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Pressure drop in pipes assignment

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An investigation was carried out to determine the effects of pipe materials and fittings on

piping system, particularly pressure drops (energy losses). This was accomplished by a setup

that included 3 pipe material types (glass, plastic, and steel) some with same diameter and

some with bends fitted flow pathway. A comparison was done on pipes with same diameter

but different material (roughness test), pipes with same material but different diameters (size

effect), pipes with same diameter but different bends fittings (bend effect).

It was found that pipes with rougher materials, smaller sized diameters, and bigger degree of

bend generally give rise to larger pressure drops in pipe systems. Assumptions that had to be

made in carrying out the experiment included constant density, viscosity and average

temperature of the working fluid (water) and elevation changes can be neglected in applying

appropriate equations. Limitations encountered included the control of water temperature

since it was rising due to increase in internal energy and therefore had to be replaced often to

maintain same temperature to make our comparisons meaningful. Some pipes could not

register pressure drops at low and high rotameter height which means a bigger rotameter was

necessary to ensure pressure measurements that had statistical averages that were

representative.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2.2 Pipe material selection

3. Experiment setup 6

4. Results

7

4.2 Theoretical and Experimental comparison

..7

4.3 Effect of pipe diameter on Pressure drop with PVC pipes

.8

4.4 Effect of pipe material on pressure drop

8

4.5 Effect of bends on pressure

drop.9

4.6 Effect of diameter on Pressure Drop with galvanic pipes

..9

5. Discussion of results

6. Conclusions

10

11

7. Recommendations 12

8. References 13

9. Appendices 14

Appendix A (Calibration data)

14

16

10. Nomenclature (Symbols and constants) 20

1. Introduction

Pressure drop

Material transportation can be achieved in many ways, for example conveyor belts and pipes.

The sole objective of a pipe designer is to transport fluids in the safest and most economical

way while ensuring high quality of material. In the process industries (on plants such as water

treatment, petroleum) pipes have found more use than their counter-parts due to their ability

to accommodate all kinds of fluids for continuous transportation of products and raw

materials( feed fluids) over long distances from storage tanks to operating units such as

reactors, distillation columns, mixer and others (Coulson & Richardson, 1977).

Pipes can be made from a variety of materials such as steel, poly vinyl chloride (plastic),

glass, iron, wood, concrete and others for different purposes depending on operating

conditions (temperatures and pressures-susceptibility to corrosion and wear), strength

requirement, type of fluid, ease of maintenance if required, and costs. Usually energy is

supplied to the fluid by the use of a pump. According to Coulson and Richardson (1977)

when a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the configuration of flow will vary with the type of

materials used to manufacture the pipe, flow rate, and the shapes present on the pipe (bends,

corners). Sudden changes in the cross-sectional area and the shape of flow path affect the

pattern of fluid flow and result in pressure losses within the pipes. Since magnitude of flow is

depended on pressure on the fluid, pressure losses present a problem for the pipe designers

because more pressure losses mean more energy supply is needed from the pump to overcome the losses (to reach a final destination) which implies more costs (electrical energy in

running the pump).

A fluid flows from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure. An input of energy is

required to make the fluid flow through the pipe. When a fluid flows, there is a loss of

energy due to multiple factors; resistance to flow (viscosity), roughness of the pipe (the

friction between the pipe wall and the fluid) , pipe diameter, pipe fittings (bends, valves etc.)

on the pipe system. For inviscid fluids, the loss of energy is usually quantified by considering

minor losses (due to fittings) and major losses (due to friction in straight pipes) and

measuring the pressure drop between two points of interest on a pipe indicates the effect of

bends and pipe material on fluid flow. This information can then be analysed and used to

make appropriate changes to the pipe system to reduce costs of transporting process fluids.

Pressure is one of the most important parameters that are measured to provide information on

the operating conditions and safety of the plant (Coulson & Richardson, 1977). Knowing

pressure losses is important in terms of; knowing how much energy is required and finding

ways to reduce energy usage, it helps in plant design and control, it also helps companies to

price their products appropriately and set standards.

