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ABASH or abase(v.)/bes/:face de ruine, to make
embarrassed or ashamed,abase yourself (formal) to act
in a way that shows that you accept somebodys power
over you.

ABORIGINAL (adj.):/brdnl/aboriginal,original,
(also Aboriginal) relating to the original people living in
Australia,relating to the original people, animals, etc. of a
place and to a period of time before Europeans arrived.

ABRIDGE (v.)/brd/ :prescurta,scurta,abrevia, to

shorten something,especially a literary or artistic work.

ABSTAIN (v.): /bsten/obstina,abtine, to hold back

from,refuse to participate in, refrain from.

ACRIMONIOUS (adj.)/krmnis/:acrimonios,Care
denot acrimonie, plin de ironie; sarcastic.Limbaj

ACRID (adj.)/krd/:acru, bitter, pungent,having a
strong, bitter smell or taste that is unpleasant

ACUTE (adj.)/kjut/:acut, sharp, perceptive, Ascuit,

ptrunztor. (Despre dureri; adesea fig.) Intens, violent.
2. (Despre boli) Cu evoluie rapid, cu caracter de criz.
3. (Muz.; despre sunete) nalt, ascuit2, subire.

ADEPT (adj.)/dept/:adept,partas, skillful,adept (at/in

something) adept (at/in doing something) good at doing
something that is quite difficult.

ADHERE (v.)/dh(r)/:adera,lipi, to stick to,adhere

(to something) (formal) to stick firmly to something

ADORN (v.)/dn/:mpodobi,adorna, to decorate

ADROIT (adj.)/drt/:iscusit,dibaci, skillful,

adept,kilful and clever, especially in dealing with people.

ADULATION (n.)/djulen/:adulare,adulaie,praise,
respect,admiration,admiration and praise, especially
when this is greater than is necessary.

AESTHETIC (adj.) /isetk/:estetic. pertaining to a

sense of beauty,concerned with beauty and art and the

understanding of beautiful things,made in an artistic way
and beautiful to look at.

AFFABLE (adj.) /fbl/:afabil, friendly,

personable,easy to get along with

AGRARIAN (adj.)/rerin/:agrarian.agrar., having

to do with agriculture

alleviate verb/liviet/alina,atenua,alleviate
something to make something less severe-synonym
ease-to alleviate suffering-A number of measures were
taken to alleviate the problem.

ALOOF (adj.)/luf/:distantat, shy, reserved,removed,

tending to remain apart,not friendly or interested in other

ALTRUISTIC (adj.) /ltrustk/ :altruist.altruistic,

unselfish,generous, concerned about the wellbeing of

AMEND (v.)/mend/:amenda, to change, revise,

fix,amend something to change a law, document,
statement, etc. slightly in order to correct a mistake or to

improve it. A mbunti, a modifica prin amendamente

(1) un text, mai ales o lege; a emenda. 2. A mbunti
unele nsuiri ale solului prin ncorporarea unor
amendamente (2).

AMIABLE (adj.)/emibl/:amiabil, friendly,

personable,pleasant; friendly and easy to like.

ALLURE (n.)/l(r)/:atragere. pull, attraction,the

quality of being attractive and exciting.

AMASS (v.)/ms/:acumula,aduna, to gather,

accumulate.He amassed a fortune from silver mining.

AMBIDEXTROUS (adj.) /mbidekstrs/ :ambidextru,

able to use both hands equally well.

AMPLE (adj.)/mpl/:amplu, sufficient, enough or

more than enough

ANARCHY (n.)/nki/anarhie: breakdown or lack of

rule or government, chaos

ANATHEMA (n.) /nm/:anatem, a curse,

something hated-a thing or an idea which you hate

because it is the opposite of what you believe-Racial
prejudice is (an) anathema to me.

ANNUL (v.)/nl/:anula, to make null and void-Their

marriage was annulled after just six months.

ANOINT (v.)/nnt/:mirui, to officially

approve,consecrate-The priest anointed her with oil.

ANTAGONIST (n.)/ntnst/:antagonist,a person

with determined opposition or hatred toward someoneHe has always been the prime ministers most formidable
antagonist in Parliament.

ANTIQUATED (adj.)/ntkwetd/:antic, oldfashioned,antique-like

APPEASE (v.)/piz/:astmpra,domoli, to soothe,

calm, put at ease

APPRISE (v.)/praz/:informa,spune,instiinta,to notify,

inform-He saw no reason to apprise the committee of
what had happened.We were fully apprised of the

ARDUOUS (adj.).)/djus//dus/ :anevoios, hard,
difficult, exhausting-The work was arduous.

ASCERTAIN (v) /sten/ :gasi,descoperi, to uncover

and verify, to make certain

ASCETIC (adj.) /setk/:ascetic,ascet, self-denying,

devoted to simple and austere living-Persoan care
practic asceza; pustnic, sihastru; fig. persoan care
duce o via auster i retras.

ABHOR (v.)/bh(r)/:abhora, to strongly detest or

dislike-A avea ur, dezgust, aversiune fa de cineva sau
de ceva.Most decent people abhor corruption in
government.She abhors any form of cruelty towards

ABSTEMIOUS (adj.)/bstimis/abstinent,sparing in
food and drink-He was a hard-working man with
abstemious habits.

ABSTRACT (adj.)/bstrkt/abstract,theoretical,not

ACQUIESCE (v.) /kwies/consimi la,accepta

reluctant dar fara protest,to agree with,to go along with

ADVERSARY (n.)/dvsri/adversar,opponent or

ADVOCATE (v. / n.) /dvket/advocat,advoca, to

support / a supporter

ALLEVIATE (v.) /liviet/alina,atenua, to relieve, to


AMBIGUOUS (adj.) /mbjus/ambiguu, unclear in


AMBIVALENT (adj.) /mbvlnt/ambivalent, torn

between two conflicting emotions-ambivalent
(about/towards somebody/something) having or showing
both good and bad feelings about somebody/somethingShe seems to feel ambivalent about her new job.He has
an ambivalent attitude towards her.

AMORPHOUS (adj.)/mfs/amorf,lacking a definite

shape or form-synonym shapeless-an amorphous mass of
cells with no identity at all-(Despre substane) Care nu
prezint o structur cristalin, regulat; p. ext. fr form
precis. 2. Fig. Care nu este organizat, structurat etc.

obsolete, outdated-used to describe a person, a custom
or an idea that seems old-fashioned and does not belong
to the present-The daily publication of print media seems
anachronistic today.-used to describe something that is
placed, for example in a book or play, in the wrong
period of history-The costumes were anachronistic for a
Victorian play.

ANECDOTE (n.)/nkdt/anecdota, a short story

intended to instruct or amuse

ARBITRARY (adj.)/btrri//btri/arbitrar, random,

by chance,(of an action, a decision, a rule, etc.) not
seeming to be based on a reason, system or plan and
sometimes seeming unfair-The choice of players for the
team seemed completely arbitrary.He makes
unpredictable, arbitrary decisions.(formal) using power
without restriction and without considering other peoplethe arbitrary powers of officials

ARCHAIC (adj.)/kek/arhaic, outdated, obsolete,


ARTICULATE (adj.) /tkjulet/articulat, skillful in the

use of language, well-spoken

ASCENDANCY (also ascendency)(n.)/

sendnsi/ascendent, the state of rising or ascending;
domination ,(formal) the position of having power or
influence over somebody/somethingmoral/political/intellectual ascendancy

ASSENT (n. / v.) /sent/consimti la,consimmnt

agreement / to agree or consen

ASSIDUOUS (adj.)/sdjus/asiduu, hard working,

diligent,working very hard and taking great care that
everything is done as well as it can be

ASTUTE (adj.) /stjut/ascuit la minte, smart,

perceptivean astute businessman/politician/observer-It
was an astute move to sell the shares then.She was
astute enough to realize that what Jack wanted was her

AUGMENT (v.)/ment/augmenta, to increase in

size, to swell-He wrote magazine articles in order to
augment his income.-The band had been augmented by
two extra trombonists.

AUSPICIOUS (adj.) /sps/auspiciu,
favorable,fortunate, boding well for the future-It was an
auspicious date for a wedding.-Their first meeting was
hardly auspicious.-It was not a very auspicious beginning
to his new career.-We waited for an auspicious moment
to make our request. (n Antichitatea roman) Prevestire
fcut de auguri (1); augur (2). Expr. Sub cele mai bune
auspicii = n mprejurri extrem de favorabile. 2. (n
expr.) Sub auspiciile cuiva = sub patronajul, sub protecia

AUSTERE (adj.)/st(r)//st(r)/auster, stark,

severely simple,simple and plain; without any
decorations-her austere bedroom with its simple narrow
bed-Their clothes were always austere.-the austere
simplicity of the building-the lonely, austere beauty of his
painting of a station in the snow-(of a person) strict and
serious in appearance and behaviour-My father was a
distant, austere man.allowing nothing that gives
pleasure; not comfortable-the monks austere way of life

AUTOCRATIC (adj.)/tkrtk/autocratic. having

total power, dictatorial,expecting to be obeyed by other
people and not caring about their opinions or feelings-an
autocratic manager

AUTONOMY (n.) /tnmi/ independence,the ability
to act and make decisions without being controlled by
anyone else-giving individuals greater autonomy in their
own lives-Condiie a indivizilor, colectivitilor i
instituiilor care se bucur de o anumit independen n
raport cu autoritatea exterioar sau central. 2. Drept al
unor subdiviziuni teritoriale ale unui stat de a se
administra sau guverna prin organe proprii. 3. Distan
maxim pn la care se poate deplasa un avion, o nav,
un vehicul, fr a avea nevoie s se aprovizioneze cu

rs/avariios.avar,greedy,avaricious speculators

AVUNCULAR (adj.)/vkjl(r)/avunculat, having the

qualities of an uncle

BEHEMOTH (n.)/bhim//bihm/ something that
is huge, gigantic,something that is very big and powerful,
especially a company or organization-a multinational
corporate behemoth-She works in a seventy-storey
behemoth in Manhattan.

BENEFACTOR (n.) /benfkt(r)/binefctor, one
who provides financial support-a generous benefactorfriends and benefactors of the hospital

BENEVOLENT (adj.) /bnevlnt/benevolent,

kind,good-hearted-a benevolent smile/attitude-belief in
the existence of a benevolent god-a benevolent
dictatorship-used in the names of some organizations
that give help and money to people in need-the RAF
Benevolent Fund

BOORISH (adj.):/br//
br/mitocnesc,butucnos, offensive, rude(of people
and their behaviour) very unpleasant and rude

BRAZEN (adj.):/brezn/necuviincios,brash, extremely

bold-made of, or the colour of, brass (1)She had become
brazen about the whole affair.-his brazen admission that
he was cheating-Shes known for her own brand of
brazen sexuality.There were several instances of brazen

BREVITY (n.):/brevti/brevitate,shortness, the quality

of being brief the quality of using few words when
speaking or writing-synonym conciseness-The report is a

masterpiece of brevity.-Charles Dickens was not known

for his brevity.-For the sake of brevity, Id like to make
just two points.-the fact of lasting a short time-the
brevity of human life

BUCOLIC (adj.):/bjuklk/bucolic, of or pertaining to

the countryside, pastoral,a stream winding through
stately parks and bucolic meadows-De pstor, pstoresc,
pastoral; p. ext. de la ar, cmpenesc, rustic, idilic. 2. S.
f. Mic poem pastoral; eglog, idil.

