A Pound of Flesh

A survey of 1202 Australians about whether they’re vegetarian or vegan and what their attitudes to animals are.

The Vegetarian/Vegan Society of ueensland !ncor"orated #VVS $ htt"%//vegsoc.org.au info&vegsoc.org.au 'ebruary 2010

CONTENTS
(ha"ters) sections and references are hy"erlin*ed.

1 Preliminary 2 Summary 3 Results
+.1 +.2 +.+ +.1 +.2 +.3 +.6

3 4 11
11 11 11 11 12 12 1+

Are ,ou A Vegetarian or Vegan.hat /o ,ou 0at.hat /o ,ou /o.hat’s Acce"table and .hat !sn’t The Vegan /iet and Animal 'arming 4easons to 5ecome Vegan 'arming 7ractices

4 Discussion
1.1 1.2 1.+ 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.: 1.= 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.1+

8ealth 'arm 7ractices Animal S*in #9eather$ and Shee" 'ur #.ool$ Animal Testing The 0nvironment 8orse 4acing) /og 4acing) (ircuses and 4odeos 5reeding Animals for 7et Sho"s ;oos) A<uatic 7ar*s and A<uariums 7ain and !ntelligence Vegetarians and Vegans in Australia Vegetarians and Vegans >utside Australia 8istory and ?rowth (onclusion

14

11 12 13 16 21 22 2: ++ +2 +: += 11 12

5 Method 6 Further Information

46 50

'ront cover image by (athe 8olden from @ust Something ! Aade) Three Word Thursday) 20/:/200= htt"%//Bustsomethingimade.blogs"ot.com/200=/0:/threeCwordCthursdayD20.html The Vegetarian/Vegan Society of ueensland !ncor"orated) 2= /ecember 201+. 4evision = E last and Fnal version. S"onsored by Voiceless) the animal "rotection institute% htt"%//www.voiceless.org.au .ith a generous contribution from 5ioC/istributors% htt"%//www.biodistributors.com.au (reative (ommons 9icence% Attribution GonCcommercial Go /erivatives #cc byCncCnd$.

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

3 of 75

1

Preliminary

are in common use) some of which mas* their relation to animals. Gews"oll recommended using these terms) as theyHre clearly understandable for most "eo"le. The Society acce"ts this) but not what they im"ly% that animals are "ro"erty to be used for whatever "ur"oses are legal. The terms donHt reIect that animals are creatures with their own lives. !nstead they obscure animals) reducing them to commodities. 'or eLam"le) the Iesh of animals) ty"ically land animals) used as food) is referred to as Hmeat.H AotherHs mil* meant for very young animals) usually calves) but used as human food instead is often called Hdairy.H 9ive animals intended for use as food are Hlivestoc*.H .ater animals used as food are Hseafood.H The treated s*in of animals) usually cows) used for a range of "ur"oses such as shoes and clothing) is Hleather.H The fur of shee" is Mwool’) also used for a variety of "ur"oses such as clothes. The survey <uestions also use the eL"ression Hvegan lifestyle.H An ethical commitment is at the core of being vegan) however a lifestyle doesnHt necessarily have an ethical com"onent eg H"arty lifestyleH) Houtdoor lifestyle.H !n this sense it may have been clearer to Bust refer to being vegan) or "erha"s a vegan "hiloso"hy or a""roach. ?iven our sam"le siNe of 1202 adults and an estimated adult "o"ulation of 13)+31)000) we can be =2K certain that the results for the full sam"le #of 1202 "eo"le$ are within O or C+K. The error range is higher for the various subC grou"s such as men) women and age ranges) and varies u" to 6K. .hen com"aring two grou"s) however) such as men and women) only statistically signiFcant results have been re"orted E that is) results outside error ranges.

The survey was conducted by "hone from 21 to 2+ August 200=. !ts goal was to Fnd out% 1$ how many vegetarians and vegans there are in Australia 2$ "eo"le’s attitudes to animals. The survey was run by Gews"oll Sydney with a random) re"resentative sam"le of 1202 "eo"le across Australia. 'urther details about how it was conducted are "rovided in section 5 # Method. The survey was run for the Vegetarian/Vegan Society of ueensland. uestions were formulated by the Society in conBunction with Gews"oll. Voiceless) the animal "rotection institute) funded the survey with a generous contribution from 5ioC/istributors in Tasmania.

ac!"round

De$nitions
%e"etarian C Someone who doesnHt eat animal Iesh of any *ind C including Fsh and other water animals C but eats mil* "roducts and/or eggs. Aore loosely) a vegetarian is sim"ly someone who doesnHt eat animal Iesh E that is) s/he may or may not eat mil* "roducts/eggs. %e"an diet E A diet free of animal Iesh of any *ind C including Fsh or other water animals C as well as mil* "roducts or eggs. %e"an C Someone who) out of concern for animals) avoids using animal "roducts for food) clothing or other "ur"oses. &ote' 5eing vegetarian out of concern for animals "oses a conIict) since animals used to obtain mil* and eggs often suJer considerably and are normally *illed at the end of their "roductive lives. Aale chic*s are also ty"ically *illed as "art of the egg "roduction "rocess. 5 Main (a)ital (ities C Sydney) Aelbourne) 5risbane) Adelaide) 7erth.

Introductory &otes
Totals may not add to 100K due to rounding. The language in the survey uses terms that

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

3 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

4 of 75

2

Summary
1$ to "resent survey results of a C how many Australians are vegetarian or vegan b C what their attitudes to animals are and 2$ to reIect on these results.

1+K of Australians avoid buying "roducts tested on animals.

.hatHs Acce"table and .hat !snHt

This re"ort has a dual "ur"ose%

==K of Australians are against cruelty to animals. :0K of Australians thin* it’s unacce"table to test cosmetics on animals. 16K thin* testing medicine on animals is unacce"table) while 1:K thin* itHs o*. 22K thin* it’s unacce"table to conduct other ty"es of research eL"eriments on animals. 13K of Australians are against breeding animals for "et sho"s) although 20K of "eo"le Fnd it o*.

The survey was conducted by "hone from 21 to 2+ August 200= by Gews"oll Sydney with a random) re"resentative sam"le of 1202 adults across Australia.

Gumber of Vegetarians and Vegans
The survey found that 2K of Australians said they were vegetarian while 1K said they were vegan. Though 2K of "eo"le said they were vegetarian) only 2K actually ate a vegetarian diet. This may mean they ate a vegetarian diet most of the time) or that they have a misunderstanding of what a vegetarian is. A vegetarian is someone who doesnHt eat animal Iesh of any *ind C including Fsh and other water animals E but does eat mil* "roducts and/or eggs. >f the 1K of "eo"le who said they were vegan) only one "erson actually ate a vegan diet. The rest ate animal Iesh) mil* "roducts or eggs at least some of the time. The single "erson who ate a vegan diet) a female) also avoided using animal "roducts generally eg clothes or shoes made of leather. That ma*es her a genuine vegan% someone who avoids using animal "roducts for food) clothing or other "ur"oses out of concern for animals. This means around 0.03K of the Australian "o"ulation are vegan. 5ased on a "o"ulation of 13)+31)000 "eo"le aged 1: and over this wor*s out to be about 10)000 "eo"le.

The Vegan /iet And Animal 'arming
3=K of Australians believe around 200 million farm animals are *illed every year. 21K of Australians believe that vegan diets can be healthy. 2+K of Australians donHt thin* the livestoc* industry causes serious environmental "roblems) +:K thin* it does) while :K donHt *now.

4easons To 5ecome Vegan

>verall) 23K of Australians say there are one or more things that would encourage them to become vegan. These are%

• evidence that many farming "ractices • • • • • •
cause stress and "ain for millions of animals every year #+3K$ evidence they can be healthy on a vegan diet #+2K$ evidence that being vegan is better for the environment #+1K$ more vegan menu items in cafes or restaurants #22K$ being vegan costing less than their current lifestyle #2+K$ family or friends that are vegan #20K$ more vegans in general #16K$

'arming 7ractices
:3K of Australians thin* *ee"ing egg laying hens in cages for their entire lives is unacce"table. 61K of Australians thin* castrating animals without anaesthetic is unacce"table.

.hat 7eo"le /o
6=K of Australians buy "roducts made from animal s*in #leather$ or shee" fur #wool$. 3:K of Australians visit Noos) a<uatic "ar*s or a<uariums. 10K attend or watch events li*e dog racing) horse racing) the circus or rodeos. A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

4 of 75

A Pound of Flesh 62K of Australians thin* *illing male chic*s in egg "roduction is unacce"table. 16K of Australians thin* ma*ing cows "regnant every year and ta*ing their calves from them to obtain mil* is unacce"table.

VVSQ

5 of 75

Discussion
Animal industries worldwide use and *ill hundreds of billions animals each year for food) clothing) eL"eriments) "roFt and other reasons. 'ood animals) for eLam"le) are not only *illed by the billion for their Iesh) but male chic*s are ground alive or gassed in egg "roduction because they canHt become egg laying chic*ens and arenHt "roFtable to raise for Iesh. (ows are made "regnant every year) and their calves are ta*en away so "eo"le can get their mil*. (an eL"loiting animals this way be BustiFed!f we say yes) since humans are biologically also animals) would we be BustiFed in eL"loiting other humans>n the whole) "eo"le would say no. .hy- >n one level because we see human life as sacred) so allow "eo"le to be free and follow their interests #"rovided they donHt harm others$. >n another level) weHre aware that "eo"le can feel "ain) so donHt want to intentionally ma*e them suJer. 5ut these things are the same for other animals. They arenHt roc*s) "ieces of wood) or sheets of steel. 9i*e us) they have feelings. 9i*e us they eL"erience "ain. !tHs logical to include them in a grou" with us) as fellow animals) and to regard their "ain as im"ortant. 0s"ecially given that ==K of Australians are against cruelty to animals. 8ow can we Bustify using animals for our own "ur"oses when) unli*e roc*s) they feel "ain li*e us) and have interests li*e us- #Although their interests may be <uite diJerent to ours.$ /o we need to eL"loit them to survive-

/ietary authorities such as the American /ietetic Association agree that vegan diets can not only be healthy) but may oJer "rotection against certain diseases and health "roblems such as ischemic heart disease) high blood "ressure) hy"ertension) ty"e 2 diabetes) overweight and cancer. So thereHs no need to eat animal "roducts to be healthy.

Animals Psed for H0ntertainmentH
(learly we donHt need to use animals for HentertainmentH to survive. ,et when HentertainmentH is the "rimary "ur"ose in using animals) it follows that their welfare is secondary. 'or eLam"le) :0C=0K of racehorses suJer from gastric ulcers) and when owners canHt aJord to *ee" them) or horses arenHt "roFtable) they often end u" at a slaughterhouse. The same a""lies to greyhounds used for racing. Thousands of animals that have been badly inBured) arenHt suitable for racing) or are considered too old to race) are *illed. /ogs also are used in eL"eriments) and many are sent to Asia to race where activists say they end u" as food. (ircuses constantly *ee" animals moving from "lace to "lace) *ee" them in small enclosures) and "revent them being "art of a regular social grou". They often dis"lay abnormal behaviour. !n rodeos) when animals are in chutes they may have electric "rods used on them) be hit) beaten and whi""ed and have their tails "ulled and twisted. They may try to esca"e their chutes) but once out can ta*e bad falls) slam into fences and brea* their legs and bac*s. !n one event) ro"e and tying) calves are released from chutes and ro"ed. >nce they reach the end of the ro"e they come to an abru"t) often violent) sto" C called being Hclotheslined.H This can Ber* them into the air. 4iders then dismount and throw the calves on their sides. (alves are often inBured) suJering bro*en legs) nec*s and internal haemorrhaging. .hile the Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association claims yearly inBury rates are around 0.0:K) witness re"orts suggest the rate is around 200 times higher. VVSQ 5 of 75

8ealth
Aost Australians believe that vegan diets can be healthy #21K$.

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh ;oos share "roblems similar to circuses% conFnement and limited social grou"s. !n many cases enclosures are hundreds of times smaller than animals are accustomed to in the wild. !n some cases theyHre thousands of times smaller. Aarine animals are subBect to the same "roblem C dol"hins) for instance) used to swimming many *ilometres in the ocean. >ther usual behaviour such as climbing) eL"loring) ta*ing "art in social grou"s) scavenging) foraging and selecting "artners may also be limited. .ithout enough mental stimulation) roughly :0 million animals worldwide engage in neurotic behaviour such as bar biting) headCbobbing) "acing) swaying) self mutilation) and even mothers reBecting and *illing their young. .hile the mental health of animals in ca"tivity suJers) their "hysical health may as well. Animals also often die because *ee"ers arenHt aware of how to "ro"erly care for them. ;oos and a<uatic "ar*s may claim to hel" conserve s"ecies. 8owever) in 1==1) The Zoo Inquiry found that only 2K of land vertebrates were "art of worldwide Noo breeding "rograms. !t also found only 1)200 out of 10)000 Noos were registered for ca"tive breeding and wildlife conservation. Aost animals such as lions) giraffes) ele"hants and tigers are Hcrowd "ullersH which increase attendance and therefore income. Similarly) the Aquatic Zoos re"ort of 2001 found that only around +K of threatened Fsh were on dis"lay in PQ "ublic a<uariums. !t also loo*ed at 1+ restaurants) cafes or food *ios*s in the a<uariums. >f those) :2K had Fsh or a<uatic invertebrates on the menu that were commonly dis"layed in a<uariums. !n 32K of "laces) these animals belonged to threatened s"ecies. The re"ort also found that around ==K of animals weren’t a "art of any oRcial conservation breeding "rogram and that none are released for conservation reasons #though they are for other reasons eg too many animals$. .orldwide) Noos have over 300 million visitors a year) so they have a wide sco"e in inIuencing how "eo"le thin* of animals. 8owever) the message they send is that itHs o* A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

6 of 75

to *ee" animals ca"tive as though theyHre our "ossessions and that the animals they *ee" ca"tive donHt mind being there. Qee"ing ele"hants in Noos is roughly 20 times more eL"ensive than *ee"ing an ele"hant and several other animals in "rotected natural habitat. Aillions of dollars are s"ent on Noos) a<uariums) marine "ar*s and the animals to "ut in them all) when a more direct and effective o"tion would be to "rotect natural animal habitats. !n terms of education value) nature documentaries show animals in their normal surroundings) are far chea"er) and are li*ely to "rovide more detailed information.

Animal 0L"eriments
.hile using animals for food and HentertainmentH) then) are both unnecessary and cruel) what about testing on animals for human beneFtsAillions of animals are tested on around the world every year) in "ainful) sometimes biNarre and even macabre eL"eriments. ,et results of eL"eriments are often misleading. 'or instance) while animal tests indicated the arthritis "ain*iller VioLL was safe) it was withdrawn from sale in 2001 after causing roughly +20)000 heart attac*s) stro*es) and cases of heart failure around the world. Similarly) thalidomide was also withdrawn from sale in 1=31 after causing thousands of birth defects around the globe. 8umans have fundamentally diJerent "hysiologies from other animals) so tests on animals canHt easily be a""lied to humans. Shee") for eLam"le) can eat large <uantities of arsenic) though itHs a "oison for humans. /ogs) rats) mice and hamsters can all survive without Vitamin () while humans would develo" scurvy. The PS 'ederal /rug Administration says that =2K of drugs found safe and eJective in animal tests turn out to be toLic and/or ineRcient in human trials. >f the :K of drugs that are a""roved for release) more than half are withdrawn or relabelled due to severe side eJects. 0ven if animal testing didnHt "roduce misleading results) itHs hard to conceive that the ingenuity and brilliance of humans canHt devise tests that donHt re<uire the sacriFce of VVSQ 6 of 75

A Pound of Flesh millions of animals a year. Already testing technology that doesnHt use animals is accurate and much faster. The PS 0nvironmental 7rotection Agency too* +0 years to thoroughly test 2)200 "ossibly toLic substances using traditional methods. 8owever) thousands of chemicals can now be tested at once using human cells "ut into more than 1200 small test tubes on a glass tray.

VVSQ

7 of 75

!n the case of individuals) they breed for various reasons% their animals get "regnant before being deseLed) owners want their children to eL"erience birth) they thin* itHs unfair to deseL their animals and so on. !n the case of small o"erations) breeding is done for "roFt with little concern for the welfare of animals. !n /ecember 200: a cou"le living near Townsville were raided by the 4S7(A. !ns"ectors seiNed over 320 animals% 11+ dogs) 1 cat) 1:: rats) 6+ mice along with several guinea "igs and birds. They also found a large freeNer full of froNen "u""ies) guinea "igs) rats and fowl. Animals were *e"t in small cages on to" of each other in the cou"leHs shed. Aany of the dogs had little or no water) needed vet treatment for eye) ear and teeth "roblems and had fur matted with faeces and urine. All needed several baths to get rid of their stench and they re<uired grooming to remove the matting) as well as to cut overgrown nails. The cou"le were ta*en to court where the 4S7(A gave evidence that they were selling "u""ies online. The cou"le "leaded guilty to 1+1 charges under the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001. 7et mills) or farms) are li*e bac*yard breeders that breed for "roFt) eLce"t theyHre larger o"erations. They sell their animals to all the "laces bac*yard breeders do) as well as overseas buyers. 7u""y farms may also use a house as a Hsho" frontH so "eo"le donHt see where animals are bred. Animals are often *e"t in "oor conditions where welfare follows a long way behind "roFt. They can be continually mated and "ermanently *e"t in cages. They may never be let outside their cages to eLercise) "lay) have com"anions) or go to toilet. Ty"ical "roblems in "et mills include overbreeding) inbreeding #mating close relatives$) not enough food) little or no veterinary care) "oor hygiene) and housing that doesnHt meet the "hysical and behavioural needs of animals. /eath rates are high. Animals often have longCterm health and/or behavioural "roblems as a result of "oor housing conditions) "oor maternal nutrition and lac* of "ro"er socialisation during the Frst few wee*s of life. VVSQ 7 of 75

5reeding Animals for 7et Sho"s
20K of Australians thin* itHs acce"table to breed animals for "et sho"s. TheyHre li*ely unaware of the cruelty involved in breeding animals for "et sho"s) and the waste of life that results. According to the Australian (om"anion Animal (ouncil) in 200= "eo"le lived with over +: million other animals. Australians buy around 1 million dogs and cats alone each year) yet about 220)000 end u" being euthanised the same year. This is about 3:2 animals a day) or more than one cat or dog every 2 minutes #in an : hour wor*ing day$. Got only is this a com"lete disregard for life) the situation is absurd. Animals bred to be sold create a crisis of unwanted animals that shelters and other agencies are left to deal with) in many cases by euthanasia. ,et des"ite this) animals are bred in large numbers every year. 7eo"le who donHt deseL their animals) or deseL them later than necessary) can contribute to the "roblem of unwanted) homeless animals. 'emale cats) for eLam"le) can already get "regnant at 1 months old. A Victorian survey showed that over 10K of cats have *ittens before theyHre deseLed. !t ma*es no sense to sell animals in "et sho"s or through other commercial channels eg the "a"er and internet. Thousands of animals that need good homes are available to "eo"le through shelters) "ounds or agencies that wor* on their behalf. 7et sho"s commonly get animals from "et mills and bac*yard breeders. 5ac*yard breeders may be individual owners or small o"erations. 5oth breed des"ite the glut of animals) and often without regard for their welfare.