2.1 Fundamentals of pressure drop in pipes

Movement of fluids within pipes is one of the most important studies of a process because it

is also an essential tool for the control of the entire process. From theories of fluid mechanics,

fluid flow in process units such as pipe can be caused many different driving forces e.g.

pressure gradient (pressure drop), gravity, shear stresses, etc. (Fox & McDonald, 1985). The

phenomenon where the movement of the fluid is solely governed by the pressure drop

throughout the length of a pipe will be studied in greater detail within this experiment, with

the fluid being represented by water.

According to Sinnot and Towler (2009, p. 239), the pressure drop caused by friction is a

function of the fluid flowrate, fluid density, and viscosity,, pipe diameter, pipe surface

roughness and the length of the pipe. This can be illustrated mathematically by the following

expression:

v2

Pf =8 f ( L/ Di)

2

(2.1)

Where:

Pf = pressure drop due friction , N .m

-2

f =friction factor

L= pipelength , m

D i=internal diameter of the pipe , m

=density of the fluid , kg .m

v =fluid velocity , m. s

-3

-1

The friction factor of a particular pipe (f, dimensionless quantity) is obtained from theoretical

data such as plots and tables (see Figure C1). A friction factor is a function of the pipes

material (different materials have different absolute roughness, associated with them)

and the Reynolds number (Skogestad, 2009)

The mathematical expression to calculate the Reynolds number is given as:

=

v Di

.

(2.2)

Where:

3

=density of the fluid , kg .m

v =fluid velocity , m. s

-3

-1

=fluid viscosity , kg . m

.s

-1

-1

The Reynolds number of the fluid will determine the nature of the fluid flow i.e. if the flow is

laminar or turbulent. According to Skogestad, (2009, p. 243), the fluid flow pattern changes

from laminar to turbulent flow when the Reynolds number exceeds approximately 2300.

The pressure drop equation (2.1) represents the pressure gradient in horizontal, straight pipes.

As process designer always investigates ways of reducing operation costs, some might think

of using bent or curved pipes which occupy less surface area than straight pipes thus reducing

space costs. The process of manufacturing pipes which are curved (pipes in which direction

of flow is at an angle neither 0 0 nor 1800) is called pipe fittings. The pressure drop

calculations (also called miscellaneous losses) for pipe fittings are performed differently

compared to those for straight pipes.

According to Sinnott (2005, p.204), approximation of miscellaneous losses can be made

through two ways:

(a) Finding the total number of velocity heads (K, in units of length) lost due to all

the fittings (bends, joints and tees) and valves.

K can be calculated using the following expression:

K=v 2 /2 g .....

(2.3)

Where:

v =fluid velocity , m. s

-1

g=gravitational accelaration=9.81 m. s

-2

NB. If there are n number of bends on the same pipe the total velocity head loss

is given by n multiplied by velocity head loss at each bend (nK )

The total velocity head loss is then converted to pressure loss by the expression:

P=(total K ) g ..

(2.4)

Where:

P= pressure drop , N . m

4

-2

total K =total value for the pipe ' s velocity head lost , m

=density of the fluid , kg .m

-3

g=gravitational accelaration=9.81 m. s

-2

The total pressure drop for the pipe of this nature (with bends) is obtained by adding

the pressure drop obtained from equations (2.1) {this is the part of the pipe where

there are no bends} and the one obtained from equation (2.4) {the section of the pipe

with bends}

(b) The equivalent pipe diameter method. With this approach, there are values

readily tabulated in literature for various pipe fittings e.g. for a 90 0 standard long

elbow the number of equivalent pipe diameters is 23(NB: This is for just one

bend). To calculate the pressure drop along the pipe with bends using this

method, the total value for the equivalent pipe diameters (dimensionless) is

obtained and multiplied by the pipes internal diameter, the resulting value is

then added to the length of the pipe; this will give the new length to be used on

the pressure drop equation (2.1) to get the pressure drop.

