceTechnologyreportsthatChinacarriedoutatestlaunchoftheDF5Intercontinental
BallisticMissilelastSeptember.Westernintelligenceanalystsbelievethatthismissileusesamultipleindependent
reentryvehicle(MIRV)typeofnuclearwarhead.ThelaunchtookplacefromXichanglaunchfacilityinSichuan
ProvinceinSouthwestChina.
"ChinaTestFiresICBMwithNewNuclearWarhead,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,17February1986,in
LexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

28January1986
TheXinhuaNewsAgencyreportsthatthemissiletestsconductedlastSeptember"greatlyincreasedthe...strategic
capability"ofanimprovedguidedmissile"andthenumberoftargetswithinitsrange."
"ChinaReportsImprovedNuclearMissileCapability,"AssociatedPress,28January1986,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.

19851980
21September1985
Chinaannouncesitispreparingtolauncha''carrierrocket''towardatargetareaintheEastChinaSeanorthof
Taiwan.Westernmilitaryexpertssaidthetestmayinvolveanewcruisemissile.Theagencydescribedthelow
altitudemissileas"China'sExocet,"aftertheFrenchweaponthatprovedsoeffectiveintheFalklandsconflict

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

betweenBritainandArgentinain1982.
RonRedmond,"ChinaMaybeTestingCruiseMissile,"UnitedPressInternational,21September1985,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

22July1985
ChinahasmodifieditsTitanclassCZ2andCZ3rocketboostersbyaddinglargetailfinsandimprovingtheirrocket
enginesandelectronicstoprovidemoreflightcontrolandreliabilitytoavehicletheyhopewillbecompetitivein
theinternationalcommerciallaunchmarket.TheCZ2/3seriesthathaslaunched14ofChina's16satellitesis
manufacturedonaonebyonecustombasisasChinesespacecraftnearflightreadinessratherthanbeing
producedonanassemblylinetosupportlongtermChinesespacemissionplanning.AU.S.spaceteamvisitedthe
ShanghaiplantthatmanufacturestheTitanclassboosterusedbothasalaunchvehicleandasChina'slargest
intercontinentalballisticmissilecapableofloftingafivetonnuclearwarhead6,000mi.Onlyaboutfiveofthem
havebeendeployedasICBMs.ThetwostageCZ2canplacemorethan5,000lb.intoalowEarthorbitandwithan
oxygen/hydrogenupperstageaddedtoformtheCZ3canplace3,080lb.ingeosynchronoustransferorbit.
"ChineseModifyCZ2/3RocketBoostersFocusonCommercialLaunchMarket,"AviationWeek&Space
Technology,22July1985,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

8July1985
ChinaisseekingaforeigncustomerforitsproposedC101shiplaunchedantishipmissile,andisofferingto
developtheweaponwiththecustomerinacooperativeeffort.AscalemodeloftheC101wasdisplayedonthe
ChinaPrecisionMachineryImport/ExportCorp.standattheParisairshow.China'sparticipationthisyearwasits
firstintheParisshow.
"ChinaOffersAntishipMissileforExport,JointDevelopment,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,8July1985,
inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

17June1985
AttheParisairshow,Chinadisplaysnewmissileandweaponstechnology.IncludedinthedisplayistheHQ2J
surfacetoairmissile,basedontheSovietSA2guideline,atwostageweaponwithalengthof10.8meters(35.5
feet).Firststageis0.654meters(2.1ft)indiameterandispoweredbyasolidpropellantrocketmotor.TheHQ2J
weighs19.3kilograms,andburstsinto12,000fragments.Itisclaimedtobelethalwithin6metersoftheblast
radius.AlsoincludedaretheHY2antishipmissiles,whichcanbefiredfromaportablelandbasedlauncher.Itisa
wingedmissilewithalengthof7.36meters(24.14ft.)andadiameterof0.76meters(2.49ft.).Weightis2,998kg.
(6,610lb.).ChineseofficialssaidtheHY2islaunchedbysolidboostersandispoweredtothetargetathigh
subsonicspeedsbyaliquidmotor.TheHY2Gversionhasactiveradarhomingandusesaradioaltimetertoreduce
thecruisealtitude.TheHY2Ausespassiveinfraredhoming.MaximumeffectiverangeoftheHY2seriesis95km.
(59mi.)accordingtoChinesedata.Warheadweightis513kg.(1,130lb.),Chineseofficialssaid.Typicaloperational
rangefortheHY2isfrom20to95km.(12to59mi.)atcruisespeedsofMach0.9.TheChinaPrecisionMachinery
standattheParisairshowalsoincludedafullscaleHN5shoulderlaunchedantiaircraftmissile.Theweaponis
designedforuseagainstlowaltitudetargets,andthemissilefliesataspeedof500meters/sec.(1,640fps.).
"ChineseDisplayTacticalWeaponsAvailableforCoproduction,Export,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,17
June1985,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

June1985
ChinaandIranagreetoacontractforChinatosell200Silkwormgroundtogroundmissilesworth$250million
dollarstoIran.ArmsbrokersinTehransaidChinaalsodelivered120HQ2Jsurfacetoairmissiles.Chineseofficials
havedeniedthesales.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

"AsiannewsChina;ChinaAgreestoSell200MissilestoIran,Papersays,"JapanEconomicNewswire,29June
1987,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

7April1985
ChineseofficialsleaveforasummitwithSovietleaders.TheChinesemaintainthatSoviettroopdeploymentalong
theSinoSovietborder,SovietmissiledeploymentaimedatChinaandSovietinvolvementinAfghanistanremain
barricadestonormalizationofrelationsbetweenthetwostates.
"ChinaSendsNegotiatingTeamtoMoscowforRenewedTalks,"ChristianScienceMonitor,8April1985,inLexis
Nexis,lexisnexis.com.