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

8 of 75

7ain and !ntelligence
Animal welfare laws around the country ac*nowledge that animals feel "ain) as does the Australian code of practice for the care and use of animals for scientifc purposes. 0ven the National Code of Practice for ecreational and !port "ishin# 2001 ac*nowledges that Fsh suJer. Some "eo"le might obBect and agree that while animals feel "ain) and itHs not necessary to eL"loit them) eL"loiting them isnHt that much of an issue since they arenHt very intelligent. ?iven "ain in animals is similar to the "ain we feel) however) intelligence isnHt a relevant issue. !f it was we could eL"loit babies) the mentally disabled and even the less intelligent. 0ven so) while intelligence is "eri"heral to how we should treat other animals) is it even really the case that other animals arenHt intelligent!n 2006) research by Sana !noue and Tetsuro AatsuNawa from Qyoto Pniversity in @a"an found that adolescent chim"s did better than adult humans at a "articular test of recalling numbers. The best "erforming chim") Ayumu) who can buy snac*s from vending machines) scored 63K in one test) while humans averaged +3K. (hic*ens live in stable social grou"s that demonstrate so"histicated social behaviour. They recogniNe each other by facial features and can remember more than a hundred other chic*ens. They have over 20 cries they use to communicate) including alarm calls de"ending on whether "redators are a""roaching by land or sea. TheyHre good at solving "roblems and understand that items removed from sight continue to eList E something that small children canHt do. 'ish are socially intelligent) have stable cultures) and coo"erate to chec* on "redators and catch food. They recognise members of their shoal) monitor the "restige of other Fsh) use tools) and build com"leL nests and bowers. TheyHre <uic* learners who can teach each other things) and can dis"lay im"ressive memories. The Australian crimson s"otted rainbowFsh can remember how it esca"ed from a net 11 months later E the human e<uivalent of 10 years. A Pound of Flesh

0Lam"les of intelligence s"read throughout the animal *ingdom. This doesnHt mean animal intelligence is the same) but Bust as men are diJerent to women) we nevertheless eLtend the idea of e<uality to both seLes. So while our treatment of animals should de"end on their ca"acity to eL"erience "ain) rather than their intelligence) even if being unintelligent was a valid reason to eL"loit animals) our eLam"les show that animals donHt even meet this criterion.

The 0nvironment

+1K of Australians say that evidence that being vegan was better for the environment would encourage them to be vegan. @ust over half of Australians) 2+K) though) donHt thin* animal farming causes serious environmental "roblems. 8owever) the re"ort $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado() released in 2003 by the 'ood and Agriculture >rganiNation of the Pnited Gations) tells us that animal farming is one of the to" two or three maBor contributors to the most serious environmental "roblems in the world. The re"ort says that animal farming is "robably the largest source of water "ollution and at the same time uses over :K of the worldHs water) mostly for irrigation of feedcro"s. !n Australia the amount of water the sector uses is even greater% 12K of our water su""ly) eLcluding dairy farming. /airy farming adds another 12K) ma*ing a total of 26K of the water used in the country. .hile this is a signiFcant amount) it eLcludes water used in other "arts of the animal industry eg slaughterhouses. 5risbaneHs (anon 8ill abattoir) for instance) uses more than 2:0 megalitres of water a year. Animal farming is the maBor reason for deforestation in the world) and so may also be the main reason for reduced biodiversity. !tHs also one of the *ey forces in land degradation) "ollution) overFshing) sedimentation of coastal areas and enabling alien s"ecies to invade. !n Australia) +00)000 hectares of land were cleared in the year to 2006. Aost of this was in ueensland) which cleared over 2+0)000 hectares of land E an area e<uivalent to the A(T. Aore than =0K of this was for "asture. The .orld .ildlife 'und estimated that 20 million birds) re"tiles and mammals died as a result of this clearing. VVSQ 8 of 75

A Pound of Flesh ?raNing degrades large areas of land) with animal farming accounting for over 60K of the globeHs agricultural land and +0K of its surface area. !n Australia graNing uses 16K of the countryHs total area while only +K is devoted to cro"s.

VVSQ

9 of 75

Ail* "roduces 10 grams of "rotein for every *ilolitre of water) however wheat returns 61 and corn 66. 0ven rice "roduces 1= grams "er *ilolitre. /es"ite this) billions of dollars across the world go into subsidies for animal foods. ,et vegan diets use about 1/2 of the land that omnivore diets re<uire. 5ecause of the cruelty involved in eL"loiting animals) its tremendous scale) and the many advantages a vegan diet oJers the world) it not only ma*es sense for "eo"le to become vegan) but cries out for us to ta*e advantage of its beneFts. Animal use is one of the *ey issues of our time. The loss of life that results from it in one year is far greater than any human tragedy C hundreds of times greater than the number of "eo"le that died in .orld .ar !!. ,et becoming vegan has the "otential to have an enormously "ositive im"act on the "lanet. 'rom eliminating the death of countless animals) to increasing "roduction of food using less land) less energy and less water. /rastically reducing deforestation and water "ollution while introducing an ethic that encourages us to be more careful in dealing with each other and our "lanet. The HtechnologyH of being vegan oJers wonderful beneFts% itHs sim"le) doesnHt cost anything) can be im"lemented by anyone) and has revolutionary global conse<uences in terms of animal use) energy) land) water conservation) food "roduction eRciency) "ollution and so on. 7artly because of lac* of *nowledge) we abuse our "ower over other animals and condone their wides"read abuse. 9i*e dictators we dominate them and use them for our own ends. That we do this with the notion of abusing them HhumanelyH clouds our res"onsibility) allowing us to thin* we can use animals as long as we treat them HwellH. .hich) in any case) often doesnHt ha""en. .ould we acce"t regarding other humans this way- Aaybe by "ulling their teeth without anaesthetic) but doing it HhumanelyH- >r branding them with a hot iron on the forehead- .e consider this an outrage) an insult to humanity. The same thing is true of animals. ,ou canHt mistreat them HhumanelyH. A recognition of VVSQ 9 of 75

(onclusion
Pnless we ignore the s"ar* of life animals have and reduce them to commodities li*e a boL of (ornIa*es or a "air of shoes E which animals are often made into E we canHt Bustify eL"loiting them. >ther animals are on the same continuum we are. .e ac*nowledge other humans as individuals with their own interests and own ca"acity to feel "ain. .e hold to the idea that unless they do something to harm the interests of others) we leave them free to follow their interests. /oesnHt it follow that as living creatures) unli*e roc*s and steel) other animals deserve the same consideration- To be treated as individuals with their own interests and their own ca"acity to feel "ainThe animal industry is wrea*ing global environmental havoc causing eLtensive water "ollution) deforestation) land degradation) devastation of Fsh "o"ulations) and reduction in biodiversity. !t also has a bearing on global food "roduction. .hile cereal is the most im"ortant source of food in the world) around 1/+ of the worldHs total cro" is fed to animals. ?oing on Fgures from the late 1==0s) farmers worldwide "roduce an average edible cro" harvest of 1)300 *ilocalories "er "erson each day. 9osses following harvest) such as trans"ort and storage) mean around 2):00 *ilocalories are available for su""ly. >f the 1):00 *ilocalories lost to this "oint) 2/+ goes into animal feed. >n average) it ta*es around 10 times more energy to "roduce 1 *ilocalorie of animal "rotein than 1 *ilocalorie of corn. !t also ta*es about : times more water to "roduce 1000 *ilocalories of animal "roducts than the same energy value of "lant food. 'urther) many "lant foods use water more eRciently to "roduce the same amounts of "rotein and other nutrients. 'or eLam"le) using the same amount of water) "otatoes "roduce 12 times more "rotein than cow Iesh. A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh their lives) that they feel "ain) demands that the only real HhumaneH way they can be treated is to not regard them as means to our our ends. That means being vegan. .hile the use of animals for food) s"ort) entertainment and other "ur"oses is commonly acce"ted) this doesn’t mean itHs a logical or even tolerable state of aJairs. Gumerous "ractices throughout history were considered acce"table and were even legal) although these wouldn’t be considered the same way by modern standards. Slavery was a wides"read legal "ractice throughout human history. /oes that mean it was right0ven then) slaves weren’t routinely s*inned. >r used for clothing. 9et alone eaten. ,et this is what ha""ens to billions of animals every year. !s there another way for the 21st centuryThe answer is yes% to embrace being vegan.

VVSQ

10 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

10 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

11 of 75

3
3*1

Results
+re ,ou + %e"etarian or %e"an-

"o"ulation are vegan. 5ased on a "o"ulation of 13)+31)000 "eo"le aged 1: and over this wor*s out to be about 10)000 "eo"le.

3*3

.hat Do ,ou Do-

The Frst <uestion as*ed "eo"le whether they thought they were vegetarian or vegan. They werenHt given deFnitions of these terms) so their answers are based on what they thin* the terms mean. 2K said they were vegetarian) 1K vegan. =2K said they were neither and 2K didn’t *now.

This <uestion as*ed "eo"le whether they ta*e "art in certain activities connected with animals.

• 6=K of Australians buy "roducts made

from animal s*in #leather$ or shee" fur #wool$.

3*2

.hat Do ,ou /at-

7eo"le aged +2O #:+K$ are more li*ely to buy "roducts made from animal s*in or shee" fur com"ared to those aged 1:C+1 #3:K$.

This <uestion as*ed "eo"le what they eat. Their res"onses were later com"ared to whether they said they were vegetarian or vegan #in <uestion 1$.

• 3:K of Australians visit Noos) a<uatic "ar*s
or a<uariums. 7eo"le aged 1:C1= #62K$ are more li*ely to do this com"ared with those aged 20 or more #26K$. :1K of "eo"le with children #u" to 16$ visit Noos) a<uatic "ar*s or a<uariums com"ared with 2=K of "eo"le without children) suggesting "eo"le see these as a good form of entertainment for *ids.

• =:K of Australians eat animals #including
water animals$.

• =:K eat mil* "roducts or eggs. • =1K eat chic*ens or other birds. • ::K eat Fsh) "rawns or other water
animals.

• 10K of Australians attend or watch events
li*e dog racing) horse racing) the circus or rodeos. Aore men do this than women% 16K versus ++K.

• 61K eat honey) royal Belly or other bee
"roducts. .hile 2K of "eo"le said they were vegetarian) only 2K actually ate a vegetarian diet. This may mean they ate a vegetarian diet most of the time) or that they have a misunderstanding of what a vegetarian is. A vegetarian doesnHt eat animal Iesh of any *ind C including Fsh and other water animals E but does eat mil* "roducts and/or eggs. >f the 1K of "eo"le who said they were vegan) only one "erson actually ate a vegan diet. The rest ate animal Iesh) mil* "roducts or eggs at least some of the time. The single "erson who ate a vegan diet) a female) also avoided using animal "roducts generally eg clothes or shoes made of leather. That ma*es her a genuine vegan% someone who avoids using animal "roducts for food) clothing or other "ur"oses C out of concern for animals. This means around 0.03K of the Australian A Pound of Flesh

• 1+K of Australians a0oid buying "roducts
tested on animals. .omen are almost twice as li*ely to do this as men% 26K versus 2=K. 7eo"le 1:C1= years old #1=K$ are more li*ely to avoid buying animal tested "roducts com"ared to those aged 20O #+2K$ Aany of the "eo"le who avoid buying "roducts tested on animals also buy "roducts made of animal s*in #leather$ or shee" fur #wool$ #:0K$) visit Noos) a<uatic "ar*s or a<uariums #60K$) or watch or attend events li*e dog racing) horse racing) circuses or rodeos #++K$.

3*4

.hat1s +cce)ta2le .hat Isn1t

and

This <uestion as*ed "eo"le whether they found various "ractices involving animals VVSQ 11 of 75

A Pound of Flesh acce"table.

VVSQ

12 of 75

• ==K of Australians are against cruelty to
animals) while 1K aren’t sure.

Aain household grocery buyers are also more li*ely to Fnd breeding animals for "et sho"s unacce"table #21K$ com"ared to those who aren’t main grocery buyers #+1K$.

• :0K of Australians thin* it’s unacce"table
to test cosmetics on animals) while 16K thin* it’s o* and 1K aren’t sure.

3*5

3he %e"an Diet and +nimal Farmin"

• 16K of Australians thin* testing medicine
on animals is unacce"table) while 1:K thin* it’s o*. 2K don’t *now.

This <uestion as*ed "eo"le about the vegan diet and issues concerned with animal farming.

• 3=K of Australians believe around 200
million farm animals are *illed every year. 12K thin* this is false and 20K don’t *now.

• 22K of Australians thin* it’s unacce"table
to conduct other ty"es of research eL"eriments on animals. 10K thin* it’s o* and :K don’t *now.

• 21K of Australians believe that vegan diets
can be healthy. +:K thin* this is false. :K don’t *now.

• 13K of Australians are against breeding
animals for "et sho"s) although 20K of "eo"le Fnd it o*. 1K aren’t sure.

• +:K of Australians thin* the livestoc*
industry causes serious environmental "roblems. 2+K thin* this is false) while :K of "eo"le don’t *now. 1:C+1 year olds are more li*ely to believe farming animals causes serious environmental "roblems #21K$) com"ared to "eo"le aged 20 and over #+1K$. Similarly) 21K of "eo"le with a university education are more li*ely to thin* animal farming causes serious environmental "roblems) com"ared to +1K of "eo"le without university eduction.

!n total) 26K of Australians thin* it’s acce"table to test medicine) cosmetics or do other ty"es of research eL"eriments on animals. Testing (osmetics on Animals Aore women than men thin* testing cosmetics on animals is unacce"table% :6K com"ared with 62K. Testing Aedicine on Animals Aore women than men thin* testing medicine on animals is unacce"table% 2+K com"ared with 11K. 2=K of 1:C+1 year olds also Fnd it unacce"table versus 12K for "eo"le +2 and over. 21K of "eo"le who don’t have a university education thin* that testing medicine on animals is unacce"table) com"ared to +3K of those who do have university education. >ther 4esearch on Animals SigniFcantly more women than men thin* doing other research eL"eriments on animals is unacce"table% 32K com"ared with 11K. 5reeding Animals for 7et Sho"s >nce again) more women than men thin* breeding animals to sell in "et sho"s is unacce"table% 21K against +6K. 7eo"le 20 years or older are more li*ely to Fnd the "ractice unacce"table com"ared to "eo"le aged 1:C1=% 23K versus +=K.

3*6

Reasons to ecome %e"an

This <uestion as*ed "eo"le what would encourage them to become vegan. >verall) 23K of Australians identify one or more things that would encourage them to become vegan. These are%

• evidence that many farming "ractices
cause stress and "ain for millions of animals every year #+3K$

• evidence they can be healthy on a vegan
diet #+2K$

• evidence that being vegan is better for the
environment #+1K$

• more vegan menu items in cafes or
restaurants #22K$

• being vegan costing less than their current
lifestyle #2+K$ VVSQ 12 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

13 of 75

• family or friends that are vegan #20K$ • more vegans in general #16K$
11K of Australians wouldn’t be encouraged to become vegan by any of these. 0nvironment .hile 12K of "art time wor*ers say a better outcome for the environment would encourage them to become vegan) only 2:K of full time wor*ers and those who don’t wor* share this view. Animal SuJering 21K of "art time wor*ers would be inIuenced to try a vegan diet if they had evidence of the "ain and stress farming "ractices cause animals) com"ared to ++K of "eo"le who wor* full time or not at all. 7rice 7art time wor*ers #+6K$ are more li*ely than full time wor*ers or those who don’t wor* #1=K$ to consider going vegan if it cost less.

• 16K of Australians thin* ma*ing cows
"regnant every year and ta*ing their calves from them to obtain mil* is unacce"table. The same "ercentage of "eo"le F nd it acce"table) 2K don’t *now and 1K refused to answer. 31K of women thin* this "ractice is unacce"table) while almost half as many men share this view% ++K.

3*4

Farmin" Practices

This <uestion as*ed "eo"le whether they thought common farming "ractices were acce"table.

• :3K of Australians thin* *ee"ing egg
laying hens in cages for their entire lives is unacce"table. 12K of "eo"le thin* it’s acce"table) 1K don’t *now) and 1K of "eo"le refused to answer the <uestion.

• 61K of Australians thin* castrating animals
without anaesthetic is unacce"table. 22K thin* it is acce"table) +K don’t *now) and 1K refused to answer. :1K of women Fnd this com"ared with 32K of men. unacce"table)

:2K of "eo"le from the 2 main ca"itals Fnd castration without anaesthetic unacce"table) com"ared with 3+K of "eo"le from other areas.

• 62K of Australians thin* *illing male chic*s

in egg "roduction is unacce"table. 21K of "eo"le thin* it’s acce"table) +K don’t *now) and 1K refused to answer the <uestion. unacce"table)

:0K of women Fnd this com"ared to 3+K of men.