BUREAUCRACY (n.):/bjrkrsi/birocraie , a large

institution with many complex regulations[uncountable]
(often disapproving) the system of official rules and ways
of doing things that a government or an organization
has, especially when these seem to be too complicatedunnecessary/excessive bureaucracy-We need to reduce
paperwork and bureaucracy in the company.
[uncountable, countable] a system of government in
which there are a large number of state officials who are
not elected; a country with such a systemthe power of
the state bureaucracy-living in a modern bureaucracy

callous adjective/kls/nvrtoare,nesimit, not

caring about other peoples feelings or sufferingsynonym cruel, unfeeling-a callous killer/attitude/act-a
callous disregard for the feelings of others

CANDOR (n.):/knd(r)/candoare, honesty, straight

talk,the quality of saying what you think openly and
honestly synonym frankness -I don't trust him, he said
in a rare moment of candour.

CARDINAL (adj.):/kdnl/ cardinal,main, most

important (formal) most important; having other things
based on it-Respect for life is a cardinal principle of
English law.

CELIBATE (adj.):/selbt/celibat, remaining

pure,refraining from sexual intercourse-not married and
not having sex, especially for religious reasons-celibate
priests-not having sex-I've been celibate for the past six

CHAGRIN (n.):/rn/intristare,rusine,
shame,embarrassment.a feeling of being disappointed or
annoyed-To her chagrin, neither of her sons became
doctors.Jon had discovered parties, wine and women,
much to the chagrin of his parents.

CHASTE (adj.):/test/cast,pure(old-fashioned) not
having sex with anyone; only having sex with the person
that you are married to-to remain chaste-(formal) not
expressing sexual feelings-a chaste kiss on the cheek(formal) simple and plain in style; not decorated-the cool,
chaste interior of the hall-She wore a chaste gold chain
around her neck.

CLANDESTINE (adj.):/klndestn
/klndstan/clandestin secretive,hidden-a clandestine
meeting/relationship-the clandestine sale of weapons

COMPRISE (v.):/kmpraz/consta,coninem,cuprinde,
to consist of, include-also be comprised of) comprise
something to have somebody/something as parts or
members-synonym consist of-The collection comprises
327 paintings.-The committee is comprised of
representatives from both the public and private
sectors.comprise something to be the parts or members
that form something-synonym make up-Older people
comprise a large proportion of those living in poverty.

CONDESCEND (v.):/kndsend/se apleca la,se

cobori,injosi, to lower oneself;to patronize-condescend to
do something (often disapproving) to do something that

you think it is below your social or professional position

to do-synonym deign-We had to wait almost an hour
before he condescended to see us.[intransitive]
condescend to somebody to behave towards somebody
as though you are more important and more intelligent
than they are-When giving a talk, be careful not to
condescend to your audience.

CONFIDANT (n.):/knfdnt//knfdnt/confident,
person with whom one can share a secret

CONGENIAL (adj.):/kndinil/congenial, pleasant,

friendly(of a person) pleasant to spend time with
because their interests and character are similar to your
own-a congenial colleague-congenial (to somebody) (of a
place, job, etc.) pleasant because it suits your charactera congenial working environment-His studies in Leiden
proved congenial to him.congenial (to something)
(formal) suitable for something-a situation that was
congenial to the expression of nationalist opinions

CONSECRATE (v.):/knskret/consacra, to make


CONTRITE (adj.):/kntrat//kntrat/
apologetic,pocit,begging forgiveness-very sorry for

something bad that you have done-Her expression was

contrite.He looked so contrite that for a moment she
nearly believed he really was sorry about what he had

CONSIDERATE adjective/kn
sdrt/considerat,always thinking of other peoples
wishes and feelings; careful not to hurt or upset otherssynonym thoughtful-She is always polite and considerate
towards her employees.It was very considerate of him to
wait.Louis was a kind, caring and considerate young
man. Try to be a bit more considerate.opposite

COSMOPOLITAN (adj.):/kzmpltn/cosmopolit,
worldly,having wide interests-containing people of
different types or from different countries, and influenced
by their culture-a cosmopolitan city/resort-The club has a
cosmopolitan atmosphere.-Jamaica is a very
cosmopolitan island.

COUP (n.):/ku/lovitura de stat,lovitura, personal

victory acquired in a single stroke, major
accomplishment(also coup dtat) a sudden change of
government that is illegal and often violent-He seized
power in a military coup in 2008.-to stage/mount a coup-

an attempted coup-a failed/an abortive coup-She lost her

position in a boardroom coup (= a sudden change of
power among senior managers in a company).-the fact of
achieving something that was difficult to do-Getting this
contract has been quite a coup for us.-He pulled off a
major diplomatic coup by winning agreement from all the
warring factions on a permanent ceasefire.

CULPABLE (adj.):/klpbl/culpabil,guilty,responsible
and deserving blame for having done something wrongThe accident was the result of a culpable failure to
consider the risks involved.

tkrs/argos,cornery, agitated, mean-spirited-badtempered and always complaining-a cantankerous old

CASTIGATE (v.)/kstet/dojeni sever,critica aspru,

to scold severely, berate-castigate
somebody/something/yourself (for something) (formal) to
criticize somebody/something/yourself severely-He
castigated himself for being so stupid.-The minister
castigated schools for falling standards in education.

CAUSTIC (adj.)/kstk/caustic, biting, scornful-(of a

chemical substance) able to destroy or dissolve other
substances-synonym corrosive-a caustic cleaning
product-caustic liquid which blisters the skin-critical in a
bitter or sarcastic way-synonym scathing-caustic
comments/wit-Her speech was a caustic attack on
government officials.

CLICHE (n.)/klie/clieu[countable] a phrase or an

idea that has been used so often that it no longer has
much meaning and is not interesting-She trotted out the
old clich that a trouble shared is a trouble halved.-a
clich-ridden style-It has become a clich to say that
Prague is the most beautiful city in Europe.-tired clichs
like the information revolution-[uncountable] the use of
clichs in writing or speaking-The article collapses under
the sheer weight of clich.

COLLOQUIAL (adj.)/klkwil/colocvial, pertaining

to everyday language or speech

COMMEMORATE (v.)/kmemret/comemora, to
honor the memory of-commemorate
something/somebody to remind people of an important
person or event from the past with a special action or
object; to exist to remind people of a person or an event

from the past-A series of movies will be shown to

commemorate the 30th anniversary of his death.A
plaque commemorates the battle.

COMPLACENT (adj.)/kmplesnt/mulumit de sine

peaceful,easygoing-complacent (about
somebody/something) (usually disapproving) too
satisfied with yourself or with a situation, so that you do
not feel that any change is necessary; showing or feeling
complacency-a dangerously complacent attitude to the
increase in unemployment-We must not become
complacent about progress.

CONDONE (v.) /kndn/ierta,accepta sa se

intample, to allow something to happen, to give
approval to a questionable act-condone something
condone (somebody) doing something to accept
behaviour that is morally wrong or to treat it as if it were
not serious-Terrorism can never be condoned.-The college
cannot condone any behaviour that involves illicit drugs.

CONFLAGRATION (n.) /knflren/conflagrai(un)e,

a huge fire-a very large fire that destroys a lot of land or
buildings-The fire services were not adequate to deal
with major conflagrations.1. nflcrare general; 2. fig.
mare revoluiune.

CRYPTIC (adj.)/krptk/criptic, secretive, hidden, hard
to understand-a cryptic message/remark/smile-a cryptic
crossword clue,Ascuns, secret.Limbaj criptic = limbaj
obscur, sibilinic, greu accesibil.Care prezint ascunztori,
focare de microbi.

DEFINITIVE (adj.)/dfntv/ definitiv, defining;held up
as the ultimate example of something

DELINEATE (v.)/dlniet/delinia,contura,schita, to
mark with a line (or lines)

DESECRATE (v.) /deskret/profana,desecra to

violate, to make impure, to defile-desecrated graves

DESTITUTE (adj.) /desttjut/sarac,avevoias,

extremely poor, poverty stricken

DETERRENT (n.)/dternt/mijloc de
intimidare,intimida something that prevents something
from happening-making somebody less likely to do
something-a deterrent effect

DETRIMENTAL (adj.) /detrmentl/detriment/al,
harmful-the suns detrimental effect on skin-The policy
will be detrimental to the peace process.-This move could
be seriously detrimental to the economy.Emissions from
the factory are widely suspected of having a detrimental
effect on health.-prejudiciu, pierdere material sau
moral. n detrimentul (cuiva sau a ceva) = n paguba,
n dauna (cuiva sau a ceva).

DEVIOUS (adj.) /divis/ tricky, crafty,unprincipledbehaving in a dishonest or indirect way, or tricking

people, in order to get something-synonym deceitful,
underhand-a devious politician-He got rich by devious
means.-See related entries: Dishonest-devious route/path
a route or path that is not straight but has many changes
in direction; not direct-a devious route from the airport

DIATRIBE (n.)/datrab/diatrib, a lengthy and

accusatory speech-diatribe (against
somebody/something) (formal) a long and angry speech
or piece of writing attacking and criticizing
somebody/something-He launched a bitter diatribe
against the younger generation.

DIGRESS (v.)/dares/divaga,devia, to turn away

from the main point, to get off track-To digress for a

moment, I would like to remind you that there will be no
classes next week.

DILATORY (adj.)/dltri/dilatoriu, tending to

delay,The government has been dilatory in dealing with
the problem of unemployment.

DIMINUTION (n.) /dmnjun/diminuare, a decrease

or diminishing,[uncountable] the act of reducing
something or of being reduced-the diminution of political
power-[countable, usually singular] a reduction; an
amount reduced-a diminution in population growth

DISDAIN (v.)/dsden/dispre, contempt or scorn;

bitter dislike,disdain somebody/something to think that
somebody/something is not good enough to deserve
your respect-She disdained his offer of help.-Immigrants
accept the jobs disdained by the local workforce.-disdain
to do something to refuse to do something because you
think that you are too important to do it-He disdained to
turn to his son for advice.

DIVERGE (v.)/davd/divrge, 1. (despre drepte,

raze etc.) a pleca din acelai punct, rsfirndu-se. 2.
(fig.) a se deosebi, a fi n dezacord. (to split or move

apart,[intransitive] to separate and go in different

directions-The parallel lines appear to diverge.We went
through school and college together, but then our paths
diverged.diverge from something The coastal road
diverges from the freeway just north of Santa
Monica.Many species have diverged from a single
ancestor.It is thought that the two species diverged
about 130 million years ago.[intransitive] diverge (from
something) (formal) (of opinions, views, etc.) to be
different-Opinions diverge greatly on this issue.-This
countrys interests diverge considerably from those of
other countries.-[intransitive] diverge from something to
be or become different from what is expected, planned, diverge from the norm-He diverged from
established procedure.