1April1985
AviationWeek&SpaceTechnologyreportsthatonOctober1oflastyear,theChinesegovernmentunveileda
submarinebasedballisticmissileatNationalDaycelebrations.Themissileisunderdevelopmentforuseonthe
Chinesenavy'sXiaclassnuclearsubmarines,eachofwhichisexpectedtocarry16operationalmissiles.A
developmentalversionoftheCSSNX4,asinglestagemissile,wastestfiredfromasubmergedsubmarineinlate
1982andthemissilehitatargetareaabout900nauticalmilesaway.Operationalrangeisexpectedtobe1,600
2,000nauticalmiles.
"ChineseDevelopSingleStageSubmarineLaunchedBallisticMissile,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,1
April1985,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

March1985
TheChinesegovernmentannouncesthatithasthenuclearcapabilitiestocounterasurprisenuclearattack.Thisis
basedonitsballisticmissilecapabilities,whichincludeICBMsandIRBMs.
ClareHollingworth,"China'sGrowingMissileMight,"DefenseandForeignAffairs,March1985,inLexisNexis,
lexisnexis.com.

12January1985
TheUnitedStatesreachesanagreementtosellChinaantisubmarineandantimissiledefensesystems.The
hardwareistoincludethePhalanxantimissilesystem.
WayneBiddlebandJohnF.Burns,"U.S.SaidtoPlantoSellNavalWeaponstoChina,"NewYorkTimes,13
January1985,inLexisNexis,lexisnexis.com.

January1985
Chinaannouncesoverstateradiothatitintendstodevelopanewantishipmissileby1989.Accordingtothe
commentary,theChinesearedevelopingnewmissilesthatwillbesupersonic,flyatseaskimmingaltitudes,and
havealongrangecapability.
"China(PRC):NewNavyTacticalMissiles,"Defense&ForeignAffairs,January1985,inLexisNexis,lexis
nexis.com.
29October1984
ThePeople'sDailyreportsthatChinanowhasanadequatenuclearcombatcapabilitytocounterasurpriseattack.
ThereportsuggeststhatChinaiscompletingdeploymentofintermediateandlongrangemissileforces.
"ChinaNowHasCapabilitytoCounterSurpriseAttack,"JapaneseEconomicNewswire,29October1984,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

16October1984
ChinaopensadefenseexhibitinAthensdisplayingmodels,photos,andvideosofbattleprovenChineseweaponry.
Thedisplayincludesmilitaryelectronics,ordinanceweapons,tacticalmissiles,andwarships.
"ExhibitionofChineseDefenseIndustryHeldinAthens,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,20October
1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1October1984
InNationalDaycelebrations,Chinadisplaysabroadrangeofartillery,armorandmissiles,alongwithmorethan
6,000marchingsoldiers.Chineseintercontinentalballisticmissiles,mediumrangeballisticmissiles,and
intermediaterangeballisticmissilesareallondisplay.Westernanalystsnotethattheequipmentlooksold,but
generallyingoodshape.AnalystsalsonoticethesimilaritybetweensomeoftheChineseequipmentandIsraeli
equipment,includingasealaunchedcruisemissilesimilartoIsrael'sGabriel.
MichaelWeiskopf,"ChinaDisplaysMight,EschewsMilitaryMoveonTaiwan,"WashingtonPost,2October1984,
inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

26September1984
ChineseForeignMinisterWuXueqian,inanaddressdeliveredbeforetheU.N.GeneralAssembly,demandsthe
U.S.andSovietUnionresumearmstalksanddestroytheirarsenalsofdeployednuclearmissiles."Thetwo
superpowersoughttobeartheresponsibility.Itistheywhopossessover95%oftheworld'stotalnuclear
weaponry,andtheyaloneareinapositiontofightanuclearwar"hesaid.
JohnUsher,"ChinaDemandsDestructionofU.S.,SovietNuclearMissiles,"UnitedPressInternational,26
September1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

27August1984
ChinesePresidentLiXianianandRomanianPresidentNicolaeCeausescucalljointlyfortheU.SandSovietUnionto
haltdeploymentofmediumrangenuclearmissiles.Theycallfortheresumptionoftalksbetweenthesuperpowers
regardingthereductionanderadicationofallnuclearweapons.
"Chinese,Romanianseekhaltonmediumrangemissiles,"ChristianScienceMonitor,29August1984,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

15August1984
ChineseStateCouncilorJiPengfeivoicesobjectionstoU.S.nuclearcruisemissilesinthePacificFleet.Jidisclosed
hispositiononTomahawkmissilestoavisitinggroupofJapaneseSocialistPartylegislators.
"ChinaopposesU.S.Missiles,"WashingtonPost,17August1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

28July1984
LiYimang,PresidentoftheofficialChineseAssociationforInternationalUnderstanding,pledgesthatChinawill
scaledownitsnucleararsenalifthetwosuperpowerstakethelead,notingthattheChineseforceisonlya
deterrentagainst"nuclearblackmail."Accordingtoanalysts,ChinahasanucleararsenalthatincludesICBMswith
arangeof8,000miles.
AnnScott,"ChinaAsksTitForTatNukeCuts,"UnitedPressInternational,28July1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

27July1984
AU.S.federaljudgedismisseschargesagainsttwoChineseandthreeAmericansaccusedofsmugglingmorethan
$1millionworthofradarjammingandmissileguidanceequipmenttoChina.JudgeH.LeeSarokinconcludedthat

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theyhadbeen"chargedwithanactthatdoesnotconstituteacrime."
"JudgesDismissesChargeinChineseExportCase,"NewYorkTimes,27July1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

15June1984
TheU.S.andChinahavenotbeenabletoreachaformalagreementonanarmspackage.ZhangAiping,the
ChineseDefenseMinister,endstalksinWashingtonbeforetheU.S.andChinaareabletoreachanagreementover
thesaleofU.S.antiaircraftmissilesandantitankweapons.
RichardHalloran,"ChineseAideLeavesWashingtonWithoutFormalArmsSalesPact,"NewYorkTimes,15June
1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