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

13 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

14 of 75

4

Discussion
but for the sa*e of some little mouthful of Iesh) we de"rive a soul of the sun and light) and of that "ro"ortion of life and time it had been born into the world to enBoy.1 7lutarch

The /ietitians of (anada also say that vegan diets can be healthy.+ The /ietitians Association of Australia agree) although stress that vegans need to ma*e sure theyHre getting essential nutrients.1 !n her boo* healthy %e#etarian eatin#) nutritionist 4osemary Stanton) who isnHt vegan) or even vegetarian) writes that%
! have always been interested in the many well documented health beneFts that occur in "eo"le who follow a vegetarian diet. These are often ignored by health "rofessionals. >ne can only wonder if this is due to a lac* of *nowledge or a fear of being called a cran*... 'ears of a bac*lash from the meat and livestoc* industry may also "revent some dietitians and health "rofessionals from "romoting a vegetarian way of eating.2

4*1

5ealth

23K of Australians say there are one or more things that would encourage them to become vegan. +3K say the suJering of farm animals is one of these things. 8owever) closely following suJering C and "erha"s intertwined with it E is having evidence that a vegan diet is healthy #+2K$. A central <uestion about leaving animal "roducts out of the diet is% can you be healthy as a vegan21K of Australians thin* so. Are they rightThe American /ietetic AssociationHs "osition statement on vegetarian diets say that vegan diets can be as healthy as ones centred around animal "roducts.2

.hile there may be a few legitimate concerns about an all "lant diet) such as lac* of familiarity with it) surely a nation that "rides itself on innovation and scientiFc develo"ment wouldn’t maintain that the deaths of millions of animals year after year is necessary to deal with these concerns.e should be able to turn our insight to resolving these "roblems <uic*ly and deftly. As law "rofessor and "hiloso"her ?ary

Vegan bodybuilde and !eigh"lif"e #oel $i %ilis f o& Vi'"o ia
Pho"o 'ou "esy of (elbou ne Vegan S" eng"h) h""*+,,!!!-.egans" eng"h-o g

!n fact) they say vegan diets may "rotect against certain diseases and health "roblems such as ischemic heart disease) high blood "ressure) hy"ertension) ty"e 2 diabetes) overweight and cancer.

'rancione as*s) M!s there anything that you want to eat that badly-’3 That is) are we willing to sacriFce the lives of billions of animals to satisfy our desire for animal foods- /o we really believe that the issues involved in switching to a vegan diet E which can be minor VVSQ 14 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh C are insurmountable!tHs diRcult to believe that the insight and intelligence of our analysts) engineers) scientists and so on) demand that we eat animal "roducts and we can F nd no way around this. !f we can be healthy on a "lant diet) doesnHt it ma*e sense to sto" abusing) *illing and eating animals for their Iesh and other "roducts!n a country li*e Australia with such an abundance of "lant food) is there any arresting reason to continue to eat animal "roductsThe dietitian Virginia Aessina says that HThe strongest and most com"elling reasons for going vegan are based on ethics and animal welfare. 5ut vegans can also feel assured that their dietary choice is a healthful one.H6

VVSQ

15 of 75

.hile very few "eo"le regard Munnecessary cruelty’ as acce"table) what’s considered Mnecessary’ covers many cruel "ractices that ta*e an animal’s life for granted. That is) we as humans are arbiters of that life.

0gg 9aying 8ens !n (ages and Qilling Aale (hic*s
uestion 6 as*ed "eo"le about various "ractices common on Australian farms. The Frst "art as*ed "eo"le whether they thought *ee"ing egg laying hens in cages all their lives was acce"table. :3K of Australians donHt thin* so. ,et this is by far the most common way of housing egg laying hens.= As the Victorian /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustry "oints out) around 6=K of eggs sold in su"ermar*ets are cage eggs even though theyHre clearly labelled as such.10 So thereHs a discre"ancy between what "eo"le Fnd unacce"table) and what they do in "ractice E des"ite the availability of other ty"es of eggs. The "roblem isnHt Bust housing hens in cages their entire lives) though. .hile this alone "rovides a dismal life for birds) +C2 birds share cages) each with less s"ace than an A1 sheet of "a"er.11 Aale chic*s in hatcheries are *illed by methods such as gassing and being ground alive.12 This is because they canHt become egg laying chic*ens and arenHt "roFtable to raise for Iesh.1+ .hile 62K of Australians Fnd *illing chic*s unacce"table) this "ractice goes on regardless of whether eggs are from cages) barns or free range. (hic*s commonly have "art of their bea*s seared oJ with a hot blade in a "ainful "rocess that cuts through nerve tissue. Go "ain relief is "rovided. The aim of cutting bea*s is to reduce cannibalism and "ec*ing as well as lower the amount birds eat while increasing the number of eggs they lay.11 (ages "revent hens fulFlling natural urges to dust bathe and so *ee" feathers clean and free of "arasitesT to stand on a "erch to *ee" their legs strongT to forage and nestT and to lay their eggs in "rivacy.12 Qonrad 9orenN) the Austrian Noologist) said of hens that HTheir instinctive reluctance to lay eggs amidst a crowd of their cage mates is certainly as great as the one of civilised "eo"le to defecate in an analogous situation.H13 VVSQ 15 of 75

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things You Can Do
S /onHt su""ort animal eL"loitation E be vegan. S (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel".

e
4*2

f

g

h

e

f

Farm Practices

Animals thin* and feel and have an interest in their own lives. That animals can suJer is ac*nowledged by antiCcruelty legislation. ,et farm animals don’t have the same "rotection. .hile a "erson who lived with a cat would be convicted for stunning then slitting its throat and gutting it) this "ractice is acce"ted as "art of the animal food industry. uestion 2 of the survey as*ed "eo"le if they thought 200 million farm animals are *illed in Australia each year. 3=K of Australians thin* so. The Australian 5ureau of Statistics conFrms theyHre right.: 8owever) weHve seen from the "revious section that eating animal "roducts isnHt essential for health. ?iven that) how can it be BustiFed to end the lives of animals "urely for taste or "roFt- 7articularly when cruelty to animals while theyHre alive E and often when theyHre *illed C is routineA Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh 5irds may also lose many of their feathers from rubbing against their cages) and their feet can get tangled in the mesh they have to stand on all day.16 >ver a <uarter of birds brea* bones both while in their cages and through later handling.1: After a short lifetime of im"risonment in a cage) birds are sent oJ for slaughter at around 1: months of age to ma*e things li*e cat food or Iavouring for "otato chi"s and stoc* cubes. TheyHd otherwise live to be around 12 years old.1= The ty"ical slaughter "rocess in Australia means birds are shac*led C hung u"side down by their legs E stunned in an electrical water bath) then *illed by an automatic *nife that cuts their throat.20 8owever) not all birds are stunned. Small birds) or those that lift their heads) may miss the water bath. The current may not be suRcient to stun other birds.21 Got all birds are *illed by the automatic *nife either) so birds may be alive before reaching the scalding tan* of hot water that loosens their feathers.22 These are only some of the trials hens face in egg "roduction E theyHre by no means eLhaustive. The answer isnHt to buy other ty"es of eggs C but to re"lace them altogether. This isnHt an odd thing to do) although unusual in the current cultural conteLt. There are millions of "eo"le around the world) "articularly in !ndia) that live without eggs. There are also many re"lacements for eggs) both common foods that can be used as substitutes and commercially available "roducts. See 'urther !nformation for details. 9oo*ing from a distance) letting other creatures suJer in the millions for something that can be easily re"laced goes far beyond being odd) and becomes a desecration of life. !n ma*ing birds egg factories) we reduce their lives to nothing more than the average cost to "roduce a doNen eggs E at "resent =2c.2+

VVSQ

16 of 75

Aore women than men Fnd castration without anaesthetic unacce"table% :1K com"ared to 32K of men. S"aying E deseLing female animals E is also commonly done without anaesthetic. The "referred method for cows E the .ills dro""ed ovary techni<ue E means cutting the ovaries away from the abdomen and leaving them in the body cavity.23

Aa*ing (ows 7regnant To ?et Ail* 26
16K of Australians Fnd ma*ing cows "regnant every year and ta*ing away their calves to get mil* unacce"table. This is a considerably lower "ercentage than) say) "eo"le who Fnd castrating animals without anaesthetic unacce"table. 8owever) more women than men Fnd ma*ing cows "regnant and ta*ing their calves from them unacce"table% 31K com"ared with only ++K of men. !n any case) all these "ractices are "art of the literally inhuman "ractice of animal farming. 9i*e the eLam"le of cage hens) instances of cruelty arenHt an isolated "art of animal farming) but routine. This is inde"endent of what ty"e of farming system is used% intensive) free range or something in between. They all eL"loit animals to greater or lesser degrees and ty"ically end u" *illing them. Animal interests) and therefore their suJering) freedom and lives E are secondary to our unnecessary desire for animal food.

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things You Can Do
S /onHt su""ort animal eL"loitation E be vegan. S (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel".

e
4*3

f

g

h

e

f

(astration .ithout Anaesthetic
61K of Australians thin* castrating animals without anaesthetic is also unacce"table) yet this is routine "ractice in Australia.21 The most common method of castrating bulls uses a *nife to cut o"en the scrotum and ta*e out the testes.22 An alternative is to "ut a tight rubber ring round the to" of the scrotum so that it withers and falls oJ. A Pound of Flesh

+nimal S!in 67eather8 and Shee) Fur 6.ool8

6=K of "eo"le say they buy "roducts made from animal s*in #leather$ or shee" fur #wool$. 5oth these "ractices are an acce"ted "art of culture. 0ven so) while human s*in has been made into leather)2: most "eo"le wouldn’t dream of wal*ing around with human s*in on their feet or bodies in the normal course of aJairs. They’d Fnd it horrifying. 8owever) this VVSQ 16 of 75

A Pound of Flesh is eLactly what ha""ens with the s*in of other animals. .e wear them "roudly) and in fact some of the MFnest’ clothes and shoes are made of animal s*in. .hile cows are most commonly used to ma*e leather) the s*in of a whole range of other animals is also used such as shee") goats) *angaroos) ostriches) crocodiles) and liNards.2= .hile ta*ing shee" fur doesn’t cause the immediate death of animals) once shee" are no longer of use to the wool industry they’re sent for slaughter.+0 .hile they’re lambs) they’ll li*ely be mulesed C have s*in around their bac* end cut oJ C and have their tails removed without anaesthetic.+1 Aales may also be castrated without "ain relief. +2 'urther) millions of shee" die in Feld each year for various reasons including Iy stri*e) natural disasters) "roblems giving birth and eL"osure to bad weather.++ >ver 10K of the Australian shee" fur mar*et is now ultraCFne fur. Shee" are *e"t inside in small individual "ens and have nylon coats "ut on them to control their feeding and *ee" their fur as dust and dirt free as "ossible.+1 Shee" are highly social animals but can’t form social grou"s due to the individual "ens. 'eed can be minimal and is <uic*ly eaten) frustrating graNing behaviour which would normally ta*e around half the day. 'urther) movement is conFned) animals suJer constant stress) and as a result are more susce"tible to illness. The health and wellbeing of shee" become secondary to our desire for Fne <uality wool. This is the natural conse<uence of seeing animals as commodities.

VVSQ

17 of 75

4*4

+nimal 3estin"

As* the eL"erimenters why they eL"eriment on animals and the answer is% H5ecause animals are li*e us.H As* the eL"erimenters why it is morally o*ay to eL"eriment on animals) and the answer is% H5ecause the animals are not li*e us.H Animal eL"erimentation rests on a logical contradiction.+2 7rofessor (harles 4 Aagel Aillions of animals are tested on around the world every year) in "ainful) sometimes biNarre and even macabre eL"eriments. TheyHre shot and blown u" by the military) have cancers and other "athologies bred into them) have their s*ulls sawn o"en) and are forced into isolation. Aany E most- C have no real lives. TheyHre bred for eL"eriments) made to suJer) then *illed. .hat gives us the right to do this to other animals!n this survey) :0K of Australians thin* testing cosmetics on animals is unacce"table. .hy7ossibly because they donHt thin* cosmetics are an im"ortant enough reason to "ut animals through "ain and death. They might also be aware that we can ma*e safe cosmetics without animal testing.+3 !n Se"tember 2001 the 0uro"ean Pnion #0P$ banned animal testing of cosmetics.+6 !n Aarch 200=) they further banned animal testing of any cosmetic in#redients inside the 0P) along with testing com"lete "roducts or ingredients outside the 0P C a"art from + tests. These are also scheduled to be banned in 201+) resulting in a com"lete ban on testing and mar*eting of animal tested "roducts there. Australians are more divided on other *inds of testing. 16K thin* testing medicine on animals is unacce"table) while 1:K thin* itHs acce"table. 22K thin* doing other *inds of research eL"eriments on animals is unacce"table. Aore "eo"le in Australia than the PS) though) Fnd testing medicine on animals unacce"table. According to a Aay 200= ?allu" tele"hone "oll of 1)012 Americans over 16) 26K thought animal testing was acce"table. The "revious yearHs results were almost the VVSQ 17 of 75

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things You Can Do
S /onHt su""ort animal eL"loitation E be vegan. S (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel". S Pse "lant or synthetic o"tions for clothes and shoes.

e

f

g

h

e

f

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh same% 23K thought testing was acce"table. +: 0ven though :0K of Australians Fnd cosmetic testing on animals unacce"table) 16K thin* testing medicine on animals is unacce"table) and 22K thin* other eL"eriments on animals are unacce"table) only 1+K of Australians say they avoid buying "roducts tested on animals. 0ven so) the "ro"ortion of "eo"le who arenHt ha""y with testing on animals is a substantial. Are there shortcomings with animal testing-

VVSQ

18 of 75

• a standard toLicity test is the 9ethal /ose

20 #9/20$ test. This test gives animals an increasing dose of a "roduct til half of them die. Sym"toms can include convulsions) "aralysis) tremors and bleeding from the eyes) nose and mouth. The test commonly runs for 11 days) at which "oint all the animals that havenHt died are *illed. Animals that donHt die before being *illed are often sic* or near death.12

• in the 9ifetime 4odent 5ioassay #945$) rats

/le'" odes in "he b ain of a &on%ey !hose s%ull has been sa!n o*en
Pho"o 'ou "esy of "he 0n"e na"ional Asso'ia"ion Agains" Painful /1*e i&en"s on Ani&als) h""*+,,!!!-iaa*ea-'o&

The most obvious one is that animal eL"eriments are often severe. 'or eLam"le%

• the PS army shot hundred of cats in the
head with steel "ellets to study their wounds.+=

are eL"osed to "otential carcinogens for u" to 2 years. 8owever) many chemicals cause false "ositives E cancer in the rats but not in humans E or false negatives E no cancer in rats) but cancer in humans.1+

• researchers in 0dinburgh inBected cellulose
or asbestos into the abdominal cavities of +22 young rats) even though this had been done multi"le times beforehand. The study was run for over 2 years until almost all the rats died from advanced abdominal cancer.10

• The /raiNe test is a standard for eye

• research

in Victoria trained and anaesthetiNed 1: marmoset mon*eys whose s*ulls were sawn o"en so that recordings could be made of their brains while they were given visual signals.11

irritation. Substances are a""lied directly into the eyes of conscious rabbits. TheyHre held in restraints or wear "lastic collars that "revent them from rubbing their eyes with their "aws. 4abbits being tested have sometimes bro*en their bac*s to brea* free of their restraints. 4abbits are used because they have large eyes and few tear ducts so arenHt able to wash the "roduct away. TheyHre observed for a few hours or days then *illed or used in other eL"eriments. /uring this time eJects may range from eye and s*in irritation to ulcers) bloody scabs and blindness.11

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

18 of 75

A Pound of Flesh A"art from the often horrendous "ain inIicted on animals) there are large diJerences between s"ecies that ma*e results unreliable. 'or eLam"le) we could give botulin to a cat without ill eJects) but *ill the same cat with lemon Buice. Shee" can eat large <uantities of arsenic) though itHs a "oison for humans. /ogs) rats) mice and hamsters can all survive without Vitamin () while humans would develo" scurvy. 2 milligrams of sco"alamine would *ill a "erson) yet you could give 100 grams to a dog or cat without inBury.12 /es"ite millions of animal tests around the world every year13) and the often harsh nature of these tests) testing is ineRcient and even misleading%

VVSQ

19 of 75 the history of this country or the history of the world.H21

• Thalidomide was also withdrawn from sale
in 1=31 after causing thousands of birth defects around the globe.22 (hemie ?runenthal launched the drug in 1=26 claiming it was Hcom"letely nonC"oisonousH and Hcom"letely safe.H2+ ,et animal testing failed to reveal its devastating eJects. The drug was given as a sedative to counter morning sic*ness. Aany children were born with "hocomelia21) which results in Ii""er li*e hands and sometimes feet) however others had Hstunted or missing limbsT deformed eyes and earsT ingrown genitalsT absence of a lungT a great many of them stillCborn or dying shortly after birthT "arents under shoc*) mothers gone insane) some driven to infanticide.H22 !n 1=32 Time AagaNine said that Thalidomide was released Hafter three years of animal testsH) although these tests have been criticiNed as shallow and incom"lete. 8owever) later animal tests were also conducted by com"anies licensing thalidomide in several 0uro"ean countries including 0ngland and Sweden. These also failed to raise any alarm. Some researchers claim that testing on "regnant animals would have revealed the drugHs "roblems. 8owever) tests on "regnant animals may have been done.23 !n any case) many later tests on "regnant animals also failed to raise any issue. As @9 Schardein wrote in his boo* ,ru#s as Terato#ens C substances that cause malformations of the embryo or fetus C H!n a""roLimately 10 strains of rats) 12 strains of mice) eleven breeds of rabbit) two breeds of dogs) three strains of hamsters) eight s"ecies of "rimates and in other such varied s"ecies as cats) armadillos) guinea "igs) swine and ferrets in which thalidomide has been tested teratogenic e Jects have been induced only occasionally.H26 .hile similar defects were eventually "roduced in .hite Gew ;ealand rabbits and some "rimates) eJects were variable) inconsistent) and only "roduced after high doses of the drug) 22C+00 times more than for humans.2: 4esearchers "ointed out that diseases such as cancer could be caused by overdoses of almost any substance. 7rofessor ?eorge TeelingC Smith wrote that%
There is at "resent no hard evidence to show the value of more eLtensive and more "rolonged laboratory testing as a method of reducing eventual ris* in human "atients. !n other words the "redictive