DELETERIOUS (adj.): /deltris/duntor,

vtmtor .harmful and damaging-the deleterious effect
of stress on health

DESPONDENT (adj.):/d
spndnt/demoralizat,descurajat, dezndjduit
downhearted,dejected-despondent (about something)
(especially North American English) despondent (over
something) sad, without much hope-synonym dejectedShe was becoming increasingly despondent about the

way things were going.There are times when it is hard

not to feel despondent.-See related entries: Unhappiness

DIRGE (n.)/dd/bocet, music for funeral

procession,a song sung in the past at a funeral or for a
dead person-See related entries: Pieces of music(informal, disapproving) any song or piece of music that
is too slow and sad

DISSIDENT (n.): /dsdnt/disident,strongly

disagreeing with and criticizing your government,
especially in a country where this kind of action is
dangerous- one who opposes.the suppression of
dissident views

DOFF (v.)/df/se dezbrca de un vesmant, to take off

an item of-clothing,doff something (old-fashioned) to take
off your hat, especially to show respect for
somebody/something-He doffed his hat to her as she
passed in her carriage.

DON (v.)/dn/don,imbraca, to put on an item of

clothing,don something (formal) to put clothes, etc. onHe donned his jacket and went out.---(British English) a
teacher at a university, especially Oxford or Cambridgean Oxford don-see also donnish-See related entries:

University people-(informal) the leader of a group of

criminals involved with the Mafia

DRACONIAN (adj.)/drknin/draconian extremely

harsh, severe, oppressive-(of a law, punishment, etc.)
extremely cruel and severe-a call for draconian measures
against drug-related crime

DISTRAUGHT (adj.):/dstrt/aiurit,anxios si suparat,

overcome by grief or despair-extremely upset and
anxious so that you cannot think clearly-Shes still too
distraught to speak about the tragedy.The childs
distraught parents pleaded for witnesses to contact the

DOGMATIC (adj.):/dmtk/dogmatic,being certain

that your beliefs are right and that others should accept
them, without paying attention to evidence or other
opinions- tending to hold very tightly to a belief or
opinion-a dogmatic approach-There is a danger of
becoming too dogmatic about teaching methods.-He was
strident and dogmatic in giving his opinions.

EBULLIENT (adj.)/blint//blint/exuberant,

debordant, extremely joyful-full of confidence, energy

and good humour-The Prime Minister was in ebullient
mood.He was accompanied by an ebullient, talkative
blonde.The ebullient Mr Clarke was not to be
discouraged.-She sounded as ebullient and happy as
ever.-See related entries: Energetic

EDIFY (v.)/edfa/educa n sens

moral,instructa,educa, to instruct, to educate[intransitive, transitive] edify somebody (formal) to
improve peoples minds or characters by teaching them
about something-It is not clear whether the purpose is to
edify, or simply to make money.-No doubt Hamish will
edify us on the subject.

EGREGIOUS (adj.) /ridis/ingrozitor,remarcabil

bun, extremely bad or mistaken.extremely badegregious behaviour-an egregious error

ELOQUENT (adj.)/elkwnt/elocvent, well

spoken,marked by expressive and persuasive speech-(of
a look or movement) able to express a feeling-His eyes
were eloquent.

ELUSIVE (adj.) /ilusv/eluziv, hard to capture or

grasp-difficult to find, define or achieve-Eric, as elusive

as ever, was nowhere to be found.the elusive concept of

literature-A solution to the problem of toxic waste is
proving elusive.-ELUZIV,-I,ELUZIVA,-E a. (anglicism) greu
de gasit,de obtinut.

EMISSARY (n.)/emsri/emisar, agent or messengerthe Kings special emissary

ERUDITION (n.)/erudn/eruditie,deep
learning,scholarship -great academic knowledge-a
scholar of undoubted erudition-a work of great erudition
and originality-He is a journalist of rare erudition.

ESCHEW (v.)/stu/,to avoid-eschew something

(formal) to deliberately avoid or keep away from
something-He had eschewed politics in favour of a life
practising law.A se sustrage de la ndeplinirea unei
obligaii; a se da n lturi, a se feri. A se retrage pe

ETYMOLOGY (n.)/etmldi/ etimologie, the study

of word origins-[uncountable] the study of the origin and
history of words and their meanings-[countable] the
origin and history of a particular word

EUPHEMISM (n.)/jufmzm/eufemism, a pleasant

way of saying something unpleasant-euphemism (for

something) an indirect word or phrase that people often
use to refer to something embarrassing or unpleasant,
sometimes to make it seem more acceptable than it
really is-Pass away is a euphemism for die.-User fees
is just a politician's euphemism for taxes.

EVANESCENT (adj.)/ivnesnt/evanescent, vanishing

quickly, fleeting-disappearing quickly from sight or
memory-Talk is evanescent, writing leaves footprints.Care
se pierde, care dispare treptat.

EXALTED (adj.)/zltd/exaltat, holding a high

position, greatly respected(formal or humorous) of high
rank, position or great importance-She was the only
woman to rise to such an exalted position.You're moving
in very exalted circles!-(formal) full of great joy and
happiness-I felt exalted and newly alive.

EXEMPLARY (adj.)/zemplri/exemplar, serving as a

good example-providing a good example for people to
copy-Her behaviour was exemplary.-a man of exemplary
character-The organization has an exemplary record.
[usually before noun] (law or formal) (of punishment)
severe; used especially as a warning to others

EXONERATE (v.)/znret/exonera, Desrcinez,

dispensez, to free from blame-exonerate somebody
(from something) (formal) to officially state that
somebody is not responsible for something that they
have been blamed for-The police report exonerated Lewis
from all charges of corruption.The president cannot be
exonerated from responsibility for this problem.The
report exonerates the president of any knowledge of the
arms deal.A (se) elibera (total sau parial), de o datorie,
de o obligaie, de o sarcin.

EXPATRIATE (n.)/eksptrit/ expatria, someone who

leaves their native land to settle elsewhere,living in a
country that is not your own-expatriate Britons in Spainexpatriate workers-American expatriates in Londoncandidates should be willing to expatriate

EXPEDITE (v.)/ekspdat/expedia, to quicken,

hasten,expedite something (formal) to make a process
happen more quickly

synonym speed up.We have developed rapid order

processing to expedite deliveries to customers.

EXTRANEOUS (adj.)/kstrenis/ extra and

unnecessary,not directly connected with the particular
situation you are in or the subject you are dealing with

synonym irrelevant-We do not want any extraneous

information on the page.-Coughs and extraneous noises
can be edited out.-extraneous to something- We shall
ignore factors extraneous to the problem.-factors
extraneous to the case

EXTRICATE (v.)/ekstrket/scapa, to extract,free,

disentangle, remove-extricate
somebody/something/yourself (from something) to
escape or enable somebody to escape from a difficult
situation-He had managed to extricate himself from most
of his official duties.-extricate
somebody/something/yourself (from something) to free
somebody/something or yourself from a place where
they/it or you are trapped-They managed to extricate the
pilot from the tangled control panel.

EBB (v.):/eb/reflux,fi n declin,retrage, to lessen,

recede-[intransitive] (formal) (of the tide in the sea) to
move away from the land-synonym go out (2)-opposite
flow-[intransitive] ebb (away) to become gradually
weaker or less-synonym decrease-The pain was ebbing.As night fell, our enthusiasm began to ebb away.

ECLECTIC (adj.):/klektk/eclectic,diverse and wide

ranging in taste or choice-not following one style or set of

ideas but choosing from or using a wide variety-She has

very eclectic tastes in literature.-His house is an eclectic
mixture of the antique and the modern.

ECCENTRIC (adj.):/ksentrk/excentric, odd,

unusual,strange (as applied to personal behavior)Most
people considered him a harmless eccentric.-Aunt
Matilda was something of an eccentric.

ELEGY (n.):/eldi/elegie. poem or song expressing

grief,a poem or song that expresses sadness, especially
for somebody who has died

EMBARGO (n.):/mb/embargo,ban on
commerce or trade-(pl. embargoes) an official order that
bans trade with another country-synonym boycott-an
arms embargo-embargo (on something) an embargo on
arms sales to certain countries-a trade embargo against
certain countries-to impose/enforce/lift an embargo1.
Interzicere de ctre un stat a exportului sau importului de
mrfuri ori a capitalurilor ntr-o sau dintr-o ar, ca
sanciune pentru nclcarea unor reguli sau principii de
drept internaional sau ca mijloc de presiune politic. 2.
Reinere de ctre un stat a navelor comerciale sau de
mrfuri ale altui stat aflate pe teritoriul su (n condiiile
n care a survenit un conflict ntre statele respective).

EMBELLISH (v.): /mbel/nfrumusea, mpodobi, to
decorate, make more attractive-embellish something to
make something more beautiful by adding decorations to
it-synonym decorate-The huge carved door was
embellished with brass door knockers.-embellished with
gold lettering/golden embroidery/jewellery/precious
metal/sweeping chintz curtains-embellish something to
make a story more interesting by adding details that are
not always true-synonym embroider-His account of his
travels was embellished with details of famous people he

EMINENT (adj.)/emnnt/eminent, well-known,

having high standing-of good qualities) unusual;
excellent-a man of eminent good sense-(of people)
famous and respected, especially in a particular
profession-an eminent architect-a distinguished/an

EMPATHY (n.): /empi/empatie, ability to identify

with the feelings of another-the ability to understand
another persons feelings, experience, etc.-empathy
(with somebody/something) the writers imaginative

empathy with his subject-empathy (for

somebody/something) empathy for other peoples
situations-empathy (between A and B) The empathy
between the two women was obvious.

ENIGMA (n.)/nm/enigma, a puzzle, mystery-a

person, thing or situation that is mysterious and difficult
to understand-synonym mystery, puzzle-Even after years
he still remains an enigma to me.

ENMITY (n.): /enmti/mutual hatred, intense dislikefeelings of hatred towards somebody-personal enmities
and political conflicts-Her action earned her the enmity of
two or three colleagues.-enmity between A and B the
traditional problem of the enmity between Protestants
and Catholics

ENTAIL (v.):/ntel/implica, to require-to involve

something that cannot be avoided-synonym involveentail something -The job entails a lot of hard work.-What
does the job actually entail?-be entailed in somethingThe girls learn exactly what is entailed in caring for a
newborn baby.-entail (somebody) doing something It will
entail driving a long distance every day.

EPITOME (n.):/ptmi/epitom,perfect

exemplu,intruchipare, perfect example or

embodiment[singular] the epitome of something (formal)
a perfect example of something-synonym embodimentHe is the epitome of a modern young man.-clothes that
are the epitome of good taste-They regarded him as the
epitome of evil.

ERRATIC (adj.):/rtk/eratic, unpredictable, varied(often disapproving) not happening at regular times; not
following any plan or regular pattern; that you cannot
rely on-synonym unpredictable-The electricity supply
here is quite erratic.-She had learnt to live with his
sudden changes of mood and erratic behaviour.Mary is a
gifted but erratic player (= she does not always play
well).Irrigation measures will be necessary in areas of
erratic rainfall.-their increasingly erratic policy decisionscare nu este fix; rtcitor, neregulat. bloc ~ = bloc de
piatr de dimensiuni mari, adus de gheari i rmas ntrun anumit loc n urma retragerii acestora.