The other mathematical expression which is used to calculate the friction factor within a pipe

(pipe with an undefined pressure drop length) is called the Colebrooks equation, which is as

follows:

1.325

f=

2

5.74

ln

+

3.74 D 0.9

[(

)]

. (2.5)

Where:

f =friction factor , a dimensionlessquantity

D=internal diameter of the pipe, m

=Reynolds number ,a dimensionlessquantity

=absolute roughness of the pipe, m

In almost all industrial processes which involve the transportation of fluids in pipes, the

process designer has to conduct a pipe-selection procedure. Selection of pipes involves

making informed decisions on what type of pipes (material selection), sizes of their internal

area (pipe size selection), what types of connections are needed between the pipes and also

other process units (pipe fittings), etc. in order to achieve an effective fluid transportation

(Sinnott, 2005) . The procedure is mainly dependant on the type and/or properties of the fluid

concerned; and also the external factors such as the average ambient temperature, the

economic constraints (costs during pipe purchase and maintenance).

2.2 Pipe material selection

The material of which the pipe is made up of will have a very significant effect on the

transportation of the fluid. This is a result because different materials have different

roughness values associated with them.

Since it was established that pipes can be made out of many materials (plastics, glass, pure

metals, metal alloys, etc.), a process designer should make all the necessary comparisons and

determine the pipe material (pipe type) which will be suitable for their process. A few types

of pipes made up of different materials are discussed below.

2.2.1 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes: These are the pipes which are made up of a

combination of plastic and vinyl polymer called polyvinyl chloride (Holtshousen & Last,

1998).

Plastic pipes are more corrosion resistant than metallic ones.

PVC pipes are durable i.e. they last longer when correctly manufactured and

installed

Like all other plastic pipes, PVC pipes are light in weight and are very tough

The costs of transportation and handling are reduced greatly due to their lightweight

property

Friction within the plastic pipe (e.g. PVC pipes ) is less than that of a metal pipe thus

plastic pipes are more efficient than metallic ones

Plastic pipes have superior elastic properties over the glass and metallic ones

Disadvantages of using the PVC pipes

Plastic pipes are not suitable for transportation of fluid at very high temperatures.

Their strength reduce greatly at high temperatures

Plastic pipes can crack and crumble easily under stress

2.2.2 Metallic pipes: These are the one made up of metals such as stainless steel, cast iron,

galvanised steel and other alloys

Advantages of using metallic pipes for fluid transport

Their stress tolerance is much higher than plastic and glass pipes

They can be used for fluid transportation even at high temperatures

6

Metallic pipes are more susceptible to corrosion those made up of plastic and glass

They are very heavy in weight thus their will result in high handling and

transportation costs

Metallic pipes have a very high rate of energy consumption during fluid transportation

than any other pipe type (Holtshousen & Last, 1998)

2.2.3 Glass pipes: the main advantage of using glass pipes is that they are very smooth and

thus they produce the least friction compared to both the plastic and metallic pipes.

Limitations associated with the glass pipes are that they are expensive to purchase; they are

brittle and can easily get broken.

2.3. Pipe size selection

Pipe size selection is governed by the driving force which transports the fluid through the

pipe e.g. if the fluid is primarily driven by gravity (free driving force), the smallest pipe

diameter that gives the required flow-rate is suitable. When the driving force is not free i.e. if

energy is required for the transportation of the fluid through the pipe (e.g. when the fluid is

being pumped through the pipe), a size of the pipe should be selected in such a way to keep

the operating costs as low as possible (Sinnott, 2005)

3. Experimental Setup

Pipe

Pipe outlet

Pipe

6(PVC)

Pipe

Pressure

Gauge

Pipe 4(Galvanic

Pipe 3(galvanic

Iron)

Pipe inlet

valve

Pipe

Rotamete

r

Pipe

1(PVC)

Centrifugal Pump

Figure 3.1 Experimental setup

Pressure

tappings

Experimental Procedure

1. Calibration

All valves except the inlet and outlet valves of pipe 1 were closed; the

rotameter was set at different heights using the gate valve. The rotameter

was calibrated using a graduated cylinder and stopwatch, the volume of

water collected in the cylinder was measured after 10 seconds for low flow

rates and 5 seconds for high flow rates. The volumetric flow rate was

plotted against the float height in a calibration curve.

2. Main Experiment

The temperature of water was measured after each run using a

thermometer and was limited to between 18-20 degrees by replacing

water over 20 degrees with cooler tap water.

Air was cleared in all pipes by filling each pipe with water while closing all

other pipes, after this the experiment was begun.