• 5y 1=3+) human studies showed a strong

lin* between lung cancer and smo*ing. !n contrast) almost no tests "roduced cancer in animals. As a result) smo*ing health warnings were delayed for years while thousands of "eo"le died of cancer.16

• 7olio s"read around the world in the 20th
century. A vaccine for it was delayed due to dece"tive results from mon*eys.1:

• !n 1=61 the PS declared H.ar on (ancer.H
/es"ite billions of dollars s"ent waging this war) rates of cancer increased until the early 1==0s when a dro" started to occur) mainly due to reduced levels of smo*ing. A central "roblem has been a devotion to animal testing) where *ey genetic) molecular) immune and cellular diJerences between humans and animals have bloc*ed useful Fndings. Aice are the most commonly used animals in testing) yet the testing industryHs $a) *a#a+ine says) HAice are actually "oor models of the maBority of human cancers.H1= /r !rwin 5ross) from the 4oswell 7ar* Aemorial !nstitute for (ancer research said that while HconIicting animal tests have often delayed and ham"ered advances in the war on cancer) they have never "roduced a single substantial advance either in the "revention or treatment of human cancer.H20

• The arthritis "ain*iller VioLL was withdrawn
from sale in 2001 after causing roughly +20)000 heart attac*s) stro*es) and cases of heart failure around the world. .hile animals tests indicated VioLL was safe) /avid ?raham) the Associate /irector of the PS 'ederal /rug AdministrationHs #'/A$ >Rce of /rug Safety labelled VioLL the Hsingle greatest drug safety catastro"he in A Pound of Flesh VVSQ

19 of 75

A Pound of Flesh
value of studies carried out in animals is uncertain. The statutory bodies such as the (ommittee on Safety of Aedicines that re<uire these tests do so largely as an act of faith rather than on hard scientiFc grounds. .ith thalidomide) for eLam"le) it is only "ossible to "roduce s"eciFc deformities in a very small number of s"ecies of animal. !n this "articular case) therefore) it is unli*ely that s"eciFc tests in "regnant animals would have given the necessary warning% the right s"ecies would "robably never have been used.2=

VVSQ

20 of 75

!n Vitro Testing In %itro literally means in #lass #as o""osed to in %i%o E in life$ and refers to tests done on cell or tissue cultures. These are <uic*er and chea"er than animal tests. Aaterial for them can also be obtained from humans #often after death$) so arenHt subBect to s"ecies diJerences.32 'or eLam"le) from the mid 1=20s to mid 1=:0s the PS Gational (ancer !nstitute #G(!$ tested 100)000 chemicals as antiCcancer agents) largely on mice infected with mouse leu*emia. 8owever) the few substances that were eJective against mouse leu*emia were of little use against the main human cancers #in terms of the biggest *illers$.33 Since then) the G(! switched to 30 human cancer cell lines) which are not only more reliable) but far chea"er. Similarly) in vitro testing with cells that have human /GA is much more li*ely to detect damage than animal tests. (om"anies li*e 5io"ta and Asterand only use human tissue) as results can be more accurately a""lied to humans than results from animal tests. (om"uter Aodelling 'ollowing from the terms in %itro and in %i%o) tests run on com"uters are referred to as in silico. (om"uter modelling is able to refer to an eLtensive range of medical databases) using eListing *nowledge of chemicals to "redict their reaction in living cells. 0L"eriments that would ta*es months or years to conduct on animals can now be done in minutes or hours in silico.36 Aicrodosing Aicrodosing relies on sensitive analysis to give "eo"le ta*ing "art in research very small) safe doses of new drugs E less than 1K of a full amount E to assess their activity in the body. 4esults from microdosing studies are fairly accurate) with a 60K corres"ondence to full dose studies.3: AicroIuidic (ircuits Aicro Iuidic circuits have se"arate com"artments for cells from diJerent human organs on a microchi" base. 5lood substitute moves between the com"artments. Psing these circuits) new drugs can be tested on a Hwhole systemH) coming into contact with the various cells in the same order they would in the human body. Sensors in the chi" "rovide information on reactions which are "assed to com"uters for analysis.3= VVSQ 20 of 75

So given the unclear test results overall) and that the s"eciFc animals re"roducing birth defects may not have been tested before thalidomideHs release) itHs "lausible thalidomide would have been a""roved anyway. 4egardless) we *now that a range of animal tests had already been run) and none raised any dangers. !ronically) one of the conse<uences of the thalidomide disaster was that there was a general increase in animal testing) and a s"eciFc new re<uirement to test on "regnant animals.30 ,et in his article *onitorin# for ,ru# !afety) 7rofessor 4. Smithells stated that HThe eLtensive animal re"roductive studies to which all new drugs are now subBected are more in... the nature of a "ublic relations eLercise than a serious contribution to drug safety.H31 The PS '/A says =2K of drugs found safe and eJective in animal tests turn out to be toLic and/or ineRcient in human trials. >f the :K of drugs that are a""roved for release) more than half are withdrawn or relabelled due to severe side eJects.32

4e"lacing Animal Tests
Are there alternatives to animal testsAany. Although 7rofessor 7ietro (roce) who used to eL"eriment on animals himself3+) "oints out that%
There are no alternatives to vivisection) because any method intended to re"lace it should have the same <ualitiesT but it is hard to Fnd anything in biomedical research that is) and always was) more dece"tive and misleading than vivisection. So the methods we "ro"ose for medical research should be called UscientiFc methodsU) rather than Ualternative methodsU.31

8ere are some eLam"les% A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh !n 2006) the PS Gational 4esearch (ouncil) which advises congress and federal government on science) said that fast) automated tests called highCthrough"ut assays could <uic*ly evaluate hundreds of thousands of chemicals and re"lace animal tests.60 The following year) + PS agencies signed a HAemorandum of PnderstandingH to eliminate animal tests C although des"ite their unreliability) they still thought the "rocess would ta*e around 10 years to validate the new tests.61 This view is reIected in government regulations and bodies that slow "rogress. The 9ethal /ose 20 test) for eLam"le) is still a mandatory teLt of toLicity in the PS. The !nteragency (oordinating (ommittee on the Validation of Alternative Aethods #!((VAA$ was formed in 1==6 and since then has a""roved less than 10 tests that com"letely re"lace the use of animals.62 (ritics say that rather than facilitating the a""roval of new eL"eriments) the !((VAA has become an obstacle. They say the PS "anel is slow and biased towards animal tests which have never been subBect to the same stringent scientiFc review. Some PS com"any oRcials and scientists say theyHve delayed or discarded "lans to get tests a""roved as reviews are lengthy and eL"ensive. Geil .ilcoL) a former '/A oRcial who hel"ed set u" !((VAA) said that H>ne should as* why after years of eListence they have reviewed so few tests... The fundamental reason) in my o"inion) is that the !((VAA "rocess has become recogniNed as an obstacle to getting tests validated as o""osed to hel"ing having tests validated.H6+ /es"ite slowed "rogress) (hristo"her Austin) director of the (hemical ?enomics (enter at the PS Gational !nstitutes of 8ealth #G!8$) says that thousands of chemicals can be tested at one time using a + L 2 inch glass tray with 1)2+3 miniature wells) each only "art of a millimetre across.61 A few hundred human cells grown in test tubes are "laced in each well) then a machine guided by com"uter dro"s diJerent chemicals into them. 'ollowing a "eriod of time) the machine shines a laser through each well to Fnd how many cells are left. A com"uter determines the toLicity of each substance A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ de"ending on how the cells res"ond.

21 of 75

All results would be added to a "ublic database. !n contrast) 0lias ;erhouni) director of the G!8) says itHs ta*en the PS 0nvironmental 7rotection Agency #07A$ +0 years to thoroughly test 2)200 "ossibly toLic substances using traditional methods.

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things You Can Do
S /onHt su""ort animal eL"loitation E be vegan. S (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel". S /onHt su""ort cruel and unreliable animal tests. S /onHt give money to charities that su""ort animal testing. S 'ind Australian charities that donHt test on animals here%
htt"%//www.aahr.org.au/humaneDcharities/indeL."h"

S Avoid buying "roducts that have been tested on animals

e
4*5

f

g

h

e

f

3he /n0ironment

After animal suJering and health) the environment is the neLt issue most li*ely to encourage "eo"le to be vegan. +1K of Australians say that evidence that being vegan is better for the environment would encourage them to be vegan. @ust over half of Australians #2+K$) though) donHt thin* animal farming causes serious environmental "roblems. 8owever) the re"ort $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado() released in 2003 by the 'ood and Agriculture >rganiNation #'A>$ of the Pnited Gations) tells us otherwise.62 That says%
The livestoc* sector emerges as one of the to" two or three most signi Fcant contributors to the most serious environmental "roblems) at every scale

VVSQ

21 of 75

A Pound of Flesh
from local to global... 9ivestoc*Hs contribution to environmental "roblems is on a massive scale and its "otential contribution to their solution is e<ually large. The im"act is so signiFcant that it needs to be addressed with urgency.63

VVSQ

22 of 75

under the -n%ironment Protection and .iodi%ersity Conser%ation Act 1/// #075($.:3

• HAn analysis of the authoritative .orld
(onservation Pnion #!P(G$ 4ed 9ist of Threatened S"ecies shows that most of the worldHs threatened s"ecies are suJering habitat loss where livestoc* are a factor.H:6

Some of the s"eciFcs of this are that%

• Animal "roduction is "robably the largest
sectoral source of water "ollution.66

• H0Ltensive graNing still occu"ies and
degrades large areas of land... livestoc* "roduction accounts for 60 "ercent of all agricultural land and +0 "ercent of the land surface of the "lanet.H:: ?raNing uses more than :0K of agricultural land in Australia) com"ared to around 3K used for cro"s.:= About 16K of AustraliaHs total area is graNed C only +K is devoted to cro"s.

• HThe livestoc* sector is a *ey "layer in

increasing water use) accounting for over : "ercent of global human water use) mostly for the irrigation of feedcro"s.H6:

.hile food animals use over :K of the worldHs water) they use around 12K of AustraliaHs water #including "asture but eLcluding dairy farming$. /airy farming uses about 12K) ma*ing a total of 26K of the water used in Australia.6= .hile this is a signiFcant amount) it eLcludes water used in other "arts of the animal industry eg slaughterhouses. 5risbaneHs (anon 8ill abattoir) for instance) uses more than 2:0 megalitres of water a year.:0 !n an interview in Australia in 2003) the /irector ?eneral of the .orld .ater !nstitute) 'ran* 4iBsberman) said that HAgriculture drives water scarcity) and water scarcity drives environmental destruction in many "laces.H:1

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things You Can Do
S /onHt su""ort animal or environmental eL"loitation E be vegan. S (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel".

e
4*6

f

g

h

e

f

• Hthe livestoc* sector may well be the

5orse Racin"9 Do" Racin"9 (ircuses and Rodeos

leading "layer in the reduction of biodiversity) since it is the maBor driver of deforestation) as well as one of the leading drivers of land degradation) "ollution... overFshing) sedimentation of coastal areas and facilitations of invasions by alien s"ecies.H:2

7art of <uestion 1 of the survey as*ed "eo"le whether they watch or attend events featuring animals) such as horse or dog races) circuses or rodeos. 10K of Australians say they do. 5ut whatHs wrong with horse racing) dog racing) rodeos and even circuses with animals- The Frst and most obvious thing is that again nonhuman animals are considered tools to be used for "roFt. .hen "roFt comes Frst) the animals used to create it ty"ically come in a distant second E if that.

!n Australia) +00)000 hectares of land were cleared in the year to 2006. Aost of this was in ueensland) which cleared an area e<uivalent to the A(T.:+ That is) over 2+0)000 hectares of land) more than =0K for "asture.:1 The .orld .ildlife 'und estimated that 20 million birds) re"tiles and mammals died as a result of this clearing.:2 The Australian government lists land clearing as an environmentally HThreatening 7rocessH A Pound of Flesh

8orse 4acing
8orses are commonly introduced to racing at 2 years of age. 8owever) research shows that :2K of horses suJer at least one inBury or illness racing as 2 year olds.=0 A study by Aason and 5our*e of 61 two year old thorougbreds found that during one season) over 10K of horses were unsound C had inBuries that "revented training. They stated%

VVSQ

22 of 75

A Pound of Flesh
The "roblem of unsoundness in two year olds is clearly one of immaturity of the s*eletal system. 5asic to the "roblem) "articularly in Australia) is the em"hasis on early racing of two year olds.=1

VVSQ

23 of 75

/og 4acing
?reyhound racing is banned in South Africa and over +0 PS states.== ,et the Australian industry is the third largest in the world and in 2001 generated V22 million every wee*.100 /es"ite the money greyhounds hel" generate) they suJer some of the same "roblems as horses in the racing industry do) including mistreatment and *illing of Hsur"lus.H101 .hile greyhounds on average live to be 12 years old) some may be too slow at 2) others at +) while inBury can "ut an end to any dogs still racing "ast this age. Go dogs older than 2 are ty"ically raced.102 As with horses) thousands of Hs"entH dogs) along with those thatHve been inBured beforehand or considered unsuitable for racing) wind u" being *illed. 7art of the "roblem is also that there are too many young dogs bred. 8ugh .irth) of the 4S7(A) has said that HThere is no doubt one of the maBor "roblems in greyhound racing is overC"roduction.H10+ 9i*e so many other industries that "ut the lives of animals second to ma*ing a "roFt) racing authorities concede dogs are *illed as a matter of fact. !n 2001) the then head of ?reyhounds Australasia) ?eoJ >H(onnor) said that HAnything to do with dogs becomes emotive. .here do you thin* the horses end u"-H101 .hen ?reyhound 4acing Victoria decided to end race meetings in .angaratta from @une 200= ) .angaratta ?reyhound 4acing (lub manager Geville Tait cautioned there would be around 300 dogs that wouldnHt be able to get races) saying Hthere’s no way they’ll Fnd new owners for 300 dogs W they’ll have to be "ut down.H102 Got all dogs are euthanised C H"ut downH "ainlessly C though. 4S7(A records reveal thousands of dogs are shot) drowned) clubbed to death and even buried alive.103 !n 2001 a greyhound was found buried alive in wasteland outside 8obart. The dog had been left to die under a sheet of tin) and one of its ears had been hac*ed oJ to remove identifying tattoos.106 7eo"le in the industry claimed it was a HoneC oJH) done by "eo"le Houtside greyhound racing.H10:

Pniversity of Aelbourne research found that =0K of horses had blood in the lungs) while 20K had blood in the wind"i"e. 7ost mortems revealed that a 1/2 of horses had bruising at the bac* of the lungs) with the bruise more severe the more recently horses had raced. 4acing commonly causes blood vessels around the lung to burst.=2 Various studies have also found that :0C=0K of racehorses in training have gastric ulcers.=+ This is a "ainful condition which can lead to death if ulcers "erforate. Studies of racehorses in Gew ;ealand and the PS have made similar Fndings.=1 According to research by Aore in 1===) :6K of horses didnHt earn enough to cover training costs in their initial year of racing) about 20K earned less than V120) and 10K earned nothing.=2 Similarly) in a study of standardbred #harness racing$ horses) =0K of owners said their horses were un"roFtable. Another study in 2001 found it costs over V=)000 to *ee" a thoroughbred horse in a rural area and over V10)000 in an urban area E not including vet and farrier costs. 8orses that are un"roFtable or too eL"ensive to *ee" have a good chance of ending u" at the slaughterhouse. !n fact) in a 1==: study) the main reason standardbred owners gave u" their horses was because they werenHt ha""y with what they earned.=3 There are two ty"es of slaughterhouse in Australia% *nac*eries and abattoirs. Abattoirs are licensed to eL"ort horse Iesh for human consum"tion C itHs illegal to eat in Australia C while *nac*eries sell "arts of horses for "et food and other "roducts such as s*in) hair) meat and bonemeal.=6 4ather than being cared for) many thousands of racehorses with an Hunsuitable tem"erament or behaviourH=:) that are too old) in "oor condition) or are un"roFtable or too eL"ensive to *ee" are discarded li*e rubbish every year) to Ioat the "roFt of *nac*eries and abattoirs.