ERRONEOUS (adj.):/rnis/eronat,
incorrect,mistaken-not correct; based on wrong
information-erroneous conclusions/assumptions-He
seems to be under the erroneous impression that she is
in love with him.The theory is based on several
erroneous beliefs.-Their conclusions are quite erroneous.

ESOTERIC (adj.):/esterk//isterk/ezoteric, hard
to understand, known only to a select few-likely to be
understood or enjoyed by only a few people with a
special knowledge or interest-a programme of music for
everyone, even those with the most esoteric tasteSpecialist dictionaries may be required to understand
some of the more esoteric texts. (Despre doctrine,
ritualuri etc.) Care poate fi neles numai de cei iniiai;
ascuns, secret.

EULOGY (n.): /juldi/elogiu, words of praise, often

given at a funeral-eulogy (of/to somebody/something) a
speech or piece of writing praising somebody/something
very much-a eulogy to marriage-eulogy (for/to
somebody) a speech given at a funeral praising the
person who has died-He gave the eulogy at Aunt Louises

EXACERBATE (v.): /zsbet/exacerba ,agrava, to

make worse-exacerbate something (formal) to make
something worse, especially a disease or problemsynonym aggravate-His aggressive reaction only
exacerbated the situation.-The symptoms may be
exacerbated by certain drugs.

EXPUNGE (v.):/kspnd/terge, to remove, cancelexpunge something (from something) (formal) to remove

or get rid of something, such as a name, piece of
information or a memory, from a book or list, or from
your mind-synonym erase-Details of his criminal
activities were expunged from the file.What happened
just before the accident was expunged from his memory.She sought to expunge every trace of the event from her
memory.-The word socialism has been expunged from
the partys manifesto.

EXTRICATE (v.):/ekstrket/extrica,salva, to
remove,especially from a difficult position-extricate
somebody/something/yourself (from something) to
escape or enable somebody to escape from a difficult
situation-He had managed to extricate himself from most
of his official duties.-extricate
somebody/something/yourself (from something) to free
somebody/something or yourself from a place where
they/it or you are trapped-They managed to extricate the
pilot from the tangled control panel.

FAADE (n.):/fsd/faad, face, superficial
appearance (often false)-he front of a building-a classical

facade-See related entries: Parts of a house, How a

building looks-[usually singular] the way that
somebody/something appears to be, which is different
from the way somebody/something really is-She
managed to maintain a facade of indifference.-They
seem happy together, but its all a facade.-Squalor and
poverty lay behind the city's glittering facade.

FALLACIOUS (adj.): /fles/falacios, false,

misleading-wrong; based on a false idea-a fallacious
argument,(Livr.) neltor, amgitor.

FALLIBLE (adj.):/flbl/falibil, open to error-able to

make mistakes or be wrong-Memory is selective and
fallible.-All human beings are fallible.-opposite
infallible,Care se poate nela, care poate grei.Adv. n
mod falibil.

FASTIDIOUS (adj.):/fstdis/pretenios, greu de

mulumit, cusurgiu, mofturos, paying close attention to
details-being careful that every detail of something is
correct-synonym meticulous-Everything was planned in
fastidious detail.-He was fastidious in his preparation for
the big day.(sometimes disapproving) not liking things to
be dirty or untidy-She wasn't very fastidious about
personal hygiene.

FATALIST (n.):/fetlst/fatalist,fatalistic, one who
believes that life is largely predetermined and shaped by
fate-a person who believes that events are decided by
fate and cannot be controlled; a person who accepts that
they cannot prevent something from happening-I'm a

FEIGN (v.):/fen/preface,face pe bolnavul ,to fake,

pretend-feign something feign to do something (formal)
to pretend that you have a particular feeling or that you
are ill/sick, tired, etc.-He survived the massacre by
feigning death.Who cares? said Alex, feigning
indifference.A present for me? she asked with feigned
surprise.She feigned sleep to avoid having to answer.

FRACTIOUS (adj.): /frks/ tending to misbehave,

rowdy, unruly-bad-tempered or easily upset, especially
by small things-synonym irritable-Children often get
fractious and tearful when tired.-(formal) making trouble
and complaining-The six fractious republics are
demanding autonomy.

FRENETIC (adj.): /frnetk/frenetic,marked by frenzyinvolving a lot of energy and activity in a way that is not
organized-a scene of frenetic activity-to live at a frenetic

pace-Liverpool scored two goals in a frenetic final ten

minutes.-She rushed from city to city at a frenetic pace.
Care e n stare de frenezie; cuprins de pasiune
nenfrnat, violent. Zeci de brae erau ridicate spre cer
ntr-o agitaie frenetic.

FRUGAL (adj.): /frul/frugal, interested in

conserving money,thrifty,economical-using only as much
money or food as is necessary-a frugal existence/life-He
has always been hard-working and frugal.-a frugal
Methodist background-opposite extravagant-(of meals)
small, plain and not costing very much-synonym meagrea frugal lunch of bread and cheese

FACILITATE (v.)/fsltet/facilita, to make easierfacilitate something (formal) to make an action or a

process possible or easier-The new trade agreement
should facilitate more rapid economic growth.-Structured
teaching facilitates learning.

FALLOW (adj.)/fl/nedeselenit,prginit,
barren,uncultivated(of farm land) not used for growing
crops, especially so that the quality of the land will
improve-Farmers are now paid to let their land lie
fallow.See related entries: Growing crops-(of a period of

time) when nothing is created or produced; not

successful-Contemporary dance is coming onto the arts
scene again after a long fallow period.

FEASIBLE (adj.)/fizbl/fezabil, doable,possible, able

to be accomplished-that is possible and likely to be
achieved-synonym practicable-a feasible
plan/suggestion/idea-It's just not feasible to manage the
business on a part-time basis. Care se poate face;
realizabil, posibil

FLORID (adj.)/flrd/florid, flowery-(of a persons

face) red-a florid complexion-(usually disapproving)
having too much decoration or detail-florid language-a
florid style of painting- nfloritor, prosper, activ. 2. (Med.;
despre boli) Foarte activ, n plin evoluie.

FOOLHARDY (adj.)/fulhdi/temerar prostesc, daring

in a foolish way-taking unnecessary risks-synonym
reckless-It would be foolhardy to sail in weather like this.

FRIVOLOUS (adj.)/frvls/frivol, lacking in

importance or seriousness-(of people or their behaviour)
silly or amusing, especially when such behaviour is not
suitable-frivolous comments/suggestions-Sorry, I was
being frivolous.-Her words seemed utterly frivolous.-

having no useful or serious purpose-frivolous


FURTIVE (adj.)/ftv/furtiv, sneaky, hidden, stealthybehaving in a way that shows that you want to keep
something secret and do not want to be noticedsynonym stealthy-She cast a furtive glance over her
shoulder.He looked sly and furtive.The look in his eyes
became furtive.The secretary looked almost furtive when
I walked in. Care se face n ascuns, pe furi.

GERMANE (adj.)/d
men/pertinent,relevant,pertinent,related to the point at
hand-[not usually before noun] germane (to something)
(formal) (of ideas, remarks, etc.) connected with
something in an important or appropriate way-synonym
relevant-remarks that are germane to the discussion-The
report contains matters that are germane to the case.This issue may or may not be regarded as germane.hat is
not germane to our theme.

GLUTTON (n.) /
ltn/lacom,mnccios,gman,gurmand, habitual

overeater;(disapproving) a person who eats too muchglutton for punishment/work a person who enjoys doing
difficult or unpleasant tasks-Being a glutton for
punishment, I decided to climb all three peaks in one
day.-Shes a glutton for tough challenges.

GRANDIOSE (adj.)/rndis/grandios, overly grandseeming very impressive but too large, complicated,
expensive, etc. to be practical or possible-The grandiose
scheme for a journey across the desert came to nothing.a grandiose opera house-He could no longer live the
grandiose lifestyle to which he had become accustomed.

GREGARIOUS (adj.)/reris/gregar, sociable-liking

to be with other people-synonym sociable-Shes very
outgoing and gregarious.-Hugh was a popular and
gregarious man.-See related entries: Friendly-(biology)
(of animals or birds) living in groups-GREGR, -, gregari,
-e, adj. (Despre animale) Care triete n grupuri
compacte, n turme, cete, crduri. Instinct gregar =
instinct care determin unele animale s triasc, s
migreze etc. n turme, cete, crduri. (Fig.) Spirit (sau
instinct) gregar = spirit sau instinct care ndeamn pe
unii oameni s se supun orbete, s-i piard cu totul
individualitatea n mijlocul mulimii din care fac parte.

GULLIBLE (adj.) /lbl/credul,uor de nelat,

unquestioning,easily fooled-too willing to believe or
accept what other people tell you and therefore easily
tricked-synonym naive-The advertisement is aimed at
gullible young women worried about their weight.

GARISH (adj.)/er/excessively bright,gaudy-very

brightly coloured in an unpleasant way-synonym gaudygarish clothes/colours-Its a little too garish for my taste.

GENIAL (adj.)/dinil/bonom-cheerful, friendly,kindfriendly and cheerful-synonym affable-a genial person-a

genial smile-Om blnd, ngduitor i credul, cu gusturi i
purtri simple.

HACKNEYED/hknid/ (adj.): overused,unoriginal,
trite;used too often and therefore boring-synonym
clichd-a hackneyed phrase/subject

HARBINGER (n.):/hbnd(r)/ a forerunner

harbinger noun-harbinger (of something) (formal or
literary) a sign that shows that something is going to
happen soon, often something bad

HEDONIST (n.):/hidnst/ a person who pursues

pleasure, often to excess-hedonist noun-a person who
believes that pleasure is the most important thing in life

HIERARCHY (n.) harki/ power structure hierarchy

noun-(pl. hierarchies)-[countable, uncountable] a system,
especially in a society or an organization, in which people
are organized into different levels of importance from
highest to lowest-the social/political hierarchy-She's quite
high up in the management hierarchy.-[countable +
singular or plural verb] the group of people in control of a
large organization or institution-[countable] (formal) a
system that ideas or beliefs can be arranged into-a
hierarchy of needs

HYPERBOLE (n.)/hapbli/
exaggeration,overstatement-hyperbole noun
[uncountable, countable, usually singular]-a way of
speaking or writing that makes something sound better,
more exciting, more dangerous, etc. than it really issynonym exaggeration-The film is being promoted with
all the usual hyperbole.-Hes not usually given to

IMPECCABLE (adj.): /mpekbl/ faultless, perfectwithout mistakes or faults-synonym perfect-impeccable

manners/taste-Her written English is impeccable.-He was
dressed in a suit and an impeccable white shirt.

IMPERIOUS (adj.):/mpris/ arrogant, haughtyexpecting people to obey you and treating them as if
they are not as important as you-The professor was as
imperious as ever.-She put out an imperious hand to stop
him.-an imperious gesture/voice/command-She waved an
imperious hand.

IMPLICIT (adj.):/mplst/ implied-implicit (in

something) suggested without being directly expressedImplicit in his speech was the assumption that they were
guilty.-implicit criticism-These assumptions are implicit in
his writing.-implicit (in something) forming part of
something (although perhaps not directly expressed)-The
ability to listen is implicit in the teacher's role.-complete
and not doubted-synonym absolute-She had the implicit
trust of her staff.-compare explicit

IMPUDENCE (n.):mpjdns/rudeness,brashness,
impertinence-rude behaviour; behaviour that does not
show respect for other people-synonym impertinence

Ive had enough of your impudence, young lady.-He had

the impudence to correct me.

impertinence /mptnns/rude behaviour or

comments that show no respect for somebody who is
older or more important-She had the impertinence to ask
my age!