12June1984
HanHuaizhi,AssistanttothePLAChiefofGeneralStaff,announcestheformationofastrategicmissilewing.
"RapidadvancesinmilitarytechnologyhavemadeitnecessaryforthePLAtoraiseitscombinedattackingability.
Onlyinthiswaywoulditbeabletowinbattlesinthecomingantiaggressivewartodefendsocialistconstruction
andworldpeace."
"ChineseMissileWingFormed,"XinhuaGeneralOverseasNewsService,12June1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

12June1984
SecretaryofDefenseCasparW.WeinbergerannouncesthattheUnitedStatesandChinahavereachedan
agreementregardingU.S.weaponssales.TheChineserequestthatthedetailsofthetalksremainprivate.TheU.S.
andChinadiscussedantitankmissiles,andthepotentialfortheU.S.toprovideChinawithhightechnologyto
improveartilleryammunition.WeinbergerstatesthatantitankmissilesmaybesoldtoChinainthefuture.
RichardHalloran,"WeinbergerandChineseAideinAccord,"NewYorkTimes,12June1984,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

6June1984
YuriDergachov,aSovietcommentator,warnstheU.S.aboutsellingadvancedtechnologytoChina,whichcouldbe
usedforadvancedweaponry.Mr.DergachovwarnedthatChinamightuseadvancedU.S.computers,
microprocessors,andnuclearpowertechnologytoimproveitsintercontinentalballisticmissiles.
DavidBuchan,"SovietWarningoverU.S.salestoChina,"FinancialTimes,7June1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

5June1984
ChineseDefenseMinisterZhangAipingsaysthatChinawantstobuyadvancedweaponsandtechnologyfromthe
UnitedStatesandotherfriendlycountriesinanattempttocontinuethemodernizationoftheChinesemilitary.
ContinuingtalkswiththeU.S.includeearlywarningradar,airdefensesystems,andantitankmissiles.
"ChineseOfficialtoVisitWestforHighTechnologyArms,"ChristianScienceMonitor,6June1984,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

27April1984
ChinesediplomatsexpressconcernsregardingthearmsracebetweentheSovietUnionandtheU.S.intalkswith
PresidentReaganinBeijing.ZhaoZiyangtellsU.S.officialsthat"ifthetwosidescontinuetheirdeploymentof
thesemissilestherewillinevitablybeaprogressiveescalationofthearmsraceinEuropewhichwillaggravatethe
internationaltension."

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MarkBaker,"ChineseLeaderLecturesReagan,"FinancialTimes,27April1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

8April1984
Chinasuccessfullylaunchesapermanentlyorbitingsatellite.Thesatellitewaslaunchedonathreestagelauncher
witharefinedguidancesystem.ThesystemfarexceedsthefiringcapabilitiesofChina'smostadvancedICBMs.
MichaelWeisskopf,"ChinaOrbitsSatelliteforCommunication;MilitaryImplicationsSeeninBreakthrough,"
WashingtonPost,19April1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

4April1984
ChineseForeignMinisterWuXueqiandenouncestheSovietdeploymentofSS20missilesintheFarEast,saying
"ThedeploymentofadditionalSS20missileswasregardedasapracticalthreattotheSecurityofChina."
"ForeignMinisterDenouncesSovietMissiles,"JapanEconomicNewswire,5April1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

14February1984
Bailissetat$1.5millionforDaChuanZhengwhoisaccusedofplottingtosmuggleupto$1millionofmissile
guidanceandradarjammingequipmenttoChina.JingLiZhang,KuangShinLee,KwongAllenYeung,andDavidTsai
wereallchargedinthecase.
NewYorkTimes,14February1984,Page3,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

13February1984
U.S.customsagentsarrestfivepersonsinNewJerseyforconspiringtosmugglemorethan$1millioninclassified
hightechnologymilitaryequipmentformissileguidance,radarjammingandelectronicsurveillancetoChina.
MaureenDowd,NewYorkTimes,13February,1984,Page1,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1February1984
ChineseForeignMinistryspokesmanQiHuaiyuancommentsonU.S.andSovietmissiledeployment."Atpresent
thetwosuperpowersarecompetingwitheachothertodeploymiddlerangenuclearmissilesinEurope.Under
thesecircumstances,EuropeancountrieshopethattheconveningoftheConferenceonDisarmamentinEurope
wouldplayacertainroleineasingtensionintheregion."HiscommentsareinregardstotheStockholm
ConferenceonDisarmamenttakingplaceinEurope.
"ChineseForeignMinistrySpokesmanonStockholmConferenceonDisarmament,"XinhuaGeneralOverseas
NewsService,1February1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

9January1984
TheReaganadministrationcomesunderfirefromtheConservativeCaucusforeasingrestrictionsontechnology
transferstoChina.ConservativeCaucusPresidentHowardPhillipsaccusesPresidentReaganofcavingtothe
pressurefrombusinessinterests.HeassertsthataccesstoU.S.technologywillmakeiteasierforChinatoupgrade
itsmissilecapabilities.
StuartAuerbach,"ConservativeCaucusAttacksReagan;CriticizingEasingofRestrictionsonPurchasesofHigh
TechnologyItemsFromU.S.byChina,"WashingtonPost,10January1984,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

31December1983
TheSovietUnionharshlycriticizesChinaforbiasedanalysisofU.S.mediumrangemissiledeploymentinWestern
Europe.Thereport,publishedinthemilitarynewspaperKrasnayaZvezda,statesthatChinaseemsunableto

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understandhowWashingtonalonehasaggravatedinternationaltensionbydeployingthemediumrangenuclear
weapons.
StevenR.Reed,"SovietsEndYearCriticizingChina,"UnitedPressInternational,31December1983,inLexis
Nexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