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

23 of 75

A Pound of Flesh 8owever) the remains of other greyhounds were found nearby.10= Two years earlier the "ress re"orted the cases of Vincent and AlFe. Vincent had also been buried alive with ears removed. AlFe had been set on Fre or doused with a strong chemical.110 ?reyhounds also end u" in eL"eriments. An investigation by the 0erald !un in @une 200= said some of the 1220 dogs #not all greyhounds$ used for research each year came from the greyhound industry. A s"o*esman for ?reyhound 4acing Victoria conFrmed the "ractice.111 >thers are given the tag H(hina dogH) an allusion to dogs that arenHt to" racers and are sent to (hina and other Asian countries.112 !n a 200+ article) greyhound owner Aic* Abbott said H! love my dogs) and ! donHt want to see them "ut down Bust because theyHre a bit slow.H 5ut he went on to say HThatHs one of the great side eJects of eL"orting to AsiaT it means dogs that would be HeuthanisedH here get a second chance. They get two to three more years of life racing in Asia before theyHre "ut down.H11+ 8e eL"lained that Asian buyers were willing to "ay u" to V2)000 for dogs that are too slow to be com"etitive in Australia. .hile ?reyhounds Australasia said in 2001 that dogs that go to Asia arenHt sold for food) animal activists such as 4aven 8aNe from 9ondon based ?reyhound Action !nternational maintains they are) hung by their Baws and beaten to ma*e their Iesh tender) s*inned alive and roasted with blowtorches.111

VVSQ social grou"s behaviours.11= thwart their

24 of 75 natural

0le"hants in the wild) for eLam"le) travel several *ilometres each day on average) and s"end many hours foraging. They ta*e fre<uent baths in dust) mud and water. The mud and dust "rotects them from the sun and insects. The mud also hel"s retain moisture. To stay cool they s"ray themselves with water) wallow in mud and see* out shade. They have com"leL social relationshi"s with families of 3C 12 individuals governed by a matriarch.120 As well as the abnormal conditions animals endure in circuses) they can also be subBect to outright abuse.121 Tom 4ider) a former ele"hant groom with circuses in the PS and 0uro"e) says that H! saw the beatings of ele"hants) horses being "unched) and tigers whi""ed and Babbed with stic*s.H122 'ormer 8ollywood ele"hant trainer 7at /erby su""orts this view with her statement H,ou can not train an ele"hant without force or fear and have them "erform consistently.H12+ As to any education value in seeing animals in circuses) Associate 7rofessor 5arry S"urr) 'ellow of the Australian (ollege of 0ducators) has said%
(ircuses with "erforming animals serve no educational "ur"ose whatsoever. 0s"ecially so far as children of im"ressionable age are concerned) they are antiCeducational) as they contradict the education children receive in school and elsewhere about res"ect for animals in their natural environments and in their natural behaviour "atterns.121

(ircuses
Three of the chief "roblems with animals in circuses are that theyHre constantly moving from "lace to "lace) theyHre conFned a lot of the time and arenHt able to be "art of a normal social grou".112 .hile the circus moves) animals are loc*ed in travel wagons. >n site) theyHre held in cages) enclosures or a restricted area.113 They s"end most of the day conFned) about 1E=K "erforming or training and the rest of the time in eLercise "ens.116 As a result) animals in circuses often dis"lay stereoty"e behaviour such as "acing and swaying that demonstrate their frustration and boredom.11: (ontinual travel) conFnement and artiFcial A Pound of Flesh

Several countries such as Austria) (osta 4ica) !srael and Singa"ore) as well as over 10 area governments in Australia) such as the ?old (oast) !"swich) 9ismore and 7erth city councils) have banned eLotic animals in circuses.122 /omestic animals such as horses) however) are also used in circuses) and the same issues of continual travel) conFnement and artiFcial social grou"s also a""ly to them. This is conFrmed by a 2003 re"ort on travelling circuses which eL"lains%
suJering is not restricted to wild #or eLotic$ s"ecies but is evident in all s"ecies) including domesticated s"ecies. !ndeed the view that it is only Mwild’ animals that might suJer a""ears to be based more u"on

VVSQ

24 of 75

A Pound of Flesh
assum"tion than actual evidence.123

VVSQ

25 of 75

4ecognising this) in @uly 200= 5olivia became the Frst country in the world to ban all animals in circuses) the law saying their use Hconstitutes an act of cruelty.H126 The law came about after investigations by the grou" Animal /efenders !nternational #A/!$) which found wides"read abuse in circuses there. 8owever) the head of A/!) @an (reamer) said that circus animals suJer from trans"ort and tight <uarters wherever they are E including countries li*e Australia) 0ngland and the PS. She remar*ed) H!tHs rather as if you and ! were as*ed to s"end the rest of our lives living in our bathroom.H12:

4oughriding% Saddle 5ronc 4iding) 5arebac* 5ronc 4iding and 5ull 4iding !n these events) riders try to stay on a buc*ing animal for : seconds holding on with one hand to a ro"e rein in the case of saddle bronc riding) a handle in barebac* riding and a handhold on ro"e "ulled around the animal in bull riding.1++ As the names of the events im"ly) the rider has a saddle in saddle bronc riding) but not in barebac* bronc riding. A Ian* stra" E also called a buc*ing stra" E is tied at the rear of the animals) between the ribs and hi".1+1 The horse stra" is shee"s*in lined or "added leather and for bulls itHs a shee"s*in covered ro"e. 4iders also use blunt s"urs.1+2 The Ian* stra" is left loose for horses while they wait in chutes and is then tightened by "eo"le around the chute when the horses leave. 'or bulls itHs tied before release from the chute.1+3 Various grou"s say that Ian* stra"s torment horses and bulls into buc*ing.1+6 .hile rodeo advocates claim that horses buc* naturally) and only horses that do this are chosen for events) horses ty"ically sto" buc*ing once stra"s are released. !n 2006) ?old (oast Aayor 4on (lar*e went to a rodeo at the ?old (oast 0Lhibition and (onvention (entre. 8e said of his eL"erience%
!Hve been told that animals love it but thatHs not how ! saw it. ! hated seeing what they do to animals to ma*e them buc*. They X"ro rodeo "eo"leY say that they love buc*ing) so why do they sto" buc*ing when the riders are oJ and the belts around them are loosened! thought it was horrifying and didnHt stay long. !Hm an animal lover and get u"set when ! see them being tormented to act out of character. X4odeosY are deFnitely human entertainment at the animalsH eL"ense.1+:

4odeos
0vents featuring animals in inherently cruel and dangerous. rodeos are

!n a submission to a Senate (ommittee on Animal .elfare) ?lenys >ogBes for the Australian and Gew ;ealand 'ederation of Animal Societies #now Animals Australia$ said that%
because there is and always will remain the ris* of inBury and even death to animals) and because the only BustiFcation for rodeo... is as an entertainment or a s"ectacle) then it cannot be BustiFed and should be sto""ed tomorrow.12=

4odeos are banned in the PQ and Getherlands as well as various "art of the PS and 0uro"e.1+0 .elfare grou"s in diJerent countries are also against rodeos. The 4S7(A in Australia) for eLam"le) says theyHre Hstrongly o""osed to rodeos because of the "otential for signiFcant inBury) suJering) distress or even death to the animals involved.H1+1 The Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association outlines 3 standard events in rodeo) which they divide into 2 grou"s of +) Hrough stoc*H or HroughridingH events and timed events.1+2 The HroughridingH events are saddle bronc riding) barebac* bronc riding and bull riding. The timed events are steer wrestling) ro"e and tying) and team ro"ing. The following teLt tal*s about men) since theyHre the ones who largely ta*e "art in these events.

!n an eL"eriment by the 8umane Society of the Pnited States) two gentle horses buc*ed when they had Ian* stra"s tied to them. 8owever) when several rodeo circuit horses were released from a "en without Ian* stra"s) none buc*ed.1+= 'lan* stra"s can also cause chaFng that results in o"en wounds. The American grou") S8A4Q) says that their investigators document

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

25 of 75

A Pound of Flesh these wounds at almost every rodeo they attend. Their website has video of horses with Ian* wounds.110 S"urring animals aggravates the sensation of the Ian* stra") and in the case of horses)

VVSQ

26 of 75

They can suJer various inBuries) including bro*en nec*s. 4o"e and Tying !n ro"e and tying) a calf is let out of a chute and chased by a rider with a ro"e attached to

Pho"o 'ou "esy of Sha % 3nline) h""*+,,!!!-sha %online-o g

A 'alf being 2'lo"heslined2

actually gains riders "oints.111 Animals may also have electric "rods used on them while still in chutes) as well as have their tails "ulled and be hit) beaten and whi""ed.112 !n their frenNy) animals try to esca"e their chutes) ta*e bad falls) slam into fences) and brea* their legs and bac*s.11+ Timed 0vents% Steer .restling !n this event) a steer is chased by two riders. .hen they catch u") they ride on either side of the steer so he doesnHt veer in another direction. The contestant leans from his horse) grabs the steer by the horns) then Bum"s oJ and tries to throw him Iat on his side by twisting his head) at times more than +00Z.111 ThereHs a +0 second time limit to do this) although cowboys often go beyond it without being dis<ualiFed. Steers fall heavily) sometimes head Frst) often twisting or Ii""ing on their bac*s.

his saddle.112 The calf is ro"ed) the horse sto"s and the calf then also comes to an abru"t) often violent) sto" at the end of the ro"e E this is called being Hclotheslined.H113 The force is often strong enough to Ber* calves into the air.116 The rider dismounts and runs to the calf) relying on his horse to *ee" the calf from running away. After reaching calves) cowboys HIan*H them E throw them on their sides. !f the calves are thrown oJ their feet when ro"ed) cowboys are meant to let them u" before Ian*ing them. >nce calves are on their sides) cowboys tie + of their legs together with ro"es they carried in their teeth. A Budge records the time ta*en. (owboys then return to their horses and ride towards the calves a little) slac*ening the ro"e) to "rove the tie will hold for at least 2 seconds. !f calves *ic* free before a Budge gives riders a Hfair timeH) no time is given. The limit for the event is +0 seconds. VVSQ 26 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh 4o"e and tying means calf ro"ing in all states eLce"t Victoria. There) only steers with a minimum weight of 200 *ilograms can be ro"ed. 0lsewhere) the o"timum weight of a calf used in ro"e and tying is 112 *ilograms) with a maLimum weight of 1+0 *ilograms.11: .hile rodeo is often seen as a Hs"ortH of tough men) the calves they use in this event are only babies) a few months old. They have soft bones and are still develo"ing.11= !n America) the 7rofessional 4odeo (owboys Association #74(A$ renamed calfCro"ing HtieC down ro"ingH in 200+) a""arently to draw attention away from calves being used in the event.120 A similar thing ha""ened in Australia. .ould an event even a <uarter as harsh be allowed using human babies- .ould any of the cowboys be willing to undergo what the calves do7ractice also ta*es a toll on animals. >ne calf ro"er said that H! *ee" +0 head of cattle around for "ractice at V200 a head. ,ou can cri""le three or four in an afternoon. So it gets to be a "retty eL"ensive hobby.H121 So that calves burst from their chutes) before theyHre released they can have their tails twisted) "ulled or rubbed over chute bars) their ears "ulled) and be hit round the head.122 >nce ro"ed) contrary to national guidelines fomulated in consultation with the Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Assocation #A74A$) theyHre regularly yan*ed bac*wards oJ their feet C HBer*ed downH. TheyHre also dragged along bac*wards by their nec*s after being tied) cho*ing them. 5oth Ber*ing down and dragging are meant to result in dis<ualiFcation of contestants) but this often doesnHt ha""en.12+ (owboys also fre<uently Ian* calves by slamming them to the ground. The result of the event is that calves are often inBured suJering bro*en legs) nec*s and internal haemorrhaging. !nBuries may not be evident) so if animals arenHt *illed) they can suJer slow) "ainful deaths.121 Team 4o"ing !n this event) two riders wor* together to ro"e a steer. The HheaderH ro"es the steer around the head) nec* or horns. 8e then turns him around so the HheelerH can ro"e both rear legs. The "airHs time is recorded once their horses are facing each other with no slac* in their ro"es.122 A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

27 of 75

As contestants ro"e either end of the steer) this may mean he gets "ulled in o""osite directions.123 !n any case) he ends u" stretched between the riders with his bac* legs ro"ed and will usually fall down.126 .ould a human volunteer be willing to be chased by two riders- To be ro"ed by the head or nec*- H8umanely)H so unli*e steers) riders in theory would be careful not to brea* "eo"leHs nec*s. >f course thereHd be no guarantee. A volunteer would then have to be willing to have one leg ro"ed) since humans have two legs less than steers. Then agree to be drawn out between two riders so s/he falls down. /oes this really seem li*e HfunHRodeo Rider A74A claims that animals used in rodeo Hthoroughly enBoy what they are doing.H They further claim that HAistreatment of livestoc*) intentional or unintentional) is virtually unheard of at A74A rodeos.H12: ,et in evidence to a Senate in<uiry in 1==1) /r !an ?ollan) who A74A <uotes on its website) said%
! thin* calf ro"ing is one of the more dangerous events. !n some cases it is horriFc) with the calf running to the end of the ro"e and Ii""ing over. >nly fools would suggest that the calves enBoy that.12=

Along with the inBuries recorded at rodeos by those not involved in the industry) and o""osition by mainstream grou"s such as the 4S7(A) A74AHs claims seem to be largely made out of both love for their Hs"ortH and the Fnancial rewards it "rovides. .hy would animals enBoy running into fences) being chased) falling over) being ro"ed) having their nec*s twisted) being clotheslined and falling or being thrown down- .ould A74A members be ha""y to volunteer in "lace of the animals they use@udging by what A74A claims) youHd thin* they might% HToday) rodeo is an investment. !t’s most im"ortant to ta*e care of these animals... To the stoc* contractor) those animals are li*e his family.H130 !f this were true) no animals would be allowed in rodeos) since "resumably no stoc* contractor would let his family feature in rodeo events. 'urther) holding that Hrodeo is an

VVSQ

27 of 75

A Pound of Flesh investmentH while saying Hanimals are li*e... familyH a""ears to be a conIicting view. /oesnHt family go beyond investmentA74AHs website states that a 1==1 survey of their rodeos shows the inBury rate of animals is 0.062K.131 The rate for both 2006 and 200: is almost the same) at 0.0:K. This re"resents all inBuries at rodeos) not Bust serious ones.132 ,et these F gures contradict the inBuries #and violations of welfare guidelines$ documented) in writing and video) by cam"aigners both here and overseas.13+ Go 4odeo in South Australia say that thereHs a serious inBury or death at 1 in 1 rodeos131) and at least 20C22 animals suJer less serious inBuries C such as ones that cause them to lim" or bleed E at every larger rodeo.132 This doesnHt include any mental trauma they eL"erience. A74A says on their website that over 100 rodeos are run each year under their banner.133 5ased on this and the inBury rates "rovided by Go 4odeo) we can estimate around 16=1 inBuries a year E 23 serious or fatal and 163: less serious.136 .hile this re"resents an inBury rate of 1600K on a "er rodeo basis) A74AHs inBury statistics de"end on the number of HrunsH animals have in events.13: So s"reading these inBuries across =)=== runs a year C the average for 2006 and 200: C gives an inBury rate of about 1:K) which is over 200 times more than A74AHs 2006 and 200: rate of 0.0:K.13= The veterinarian /r (? 8aber) who wor*ed for +0 years as a meat ins"ector for the PS /e"artment of Agriculture #PS/A$ has said%
The rodeo fol*s send their animals to the "ac*ing houses where... ! have seen cattle so eLtensively bruised that the only areas in which the s*in was attached was the head) nec*) legs) and belly. ! have seen animals with siL to eight ribs bro*en from the s"ine and at times "uncturing the lungs. ! have seen as much as two and three gallons of free blood accumulated under the detached s*in.160

VVSQ

28 of 75
found bro*en ribs) "unctured lungs) hematomas) bro*en legs) severed tracheas and the ligamenta nuchae were torn loose Xleaving bro*en nec*sY.161

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things you can do
S /onHt su""ort animal eL"loitation E be vegan. S (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel". S /onHt go to see circuses with animals) rodeos) dog racing or horse racing C unless youHre wor*ing to shut them down. S ?ive the Aelbourne (u" a wide berth.

e
4*4

f

g

h

e

f

reedin" +nimals for Pet Sho)s

.hile 13K of Australians Fnd breeding animals for "et sho"s unacce"table) 20K thin* itHs acce"table. The fairly high "ro"ortion of "eo"le who thin* breeding animals for "et sho"s is acce"table are li*ely to be unaware of the cruelty involved and the waste of animal life that results. The term H"etsH itself suggests that though we may treat animals with care) we *ee" them for our "leasure or com"anionshi". Some owners may even thin* theyHre ta*ing good care of their animals) yet be conFning them to a "rison. 'or eLam"le) birds *e"t in cages) so theyHre never able to Iy) their movement limited to the bars of the cage. 0ven human "risoners get more s"ace than this in the time they have outside their cells. Some "eo"le *ee" animals as long as they "lease them or itHs convenient) and treat them as they see Ft. >nce they no longer want them) however) they have little further obligation to them. Australians *ee" more animals than there are "eo"le in the country. According to the Australian (om"anion Animal (ouncil) "eo"le live with over +: million other animals.162

Similarly) in 1==:) /r 4obert 'etNner) who at the time was the /irector of Slaughter >"erations for the 'ood Safety and !ns"ection Service #'S!S$ of the PS/A said%
9ots of rodeo animals went to slaughter. !

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

28 of 75

A Pound of Flesh ?oing on Fgures from 2006) the most "o"ular animals are Fsh E Bust over 20 million. GeLt are around 6.: million birds) +.6 million dogs and 2.2 million cats. About 2.: million other animals E such as horses) guinea "igs) and rabbits ma*e u" the rest. ,et des"ite these Fgures) animals are still bred in large numbers every year. 7eo"le who donHt deseL their animals) or deseL them later than necessary) can contribute to the "roblem of unwanted) homeless animals. 'emale cats) for eLam"le) can already get "regnant at 1 months old.16+ A Victorian survey showed that over 10K of cats have *ittens before theyHre deseLed. (ats breed in the warmer "art of the year between Govember and A"ril) creating a H*itten tsunamiH that results in a I ood of *ittens to shelters.161 The Sydney /ogs and (ats home says that%
literally hundreds of cats and *ittens... are brought in to our facility every year) "articularly during the S"ring/Summer months. These include doNens of mother cats) each with litters of anything u" to seven *ittens who have Bust been dum"ed by their owners E owners who were not res"onsible enough to have their cats #either male or female$ deseLed. Aany of the cats that are brought in are already sic* with (at 'lu) /iarrhoea or 4ingworm.162

VVSQ

29 of 75

The Australian (om"anion Animal (ouncil estimates that in 2006 "eo"le s"ent around V2:6 million dollars buying animals as com"anions. They further estimate that the entire "et industry was worth about V1.61 billion dollars that year C not far behind the animal Iesh industry for human consum"tion at V1.:2 billion dollars.16: 7aula S"agnoletti) founder of Say Go To Animals !n 7et Sho"s in South Africa) says that%
! have come to realiNe that there is one and only one reason why "et sho"s should not be allowed to trade in domestic animals and that reason is that all "et sho"s are 74>'!T /4!V0G. Aoney and "roFtability will always ta*e "reference over the life and wellbeing of an animal.16=

.hile not all "et sho"s sell animals) and of those that do) some hel" to rehome rescue animals1:0) the "roFt motive commonly "lays out in ways li*e these1:1% 1$ 7et sho"s dis"lay cute animals and encourage "eo"le to buy on the s"ot.1:2 4ather than "rom"ting "eo"le to ma*e a reasoned choice) and even trying to assess whether theyHd ma*e suitable carers for the animals they want to buy) many "et stores are ha""y to indulge them in im"ulse "urchases. A business guide for "eo"le interested in owning "et sho"s says%
The scenario is sim"le% Someone will wal* by) fall in love with an animal and buy it. These sorts of im"ulse sales can add dramatically to your "roFts. 'irstCtime browsers in a "et sho" will not necessarily Bum" at the thought of s"ending V20 to V200 to bring a dog home or to set u" an a<uarium. 8owever) if your sho" is accessible and your sales and service ability is convincing) it will not be long before you convert wal*C in traRc into buying customers. The tric* is to Fnd a great location for wal*Cin traRc.1:+

Aany animals) though) are bred s"eciFcally for sale. So much so) that Australians buy around 1 million dogs and cats alone each year163) yet about 220)000 end u" being euthanised the same year. This is about 3:2 animals a day) or more than one cat or dog every 2 minutes #in an : hour wor*ing day$.166 Got only is this a com"lete disregard for life) the situation is absurd. Animals bred to be sold create a crisis of unwanted animals that shelters and other agencies are left to deal with) in many cases by euthanasia. !t ma*es no sense to sell animals in "et sho"s or through other commercial channels eg the "a"er and internet. Thousands of animals that need good homes are available to "eo"le through shelters) "ounds or agencies that wor* on their behalf. 5reeding animals for "ro Ft again demonstrates the idea of animals as commodities.