IMPUNITY (n.):/mpjunti/ freedom from

punishment-if a person does something bad with
impunity, they do not get punished for what they have
done-They continue to break the law with impunity.

INANE (adj.):/nen/ stupid, pointless,absurd-stupid

or silly; with no meaning-an inane remark-The last
question was especially inane.-I wish youd stop making
these inane remarks!

INDIGENT (adj.):/nddnt/ very poor

INNATE (adj.):/net/ natural, inborn-(of a quality,

feeling, etc.) that you have when you are born-synonym
inborn-the innate ability to learn-He never lost his innate
sense of fun.-Is a tendency towards violence an innate
characteristic?-Many children seem to have an innate
sense of justice.

INDOLENT (adj.):/ndlnt/lenes,indolent,lazy

INFAMOUS (adj.):/nfms/ famous for bad deeds,

notorious-well known for being bad or evil-synonym
notorious-a general who was infamous for his brutalitythe most infamous concentration camp-(humorous) the
infamous British sandwich-compare famous

infallible adjective/nflbl/never wrong; never

making mistakes-infallible advice-Doctors are not
infallible.-opposite fallible-that never fails; always doing
what it is supposed to do-an infallible method of
memorizing things

INSIPID (adj.): /nspd/ dull, boring, lifeless-having

almost no taste or flavour-synonym flavourless-a cup of
insipid coffee-See related entries: Taste of food-not
interesting or exciting-synonym dull-After an hour of
insipid conversation, I left.-The group are an insipid
imitation of the Beatles.

INSURGENT (n. / adj.):/nsdnt/rebel /rebelliousfighting against the government or armed forces of their
own country-synonym rebellious-insurgent

INSURRECTION (n.):/nsrekn/ rebellion,uprising-a
situation in which a large group of people try to take
political control of their own country with violencesynonym uprising-an armed insurrection against the

INTEGRAL (adj.):/ntrl//n
terl/essential,necessary-being an essential part of
something-Music is an integral part of the school's
curriculum.-integral to something Practical experience is
integral to the course.-[usually before noun] included as
part of something, rather than supplied separately-All
models have an integral CD player.-[usually before noun]
having all the parts that are necessary for something to
be complete-an integral system

INTROSPECTIVE (adj.):/ntrspektv/ looking inwardtending to think a lot about your own thoughts, feelings,
etc.-There were a lot of family problems and Jim became
increasingly introspective.-an introspective piece of

IDIOSYNCRASY (n.)/diskrsi/odd personality

trait, quirk-a persons particular way of behaving,
thinking, etc., especially when it is unusual; an unusual

feature-synonym eccentricity-Wearing a raincoat, even

on a hot day, is one of her idiosyncrasies.-The car has its
little idiosyncrasies.

IDOLATRY (n.)/adltri/ worship of false idol(s-the

practice of worshipping statues as gods-(formal) too
much love or admiration for somebody/somethingfootball fans whose support for their team borders on

IMMUTABLE (adj.)/mjutbl/unable to change or be

changed-that cannot be changed; that will never changesynonym unchangeable-This decision should not be seen
as immutable.

INCONGRUOUS (adj.)/nkrus/ not congruent,

dissimilar-strange, and not suitable in a particular
situation-synonym inappropriate-Such traditional
methods seem incongruous in our technical age.-The two
of them made an incongruous couple.-a collage of
seemingly incongruous images

INCORRIGIBLE (adj.)/nkrdbl/not able to be

corrected, beyond redemption-having bad habits which
cannot be changed or improved-synonym incurable-Her
husband is an incorrigible flirt.-You're incorrigible!-There

were new allegations against his incorrigible wife.

INDIFFERENT (adj.)/ndfrnt/ making no difference,

not caring one way or the other-[not usually before noun]
indifferent (to somebody/something) having or showing
no interest in somebody/something-The government
cannot afford to be indifferent to public opinion.-not very
good-synonym mediocre-an indifferent meal-The festival
has the usual mixture of moviesgood, bad and

INDOMITABLE (adj.)/ndmtbl/unable to be
defeated-not willing to accept defeat, even in a difficult
situation; very brave and determined-an indomitable
spirit-an indomitable campaigner for human rights

INGENIOUS (adj.)/ndinis/pertaining to a genius;

very clever-(of an object, a plan, an idea, etc.) very
suitable for a particular purpose and resulting from
clever new ideas-an ingenious device-ingenious ways of
saving energy-His plots are always very ingenious.-(of a
person) having a lot of clever new ideas and good at
inventing things-an ingenious cook-She very ingenious
when it comes to finding excuses.

INGENUOUS (adj.)/ndenjus/ genuine,honest,

open-honest, innocent and willing to trust peoplesynonym naive-You're too ingenuous.-an ingenuous
smile-It is ingenuous to suppose that money did not play
a part in his decision.

INHERENT (adj.)/nhrnt//nhernt/ natural,innate;

pertaining to the essential nature of something-inherent
(in somebody/something) that is a basic or permanent
part of somebody/something and that cannot be
removed-synonym intrinsic-the difficulties inherent in a
study of this type-Violence is inherent in our society.-an
inherent weakness in the design of the machine

INNOVATION (n.)/nven/ new development[uncountable] innovation (in something) the introduction

of new things, ideas or ways of doing something-an age
of technological innovation-The company is very
interested in product design and innovation.[countable]
innovation (in something) a new idea, way of doing
something, etc. that has been introduced or discoveredrecent innovations in steel-making technology

injudicious adjective/nduds/not sensible or

wise; not appropriate in a particular situation-synonym
unwise-an injudicious remark-opposite judicious

INSURMOUNTABLE (adj.) /nsmantbl/unable to

be overcome-(of difficulties, problems, etc.) that cannot
be dealt with successfully-synonym insuperable-The age
barrier appeared insurmountable.They were now faced
with seemingly insurmountable technical problems.

INTRACTABLE (adj.)/ntrktbl/extremely stubborn,

not able to be solved-(of a problem or a person) very
difficult to deal with-Unemployment was proving to be an
intractable problem.-There was no pleasing this
intractable man.

INTREPID (adj.)/ntrepd/ brave, fearless, lacking

trepidation-very brave; not afraid of danger or
difficulties-synonym fearless-an intrepid explorer

INVOKE (v.)/nvk/ to call upon-invoke something

(against somebody) to mention or use a law, rule, etc. as
a reason for doing something-It is unlikely that libel laws
will be invoked.-invoke somebody/something to mention
a person, a theory, an example, etc. to support your
opinions or ideas, or as a reason for something-She
invoked several eminent scholars to back up her
argument.-invoke something to mention somebodys
name to make people feel a particular thing or act in a
particular way-His name was invoked as a symbol of the

revolution.-invoke somebody to make a request (for help)

to somebody, especially a god-invoke something to make
somebody have a particular feeling or imagine a
particular scene-synonym evoke-The opening paragraph
invokes a vision of England in the early Middle Ages.Some people think this use is not correct.-invoke
something (computing) to begin to run a program, etc.This command will invoke the HELP system.-invoke
somebody/something to make evil appear by using

JADED (adj.):/dedd/ world-weary, suffering- from a
surfeit of luxury, filled with ennui-tired and bored, usually
because you have had too much of something-I felt
terribly jaded after working all weekend.-It was a meal to
tempt even the most jaded palate.

JUDICIOUS (adj.):/duds/judicios, wise, marked by

good judgment-careful and sensible; showing good
judgement-It is curable with judicious use of antibiotics.Some dishes would be very bland without the judicious
use of spices and other seasonings.Care judec cu
ptrundere i cu discernmnt; nelept. (Despre aciuni,
idei etc.) Bine gndit, chibzuit, socotit.

JOVIAL (adj.)/dvil/jovial, good natured,merry,
given to joking-very cheerful and friendly-He was in a
jovial mood.-He addressed Molly in his usual jovial
manner. Bine dispus, vesel, voios, glume, comunicativ.

KINETIC (adj.)/knetk/also /kanetk/ pertaining to
motion-of or produced by movement-kinetic energy

LACONIC (adj.)/lknk/ sparing in words-using only
a few words to say something-a laconic comment-His
laconic comment was, Too bad!

LAUD (v.)/ld/to praise-laud somebody/something

(formal) to praise somebody/something-He was lauded
for his courage.

LISTLESS (adj.)/lstls/lacking energy-having no

energy or enthusiasm-synonym lethargic-The illness left
her feeling listless and depressed.

lethargic adjective/ldk/without any energy or
enthusiasm for doing things-synonym listless-The
weather made her lethargic.

LOQUACIOUS (adj.)/lkwes/talkative-talking a lotsynonym talkative-He is particularly loquacious on the

topic of politics.

LUCID (adj.):/lusd/ clear-clearly expressed; easy to

understand-synonym clear-a lucid style/explanation-able
to think clearly, especially during or after a period of
illness or confusion-In a rare lucid moment, she looked at
me and smiled.

ludic adjective/ludk/showing a tendency to play

and have fun, make jokes, etc., especially when there is
no particular reason for doing this-As one might expect
from this most ludic author, one of the more
undeservedly unknown masters of twentieth-century
prose, these essays are hardly traditional academic

LUDICROUS (adj.):/ludkrs/laughable-unreasonable;
that you cannot take seriously-synonym absurd,
ridiculous-a ludicrous suggestion-It was ludicrous to think
that the plan could succeed.-He is paid a ludicrous
amount of money.

MAGNANIMOUS (adj.): /mnnms/ great in
spirit, extremely generous-kind, generous and forgiving,
especially towards an enemy or a rival-a gesture-He was
magnanimous in defeat and praised his opponent's skill.

MAGNATE (n.):/mnet/person of power or

influence-a person who is rich, powerful and successful,
especially in business-a media/property/shipping
magnate-The company was owned by shipping magnate
Fred Olsen.

MALEVOLENT (adj.): /mlevlnt/evil-having or

showing a desire to harm other people-synonym
malicious, wicked-malevolent intentions/thoughts-his
dark malevolent eyes-opposite benevolent

malcontent noun/

mlkntent/malcontent,contestatar, protestatar[usually
plural](formal, disapproving)-a person who is not
satisfied with a situation and who complains about it, or
causes trouble in order to change it-The strike was
engineered by a handful of malcontents.

MELANCHOLY (adj. / n.):/melnkli//melnkli/

sad,depressed; sadness, depression-[uncountable]
(formal) a deep feeling of sadness that lasts for a long
time and often cannot be explained-A mood of
melancholy descended on us.-There is a brooding
melancholy in his black and white photography.