25November1983
ChineseForeignMinisterWuXueqianannouncesthattheSovietUnionmustreducethenumberofSS20missiles
deployedintheFarEastasaprerequisitetonormalizationofrelationsbetweenthetwostates.
"ChinaisSeekingAsianMissileReduction,"JapanEconomicNewswire,25November1983,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

7October1983
ChinaandtheSovietUnionopentalksaimedatnormalizingrelations.TheChinesearesettopressuretheSoviets
regardingSovietnuclearmissilesdeployedalongChina'sfrontier.
NewYorkTimes,7October1983,Page1,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

17September1983
ChinaaskstheSovietUniontodrasticallyreduceitsSS20mediumrangenuclearmissilesinAsia.Itisthefirsttime
ChinahasincludedthemissilesasamajorobstacletonormalizingSinoSovietrelations.
MichaelRoss,"ChineseCallForSovietMissileReduction,"UnitedPressInternational,17September1983,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

28July1983
Chinalaunchesitsfirstnuclearpoweredballisticmissilesubmarine."Fromwhatweunderstand,they[China]did
launchanuclearpoweredballisticmissilesubmarinesometimelastyear,butitisnotoperationalyet."Chinaisstill
developingitsSLBMs,andwilllikelymatethemwiththesesubmarines.RetiredBritishAdmiralJohnMooreis
quotedinJapanesenewspapersassayingthatChinaisconstructingthesecondfleetofeightnuclearpowered
ballisticmissilesubmarines.
MichaelRoss,"ChinaLaunchesNuclearMissileSub,"UnitedPressInternational,28July1983,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

23July1983
TheChinesegovernmentlodgesaprotestwiththeU.S.regardingarmssalestoTaiwan."TheChinesegovernment
herebylodgesastrongprotestwiththeU.S.governmentagainstthisactwhichseriouslycontravenestheabove
agreement[U.S.ChinaJointCommuniqu],"proclaimedZhangWenjin,ChineseAmbassadortotheU.S.
"ChineseAmbassadortoU.S.LodgesStrongProtestAgainstU.S.ArmsSaletoTaiwan,"XinhuaGeneralOverseas
NewsService,"23July1983,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

23March1983
TheWashingtonPostreportsthatChinahascancelledanarmsdealworthmorethan$150millionwithBritain.Itis
reportedthatthecostwastoohighfortheChinese.
"ChinaCancelsMissileDealwithBritain,"WashingtonPost,23March,1983,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

14March1983
GeorgyArbatov,amemberoftheSovietCommunistParty'sCentralCommission,callsforChinatobeincludedin
negotiationsseekingtorestrictmediumrangenuclearmissilesinAsia.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

CherylSullivan,Ed."SovietssayarmstalksinAsiashouldincludeChina,"ChristianScienceMonitor,14Mach,
1983,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

3March1983
ChineseDefenseMinisterZhangAipingpublishesanarticleexpressingviewsregardingChinesemilitaryspending
anddevelopment."Defensefundsshouldbeconcentratedonthoseprogramswhicharebadlyneededandthe
mostimportantareaswhichaffecttheoverallsituation,suchasstrategicguidedmissilesandcenterforproducing
nuclearfuelandbombs"hewrote.
"AroundtheWorld,ChinaisUrgedtoMakeMissilesandBombs,"NewYorkTimes,Reuters,4March1983,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

2March1983
ChinaandtheSovietUnionconducttalksinanefforttoeasetensionsbetweenthetwocountries.Chinaexpresses
concernregardingSovietmissiledeploymenttargetingChina.
JohnF.Burns,"SovietChineseTalksareRenewedinMoscow,"NewYorkTimes,2March1983,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

6December1982
Chinabuysmorethan$170millionworthofmissilesfromtheBritish.ThenegotiationsbeganinJuly1981,ata
conferenceinShanghai.Themissilesarepartofapackagethatincludesothernavalorientedweaponssystems.
"Chinaorders$170MillioninBritishArmaments,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,6December1982,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

2November1982
TheNewYorkTimesreportsthatChinahassignedadealwithBritaintobuySeaDartmissilesandadvanced
electronicequipment.Deliveriesaresettotakeplaceoverseveralyears.
ColinaMacdougall,"ChinatobuyBritishmissiles,"NewYorkTimes,12November1982,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

17October1982
ChinaNewsAgencyreportsthatChinasuccessfullytestfireditsfirstsubmarinelaunchedmissileintheEastChina
SeaduringOctober716exercises.
NewYorkTimes,17October,Page15,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

12October1982
Chinaconductsitsfirstunderwaterlaunchofasubmarinelaunchedballisticmissile(SLBM),theJulang1(JL1)from
BohaiBay,150milesnortheastofBeijingintheNorthChinaSea.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

2October1982
ChinaannouncesthatitwilltestfireanunarmedmissileintotheEastChinaSeanortheastofChinalaterinOctober
1982.Thegovernmentwarnsshipstostayclearofthearea.
NewYorkTimes,2October1982,Page2,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

17August1982
ChinaNewsAgencyreportsthatChinahasdevelopedaguidedmissiledestroyerandcontinuestotestweaponsfor
otherships.
NewYorkTimes,17August1982,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

7December1981
ChinatestlaunchestheDF5ICBMfromWuzhaitestcenterinShaanxiProvince.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,and
ChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

21October1981
TheChineseForeignMinistrydeniesthatasubmarineexplodedduringmissilefiringtestintheNorthChinaSea.
NewYorkTimes,21October1981,Page8,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

21September1981
U.S.officialsprotestJapaneseintentionstosellhightechcomputerstoChina.U.S.officialscontendthecomputers
couldeasilybeconvertedfromcivilianusetomilitaryuseanalyzingthetrajectoryofballisticmissiles.
AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,21September1981,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

30April1981
ChinalaunchesitsfirstDaqingyuclass(U.S.designation:Xia)nuclearpoweredballisticmissilesubmarinefrom
HuludaoShipyardinLiaoningProvince.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,and
ChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