Qey to this a""roach is a HconvincingH sales "itch E the welfare of animals isnHt mentioned. A former em"loyee of a store in GS. said%
.ith this "articular "et store) they would encourage their staJ to sell a "u""y to anyone) no matter their circumstance) in order to ma*e budget. They even introduced a layby system to ma*e the

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

29 of 75

A Pound of Flesh
"u"s seem more aJordable and then they would "lay down all the ongoing costs involved in owning a "u". 1 out of + customers would call a day or two later to see if they could bring the "u""y bac* as they had had time to thin* about their im"ulse buy and realised they cannot *ee" the "u""y) but this "et storeHs "olicy did not allow us to ta*e them bac*) therefore most of these "u""ies would end u" in shelters.1:1XAlthough since late 200: itHs mandatory in GS. to refund at least 20K of the cost within + days.Y1:2

VVSQ

30 of 75

@ohn (arter) from the SA (anine Association) says crossbreeds are "rone to Hhi" dys"lasia) eye "roblems) tem"erament "roblems E all *inds of things. HAnd they are not under the control of anybody.H1=+ 2$ Animals are routinely *e"t in small dis"lays or cages all day long) severely limiting their movement. TheyHre surrounded by bright lights) "eo"le and noise during the day and are left alone at night.1=1 Since many animals go from where theyHre bred directly to "et sho"s) theyHre commonly not well socialised. Associate 7rofessor 7aul Ac?reevy) from the faculty of veterinary science at Sydney Pniversity) says the *ey "eriod for socialiNation of dogs is between about 3 and 1+ wee*s of age%
Someone who wants to "re"are a dog well for its future as a calm and "leasing member of society would be ta*ing the dog out every day and socialising it with diJerent "eo"le and obBects. 7et sho"s do not underta*e to do that.1=2

Another "erson eL"lained%
! have had sales staJ #in "et sho"s$ "ush animals onto me all the time. !ncluding rabbits and a rat E ! own and ta*e good care of my rats and they are eL"ensive animals to *ee" if *e"t correctly #vet bills[[$.1:3

2$ 7et sho"s often donHt "rovide "eo"le with information about the ongoing costs of animals. The former "et store wor*er also illustrates this in their earlier <uote% HThey even introduced a layby system to ma*e the "u"s seem more aJordable and then they would "lay down all the ongoing costs involved in owning a "u".H1:6 The head of the GS. 4S7(A has said that H5uying the animal is the chea"est "art of owning an animal.H1:: +$ 'or "et sho"s) money can be reason enough to sell animals. Again) the "revious <uote from a former "et store wor*er says that H.ith this "articular "et store) they would encourage their staJ to sell a "u""y to anyone) no matter their circumstance.H1:= The 4S7(A say that H>ne very im"ortant as"ect that distinguishes the 4S7(A from commercial animal sellers) such as "et sho"s) is that as well as assessing the suitability of animals for ado"tion Xwhich "et sho"s may not doY) we also assess the suitability of "ros"ective owners.H1=0 1$ Aany animals sold in "et sho"s have inherent genetic defects due to crossbreeding. The term Hdesigner dogsH is a convenient way to refer to "o"ular dog breeds such as labradoodles) "ugalier #"ug/cavalier Qing (harles s"aniel$) and s"oodles.1=1 8owever) "eo"le often end u" dis"osing of them due to deformities and disease. Sue .helan) from the 8ahndorf !nterim Animal Shelter) describes cross breeding as a massive industry without rules to "revent breeding defects.1=2

Qarin 5ridge) 7resident of the Association of 7et /og Trainers Australia) adds that H7u""ies who fail to receive ade<uate early eL"osure and socialisation are sometimes never able to co"e with modern) urban living. Training can then become a constant u"hill battle. Ty"ical "roblems resulting from a lac* of early socialisation include shyness) sound sensitivity and fear aggression.H1=3 3$ Sic* animals commonly arenHt treated. To minimise costs) theyHre ta*en to the "ound) left to die or even *illed.1=6 A former "et sho" em"loyee "rovides a gra"hic eLam"le%
! wor*ed in a "et sho" as ! thought it would be a nice Bob as ! have always loved animals. ! became totally disillusioned with the "et industry as ! realised it was "urely a "roFt driven industry. After the sho" closed one Saturday afternoon there were #1 or 2$ *ittens that had got cat Iu. They loo*ed a little sic*ly and from memory they had stic*y eyes. 4ather than ta*ing them to the vet the chea"er and easier method of dis"osal was decided u"on by the store manager. Ay manager "ut the *ittens in a cardboard boL with a rag with chloroform on it and closed the lid tightly. ! stood there <uite horriFed not really *nowing at the time what was

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

30 of 75

A Pound of Flesh
going on as it all ha""ened rather <uic*ly. All ! could hear was a whole lot of Bum"ing and scratching around in the boLCsounds of the *ittens des"erately trying to get out out there. After a minute or so it was <uiet. To chec* they had all died ! distinctly remember her "ic*ing u" the boL and sha*ing it to chec* there was no more movement. This manager had no regard for the animals in the "et sho"\ they were treated merely as goods to sell in order ma*e more "roFts for this maBor chain "et sho".1=:

VVSQ

31 of 75

froNen "u""ies) guinea "igs) rats and fowl.203 Animals were *e"t in small cages on to" of each other in the cou"leHs shed. Aany of the dogs had little or no water) needed vet treatment for eye) ear and teeth "roblems and had fur matted with faeces and urine. All needed several baths to get rid of their stench and they re<uired grooming to remove the matting) as well as to cut overgrown nails. The cou"le were ta*en to court where the 4S7(A gave evidence that they were selling "u""ies online. The cou"le "leaded guilty to 1+1 charges under the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001. 7et mills are li*e bac*yard breeders that breed for "roFt) eLce"t theyHre larger o"erations.206 They sell their animals to all the "laces bac*yard breeders do) as well as overseas buyers.20: 7u""y farms may also use a house as a Hsho" frontH so "eo"le donHt see where animals are bred.20= Animals are often *e"t in "oor conditions where welfare follows a long way behind "roFt. They can be continually mated and "ermanently *e"t in cages. They may never be let outside their cages to eLercise) "lay) have com"anions) or go to toilet.210 Ty"ical "roblems in "et mills include overbreeding) inbreeding #mating close relatives$) not enough food) little or no veterinary care) "oor hygiene) and housing that doesnHt meet the "hysical and behavioural needs of animals. /eath rates are high. Animals often have longCterm health and/or behavioural "roblems as a result of "oor housing conditions) "oor maternal nutrition and lac* of "ro"er socialisation during the Frst few wee*s of life. The 4S7(A say their Hins"ectors have seiNed dogs from "u""y farms where hundreds of breeding females have been *e"t in cages in a""alling conditions. 5oth crossbreeds and "urebreeds can be mass "roduced on "u""y farms #although the "urebreds will not be registered as "edigree dogs$.H211 4ay 9ord from the Victorian 4S7(A said that a female in a "u""y farm is sim"ly treated as a Hbreeding device.H212 The national 4S7(A states itHs Hstrongly o""osed to "u""y mills and considers the VVSQ 31 of 75

6$ Animals sold in "et sho"s ty"ically arenHt deseLed.1== This can lead to the "roblem mentioned earlier where owners may deseL too late E after an animal has already given birth. Some owners may not even deseL their animals at all. This may be for reasons such as thin*ing itHs unfair to the animals) or even because they want to ma*e some money selling their oJs"ring.200 8owever) deseLing can confer beneFts a"art from sto""ing breeding% ma*ing animals healthier and reducing "roblem behaviours such as aggression in dogs and urine s"raying in cats.201 :$ 7et sho"s commonly get animals from "et mills and bac*yard breeders.202 5ac*yard breeders may be individual owners or small o"erations. 5oth breed des"ite the glut of animals) and often without regard for their welfare.20+ !n the case of individuals) they breed for reasons outlined in "oint 2$% their animals may become "regnant before being deseLed) they want their children to eL"erience birth) they thin* itHs unfair to deseL their animals and so on.201 !n the case of small o"erations) breeding is carried out for "roFt with little concern for the welfare of animals. 5ac*yard breeders sell their animals through classiFed ads) direct) mar*ets) the internet and "et sho"s. They generally have a large number of animals that are "oorly ta*en care of and cause neighbourhood dis"utes. >ften authorities become aware of them through "ublic health concerns) noise) and animal cruelty or neglect.202 !n @uly 200: a cou"le living near Townsville were raided by the 4S7(A. !ns"ectors seiNed over 320 animals% 11+ dogs) 1 cat) 1:: rats) 6+ mice along with several guinea "igs and birds. They also found a large freeNer full of

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh mass "roduction of "u""ies for "roFt to be com"letely unacce"table.H 21+ !n the 1==0s Animal 9iberation Victoria #A9V$ began to investigate what was at the time the largest "u""y farm in Australia) 9earmonth Qennels. This was owned and run by 4on .ells) a former Victorian A7 and vet.211

VVSQ

32 of 75

Aeg ?ibson) who o"erated a "u""y farm for ten years) ac*nowledged it was ty"ical for "u""y farmers in her area to shoot animals once theyHd Fnished breeding%
! classed our "lace as a dog breeding business) but really) they are "u""y farms) because it was a very sad life for the little dogs that were ma*ing you that money.

Pu**ies ' a&&ed in 'ages a" a ba'%ya d *u**y &ill in Queensland
Pho"o 'ou "esy of 4SP5A Queensland) h""*+,,!!!- s*'a6ld-o g-au

.ells at the time said he was trying to run Ha very scientiFc o"erationH212) yet two former em"loyees whoHd wor*ed there for 2 years said theyHd seen the manager hitting dogs on the head with a hammer and swinging them against a fence "ost to *ill them.213 A9V investigations re"eatedly found cases of unhygienic conditions) lac* of water) "oor housing and so on.216 After many years of inaction by 5allarat (ity (ouncil) the *ennels were Fnally shut in 2002. A former "et sho" wor*er said that many "u""ies are sent to sho"s by air freight. She eL"lained that%
!Hd "ut my order in one wee* and get them delivered the neLt wee*. They were meant to be eight wee*s of ageT some were Fve wee*s) some were dead. The condition was absolutely disgusting. !n one dog crate there might be eight "u""ies shoved in there. Sometimes the vaccination cards wouldnHt match u" with the breed of the dog so weHd Bust ma*e u" the breed ourselves de"ending on what was selling at the time. .hatever would fetch the most money) thatHs what we would call the dog.21:

They are being treated li*e breeding machines and some are being treated worse than others. And thatHs why now ! cringe at "u""y farms. Ginety "er cent of them are shot and ! *now that for a fact. TheyHve got "its) and those dogs are shot.21=

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things You Can Do
S /onHt su""ort animal eL"loitation E be vegan. S (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel". S ?ive a "ound or shelter animal a good home. S (onsider ta*ing an animal that other "eo"le are less li*ely to eg an older animal. S 4efuse to su""ort any *ind of animal breeder) even Hre"utableH breeders) since they all "roFt from the sale of animals when there are thousands of animals without homes. VVSQ 32 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

33 of 75

4*:

;oos9 +<uatic Par!s and +<uariums

the lac* of freedom ca"tivity im"oses.H222 ;oos and a<uatic "ar*s may claim to hel" conserve s"ecies. 8owever) in 1==1 The Zoo Inquiry found that only 2K of land vertebrates were "art of worldwide Noo breeding "rograms. !t also found only 1)200 out of 10)000 Noos were registered for ca"tive breeding and wildlife conservation.223 Aost animals such as lions) giraJes) ele"hants and tigers are Hcrowd "ullersH which increase attendance and therefore income.226 Similarly) the Aquatic Zoos re"ort 10 years later found that only around +K of threatened Fsh ty"es were on dis"lay in PQ "ublic a<uariums. !t also loo*ed at 1+ restaurants) cafes or food *ios*s in the a<uariums.22: >f those) :2K had Fsh or a<uatic invertebrates on the menu that were commonly dis"layed in a<uariums. !n 32K of "laces) these animals belonged to threatened varieties. The re"ort also found that around ==K of animals weren’t a "art of any oRcial conservation breeding "rogram and that none are released for conservation reasons #though they are for other reasons eg too many animals$.22= !n any case) breeding in ca"tivity doesn’t "roduce animals ada"ted to the wild. The longer they’re ca"tive) the more they tend to "roduce oJs"ring geared to ca"tivity and "rone to otherwise rare and unfavourable genetic variations. Animals reared in ca"tivity also don’t have the survival s*ills they’d learn in nature. .hen Noos reintroduce them to the wild) their eJorts often fail.2+0 (onservation eJorts are also undermined by obtaining animals from the wild. !n 1==2) for eLam"le) = blac* rhinos were ta*en from the wild in ;imbabwe for an Australian Noo.2+1 Still) while this is a "roblem in Noos) it’s even more wides"read in a<uariums2+2. Some animals are donated as bycatch from Fshing) however they’re also ca"tured from the wild. The Aquatic Zoos re"ort states that 1==3) over 60K of "ublic a<uariums surveyed in the PS said they collected animals from the wild. !n the PQ) the re"ort estimates that in 2001) :=K of animals in "ublic a<uariums came from the wild.2++ .hile the mental health of animals in ca"tivity suJers) their "hysical health may as well.2+1 This can start when they’re ca"tured in the wild or during trans"ort. VVSQ 33 of 75

3:K of Australians visit Noos) a<uatic "ar*s or a<uariums. 5ut is it reasonable to *ee" animals in these facilitiesSmall enclosure siNe) being conFned) and an artiFcial environment create animals with both mental and "hysical "roblems) often resulting in death. 0nclosures for animals are ty"ically many times smaller than the area they’d use in the wild. !n 5ritish Noos) on average) they’re 100 times smaller. !n some cases they’re thousands of times smaller. 9ions) for eLam"le) have enclosures that average to 16)000 times smaller. Animals may be further conFned at night.220 5irds are also severely restricted in movement) as they’re "revented from Iying away.221 Aarine animals are subBect to the same "roblem) dol"hins) for instance) used to swimming many *ilometres in the ocean.222 They navigate by echolocation) but in enclosures their own sonar bounces oJ the walls. @ac<ues (ousteau) the underwater eL"lorer) said that a ca"tive dol"hin’s life Mleads to a confusion of the entire sensory a""aratus) which in turn causes... a derangement of mental balance and behaviour.’22+ >ther usual behaviour such as climbing) eL"loring) ta*ing "art in social grou"s) scavenging) foraging and selecting "artners may also be limited. .ithout enough mental stimulation) roughly :0 million animals worldwide engage in neurotic behaviour such as bar biting) head bobbing) "acing) swaying) self mutilation) and even mothers reBecting and *illing their young.221 Virginia AcQenna) who founded the 5orn 'ree 'oundation with her husband 5ill Travers and son .ill) received an >50 in 2001 for wor* in arts and animal conservation. !n the Flm .orn "ree) which ins"ired the organisation) she and her husband "lay real life characters @oy and ?eorge Adamson who raise three young lion cubs in the wilds of Qenya. She said of the eL"erience that M.e realised then that wild animals belonged in the wild) not im"risoned in Noos.’ She added that M'reedom is a "recious conce"t) and wild animals suJer "hysically and mentally from A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh 'or eLam"le) in 200+) 20 or so wild dol"hins were ta*en from around the Solomon !slands to be sent to AeLico. !nternational rules sti"ulate dol"hins must be greased to "revent dehydration and carried in slings) not closed containers F lled with water. 8owever) TV footage showed coRnCli*e boLes being loaded to the "lane the dol"hins left on.2+2 Sue 'isher) the PS director of the .hale and (onservation Society) said that MThe "ast eL"erience is that when the aero"lane climbs at ta*eCoJ) dol"hins carried in boLes of water have sim"ly drowned. There have been <uite a few cases li*e that. ! canHt imagine they are all going to ma*e it.’2+3 !n /ha*a ;oo in 200=) 20 HrareH animals died u" to Se"tember) including a lion) rhino) giraJe) tiger) two crocodiles) a baboon) wildebeest and ta"ir. At least 2 other animals were ill) and the lion that died had been unable to move for one year.2+6 An oRcial for the Noo said that due to lac* of funds) they couldnHt ensure a HsemiCnaturalH environment for animals. 4eNa Qhan) a 5angladesh wildlife eL"ert who heads /ubai ;oo) told the Agence 'ranceC 7resse #A'7$ that "oor conditions and lac* of eL"ertise caused the deaths. 8e added that H/ha*a Noo is run by vets who donHt *now the eating habits and wildlife environment of the animals they *ee".H2+: Aany free animals are under threat because they’re losing the areas where they live. 5ut rather than trying to breed them in ca"tivity) it ma*es more sense to save land they can live on. ;oos are unable to house the variety of animals and "lants that eList in natural habitats) and as weHve seen) restrict access so animals arenHt able to interact in the way they would in the wild. After all) if there’s not much natural area for these animals to live) what use is introducing them bac* to the wild-2+= Qee"ing ele"hants in Noos is roughly 20 times more eL"ensive than *ee"ing an ele"hant and several other animals in "rotected natural habitat.210 The /ha*a ;oo s"ent V:00)000 bringing +: animals from South Africa.211 Aelbourne A<uarium dwarfed this) s"ending V2: million on a new "enguin eLhibit.212