MERCENARY (adj.): /msnri/ pertaining to

acquiring money and financial gain-(pl. mercenaries) a
soldier who will fight for any country or group that offers
payment-foreign mercenaries-mercenary soldiers

MERCURIAL (adj.):/mkjril/ rapidly

shifting,whimsical-mercurial adjective-(literary) often
changing or reacting in a way that is unexpectedsynonym volatile-Emily's mercurial temperament made
her difficult to live with.-Advertising is a mercurial
business.-(literary) lively and quick-a brilliant, mercurial
mind-See related entries: Energetic-(specialist)
containing mercury-mercurial compounds

MISANTHROPE (n.):/msnrp/mizantrop, one who
hates people, or humanity, in general-a person who
hates and avoids other people-I've been called in the
past, probably with justification, a misanthrope but it
isn't so much that I dislike people (well not all of them
anyway) but that I have a physical need to be apart from

MORBID (adj.):/mbd/pertaining to death-having or

expressing a strong interest in sad or unpleasant things,
especially disease or death-He had a morbid fascination
with blood.-He might even die. Don't be so morbid.She watched with morbid curiosity.-My mind was filled
with morbid thoughts of death.-I found the whole subject
very morbid and unpleasant.- (medical) connected with

MUNDANE (adj.):/mnden/ dull,

boring,commonplace, extremely ordinary-not interesting
or exciting-synonym dull, ordinary-a mundane task/job-I
lead a pretty mundane existence.-On a more mundane
level, can we talk about the timetable for next week?

MUSE (v. / n.):/mjuz/to ponder; inspiration-a person

or spirit that gives a writer, painter, etc. ideas and the

desire to create things-synonym inspiration-He felt that

his muse had deserted him (= that he could no longer
write, paint, etc.).-See related entries: Describing artMuse (in ancient Greek and Roman stories) one of the
nine goddesses who encouraged poetry, music and other
branches of art and literature

MALICE (n.)/mls/ evil intent-a feeling of hatred for

somebody that causes a desire to harm them-He sent the
letter out of malice.-She is entirely without malice.-He
certainly bears you no malice (= does not want to harm
you).-The ghosts are described as if they bear actual
malice towards humans.

MELLIFLUOUS (adj.)/melflus/smoothflowing-(of
music or of somebodys voice) sounding sweet and
smooth; very pleasant to listen to-a softly mellifluous

MENDICANT (adj. / n.)/mendknt/extremely poor

and given to begging / a beggar-a member of a religious
group who lives by asking people for money and food(especially of members of religious groups) living by
asking people for money and food

METICULOUS (adj.)/mtkjls/ paying very close

attention to detail-paying careful attention to every

detail-synonym fastidious, thorough-meticulous
planning/records/research-Their room had been prepared
with meticulous care.-She planned her trip in meticulous
detail.-meticulous in something/doing something He's
always meticulous in keeping the records up to date.meticulous about something My father was meticulous
about his appearance.

MISER (n.)/maz(r) a person who is extremely stingy

or cheap-a person who loves money and hates spending

MITIGATE (v.) -/mtet/ to lessen or moderate the

severity of something-mitigate something (formal) to
make something less harmful, serious, etc.-synonym
alleviate-action to mitigate poverty-Soil erosion was
mitigated by the planting of trees.

MNEMONIC (adj.) /nmnk/pertaining to memoryhelping you to remember something-a mnemonic device

MOLLIFY (v.)/mlfa/to soothe, soften,pacify-mollify

somebody (formal) to make somebody feel less angry or
upset-synonym placate-His explanation failed to mollify

monocle noun/mnkl/monoclu,a single glass lens
for one eye, held in place by the muscles around the eye
and used by people in the past to help them see clearlyThe knight was now looking around through a single
monocle at all the boys passing by, sizing one up for a
leader.Lentil care se poart sprijinit n orbita ochiului
pentru a corecta un defect de vedere. Pansament care
acoper un singur ochi.

MOROSE (adj.)/mrs/sad, gloomy-unhappy, badtempered and not talking very much-synonym gloomyShe just sat there looking morose.She seems a bit
morose today.

MYOPIC (adj.)/mapk/near sighted,lacking

foresight-(specialist) unable to see things clearly when
they are far away-synonym short-sighted (1)-a myopic
child/eye-see also short-sighted (1)-(formal,
disapproving) unable to see what the results of a
particular action or decision will be; unable to think about
anything outside your own situation-synonym shortsighted (2)-a myopic strategy-myopic voters

NOXIOUS (adj.) /nks/harmful-poisonous or harmful

-noxious fumes

NURTURE (v.)/nt(r)/ to care for, to raise-nurture

somebody/something to care for and protect
somebody/something while they are growing and
developing-These delicate plants need careful nurturing.children nurtured by loving parents-nurture something to
help somebody/something to develop and be successfulsynonym foster-It's important to nurture a good working
relationship.-My father nurtured a love of art in me.-Her
teacher recognized and nurtured her musical talent from
an early age.-nurture something to have a feeling, an
idea, a plan, etc. for a long time and encourage it to
develop-She secretly nurtured a hope of becoming
famous.-He had long nurtured a deep hatred of his

NARCISSIST (n.):/nssst/ one who is extremely selfcentered and in love with oneself-a person who
admires himself or herself too much, especially their

NEMESIS (n.):/nemss/(pl. nemeses BrE /nemsi:z/

enemy, foe-[countable] the person or thing that causes

somebody to lose their power, position, etc. and that

cannot be avoided-Has she finally met her nemesis?[countable] a person or thing that has competed with
somebody or been an enemy for a long time-He strode
out to face his old nemesis.-[uncountable, singular]
punishment or defeat that is deserved and cannot be
avoided-This over-ambitious project eventually proved to
be the companys nemesis.

NOTORIETY (n.):/ntrati/ being famous for a bad

reason, infamous, notorious-fame for being bad in some
way-notoriety (for something) She achieved notoriety for
her affair with the senator.-This make of car has a certain
notoriety for rust problems.-notoriety (as something) He
gained a certain notoriety as a gambler.

NUANCE (n.):/njuns/ subtle or slight difference or

variation-a very slight difference in meaning, sound,
colour or somebodys feelings that is not usually very
obvious-He watched her face intently to catch every
nuance of expression.-Her singing has both warmth of
sound and delicacy of nuance.-You need to be able to
convey the subtle nuances of meaning of each word.

nubile adjective/njubal/(of a girl or young woman)

sexually attractive

OPAQUE (adj.) /pek/ impossible to see through-(of
glass, liquid, etc.) not clear enough to see through or
allow light through-opaque glass-opaque tights-(of
speech or writing) difficult to understand; not clearsynonym impenetrable-The jargon in his talk was opaque
to me.

OPTIMISTIC (adj.)/ptmstk/ having a positive

outlook-expecting good things to happen or something to
be successful; showing this feeling-synonym positiveoptimistic (about something) She's not very optimistic
about the outcome of the talks.-optimistic (that) They
are cautiously optimistic that the reforms will take place.We are now taking a more optimistic view.-in an
optimistic mood-I think you're being a little overoptimistic.-opposite pessimistic

optimize verb(British English also -ise)/

ptmaz/optimize something to make something as
good as it can be; to use something in the best possible

way-to optimize the use of resources-(computing) to

change data, software, etc. in order to make it work more
efficiently or to make it suitable for a particular purposeIt is important that websites are optimized for mobile

OBLIVIOUS (adj.):/blvis/unaware-not aware of

something-oblivious (of something) He drove off,
oblivious of the damage he had caused.-oblivious (to
something) You eventually become oblivious to the
noise.-The couple seemed oblivious to what was going on
around them.

OBSOLETE (adj.):/bslit/ out of date, no longer

useful-no longer used because something new has been
invented-synonym out of date-obsolete technology-With
technological changes many traditional skills have
become obsolete.

OMNIPOTENT (adj.):/mnptnt/all-powerful-having
total power; able to do anything-an omnipotent God

OMNISCIENT (adj.):/mnsint/all-knowing-knowing
everything-The novel has an omniscient narrator.

omniscience noun/mnsins/-the quality of knowing

everything-I make no claim to omniscience.

OMNIVOROUS (adj.): /mnvrs/eating all(specialist) eating all types of food, especially both plants
and meat-compare carnivorous, herbivorous-(formal)
having wide interests in a particular area or activity-She
has always been an omnivorous reader.

ORNATE (adj.):/net/highly decorative-covered with

a lot of decoration, especially when this involves very
small or complicated designs-a mirror in an ornate gold
frame-This style is a little too ornate for my taste.

ORTHODOX (adj.):/dks/traditional,-(especially
of beliefs or behaviour) generally accepted or approved
of; following generally accepted beliefs-synonym
traditional-orthodox medicine-He is very orthodox in his
views.-opposite unorthodox-compare heterodox-following
closely the traditional beliefs and practices of a religionan orthodox Jew-Orthodox belonging to or connected
with the Orthodox Church

OSTENTATIOUS (adj.):/stentes/showy(disapproving) expensive or noticeable in a way that is

intended to impress people-synonym showy-ostentatious
gold jewellery-(disapproving) behaving in a way that is

meant to impress people by showing how rich, important,

etc. you are-(of an action) done in a very obvious way so
that people will notice it-He gave an ostentatious yawn.

omnidirectional adjective/mndreknl/ /mnd

reknl//mndareknl(specialist)receiving or sending
signals in all directions-an omnidirectional microphone

OSTRACIZE(British English also -ise) (v.):/strsaz/

to shun, cut out from the group-ostracize somebody
(formal) to refuse to let somebody be a member of a
social group; to refuse to meet or talk to somebodysynonym shun-He was ostracized by his colleagues for
refusing to support the strike.-The regime risks being
ostracized by the international community.

OVERT (adj.):/vt//vt/open-done in an open

way and not secretly-There was little overt support for
the project.-an overt display of affection-compare covert

PALPABLE (adj.):/plpbl/ able to be
touched,tangible-that is easily noticed by the mind or the

senses-a palpable sense of relief-The tension in the room

was almost palpable.-His statement is palpable

PARAGON (n.): /prn/model of perfection-a

person who is perfect or who is a perfect example of a
particular good quality-I make no claim to be a
paragon.He wasn't the paragon of virtue she had

PASTORAL (adj.):/pstrl/ of the

countryside;pertaining to a pastor-relating to the work of
a priest or teacher in giving help and advice on personal
matters, not just those connected with religion or
education-pastoral care-the churchs pastoral ministry in
the inner cities.-showing country life or the countryside,
especially in a romantic way-a pastoral
scene/poem/symphony-relating to the farming of
animals-agricultural and pastoral practices

PERSPICACIOUS (adj.):/pspkes/ having insight,

astute-able to understand somebody/something quickly
and accurately; showing this-a perspicacious remark-He
was perspicacious enough to realize that things were
soon going to change.

PERTINENT (adj.):/ptnnt/ apt, suitable,related to

the point at hand-pertinent adjective;appropriate to a
particular situation-synonym relevant-a pertinent
question/fact-pertinent to something Please keep your
comments pertinent to the topic under discussion.

PINNACLE (n.):/pnkl/ highest point-[usually

singular] pinnacle of something the most important or
successful part of something-the pinnacle of her careerHe spent more than twenty years at the pinnacle of his
profession.Formula One is the pinnacle of motor
racing.She is at the pinnacle of her profession.-a small
pointed stone decoration built on the roof of a buildingWe could just make out the pinnacles of the cathedral in
the distance.-See related entries: Architectural features-a
high pointed piece of rock, especially at the top of a

PIOUS (adj.):/pas/holy, venerable-having or

showing a deep respect for God and religion-synonym
devout-pious acts-opposite impious-see also piety(disapproving) pretending to be religious, moral or good
in order to impress other people-synonym
sanctimonious-pious sentiments-He dismissed his critics
as pious do-gooders.-a rather pious and condescending
smile-pious hope something that you want to happen but

is unlikely to be achieved-Such reforms seem likely to

remain little more than pious hopes.