October1980
ChinatestfirestheDF4missilefromtheJingyumissiletestcenterinJilinProvince.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,and
ChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

August1980
ChinatestfirestheDF4missilefromtheJingyumissiletestcenterinJilinProvince.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,and
ChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

21May1980
ChinaconductsitssecondfullrangetestoftheDF5.Thetestfailsasthemissilefalls800milesshortofthe
intendedtarget.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,and
ChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

18May1980
ChinaconductsitsfirstfullrangetestoftheDF5ICBMfromShuangchengzimissiletestcenterinGansuProvince
toaPacificOceanimpactsite.Thetestflightcoversadistanceof6,000miles.Chineseofficialsannouncethat
"China'slaunchingofcarrierrocketsintothePacificOceanbetweenMay18andMay20wascompletely

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successful."ThenewmissilesareabletoreachthewesternUnitedStates.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.JayMathews,
"China'sICBMsSeenasDeterringSovietAttacks,"WashingtonPost,22May1980,inLexisNexis,web.lexis
nexis.com.

1970s
4September1979
ChinaconductsapartialrangetestoftheDF5.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

21August1979
ChinaconductsapartialrangetestoftheDF5.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

15July1979
ChinaconductsapartialrangetestoftheDF5.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

4July1979
ChineseradioinBeijingreportsthesuccessfultestofaballisticmissile.
NewYorkTimes,4July1979,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

7January1979
ChinateststheDF5ICBMfromtheWuzhaimissiletestcenterinnorthwestShaanxiProvince.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork,NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.335.

30August1978
TheInternationalInstituteforStrategicStudiesreleasesareportsayingtheChinahasintercontinentalballistic
missiles(ICBMs).ThereportsaysthatmultistageICBMsfirsttestedin1976arenowlikelyoperational.
"ChinaMayNowHaveICBMs,"WashingtonPost,1September1978,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

3May1978
ChinareportedlypurchasesantitankmissilesfromFrance.Itisthefirstorderofadvancedweaponsfroma
westernstateBeijinghasmadesinceChinabeganmodernizingitsmilitary.
NewYorkTimes,3May1978,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

18April1978
U.S.StateDepartmentspokesmanTomRestondeclinescommentregardingaccusationsthattheCIAsentagentsin

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toIndiatosetupnuclearpoweredequipmenttomonitorChinesemissiletests.
NewYorkTimes,18April1978,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

15April1978
IndiangovernmentofficialsdemandanexplanationfromtheCIAregardingreportsthattheCIArecruited14
mountainclimberstohikeintotheHimalayasandplacenuclearpoweredsensoryequipmenttomonitorChinese
missiletests.
NewYorkTimes,15April1978,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

26January1978
Chinasuccessfullylaunchesasatelliteintospace.ItmarkstheeighthsatellitelaunchforChinasince1970andwas
deemedasuccessasitwasbroughtsafelyback.
NewYorkTimes,31January1978,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

13September1977
ChinadisclosesthroughtheXinhuaPressAgencythatithastestedguidedmissileswithnuclearcapabilities.
NewYorkTimes,13September1977,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

24August1977
TheDefenseIntelligenceAgencyreportsthatChinahasembarkedonaslowmilitarymodernizationthatwillnot
threatentheUnitedStatesinthenearterm.TheAgencyreportedthatnoChinesemissileshavethecapabilityto
reachtheUnitedStatesandthatChinesemissilecapabilitieswillnotlikelythreatentheU.S.foratleastadecade.
GeorgeC.Wilson,"ChinaArmsBuildupHeldNoEarlyThreattoU.S.,"WashingtonPost,24August1977,in
LexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

12July1977
QianXueshensaysintheChinesejournalRedFlagthatChinesedevelopmentofscienceandtechnologyislagging
behindduetopoliticalinterference.Provincialradioisalsoreportingthatpoliticalinfightingatamainsupport
basefornuclearweaponsandmissilescrippleddefenseproductionformonthslastyear.
"ChineseTechnology,"TheWashingtonPost,12July1977,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

12October1976
PresidentFordandtheNationalSecurityCouncilapprovethesaleofhightechnologycomputerequipmentto
China,despiteoppositionbytheEnergyResearchandDevelopmentAssociation.Thesalehasbeenapprovedbutis
subjecttosafeguardsrecommendedbytheDepartmentofDefense.Thesalewillhavetobeapprovedbythe
InternationalExportControlCoordinatingCommittee.Twocomputershavebeenapprovedforsale,butonlyone
willbedeliveredimmediatelyforoilexploration.Theotherwillnotbedelivereduntilproofhasbeengivenofthe
needforseismicresearch.Inadditiontothepossibilityofusingthecomputerequipmentfornuclearweapons
calculationwithoutthesafeguards,theycouldalsobeusedforantiballisticmissilesystemsandlargephasedarray
radartotrackICBMs.
"FordApprovesComputerSaletoChina,"AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,12October1976,inLexisNexis,
web.lexisnexis.com.