VVSQ

34 of 75

8owever) the im"ortation of : ele"hants from Thailand to Aelbourne and Taronga Noos li*ely cost even more% u" to V20 million in creation of s"ecial enclosures) buying the ele"hants and bringing them to the Noos. 'ormer director of strategic "lanning management at Aelbourne ;oo) /avid 8ancoc*s) said that for only a small "art of what was s"ent on the Taronga and Aelbourne ele"hant eLhibits) thousands of hectares of wild ele"hant habitat could have been "rotected. 8e remar*ed) HThis would have been real conservation.H21+ ?iven that there are millions of dollars s"ent on Noos) a<uariums) marine "ar*s and the animals to "ut in them all) a more direct and eJective o"tion would be to "rotect natural animal habitats. Since ca"tivity restricts) harms and even *ills animals) it doesnHt re"resent animals in their wild state. So they canHt "ossibly educate "eo"le about their normal behaviour. !n any case) it a""ears many "eo"le arenHt that interested in this. A curator at the Gational ;oo in the PS observed more than 600 visitors over 2 summers and found that they s"ent only a few minutes at each dis"lay. 8e concluded that HoRcials should sto" *idding themselves about the tremendous educational value of showing an animal behind a glass wall.H211 The Aquatic Zoos re"ort of 2001 found that of 201 PQ a<uarium visitors studied) =2K didnHt com"letely read the eLhibit signs for live animals) and :+K read only a "ortion of the sign) "erha"s the animalHs name. 7revious research conFrms that "eo"le donHt generally give much attention to eLhibit signs. They also commonly ignore other signs) such as ones which tell them behaviour that is and isnHt allowed.212 Some Noos) a<uariums and marine "ar*s oJer limited or even misleading eJorts at education.213 The Aquatic Zoos re"ort found that 11K of animals in PQ "ublic a<uariums didnHt even have signs identifying animals. !n several cases eLhibit signs had the names of animals in other dis"lays) and in other cases were wrong. .orldwide) Noos have over 300 million visitors a year) so they have a wide sco"e in inIuencing how "eo"le thin* of animals. 216 8owever) the message they send is that itHs o* to *ee" animals ca"tive as though theyHre our VVSQ 34 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh "ossessions and that the animals they *ee" ca"tive donHt mind being there. (a"tive breeding also "roduces Msur"lus’ animals that are sold to a variety of grou"s such as other Noos) breeders) Mgame’ farms) testing labs) and "laces that "rocess them for s*in or Iesh.21: 5reeding animals Bust to send them to Mgame’ farms and testing labs conFrms their status as commodities. !t doesn’t seem to have much to do with caring for animals. !n terms of education value) nature documentaries show animals in their normal surroundings) are far chea"er #given the worldwide cost of all Noos and animals *e"t in them$) and are li*ely to "rovide more detailed information. Aquatic Zoos found that while the documentary The .lue Planet featured around +00 s"ecies in natural habitats) the maLimum number of s"ecies in the PQ A<uariums it studied was 1+0.21= !n their 200: article Animal ri#hts and (ron#s) 4oyce Aillar and (ameron 8ouston say HNoos are eL"ected to generate more of their own income than institutions such as museums) galleries and "ublic "ar*s. !n Aelbourne) admission to the Gational ?allery is free for adults and children. At the Auseum of Victoria it is V3 for adults) children free. Adult entry to the Noo is V2+) children V11.H220 This tells us that the wellbeing of living creatures isnHt that high E art and history are more im"ortant. P" until the early 20th century) humans E for eLam"le) African 5ushmen) Asians) 0s*imos and !ndians C were often eLhibited in cages with animals.221 (an we recogniNe the "arallel and remove animals from Noos) Bust as we did humans- (an we see them as our relations in our earth Bourney) ca"able of "ain Bust li*e us) and view them with the same care we give human children-

VVSQ

35 of 75

"ar*s E unless youHre wor*ing to close them down. S To learn more about animals) watch nature documentaries) read about them) or watch them unobtrusively in natural surroundings. This may even be your bac*yard[

e
4*=

f

g

h

e

f

Pain and Intelli"ence

A resounding ==K of Australians are against cruelty to animals. Animal welfare laws around the country ac*nowledge that animals feel "ain) as does the Australian code of practice for the care and use of animals for scientifc purposes.222 0ven the National Code of Practice for ecreational and !port "ishin# 2001 ac*nowledges that Fsh suJer.22+ !t also states that Fsh can die <uic*ly out of water. 'ishers are advised to treat Fsh HhumanelyH by returning unwanted or illegal Fsh and following "rocedures to achieve this) such as reviving unconscious Fsh. 8owever) this is no more HhumaneH) for eLam"le) than beating someone for 2 minutes rather than 12. .hile the shorter beating is deFnitely HbetterH than the longer one) it still causes "ain. 9egislation and codes of "ractice #when adhered to$) only "rotect animals from harm to a certain degree. .hile law generally "rotects humans from unwarranted "hysical attac*s) other animals have a far more limited and s"eciFc "rotection. >n the one hand weHre obliged to "rovide at least basic care for com"anion animals) yet on the other itHs legal for us to subBect other animals to a whole array of "ainful "ractices such as cutting their bea*s) castrating them without anaesthetic) removing their horns) *ee"ing them conFned in cages their whole lives) as well as *illing them and eating them. These ty"es of laws carry a conIicting message E that animals feel "ain) yet itHs o* to inIict "ain under certain circumstances. They suggest that there are cases when inIicting "ain has a greater beneFt. 8owever) whoHs the greater beneFt for8umans. !tHs not a greater beneFt for the animals made to suJer. The idea of a greater

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things You Can Do
S /onHt su""ort animal eL"loitation E be vegan. S (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel". S Stay out of Noos) a<uariums and marine A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

35 of 75

A Pound of Flesh beneFt assumes that human interests) at least under certain circumstances) are more im"ortant than the interests of other animals. 9etHs "ut aside this issue of the su"remacy of human interests) though) and assume that harming animals is BustiFed if thereHs a greater beneFt to humans. .hat then ma*es a beneFt HgreaterH4emembering the ==K of Australians o""osed to animal cruelty) concern for the welfare of other animals would have to mean that the beneFts would be essential and couldnHt be obtained any other way. .e wouldnHt want them to be frivolous or unnecessary) otherwise the beneFt would be no greater than the "ain and/or loss of life animals would endure. 8owever) as weHve seen) using animal "roducts for food isnHt essential for health. .eHve also seen that using animals for tests that harm them isnHt only unfruitful and unnecessary) but often im"edes "rogress and can result in harming humans as well. Similarly) entertainment or Hs"ortH using animals is not only unnecessary) but often destructive for the animals. Another obBection might be that while animals feel "ain) and itHs not necessary to eL"loit them) eL"loiting them isnHt that much of an issue since they arenHt very intelligent. ?iven "ain in animals is similar to the "ain we feel) however) intelligence isnHt a relevant issue. !f it was) we could eL"eriment on and otherwise eL"loit "eo"le with mental disabilities and even babies. Some "eo"le might obBect that babies and "eo"le who are mentally disabled are still human) and so "art of a wider human family. That still doesnHt "revent us from a""lying similar reasoning to other animals C theyHre also "art of a wider animal family. !f "eo"le then argue that humans are su"erior) this must have some basis beyond sim"le diJerence. .ithout this) Auslims could Bustify *illing (hristians because theyHre diJerent. .hites could Bustify *illing blac*s. Aen could Bustify domination of women. 7eo"le from one nation could Bustify initiating war with those of another. !f we claim intelligence) that leads bac* to being able to eL"loit babies) the mentally disabled and even the less intelligent. #This is A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

36 of 75

even su""osing we can clearly deFne what intelligence is) given diJerent theories of intelligence) including multi"le intelligence. 221$ 0ven so) while intelligence is "eri"heral to how we should treat other animals) is it even really the case that other animals arenHt intelligent!n 2006) research by Sana !noue and Tetsuro AatsuNawa from Qyoto Pniversity in @a"an found that adolescent chim"s did better than adult humans at a "articular test of recalling numbers.222 The best "erforming chim") Ayumu) who can buy snac*s from vending machines) scored 63K in one test) while humans averaged +3K. 7rofessor AatsuNawa said that HGo human adults reached AyumuHs level.H223 .hile results varied for other tests) anthro"ologist @ill 7ruetN of !owa State Pniversity commented that H4ather than ta*ing such Fndings as a rare eLam"le or a Iu*e) we should incor"orate this *nowledge into a mindset that ac*nowledges that chim"anNees C and "robably other s"ecies C share as"ects of what we thin* of as uni<uely human intelligence.H226 ?eorge .atson) 7rofessor of 8ealth Sciences at (urtin Pniversity) says that H!n almost every language there is a Bo*e about birds) "articularly chic*ens) being dumb. 5ut birds) in general) have smarter brains than most mammals. They run rings around dogs and "robably dol"hins) too. Aost birds have incredibly good memories) learning and "roblemCsolving abilities.H22: 8e goes on to say that Hbirds’ brains have to be even more eRcient than mammals’ because their brains have to be small and light in order for them to Iy. 9and mammals have the luLury of having any siNed brain as long as they have the nec* muscles to su""ort it) but birds have a "owerCtoCweight issue so they have very clever brains in a very small s"ace.H22= 8e "oints out that im"ressions of chic*ens as HdumbH) resting on the lives they lead in factory farm cages) are mista*en% H(hic*ens have brains as good as any other bird) but we Bust don’t allow them to develo" it. They lead incredibly de"rived lives. !f you stuc* humans in a stainless steel cage all their lives and didn’t allow them to do anything or go anywhere) they wouldn’t loo* too bright either.H230 VVSQ 36 of 75

A Pound of Flesh 7rofessor of 7sychology at Aac<uarie Pniversity) /r (hris 0vans) eL"lains that chic*ens live in stable social grou"s) recogniNe each other by facial features) have 21 se"arate cries that communicate a range of information) including whether "redators are a""roaching by land or sea) and theyHre good at solving "roblems.231 8e also says they understand that obBects removed from sight continue to eList E something that small children arenHt able to do. @oy Aench) 7rofessor of Animal Science at the Pniversity of (alifornia) /avis) adds that H(hic*ens show so"histicated social behavior. ThatHs what a "ec*ing order is all about. They can recogniNe more than a hundred other chic*ens and remember them. They have more than thirty ty"es of vocaliNations.H232 'ish are also intelligent. !n their 200+ article $earnin# in fshes1 from three2second memory to culture) Qeven 9aland) (ulum 5rown and @ens Qrause say that Fsh are%
stee"ed in social intelligence) "ursuing Aachiavellian strategies of mani"ulation) "unishment and reconciliation) eLhibiting stable cultural traditions and coCo"erating to ins"ect "redators and catch food. 'ish not only recognise individual shoal mates) but they monitor the social "restige of others and trac* the relationshi"s of the thirdC"arties. They also use tools) build com"leL nests and bowers and can even eLhibit im"ressive long term memories. Although it may seem eLtraordinary to those comfortably used to "reBudging animal intelligence on the basis of brain volume) in some cognitive domains) Fshes can even be favourably com"ared to nonhuman "rimates.23+ X!n line references omitted.Y

VVSQ

37 of 75

crimson s"otted rainbowFsh was able to remember how it esca"ed from a net 11 months later E the human e<uivalent of 10 years.236 8e says that Fsh are <uic* learners who are able to teach each other things) including how Fsh reared in ca"tivity can manage in the sea.23: .hen it was suggested to him that "eo"le donHt tend to regard F sh as animals) his res"onse was HGo) it’s an odd thing) ! mean) how many vegetarians do you *now that say) !’m a vegetarian) but ! eat Fsh[H23= Sylvia 5rowne) who at the time was chief scientist of the PS Gational >ceanic and Atmos"heric Administration "ut it a little diJerently in an interview with the Gew ,or* Times in 1==1%
! wouldnHt deliberately eat a grou"er any more than !Hd eat a coc*er s"aniel. TheyHre so goodCnatured) so curious. ,ou *now) Fsh are sensitive) they have "ersonalities) they hurt when theyHre wounded.260

0Lam"les of intelligence s"read throughout the animal *ingdom. This doesnHt mean animal intelligence is the same) but Bust as men are diJerent to women) we nevertheless eLtend the idea of e<uality to both seLes. So while our treatment of animals should de"end on their ca"acity to eL"erience "ain) rather than their intelligence) even if being H"eaCbrained numbs*ullsH was a valid reason to eL"loit animals) our eLam"les show that animals donHt even meet this criterion. @ust as social e<uality doesnHt mean eLactly the same thing for every "erson E for eLam"le) men and women C we donHt need to thin* of e<uality to other animals the same way. 5ut out of res"ect for life) out of res"ect for the suJering animals can endure) we can accord them) as we do with other humans) a right to live their lives freely unless they act to harm us.

/r Theresa 5urt de 7erera says the "ublic view of Fsh His that they are "eaCbrained numbs*ulls that canHt remember things for more than a few seconds.H231 8owever) as /r (ulum 5rown of Aac<uarie Pniversity "oints out) the common notion of a goldFsh with a + second memory is a myth% H!tHs com"letely ridiculous that an animal could survive without a memory.H232 !n an interview on the A5(Hs (atalyst he elaborated by saying HThere’s no way a Fsh could survive in the real world) with that many challenges) if they didn’t remember things.H233 !n fact) /r 5rown found that the Australian A Pound of Flesh

e

f

g

h

e

f

Things You Can Do
S /onHt su""ort animal eL"loitation E be vegan. (hec* the resources in 'urther !nformation if you need hel".

VVSQ

37 of 75

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

38 of 75

4*10

%e"etarians and %e"ans in +ustralia

.hile 2K of Australians say they’re vegetarian) and 1K vegan) based on what they eat) only 2K of "eo"le are vegetarian and 0.03K vegan. 7eo"le may mean they’re largely vegetarian or vegan) rather than totally) however following the most common and authoritative deFnitions of these terms261) being a vegetarian or vegan is li*e an on/oJ switch C you either are or you aren’t. 7eo"le that call themselves Mmostly vegetarian’ or Hmostly veganH) dilute the terms HvegetarianH and HveganH and may "roduce confusion as to what a vegetarian is. Aany vegetarians) for eLam"le) are as*ed whether they eat chic*en or Fsh. This may be "artly due to "eo"le who call themselves vegetarian but sometimes eat Iesh) or to the more recent trend of using terms li*e M"esco vegetarian’% a "erson who eat Fsh but is otherwise vegetarian. Terms li*e this) however) contradict that vegetarians don’t eat any Iesh) whether it’s from chic*ens) Fsh or other animals. This is something that even many food establishments aren’t clear on. A common issue among vegetarians at these "laces is a "oor understanding of what vegetarian or vegan food is. Again) this may be due in "art to those "eo"le who say they’re vegetarian but are only vegetarians at times) or describe themselves as things li*e M"ollo vegetarian’ or MIeLitarian’. The Frst Vegetarian and Vegan Societies in the world were both created in 0ngland. 5oth ma*e clear the ethical connection in using animal "roducts and forbid animal "roducts to diJering degrees. The Vegetarian Society) formed in 1:16) says that MA vegetarian does not eat any meat) "oultry) game) Fsh) shellFsh or crustacea) or slaughter byC"roducts.’262 The term Mvegan’ was created almost 100 years later in 1=11) out of s"eciFc concern with cruelty in "roducing mil* and eggs. The term was introduced in the Frst newsletter of the Vegan Society) which eL"lained that Mour "resent civilisation is built on the eL"loitation of animals) Bust as "ast civilisations were built on the eL"loitation of slaves.’26+

Today the Vegan Society of the PQ ma*es clear that MA vegan is someone who tries to live without eL"loiting animals) for the beneFt of animals) "eo"le and the "lanet. Vegans eat a "lantCbased diet) with nothing coming from animals C no meat) mil*) eggs or honey) for eLam"le. A vegan lifestyle also avoids leather) wool) sil* and other animal "roducts for clothing or any other "ur"ose.’261 The 1==2 Gational Gutrition Survey was run by the Australian 5ureau of Statistics #A5S$ using a sam"le of 1+):2: "eo"le across Australia. !n that) +.6K of "eo"le over 1: identiFed themselves as vegetarian C 1.=K women and 2.3K men.262 >nly 2.+K of children 2C11 and 1.+K of children 12C12 were described as vegetarian in that survey. .hile the Fgure rose to 2.:K for 13C1: year olds) most were female #2.1K$ while only 0.3K were male. This contrasts with 4oy Aorgan’s 2001 ,oung Australians survey of 1):2+ children throughout Australia) which found that 2+K of *ids aged 3C1+ li*ed vegetarian food. 'urther) =0K said they li*ed fries or hot chi"s) :6K "iNNa) :1K F sh and chi"s) :0K chic*en nuggets) and even 23K salads and sou"s.263 Aa*ing no comment on the desirability of having these items as a regular "art of children’s diets) they’re all items that) if they aren’t already vegan) have vegan alternatives) with vegan analogs to chic*en nuggets and Fsh closely resembling the original) without the cruelty or other negative as"ects. 'urther develo"ment in this F eld could "roduce a much greater variety of these ty"es of food. !n Se"tember 2000) Sanitarium research conducted by Gews"oll found that 2K of Australians identiFed as vegetarian. !t also found that 1:K of "eo"le "refer vegetarian meals and that 1+K ate more vegetarian meals than a cou"le of years before.266 According to 4oy Aorgan research from /ecember 200:) about :.6K of Australians agreed that what they eat is all) or almost all) vegetarian.26: These results are similar to 4oy Aorgan research from two years before) which found that =.1K agree that Mthe food ! eat is all) or almost all) vegetarian.’26= 4oy Aorgan also "roduce some interesting results on the vegetarian "reference of various football su""orters) but these are more of a curiosity from a general "ers"ective.2:0

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

38 of 75

A Pound of Flesh .ith 2K of "eo"le in this survey saying they’re vegetarian) these results are "ositioned between the earlier A5S and Sanitarium research and the 4oy Aorgan research of 2003 and 200:. Since the Fgure from this survey is within about 1 "ercentage "oints of the others) this su""orts the 2K Fgure as a reasonable estimate of the "ro"ortion of Australians that consider themselves vegetarian. As our results) show) however) only 2K of "eo"le are actually vegetarian. Pnderstanding of the term Mvegan’ is either more confused than the term HvegetarianH) or there are a signiFcant number of M"art time’ vegans C which would not only erode the meaning of the term Mvegan’) but also seems unli*ely.