PITHY (adj.):/pi/ short, concise, to the point-(of a

comment, piece of writing, etc.) short but expressed well
and full of meaning-a pithy observation-The book is full of
pithy observations about how we behave when we travel
abroad.-a pithy advertising slogan

pitiable adjective/ptibl/deserving pity or causing

you to feel pity-The refugees were in a pitiable state.-Her
life was pitiable and sad.-not deserving respect-a pitiable
lack of talent

PLACATE (v.):/plket/ to calm, soothe,pacify-placate

somebody to make somebody feel less angry about
something-synonym pacify-a placating smile-The
concessions did little to placate the students.-placatory
adjective/plketri/designed to make somebody feel
less angry by showing that you are willing to satisfy or
please them-a placatory remark/smile/gesture

PARSIMONY (n.)/psmni/ stinginess,cheapness-the

fact of being extremely unwilling to spend moneysynonym meanness

PECUNIARY (adj.)/pkjuniri/ pertaining to moneyrelating to or connected with money-pecuniary


PENURY (n.)/penjri/poverty-the state of being very

poor-synonym poverty-He died in penury.-They were
reduced to penury.

PERFIDIOUS (adj.)/pfdis/ treacherous,disloyal-that

cannot be trusted-synonym treacherous

PERPETUAL (adj.)/ppetul/continuous,without end[usually before noun] continuing for a long period of time
without interruption-synonym continuous-the perpetual
noise of traffic-We lived for years in a perpetual state of
fear.-(literary) mountain peaks covered with perpetual
snows and ice-[usually before noun] frequently repeated,
in a way that is annoying-synonym continual-How can I
work with these perpetual interruptions?-[only before
noun] (of a job or position) lasting for the whole of
somebodys life-He was elected perpetual president.(humorous) She's a perpetual student.

PESSIMISM (n.)/pesmzm/a gloomy or negative

outlook-[uncountable] pessimism (about/over something)
a feeling that bad things will happen and that something

will not be successful; the tendency to have this feelingThere is a mood of pessimism in the company about
future job prospects.-This widespread pessimism does
not seem justified.-opposite optimism

PHILANTHROPIST (n.) a person who donates large

sums of money to charitable causes

PIECEMEAL (adj. / adv.)/pismil/bit by bit / in a

gradual way-gradually at different times and often in
different ways, rather than in a way that is carefully
planned at the beginning-The reforms were implemented
piecemeal.-The companies were broken up and sold off
piecemeal over several years.

PINE (v.)/pan/ to miss, to long for, to yearn for[intransitive] to become very sad because somebody has
died or gone away-She pined for months after he'd gone.The Majors dog pined badly when her master died.

PLATITUDE (n.)/plttjud/ overused saying, trite

remark-a comment or statement that has been made
very often before and is therefore not interesting-a
political speech full of platitudes and empty promises

POSTERITY (n.)/psterti/ future generations-all the

people who will live in the future-Their music has been

preserved for posterity.-Posterity will remember him as a
great man.-It remains to be seen how posterity will judge
her actions.-The scene was captured for posterity by the
camera of Lord Snowdon.

POTENTATE (n.)/ptntet/potentat, ruler,monarch,

very powerful person-a ruler who has a lot of power,
especially when this is not restricted by a parliament,
etc.The Dutch tried to put it together and were able to
keep it together through playing sultans and local princes
and potentates off against one another for several

PRECOCIOUS (adj.)/prks/characterized by early

development, advanced at an early age-(of a child)
having developed particular abilities and ways of
behaving at a much younger age than usual-a precocious
child who started her acting career at the age of 5sexually precocious-From an early age she displayed a
precocious talent for music.

proprietorial adjective/prpratril/relating to an
owner or to the fact of owning something-proprietorial
rights-He laid a proprietorial hand on her arm (= as if he
owned her).

PRIVATION (n.)/praven/ a condition or result of
deprivation or loss-a lack of the basic things that people
need for living-synonym hardship-the privations of
poverty-They endured years of suffering and privation.

PRODIGAL (adj.)/prdl/ wasteful;reckless with

money-too willing to spend money or waste time, energy
or materials-synonym extravagant-a prodigal

PROFLIGATE (adj.)/prflt/reckless in spendingusing money, time, materials, etc. in a careless waysynonym wasteful-profligate spending-the profligate use
of resources-The opposition criticized the governments
profligate spending plans.-The report dismisses claims
that the US is profligate in its use of energy.

proximate adjective/prksmt/[usually before noun]

(specialist)nearest in time, order, etc. to something

preclude verb/prklud/to prevent something from

happening or somebody from doing something; to make
something impossible-preclude something Lack of time
precludes any further discussion.-Your failure to become
a member this year does not preclude the possibility of

your applying next year.preclude somebody from doing

something My lack of interest in the subject precluded
me from gaining much enjoyment out of it.preclude
(somebody) doing something His religious beliefs
precluded him/his serving in the army.We cannot have a
system that precludes people from seeking independent
legal advice.

PROFOUND (adj.) /prfand/deep, deeply movingvery great; felt or experienced very strongly-profound
changes in the earths climate-My father's death had a
profound effect on us all.-The news came as a profound
shock.-The report has profound implications for schools.Her sense of disappointment was profound.-showing
great knowledge or understanding-profound insights-a
profound book-needing a lot of study or thoughtprofound questions about life and death-(medical) very
serious; complete-profound disability

PROPENSITY (n.) /prpensti/ tendency-a tendency

to a particular kind of behaviour-synonym inclinationpropensity (for something/for doing something) He
showed a propensity for violence.-They all knew about
his propensity for violence.-propensity (to do something)
She has a propensity to exaggerate.-There is an
increased propensity for people to live alone.

PROTEGE (n.)-(protge)/prte/(from French)-a
person who is groomed for a position-a young person
who is helped in their career and personal development
by a more experienced person-a protg of the great
violinist Yehudi Menuhin

PROVINCIAL (adj.)/prvnl/pertaining to a province;

narrow-minded-[only before noun] connected with one of
the large areas that some countries are divided into, with
its own local government-provincial assemblies/elections[only before noun] (sometimes disapproving) connected
with the parts of a country that do not include the capital
city-a provincial town-See related entries: House
location-(disapproving) unwilling to consider new or
different ideas or things-synonym narrow-minded-In spite
of his education and travels, he has remained very

PRUDENT (adj.)/prudnt/wise, marked by good

judgment-sensible and careful when you make
judgements and decisions; avoiding unnecessary risks-a
prudent businessman-a prudent decision/investment-It
might be more prudent to get a second opinion before
going ahead.-opposite imprudent

pandemonium noun/pndmnim/[uncountable]a situation in which there is a lot of noise, activity and

confusion, especially because people are feeling angry or
frightened-synonym chaos-Pandemonium broke out when
the news was announced.There was pandemonium in the
classroom till the head appeared.

pander verb/pnd(r)/pander to -pander to

somebody | pander to something-(disapproving) to do
what somebody wants, or try to please them, especially
when this is not acceptable or reasonable-to pander to
somebodys wishes-The speech was pandering to racial
prejudice.-He refuses to pander to the latest fashions.

pugnacious(adj.)/pnes/ combative,tending to
fight-having a strong desire to argue or fight with other
people-synonym bellicose-the increasingly pugnacious
demeanor of politicians

QUIESCENT (adj.) /kwiesnt/quiet,dormant,
temporarily inactive-(formal) quiet; not active-(medical)
(of a disease, etc.) not developing, especially when this is

probably only a temporary state-synonym dormant

quid pro quo noun/kwd pr kw/a thing given in

return for something else

QUANDARY (n.):/kwndri/ a state of uncertainty or

perplexity; dilemma-the state of not being able to decide
what to do in a difficult situation-synonym dilemmaGeorge was in a quandaryshould he go or shouldn't
he?-This placed the government in something of a

QUINTESSENTIAL (adj.):/kwntsenl/ having the

pure essence of something-representing the perfect
example of something-He was the quintessential tough

QUIXOTIC (adj.)/kwkstk/donquijotesc-quijotescpertaining to Don-having or involving ideas or plans that

show imagination but are usually not practical

Quixote; idealistic in a doomed and impractical way

qui vive noun/ki viv/on the qui vive-paying close

attention to a situation, in case something happens-He's

always on the qui vive for a business opportunity.

RAZE (v.):/rez/ knock down, destroy, level-[usually
passive] raze something to completely destroy a
building, town, etc. so that nothing is left-The village was
razed to the ground.-The woodland was razed by fire.

REBUTTAL (n.):/rbtl/ a formal response in an

argument or debate-the act of saying or proving that a
statement or criticism is false-synonym refutation-The
accusations met with a firm rebuttal.

RECLUSE (n.):/rklus/a person who shuns society, a

hermit-a person who lives alone and likes to avoid other
people-to lead the life of a recluse

REDUNDANT (adj.): /rdndnt/ extra,unnecessary(British English) (of a person) without a job because there
is no more work available for you in a company-to be
made redundant from your job-redundant employeesCollocations-See related entries: Unemployment-not
needed or useful-The picture has too much redundant


REFUTE (v.):/rfjut/to dispute, argue-refute

something to prove that something is wrong-synonym
rebut-to refute an argument/a theory, etc.-refute
something to say that something is not true or fairsynonym deny-She refutes any suggestion that she
behaved unprofessionally.

refutable adjective/rfjutbl/-that can be proved to

be wrong-opposite irrefutable

refutation noun/refjuten/[countable, uncountable]

(formal)-proof or a statement that something is not true
or is wrong-a refutation of previously held views

REGAL (adj.):/ril/royal-typical of a king or queen,

and therefore impressive-regal power-the regal splendour
of the palace-She dismissed him with a regal gesture.Her height gave her an almost regal appearance.-her
rather regal bearing-compare royal

REITERATE (v.):/ritret/ to repeat-to repeat

something that you have already said, especially to
emphasize it-reiterate something to reiterate an
argument/a demand/an offer-The government has

reiterated its commitment to economic reform.-reiterate

that Let me reiterate that we are fully committed to
this policy.-+ speech I said money, he reiterated.

REMINISCE (v.):/remns/ to think over and discuss

the past-[intransitive] reminisce (about
something/somebody) to think, talk or write about a
happy time in your past-We spent a happy evening
reminiscing about the past.

RENOWN (n.):/rnan/ fame-fame and respect

because of something you have done that people
admire- He won renown as a fair judge.-a pianist of
some/international/great renown-A number of our past
students have achieved political renown.

REQUISITE (adj.):/rekwzt/ required-[only before

noun] (formal) necessary for a particular purpose-She
lacks the requisite experience for the job.-They were not
able to start the meeting until the requisite number of
members were present.