18October1976
China'sballisticmissileprogramsarenotprogressingasquicklyasU.S.intelligencehadpreviouslyforecast.It

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seemstobetheresultofacombinationofeconomicandtechnicalrestraintsthatChinaisfacing.
AviationWeek&SpaceTechnology,18October1976,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

25February1976
FormerDefenseIntelligenceAgencyDirectorLt.GeneralDanielOGrahamsaysthatChinahasprobablymadea
politicaldecisionnottoproduceICBMssothatitwouldnothaveaweaponthatdirectlythreatenstheUnited
States.Chinaprobablymadea"deliberatepoliticaldecision"afterPresidentNixonvisited,tonotproducethe
missilethatwastestfiredin1971.GrahambelievesChinawillonlyproducesubmarinelaunchedballisticmissiles.
NewYorkTimes,25February1976,p.21,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

13October1975
ChinaisreportedtohavedeployedtwoDF4missileswitharangeof3,500milesand3megatonwarheadsinan
undergroundsiloinWesternChina.Itisbelievedthatasiloforathirdmissileisbeingconstructed,butthatthe
Chinesearehavingsomedifficultywiththetwostagesystem.
"SovietFears,"AviationWeekly&SpaceTechnology,12October1975,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

14April1975
NewsweekreportsthatU.S.intelligencenowhasevidencethatChina'sintermediaterangemissiles,witharange
ofabout1,500miles,arenowmobileandcanbemovedacrossthecountry.Thereportisbasedonintelligence
thatpickedupamissilebasemorethan80milesfromthenearestrailroadline,withnorailroadtracksonthesite.
JohnA.Conway,"China'sMovableMissiles,"Newsweek,14April1975,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

2July1973
DepartmentofDefenseandAtomicEnergyCommissionofficialsreportthatChinaismakingrapidheadwayinthe
developmentofnuclearweaponsbutisrunningintotechnicaldifficultywiththemissilesnecessarytodeliver
them.
NewYorkTimes,2July1973,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

4March1973
NixonadministrationofficialsreportthatChinaisdevelopinganintercontinentalballisticmissiledesignedtostave
offpotentialfirststrikecapabilitiesbyeithertheU.S.ortheUSSR.
NewYorkTimes,4March1973,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

8January1973
CIADirectorRichardHelmstestifiestotheSenateArmedServicesCommitteethatChinamaybereaching
"superpower"statusbecauseofdevelopmentsinnuclearweaponstechnologyanddeliverysystems.Secretaryof
DefenseMelvinLairdassertsbeforethecommitteethatChinaismovingforwardrapidlyonthedevelopmentof
liquidfueledmissilesystems.
NewYorkTimes,10January1973,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

7November1972
U.S.officialsannouncethatthereisevidenceChinahasdeployedahandfulofstrategicmissilescapableofreaching
Moscow.Themissilesarereportedtohavearangeof3,500milesandcarrya3megatonwarhead.Chinahasalso
deployed20othermissiles,somewitharangeof1,000miles.
NewYorkTimes,8November1972,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

1February1972
SeniorAmericananalystsbelievethatChinahasstartedtodeploymediumrangeballisticmissileswithgreater
rangeandimprovedpropellantsystemsthanonearliernuclearrockets.Themissilesareusingstorableliquid
propellantthatpermitsthemtobeinstalledinspecialundergroundsilos.
NewYorkTimes,1February1972,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

9October1971
DepartmentofDefenseResearchDirectorDr.JohnFostersaysChinanowhasmediumrangemissiles,isinthe
processofdevelopingIRBMS,andislikelytohaveICBMsverysoon.
NewYorkTimes,9October1971,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

10September1971
ChinaconductsthefirstsuccessfultestflightoftheDF5missile.
MarkWade,"Jiuquan",accessedfromwww.astronautix.com,30March2005,www.astronautix.com.

6August1971
TheDepartmentofDefensebelievesthatChinamayhavedevelopedmediumrangeballisticmissileswitharange
ofupto1,500miles.TheexpectationisthatChinawillhaveamodestoperatingforceofmediumrangeand
intermediaterangeballisticmissilesbythemiddleof1972.
NewYorkTimes,6August1971,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

8June1971
AU.S.DepartmentofDefensereportindicatesthatChinaisbuildinganuclearpoweredsubmarine.Thesubisnot
believedtobecapableoffiringmissiles.
NewYorkTimes,8June1971,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

1971
TheDF3entersservice.
MichaelD.Swaine,LorenH.Runyon,"BallisticMissileDevelopment,"(Seattle:TheNationalBureauofAsian
Research,2001),p.305.

30January1970
Chinaconductsthefirstsuccessfultestflightalongdistancemissile.ItisbelievedtobetheDF4.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.334.

23November1970
U.S.analystsreportthattheybelieveChinahasdevelopedanewmediumrangenucleararmedballisticmissile
witharangebetween600and1,000milesattestrangesitesreportedlyinpreparationofapotentialshowdown
withtheSovietUnion.ItisbelievedthattheChinesearealsotryingtodevelopalongrangemissilewitharangeof
morethan2,500miles.ThattestcenterisbelievedtobeinManchuria.
NewYorkTimes23November,1970,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

October1970
Chinatestsaballisticmissilethattravels2,000miles.ThetestisconductedentirelywithinChina'sborders.

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MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
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RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.334.

22July1970
AnalystsinHongKongandWashingtonnotethecontinuedmilitarybuildupontheSinoSovietborder.Itisalso
believedthatanewmissiletestfacilityhasopenednearPeking.OfficialsexpectChinatobereadytotestICBMs
witharangeofover1,000milesverysoon.
NewYorkTimes,22July1970,p.5,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

20May1970
U.S.AssistantSecretaryofDefenseDanielHenkinreportsthatChinalaunchedasecondobjectofconsiderablesize.
Thelaunchwaslikelyasatellite.ThefeatmeansChinaislikelyonthevergeoftestingintercontinentalballistic
missiles,Henkinsays.
NewYorkTimes,20May1970,p.8,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

24April1970
ChinasuccessfullylaunchesitsfirstsatellitetheDongFangHong1(DFH1)usingaCZ1launcher.
RobertS.Norris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.334;"RestofWorld
(Row)SpaceLaunch,GlobalSecurity.org,23July,2003,Pg.22,www.globalsecurity.org.

19February1970
ChinaaccusesJapanofdevelopingmissilescapableofcarryingnuclearwarheads.
NewYorkTimes,19February1970,p.4,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

30January1970
ChinaconductsitsfirsttestlaunchofDF3atJiuquanlaunchfacilityinGansuProvince.
ChinaDefenseToday,accessedfromwww.sinodefense.com,18November2003,www.sinodefence.com.