The following was done for each pipe: The inlet and outlet valves of the

pipe were fully opened, all other pipe valves were fully closed, the float

was set to a certain height using the main gate valve the pressure drop

across the pipe was measured using the pressure gauge and recorded.

8

4. Results

80

70

R = 0.96

60

50

ROTAMETER HEIGHT (cm)

40

30

20

10

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90

Volumetric flowrate (l.s-1)

9

8

7

6

5

Pressure Drop (kPa)

Experimental

Polynomial (Experimental)

Theoretical

Polynomial (Theoretical)

1

0

1

1.5

2.5

Velocity (m.s-1)

Figure 4.2: Theoretical vs Experimental Pressure Drops for PVC pipe (D=0.02)

25

20

15

Pressure Drop (kPa)

10

PVC(D=0.018m)

PVC (D=0.02m)

5

0

1

1.5

2.5

3.5

Velocity (m.s-1)

Figure 4.3: Effect of pipe diameter on Pressure drop with PVC pipes

50

45

40

35

30

Pressure Drop (kPa)

25

Galvanised Steel

20

PVC

15

10

5

0

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Velocity (m.s-1)

Figure 4.4: Effect of pipe material on pressure drop by comparing PVC with Stainless

steel of the same diameter over a range of equal velocities (Reynolds number)

10

250

200

150

Minor Losses (kPa)

90 Degree Bend

100

50

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Velocity (m.s-1)

Figure 4.5: Effect of bends on pressure drop-[Minor losses encountered for different

bends (90 vs. 45 degree)]

50

45

40

35

30

Pressure Drop (kPa)

25

GS pipe (D=0.03m)

20

GS pipe (D=0.016m)

15

10

5

0

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Velocity (m.s-1)

11

Figure 4.6: Effect of diameter on Pressure Drop with same material of constructiongalvanic steel

12

5. Discussion of Results

Data for Graphs can be retrieved in the appendix section from Table B 2

through.

Comparison of pipe diameters of the same pipe material From (Figure

4.3 and Figure 4.6), it apparent that pipes with smaller diameters ,regardless of

type of material tend to give high pressure losses and the difference gets bigger

as velocity (Reynolds number) gets large. It should be emphasized that it is

difficult to measure pressure drop across a stainless steel pipe with a bigger

diameter using a small rotameter because it only starts registering a pressure

drop when the rotameter reaches its maximum height. This can be seen on

figure 4; data had to be taken for a very short range of rotameter height close to

the maximum and this makes results look rather absurd.

Effect of pipe material due to roughness of each pipe material- by inspection

of Figure 4.4, one can make 2 observations:

velocity vs. pressure drop produces approximately a flat graph.

At very high velocities, stainless steel results in extremely abnormal

pressure losses.

With the information above stated, it looks like PVC pipes are a better option

over stainless steel. But this could be misleading for cases of hot fluids, or where

pipes have to be laid underground. In essence, though having small losses, the

use of PVC is restricted and that of stainless steel is inevitable in most cases

regardless of the losses encountered. These are just some of the thermodynamic

limitations which are yet to be prevailed.

3. Effect of pipe bends (elbows)-Just like a rolled hose pipe, a bend in a pipe

system reduces the flow efficiency. That is simply to say there are energy losses

(aside from frictional) that arise in certain pipe fittings (valves, sudden

enlargement/contraction etc.) Demonstrated by Figure 4.5 are pressure losses

resulting in two different setups- one with 4 (90 o bends) and another with 4 (135o

bends). The degree of turn around an elbow has a significantly & direct influence

on pressure (energy losses).

4. For Glass pipe, difficulties were encountered in obtaining any pressure drop

readings.

13

5. Conclusion

The experiment was compared with the existing theory for validation; it is evident that our

experiment collaborated with the theory. The comparison is shown in Figure 4.2. The

pressure drop increases with increasing velocity forming a linear and quadratic relationship

when the flow is laminar and turbulent respectively. Our experiment mostly covered turbulent

flow and it revealed that in turbulent flow, the pressure drop is directly proportional to

velocity.