RESPLENDENT (adj.):/rsplendnt/ glorious,radiant,

beautiful-resplendent (in something) (formal or literary)
brightly coloured in an impressive way-He glimpsed
Sonia, resplendent in a red dress.-the resplendent tail of

the male peacock

RETICENT (adj.):/retsnt/ quiet-(formal) unwilling to

tell people about things-synonym reserved,
uncommunicative-She was shy and reticent.-reticent
about something He was extremely reticent about his
personal life.

RETRIBUTION (n.):/retrbjun/ revenge,punishment[uncountable] retribution (for something) (formal) severe

punishment for something seriously wrong that
somebody has done-People are seeking retribution for
the latest terrorist outrages.-fear of divine retribution (=
punishment from God)

RETROACTIVE (adj.):/retrktv/ active to a point

in the past=retrospective adjective/retr
spektv/thinking about or connected with something that
happened in the past-She felt a pang of retrospective
sympathy for Mel.-(less frequent, formal retroactive) (of a
new law or decision) intended to take effect from a
particular date in the past rather than from the present
date-retrospective legislation-retrospective pay awards

REVERE (v.):/rv(r)/ to respect, admire;[usually

passive] revere somebody (as something) (formal) to feel

great respect or admiration for somebody/somethingsynonym idolize-Her name is revered in Spain.-He is now
revered as a national hero.

RUE (v.): /ru/ to regret-rue something (old-fashioned

or formal) to feel bad about something that happened or
something that you did because it had bad resultssynonym regret-He rued the day they had bought such a
large house.

RUSTIC (adj.): rstk/ of or pertaining to the

countryside-(approving) typical of the country or of
country people; simple-an old cottage full of rustic
charm-made very simply of rough wood-a rustic garden
seat-a rustic fence- De ar, ca la ar, imitnd anumite
aspecte ale vieii de ar; cmpenesc. Cu suprafaa
brut, nefinisat. Fig. Necioplit, grosolan, nelefuit.

RACONTEUR (n.)/rknt(r)/ a person who tells

witty and amusing stories-a person who is good at telling
stories in an interesting and amusing way-She was a
witty raconteur.

RAMIFICATION (n.)/rmfken/ a branching out; a

consequence of a problematic situation-one of the large

number of complicated and unexpected results that

follow an action or a decision-synonym complicationThese changes are bound to have widespread social

RANCID (adj.) /rnsd/ foul, putrid,disgusting-if food

containing fat is rancid, it tastes or smells unpleasant
because it is no longer fresh-rancid butter-Butter soon
goes/turns (= becomes)rancid in this heat.-There was a
rancid smell coming from the kitchen.

RANCOR (n.)/rk(r)/ anger, ill will-feelings of

hatred and a desire to hurt other people, especially
because you think that somebody has done something
unfair to you-synonym bitterness-There was rancour in
his voice.-They divorced with remarkably little rancour.She learned to accept criticism without rancour

REBUFF (v.)/rbf/ to snub, beat back;rebuff

something(formal)-to refuse a friendly offer, request or
suggestion in an unkind way-synonym reject (1)-They
rebuffed her request for help.

RECTIFY (v.)/rektfa/ to fix, correct-rectify something

(formal) to put right something that is wrong-synonym
correct-to rectify a fault-We must take steps to rectify the


RECTITUDE (n.)/rekttjud/ uprightness,moral virtuethe quality of thinking or behaving in a correct and

honest way-synonym uprightness-She is a model of
rectitude.-Most of them led lives of selfless moral

REDOLENT (adj.)/redlnt/ fragrant,scented-[not

before noun]redolent of/with something(literary)-making
you think of the thing mentioned-an atmosphere redolent
of the sea and ships-smelling strongly of the thing
mentioned-a kitchen redolent with the smell of baking

redo verb/ridu/redo something to do something

again or in a different way-A whole day's work had to be
redone.-We've just redone the bathroom (= decorated it
again).-to redo your sums/exams/test/work

REMEDIAL (adj.)/rmidil/ pertaining to a remedyaimed at solving a problem, especially when this involves
correcting or improving something that has been done
wrong-remedial treatment (= for a medical problem)Remedial action must be taken now.-The building needs
urgent remedial work to make it safe.-connected with
school students who are slower at learning than others-

remedial education-a remedial class-She teaches

remedial English.

REMISS (adj.)/rms/ at fault, negligent-not giving

something enough care and attention-synonym
negligent-remiss (of somebody) (to do something) It was
remiss of them not to inform us of these changes
sooner.-remiss (in something/in doing something) She
had clearly been remiss in her duty.

REMUNERATIVE (adj.)/rmjunrtv/resulting in
monetary gain,profitable-paying a lot of moneyremunerative work-Writing proved to be more
remunerative than teaching.

REPARATIONS (n.)/repren/ money to be paid for

injury or damage-reparations [plural] money that is paid
by a country that has lost a war, for the damage, injuries,
etc. that it has caused-See related entries: Peacekeeping,
Conflict-[uncountable] the act of giving something to
somebody or doing something for them in order to show
that you are sorry for suffering that you have causedOffenders should be forced to make reparation to the

REPLETE (adj.)/rplit/ full of or filled with-[not before

noun] replete (with something) (formal) filled with

something; with a full supply of something-literature
replete with drama and excitement-(old-fashioned or
formal) very full of food-We all felt pleasantly replete.

REPRIMAND (v. / n.)/reprmnd/ blame-the act of

telling somebody officially that you do not approve of
them or their actions-He received a severe reprimand for
his behaviour.

REPROACH (n.) /rprt/ blame,disapproval[uncountable] blame or criticism for something you have
done-His voice was full of reproach.The captains
behaviour is above/beyond reproach (= you cannot
criticize it).[countable] a word or remark expressing
blame or criticism-He listened to his wife's bitter
reproaches.-[uncountable] a state of shame or loss of
honour-Her actions brought reproach upon herself.[singular] reproach (to somebody/something) a person or
thing that brings shame on somebody/somethingsynonym discredit-Such living conditions are a reproach
to our society.

RESCIND (v.)/rsnd/ to take back,recall, nullify,

repeal-rescind something (formal) to officially state that a
law, contract, decision, etc. is no longer valid-synonym

revoke-The agreement was rescinded on 20 March 1993.

RESPITE (n.) /respat/ a brief break or rest-respite

(from something) a short break or escape from
something difficult or unpleasant-The drug brought a
brief respite from the pain.-There was no respite from the
suffocating heat.-She continued to work without respite.respite care (= temporary care arranged for old, mentally
ill, etc. people so that the people who usually care for
them can have a rest)-a short delay allowed before
something difficult or unpleasant must be done-synonym
reprieve-His creditors agreed to give him a temporary

REVILE (v.)/rval/ to hate or detest-crude-[usually

passive] revile somebody (for something/for doing
something) (formal) to criticize somebody/something in a
way that shows how much you dislike them

RHETORIC (n.)/retrk/ skillful use of language, or

just language in general-(formal, often disapproving)
speech or writing that is intended to influence people,
but that is not completely honest or sincere-the rhetoric
of political slogans-empty rhetoric-His speech was
dismissed as mere rhetoric by the opposition.-(formal)
the skill of using language in speech or writing in a

special way that influences or entertains people-synonym

eloquence, oratory

RIBALD (adj.) /rbld//rabld/ ;vulgarly humorous,

lewd, -(of language or behaviour) referring to sex in a
rude but humorous way-a ribald sense of humour-ribald

rib verb/rb/rib somebody (about/over something)

(old-fashioned, informal) to laugh at somebody and make
jokes about them, but in a friendly way-synonym teaseHe used to rib her mercilessly about her accent.

ROBUST (adj.) /rbst/strong, hearty,vigorousstrong and healthy-She was almost 90, but still very
robust.-He seems to be in robust (good) health.-See
related entries: Good health-strong; able to survive being
used a lot and not likely to break-synonym sturdy-a
robust piece of equipment-(of a system or an
organization) strong and not likely to fail or become
weak-robust economic growth-strong and full of
determination; showing that you are sure about what you
are doing or saying-synonym vigorous-It was a typically
robust performance by the Foreign Secretary.-The
company is taking a more robust approach to

SCANT (adj.) minimal

SCRUTINIZE (v.) to examine closely (visually)

SEEMLY (adj.) proper, suitable

SERPENTINE (adj.) serpentlike,snake-like

SLUGGISH (adj.) slow moving,hard to arouse

SOPHOMORIC (adj.) of or pertaining to a sophomore;

wise and foolish at the same time

STAID (adj.) bland, boring

STRIDENT (adj.) loud, harsh,shrill

SUBSIDIZE (v.) to assist financially

SUBTLE (adj.) not overt,nuanced, subject to fine


SUPERCILIOUS (adj.) haughty,arrogant, overly proud

SUPERFLUOUS (adj.)unnecessary, extraneous

SURREPTITIOUS (adj.)secretive, stealthy

SYCOPHANT (n.) brown-noser,servile flatterer

SAGACIOUS (adj.): sage-like, wise

SACRILEGIOUS (adj.): unholy,profane

SACROSCANCT (adj.): sacred, holy

SCRUPULOUS (adj.): attentive to details, honest in


SERVILE (adj.): like a servant;submissive

shun verb/n/shun somebody/something to avoid

somebody/something-She was shunned by her family
when she remarried.-an actor who shuns publicity-The
company has long been shunned by ethical investors.

SKEPTICAL (adj.): tending to doubt

SPORADIC (adj.): occurring at irregular intervals

STOIC (adj.): impassive, unmoved by extremes of


SUBJUGATE (v.): to dominate, put under control

SUBLIME (adj.): supreme, perfect

SUCCINCT (adj.): concise, terse,pithy

SUPERFICIAL (adj.): on the surface,lacking depth

TACITURN (adj.) quiet,reserved

TEMPETUOUS (adj.) of or pertaining to a tempest or


TENACIOUS (adj.) unyielding,forceful

TENET (n.) a key belief or principle

TENTATIVE (adj.) possible butsubject to change, not


THEOLOGY (n.) the study of religion

TIMOROUS (adj.) timid, fearful

TIRADE (n.) a lengthy and abusive verbal attack

TORPOR (n.) lack of energy,listlessness

TRANSCEND (v.) to surpass, go beyond

TRITE (adj.) overused,unoriginal

TRUNCATE (v.) to shorten,reduce

TANGIBLE (adj.): able to be touched,solid

TERSE (adj.): short, to the point,succinct

TRANSIENT (adj.): fleeting,transitory

TREPIDATION (n.): fear

UNRULY (adj.): disobedient

UTOPIA (n.) a perfect place

VENERATE (v.) to hold in high regard, to greatly
respect, to revere

VERACITY (n.) truthfulness

VERBOSE (adj.) wordy

VERDANT (adj.) lush with greenery

VILIFY (v.) to make into or portray as a villain

VIRULENT (adj.) poisonous,toxic

VOLATILE (adj.) explosive;tending to evaporate


VICARIOUS (adj.): experienced in an indirect or
second-hand way

VIRTUOSO (n.): a skilled expert

WILY (adj.): tricky, clever, cunning

WARY (adj.) cautious

WANE (v.) to decrease, diminish

WHIMSICAL (adj.) fickle,changeable, moody

WISTFUL (adj.) filled with regret and longing

ZEAL (n.): enthusiasm, zest

ZENITH (n.): highest point, peak