10January1970
ChinateststheCZ1launchvehicleatJiuquanlaunchfacilityinGansuProvince.
ChinaDefenseToday,accessedfromwww.sinodefense.com,18November,2003,www.sinodefence.com.

1960s
1November1969
ChinaattemptsanunsuccessfullaunchofasatelliteusingaDF3/CZ1launcher.Thelaunchwasdeemedafailure
becausethesatellitedidnotreachorbit.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.334.

17September1969
AsahiShimbunreportsthatJapanbelievesChinahasdevelopedballisticmissileswitharangeofmorethan1,200

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milesandwilltestanICBMbytheendof1970.
NewYorkTimes,17September1969,Page6,inLexisNexis,web.lexisnexis.com.

26January1968
ThefirsttestrunofthethirdstageoftheLongMarch1launchvehicleendsinfailure.Theengineexplodes30
secondsaftertakeoff.Thefailureisblamedonamalfunctionwiththeadhesive.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.26.

26December1966
ChinaconductsitsfirstsuccessfultestflightoftheDF3missile.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.333.

27October1966
ChinalaunchesaDongFeng2(DF2)mediumrangeballisticmissile(MRBM)fromtheShuangchengzimissiletest
siteinGansuprovince,whichstrikesitstargetintheLopNurtestsite.Themissilecarrieda12kilotonnuclear
warhead,markingtheonlytimethatacountryhastestedanuclearwarheadonaballisticmissileoverpopulated
areas.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.333;YanKong,
"China'sNuclearBureaucracy,"Jane'sIntelligenceReview,July1993.

1July1966
TheSecondArtilleryForce,commandedbyXiangShouzhi,iscreatedtoleadChina'snuclearforces.Itisequipped
withstrategicandballisticmissiles.Itconsistsofsixballisticmissiledivisions.
"SecondArtilleryCorp,"GlobalSecurity.org,www.globalsecurity.org

July1965
ThefourenginesfortheDF1,DF2andDF3aretestedtogetheronastandforthefirsttimeTheDF3istobea
multienginerocket,unlikethesingleengineDF1andDF2.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.15.

March1965
ResearchanddevelopmentbeginsontheDongFeng4(CSS3).TheDF4istobeatwostage,liquidfuelled
ballisticmissilewitharangeof4,000km.Itistocarryasinglewarheadwithanestimatedyieldof3.3megatons.
ResearchanddevelopmentalsobeginsontheDongFeng5(CSS4).TheDF5istobeatwostage,liquidfuelled
multimegatonwarheadwitharangeofmorethan13,000km.TheDF5istotargetthecontinentalUnitedStates.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.384.

4November1964
TheDF2isredesignatedtheDF2A,withtheintentiontoincreaseitsrangeto1,250km.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.333.

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12September1964
TheDF1isrenamedDF3.Thenewdesignationrequiresthemissiletobedevelopedwithalongerrangeand
greaterpayload.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.333.

29June1964
ChinaconductsasuccessfultestoftheDongFeng2surfacetosurfacemissileattheJiuquanlaunchingsitein
GansuProvince.
"DF2/CSS1"FederationofAtomicScientists,10June1998www.fas.org.

April1964
ResearchanddevelopmentbeginsontheDongFeng3(CSS2).TheDF3istobeasinglestage,liquidfueled
missile.Itistobe24meterslongand2.25metersindiameter,andweigh64tonsatliftoff.TheDF3istobean
intermediaterangemissilewitharangeof2,800km.ThePhilippinesistheinitialtargetoftheDF3.

[Note:Althoughdesignatedthesamename,thisDF3isacompletelydifferentmissilethantheoriginalDF3ICBM
witha10,000kmrangeinitiallyenvisionedbyQianXuesenin1960andabandonedin1963.]
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.381;JohnWilson
LewisandXueLitai,ChinaBuildstheBomb,(Stanford,CA,StanfordUniversityPress,1988)Pg.212213.

1963
TheDF1isabandonedbecauseoftheweaknessofitsengines.
JohnWilsonLewisandXueLitai,ChinaBuildstheBomb,(Stanford,CA,StanfordUniversityPress,1988)p.213.

1963
Researchanddevelopmentonthe10,000km.DF3ICBMisabandoned.Theprojectsufferedaseriesofsetbacks
asitwasdeterminedtobetooambitiousforChinesemanufacturingcapabilitiesatthetime.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.15.

6December1962
Twofemaletechniciansarekilledwhen200kgofsolidfuelexplodesinamixer.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.25.

21March1962
ChinaconductsitsfirsttestoftheDongFeng2missile.ThelaunchiscarriedoutatJiuquanlaunchfacility,inGansu
Province.Thetestisunsuccessful,astherocketcrashes69secondsintoitsmission.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.13.

March1962
TheSolidfuelRocketEngineResearchInstituteintheFifthAcademyisopened.XiaoGanisnamedtheheadofthe

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

Institute.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.25.

1962
TheCubanMissileCrisissparksadebateinChinaregardingtheutilityofnonstorablefuelsintheChinesemissile
program.Itisbelievedthatsuchmissilestaketoolongtolaunchinarapidlyescalatingshowdownandcannotbe
heldinreadinessforlongperiodsoftime.
JohnWilsonLewisandXueLitai,ChinaBuildstheBomb,(Stanford:StanfordUniversityPress,1988),p.214.

14November1960
DevelopmentbeginsontheDF3.QianXuesenleadstheprojecttodevelopamissilewitharangeofmorethan
10,000km.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.332.

5November1960
ChinalaunchesthefirstDongFeng1(DF1)missile,theChineseversionoftheR2orSS2missile.TheDF1was
launchedfromtheJiuquanbaseinGansuProvince.
"DF1"FederationofAtomicScientists,10June1998,www.fas.org.

September1960
ChinasuccessfullylaunchesaSovietmadeR2missile.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.6.