Pipes with bigger diameter have less pressure drop compared with the ones with smaller

diameter regardless of the type materials used. However, the smaller diameter pipes have the

capability of delivering a fluid at a very high velocity compared to the one with bigger

diameter. The high velocity is often followed by an increased friction and resistant to flow

that results in a high pressure drop. The conclusion is based on the observation on the

stainless steel and Polyvinyl chloride pipes shown on Figure 4.3 and 4.6 respectively.

The type of material used has an impact on pressure drop, according to Figure 4.4 galvanised

steel has more pressure drop compared to PVC pipe. This is due to the fact that galvanised

steel has a more relative roughness, hence it experience more friction.

The bends with a higher angle have less pressure drop compared to the one with a less angle

(comparing 135 with 90) as shown in Figure 4.5.

It was observed that as the Reynolds number increases the relative error between the

theoretical and the experimental pressure decreased.

14

6. Recommendations

To minimise pressure loses along the pipes, pipes with smooth interior walls (less surface

rough) must be used. Increased roughness increase the wall shear stress which is one the

factors contributing to pressure drop within pipes. In the experiment pipes made from glass

and Polyvinyl chloride are smoother compared to other pipes.

Pipes that are relatively less rough (smooth) have less pressure difference; I recommend the

use of a pressure gauge with a lesser scale as opposed to using the one measuring the pressure

in kilo Pascal. The pressure difference that was recorded on the glass pipe is very small and

few measurements were possible.

More research is required on finding possible better materials to use to make pipes and

improvement of current materials in order to minimise or reduce the loss of energy

encountered in fluid flow in terms of pressure drop.

Bends should be avoided in the piping system, as they significantly increase pressure drop.

15

7. References

1. Coulson, J.M., & Richardson, J.F. (1977).Chemical engineering (Vol 1), (3rd ed.).

Oxford: Pergamon Press

2. Fox, R.W., & McDonald, A.T. (1985).Introduction to fluid mechanics (3rd ed.).New

York: Wiley & Sons

3. Holtshousen, P. & Last, J. (1998). Pipes & Pipelines: Principles & Practice (2nd ed.).

Northcliff: K. Myles and Associates cc

4. Sinnott, R.K. (2005). Chemical Engineering Design (Vol.6), (4th ed.). London:

Elsevier Ltd

5. Sinnott, R., & Towler, G. (2009). Chemical Engineering Design (5th ed.).

London: Elsevier Ltd

6. Skogestad, S., (2009).Chemical and Energy Process Engineering. New York: CRC

PRESS

7. Retrieved from

http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/screenshots/796/original.jpg

16

8. Appendices

Appendix A

Table A1: Data for calibration of rotameter

Rotameter

Height(cm)

Volume

(measuring

Cylinder)

(ml)

Volume

(measuring

Cylinder)

(ml)

Volume

(measuring

Cylinder)

(ml)

average

Volume

10

800

825

783

14

1225

1130

18

1600

22

Time

Volumetric

Flow

rate(l/s)

Flow

rate(m^3/s

)

802.67

10

0.08

8.03E-05

1150

1168.33

10

0.12

1.17E-04

1560

1520

1560.00

10

0.16

1.56E-04

1880

1870

1875.00

10

0.19

1.88E-04

26

2360

2280

2320.00

10

0.23

2.32E-04

30

2720

2600

2660.00

10

0.27

2.66E-04

34

3060

2980

3020.00

10

0.30

3.02E-04

38

3360

3470

3415.00

10

0.34

3.42E-04

42

3800

3770

3785.00

10

0.38

3.79E-04

54

4340

4340

4340.00

10

0.43

4.34E-04

66

3360

3500

3430.00

0.69

6.86E-04

74

4160

4260

4210.00

0.84

8.42E-04

17

Appendix B

Table B1: Data for PVC pipes with (4X90) bends

18

19

20

21

22

Appendix C

23

9. Nomenclature

Symbols and constants

A -Area (m2)

D -Diameter (m)

e Relative Roughness (dimensionless)

f - Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (dimensionless)

v Velocity (m.s-1)

Viscosity (kg.m-1.s-1)

-Density (kg.m-3)

P Pressure (kPa)

L Length (m)

K- Velocity Head loss (m)

Re Reynolds Number (dimensionless)

g Gravitational acceleration (m.s-2)

24

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