19February1960
ChinalaunchesthefirstrocketdesignedandmanufacturedinChina.LaunchednearShanghai,therocketonlyflies
8metershighbeforeplummetingbacktoearth.
"Shenzhou5launch:longcherisheddreamrealized,"ThePeople'sDaily,15October2003,
http://english.people.com.cn.

19591935
June1959
ThefirststrategicmissilebattalionisformedwithintheArtilleryCorps.
JohnWilsonLewisandXueLitai,ChinaBuildstheBomb,(Stanford:StanfordUniversityPress,1988),p.215.

16October1958
ThePLA,directedbyNieRongzhen,establishestheScienceandTechnologyCommissionforNationalDefense.This
commissionmakesresourceallocationdecisionsfortheconventionalandnuclearweaponsprograms.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,RichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,and
ChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.332.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

21June1958
MaoZedongproclaimsthatChinawillhaveintercontinentalmissilecapabilitieswithintenyears.Hedelivershis
messagetotheCentralMilitaryCommission,towhomhealsotellsthatChinawillhavenuclearandhydrogen
bombswithinthatsametimeframe.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,RichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,and
ChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.332.

1January1958
ChinareceivestwoR2missiles(U.S.codenameSS2)fromRussia.Includedwiththemissilesaremissile
blueprints,fromwhichChinaintendstoresearchanddeveloptheirownmissiles.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,RichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,and
ChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.6.

1958
ChinaestablishestheJiuquanSatelliteLaunchCenter,inGansuProvince.Jiuquanisalaunchsiteformissileand
satellitetests.
"JiuQuanSatelliteLaunchCentre,"ChinaDefenseToday,24October2005,www.sinodefence.com.

15October1957
ChinaandtheSovietUnionsigntheNewDefenseTechnicalAccord.IncludedinthedealaretwoSovietR2ballistic
missiles,whichhaveagreaterrangeandlargerpayloadthantheR1.
JohnWilsonLewisandXueLitai,ChinaBuildstheBomb,(Stanford:StanfordUniversityPress,1988),p.212.

8October1956
TheCentralCommitteeestablishestheFifthResearchAcademyoftheMinistryofNationalDefensetodevelopthe
spaceeffort.VicepremierNieRongzhenisinchargeoftheInstitute,withQianXuesenasitsfirstdirector.Within
theacademy,thefirstRocketResearchInstituteisestablished.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.4.

13September1956
ChinapurchasestwoR1missilesfromtheSovietUnion.TheR1isacopyoftheGermanliquidpropellantV2
missileusedduringWorldWarII.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.5.

26May1956
TheCentralMilitaryCommission,chairedbyZhouEnlai,acceptsthereportsissuedbyNieRongzhenandordersthe
establishmentofadministrativemachinerytogetworkunderwayonmissileandrocketdevelopment.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.4.

10May1956
NieRongzhenissuesapaperentitledPreliminaryviewsonEstablishingChina'smissileresearchtotheCentral
CommitteeMilitaryCommission.ThepaperisoneofmanywhichoutlinethefutureoftheChinesemissile
program.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.4.

April1956
QianXuesenbeginssupervisionoftheresearchanddevelopmentofChinesemissiles,rockets,andspacecraft.A
formerofficerintheU.S.Army,QianwasoneoftheleadingrocketscientistsintheUnitedStateswhileworkingat
theCaliforniaInstituteofTechnology'sJetPropulsionLabinPasadena,California,wherehewasacofounderof
thelab.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.6.

1956
ConstructioncommencesonaraillineouttoShuangchengzi,themissiletestfiringrange,inGansuProvince,China.
RobertS.Noris,AndrewS.Burrows,andRichardW.Fieldhouse,NuclearWeaponsDatabook:British,French,
andChineseNuclearWeapons,(NewYork:NaturalResourcesDefenseCouncil,Inc.,1994),p.5.

1955
QianXuesenisdeportedbacktoChinaaspartofaprisonerexchangefor74AmericanPrisonersofWarfromthe
KoreanWar.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.4.

1951
QianXuesenisaccusedofbeingacommunistandarrestedduringtheMcCarthyledanticommunismcrusades.His
securityclearanceisrevokedandheisputinprison.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.3.

5May1945
QianXuesenmeetsGermanrocketengineerWernhervonBraun.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.3.

May1945
QianXuesen,asatemporarycolonelintheUnitedStatesAirForce,goestoGermanytosurveytheGermanrocket
program.Thetripincludesinspectingrocketfactoriesandsecrettestsites.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.3.

1939
QianXuesengraduatesfromtheCaliforniaInstituteofTechnologywithhisdoctorateinaerospaceand
mathematics.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),Pg.2;"SpecialReport:China'sFirstMannedSpaceFlight,"ChinaView,XinhuaNewsAgency,2003,
http://news.xinhuanet.com.

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ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.

1936
QianXuesenenrollsattheCaliforniaInstituteofTechnologytopursueadoctorateinaerospaceandmathematics.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.2;"SpecialReport:China'sFirstMannedSpaceFlight,"ChinaView,XinhuaNewsAgency,2003,
http://news.xinhuanet.com.

1935
QianXuesenenrollsattheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologytopursueamaster'sdegreeinaeronautical
engineering.
BrianHarvey,TheChineseSpaceProgramme:FromConceptiontoFutureCapabilities,(NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons,1998),p.2;"SpecialReport:China'sFirstMannedSpaceFlight,"ChinaView,XinhuaNewsAgency,2003,
http://news.xinhuanet.com.

RelatedcontentisavailableonthewebsitefortheNuclearThreatInitiative,www.nti.org.
ThismaterialisproducedindependentlyforNTIbytheJamesMartinCenterforNonproliferationStudiesatthe
MontereyInstituteofInternationalStudiesanddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheopinionsofandhasnotbeen
independentlyverifiedbyNTIoritsdirectors,officers,employees,oragents.Copyright2011byMIIS.