VVSQ abundant and easier to verify.

39 of 75

PQ research goes bac* over 20 years) including rationing records from 1=12.2:3 .hile Fgures for the number of vegetarians in the PQ have sometimes gone over 2K this may) again) reIect a misunderstanding of what being vegetarian means. 'or eLam"le) a Aay 2001 5ritish Aar*et 4esearch 5ureau study a""arently found that 6.3K of "eo"le in the PQ 12 and over considered themselves vegetarian.2:6 4esearch since 2000 by the 'ood Standards Agency #'SA$) though) suggests the level is around 2C+K. Their Pu)lic Attitudes to "ood study released early in 200= involved face to face interviews with +)21= "eo"le across the PQ in >ctober and Govember 200:. That found +K of "eo"le were Mcom"letely vegetarian’ as distinct from M"artly vegetarian’.2:: .hile the survey as*ed "eo"le whether they were vegan) it didn’t re"ort on them) suggesting the "ro"ortion of them was too low in round "ercentage terms. This is su""orted by the Agency’s Consumer Attitudes to "ood !tandards re"ort released a year earlier. This "rovided results of 2)326 face to face interviews with PQ adults conducted between August and >ctober 2006. 2K of "eo"le interviewed considered themselves Mcom"lete vegetarians’) while this time the "ro"ortion of vegans was given as 0K. #There "robably were some vegans) but at a level that rounded to 0.$2:= Another survey by /0'4A carried out in A"ril and Aay of 2006 #/e"artment for 0nvironment) 'ood) and 4ural AJairs$ interviewed +)31: 0nglish "eo"le in "erson.2=0 +K of "eo"le in that survey called themselves vegetarian) although there was no eL"lanation of what Mvegetarian’ meant. 8owever) res"onses were coded as follows% M,es C Vegetarian’) M,es C vegetarian who eats Fsh’) M,es C vegetarian who eats chic*en’) M,es C vegetarian who eats both Fsh and chic*en’) M,es C Vegan’) MGo’) M/on’t *now’. As we’ve already discussed) describing a vegetarian as someone who eats any *ind of animal is a contradiction. 8owever) /0'4A ca"tured) at least to some eLtent) common understanding of the term. 2K of "eo"le were classed as vegetarians who ate chic*en) Fsh) or both. This is se"arate to the +K who said they were vegetarian only #M,es C Vegetarian’$) but could still mean that some of the +K ate animals at times. VVSQ 39 of 75

4*11

%e"etarians and >utside +ustralia

%e"ans

The country with by far the most vegetarians is !ndia C 10K. Aost are lacto vegetarian #+1K$) while =K are ovo vegetarians. The bul* are vegetarian due to inherited cultural traditions.2:1 According to the 0uro"ean Vegetarian Pnion #0VP$) 10K of !talians are vegetarian) =K of ?ermans and Swiss) and :.2K of !sraelis. 8owever) these Fgures may have come from surveys that as*ed "eo"le to identify themselves as vegetarian) so may reIect the same misunderstanding of the term "eo"le had in this survey. The 0VP also say 1.+K of "eo"le in the Getherlands are vegetarian) +.6K in (roatia) and +K in Austria. They further say that a number of countries have 2K or less. 'or eLam"le) 5elgium #2K$) Gorway #2K$) the (Nech 4e"ublic #1.2K$) and /enmar* #1.2K C estimate$.2:2 4esearch during the 1==0s in Sweden a""arently "ut the "ro"ortion of vegans in the general "o"ulation at between 0.26K and 1.3K.2:+ Although this seems to be at odds with a 1==3 study of over 36)000 students between 13 and 20 due to the lower "ro"ortion of vegans% 0.1K.2:1 A more recent 200: study of food consum"tion in ?ermany "ut the Fgure of vegans there at 0.1K of females and 0.02K of males.2:2 4esearch in the PQ and PS is far more A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh That same /0'4A study found 2K of "eo"le were vegan C on to" of the +K of vegetarians C although again) no descri"tion of a vegan was given. This seems unli*ely) given%

VVSQ

40 of 75

confusion over what a vegan is contributed to the +K Fgure. Ta*ing into account the variation in Fgures for vegans from 0C+K) and the room for misunderstanding of what being vegan means) it’s diRcult to say whether there has been any increase in the level of PQ vegans since the 1=:0s. 5ased on the rationing records VSPQ give for 1=12) however) if there were only 100)000 vegetarians in the PQ at that time) and the "o"ulation was around 16 million) the level of vegetarians at that time would be 0.2K2=6. So regardless of how they were deFned) that suggests there’s been at least a 10 fold C or 1000K C increase in the number of vegetarians there in the last 30 "lus years. Studies of children #under 1:$ in the PQ) li*e some adult studies) may over eLaggerate the level of vegetarians and vegans in 5ritain.2=: The Vegetarian 4esource ?rou" "olls in America) as*ing children to s"ecify which foods they Mnever’ eat) "roduced results similar to their adult "olls #discussed a little further on$.2== A 2001 Agriculture and AgriC'ood (anada study of 1)300 (anadians found that) de"ending on what they said they eat in an Maverage wee*’) +K might be vegetarian #including vegans$.+00 The /ietitians of (anada refer to a 2002 Gational !nstitute of Gutrition study that found around 1K of "eo"le there who were vegetarian. 8owever) they don’t ma*e clear whether these are sim"ly "eo"le who describe themselves as vegetarian.+01 !n America) li*e the PQ) surveys as*ing whether "eo"le are vegetarian go bac* many years) at least to 1=6:.+02 1K of "eo"le who too* "art in an online "oll of 10)006 American adults by Time/(GG in @uly 2002 considered themselves vegetarian. 8owever) further <uestioning revealed that of that 1K) 26K said they were MSemiC vegetarian.’ That leaves 1.62K. 0.2K said they were vegan.+0+ A later 2001 tele"hone survey by the Vegetarian 4esource ?rou" as*ed 1000 Americans over the age of 1: about foods they Mnever’ eat.+01 2.+K said they don’t eat any Iesh) while 1.1K said they don’t eat mil* "roducts or eggs. So 2.+K ate a vegetarian diet) and 1.1K a vegan) or close to vegan diet) since there wasn’t a <uestion about whether "eo"le ate bee "roducts. VVSQ 40 of 75

• the • • • •

di Jerence to the 'SA studies mentioned the closeness to the "ro"ortion of vegetarians a 2K total of vegetarians and vegans #+K vegetarians and 2K vegans$ the "oor understanding of the term Mvegan’ in this survey #of Australians$ interviews not giving an eL"lanation of what a vegan is

As it turns out) most "eo"le didnHt have a clear understanding of what a vegan is.2=1 0ven so) the interviews were conducted only in 0ngland) rather than the whole of the PQ) so it’s "ossible C remotely "erha"s C that the 2K Fgure reIects the true situation. 'igures the Vegetarian Society of the PQ #VSPQ$ "rovides for the 1=:0s on their website are similar to the 2C+K level of vegetarians there today. Several surveys during the 1=:0s were done for 4ealeat) and the meaning of Mvegetarian’ they used may have been less o"en than some surveys in the 1==0s.2=2 According to VSPQ details for the 1==0s) the "ro"ortion of vegetarians ranges from +C6K. 2=+ These levels may have some connection with the mad cow scare that gained "rominence in the mid 1=:0s through 1==0s)2=1 although could reIect the same misunderstandings) mentioned ealier) of what a vegetarian is. So while closer study of these Fgures may reveal an u"ward trend from the 1=:0s) there’s no obvious shar" rise) and "ossibly even a dro" since the 1==0s. The only study VSPQ lists that gives a clear Fgure for vegans in the 1==0s is a 1==2 Gational (onsumer (ouncil survey of 1)02+ "eo"le 12 or over who’d eaten out in the 3 "revious months. That found 1K of "eo"le who said they were vegan.2=2 !n the 2000s) a"art from the surveys that have already been mentioned) the only other one that "rovides a Fgure for vegans is a Today Pro#ramme "oll of over 1000 adults in Aarch 2001.2=3 +K of "eo"le described themselves as vegan) however this is more than the 2K that called themselves vegetarian. ?iven these were selfCdescri"tions) it seems "lausible that A Pound of Flesh

A Pound of Flesh .hile being vegetarian is overtly centred around diet) many vegetarians have a concern that eLtends beyond diet to eLclude animals "roducts other than food eg leather #even though they’re mista*en that being vegetarian is a largely cruelty free way of living$. >n the other hand) the 1.1K of "eo"le that followed a vegan or close to vegan diet may not all have done it for ethical reasons. Some) though "erha"s not many) do it mainly for health or environmental reasons. 8owever) veganism is an intrinsically ethical "hiloso"hy that eLtends beyond diet) so eating a vegan diet doesn’t necessarily ma*e a "erson a vegan. 'or eLam"le) a man that eats a vegan diet for health) but buys wool dresses for his wife and leather shoes for himself) isn’t a vegan. !n 200:) the 3e#etarian Times released the re"ort 3e#etarianism in America which was based on a survey of 2)020 adults around the country. That said +.2K of Americans followed a MvegetarianCbased’ diet) of which about 0.2K were vegan.+02 5etween 1 and 2 Aay 200=) the Vegetarian 4esource ?rou" ran an online "oll of 2)+=6 American aged 1: or more. 9i*e their "revious 2003 "oll) "eo"le were as*ed about things they Mnever’ ate) this time adding honey. The results gave +.1K of "eo"le who don’t eat animal Iesh) with 0.:K also not eating mil* "roducts) eggs or honey.+03 !n a 1=6: /e"artment of Agriculture survey of +6)1+2 Americans) 1.2K answered yes to the <uestion MAre you vegetarian-’+06 The survey also showed) however) that some of these "eo"le ate Iesh. !f we generously said that 1K of these "eo"le are actually vegetarian) this may mean that Fgures from the 2000s of 2C+K re"resent at least a doubling in the number of vegetarians in over the "ast 10 years or so. Surveys in the 1==0s done for the Vegetarian 4esource ?rou" #V4?$) found around 1K of Americans were vegetarian) with about 0.02KC 0.2K of them vegan.+0: These Fgures seemed to ma*e a shar" increase in 2000) when they re"orted 2.2K vegetarians and 0.=K that follow vegan diets.+0= As they "oint out) while increases of less than ]+K from survey to survey aren’t statistically signiFcant+10) the fact that later surveys in the 2000s gave similar results suggests they may have some validity. The 200: 3e#etarian Times study also seems to conFrm this. A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

41 of 75

!t could be then) that if the 1K level of vegetarians from 1=6: is close) the doubling #or more$ of vegetarians that seems to have occurred in the "ast 10 years has largely ta*en "lace this decade. Another alternative is that the level of vegetarians in 1=6: was lower than 1K) so there may have been an increase from then to the 1K level in the 1==0s) followed by a larger Bum" in the 2000s. !n either case) the 2000s seem to have shown a Bum" in the number of vegetarians. !f this is right) it could be due to the rise of the internet and the information it ma*es readily available about farming "ractices and being vegetarian. So while !ndia is the clear leader in terms of vegetarians) Australia doesn’t seem that far behind PSA or the PQ. That said) it’s sobering to remember that rates of 2C+K of vegetarians and 1K or below for vegans are very low. .hich is why it’s im"ortant for "eo"le to be told about the ethics and other beneFts of being vegan.

4*12

This survey has established that the "ro"ortion of adult vegetarians and vegans in Australia E and many other countries E is fairly low% 2K for vegetarians and 0.03K for vegans. 0ven so) these Fgures re"resent a signiFcant number of "eo"le% around 260)000 vegetarians and 10)000 vegans. !f the 0nglish rationing records from 1=12 are anything to go by) thereHs been a signiFcant increase in the number of vegetarians in 0ngland since then. They suggest that the increase from then til now is around 10 fold) or 1000K #from around 0.2K to about 2K$. AustraliaHs Frst Vegetarian Society) "erha"s sur"risingly) was formed) li*e the PQ Society) in the 1=th century C 1::3. A culture centred around meat consum"tion was "ossibly as strong then) if not stronger) than it is today.+11 4obert @ones) the SocietyHs second "resident) was a school "rinci"al) Bournalist) and "ublisher who also wrote educational teLtboo*s. 8e described his childhood diet as Hthe usual colonial diet) eating Iesh every day) often twice) sometimes three times a day.H+12 A vegetarian for a cou"le of years before the Society was formed in 1::3) he later became vegan) well before the word was coined in 1=11. 8e urged "eo"le to% VVSQ 41 of 75

5istory and ?ro@th

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

42 of 75

(ease their consum"tion of that grossest of all foods) dead I esh) to obtain which) nameless cruelties and barbarities) to our eternal disgrace) are inIicted on the defenceless dumb C barbarities which will not bear naming) much less loo*ing at) so hideous are they. The suJerings of gentle) domestic animals by land and sea) in railwayCtruc*s and cattleCsteamers) from thirst) hunger) cold) heat) overcrowding) fatigue) blows) terror) and sic*ness) not to mention their deathCagonies) and the other uns"ea*able horrors of the slaughterhouses) are such as no "en can describeT they are horrors) com"arable only to the worst brutalities of the infamous slave trade.+1+

their interests may be <uite diJerent to ours.$ As theyHre similar to us as living creatures able to eL"erience "ain) how can it be we thin* we have the right to use them for our ends) sim"ly because we have the "ower to'ollowing that logic) the strong "eo"le in our society could subBugate the wea*) using them for their own "ur"oses li*e !di Amin or 7ol 7ot. The disabled) sic* and elderly could all be dominated by stronger "eo"le. 9iving this way "roduces a state of constant uncertainty and fear) "articularly for those who arenHt in the elite. 8owever) even the elite are o"en to threats from each other) or attem"ts to *ill them by the "eo"le they o""ress. This a""roach reduces humans to tools for the beneFt of the elite. .hy then do we see* to do the same things to other animals.e ac*nowledge other humans as individuals with their own interests and own ca"acity to feel "ain. So we hold to the idea that unless they do something to harm the interests of others) we leave them free to follow their interests. /oesnHt it follow that as living creatures) unli*e roc*s and steel) other animals deserve the same consideration- To be treated as individuals with their own interests and their own ca"acity to feel "ain- .hy do we instead ma*e them subservient to us) tyrants of the animal worldAnimal use is one of the most im"ortant issues of our time. .orldwide) over 30 billion farm animals are *illed for food each year.+11 The number of Fsh #not other water animals$ *illed Bust for food has been estimated to run over one trillion.+12 This leaves us with what seems to be a conservative global F gure of around one trillion animals *illed yearly for food alone. ThatHs around 11)000 times the number of "eo"le *illed in .orld .ar !! and more than 110 times the entire human "o"ulation. .hatHs even more staggering is that this isnHt over a "eriod of a few years) but in one year. ,et addressing the very same "roblem of animal use by becoming vegan would also have a signiFcant "ositive im"act on many of the other "roblems facing the world.

8is descri"tions of the suJering animals endure to "roduce HmeatH remain valid over 100 years later. Aethods may have changed) but the basic conditions of trans"ort and im"ending death are essentially the same. @ames (oo* claimed GS. for ?reat 5ritain in 1660. The Frst 5ritish colony in Australia was established in GS. within 20 years) in early 16::. ?iven that the Australian Vegetarian Society only formed around a 100 years after that) li*e the PQ) weHve "robably made small but signiFcant advances in that time as well. 5eing vegan) while still marginal today) has "otential for enormous growth) for us to Fnally release our fellow animals from their bondage and realise the wonderful environmental and other advantages that being vegan holds.

4*13

(onclusion

0L"loiting animals for food) eL"eriments) "roFt and other reasons canHt be BustiFed unless you reduce them to commodities li*e a table) a boL of (ornIa*es or a "air of shoes #which animals are often turned into$. 8owever) doing this immediately contradicts what it means to be an animal. 8umans are animals. >ther animals are on the same continuum we are. They arenHt roc*s) "ieces of wood) or sheets of steel. 9i*e us) they have feelings. 9i*e us they eL"erience "ain. So if we "layed the game Which is the odd one out4) it would be more logical to "ut them in a grou" along with us E as animals E than with roc*s) soil and water. !t doesnHt ma*e sense) then) to treat other animals li*e roc*s E using them for our own "ur"oses C when unli*e roc*s they feel "ain li*e us) and have interests li*e us. #Although

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

42 of 75

A Pound of Flesh As discussed earlier) the animal industry is wrea*ing global environmental havoc) causing eLtensive water "ollution) deforestation) land degradation) devastation of Fsh "o"ulations) and reduction in biodiversity. 60K of what used to be forest in the AmaNon is used as "asture.+13 (ereal is the most im"ortant source of food in the world.+16 !n 2006) @ean ;ieglar) who at that time was the PG S"ecial 4a""orteur on the 4ight to 'ood) called biofuel a Hcrime against humanityH) since it diverted cereal away from feeding the hungry to "roduce fuel.+1: A child dies every 3 seconds from hunger and there are over 1 billion hungry "eo"le in the world.+1= !n 200:) almost 100 million tonnes of grain went to "roducing biofuel. 8owever) over 6 times that was fed to animals raised for food.+20 !n fact theyHre fed around 1/+ of the worldHs total cereal cro")+21 and 6K of the worldHs water is used to "roduce feed for them.+22 #!n Australia) food animals are fed more than 6 times the grain that humans eat.+2+$ >nly around half of the world cereal cro" feeds "eo"le.+21 ?oing on Fgures from the late 1==0s) farmers worldwide "roduce an average edible cro" harvest of 1)300 *ilocalories "er "erson each day. 9osses following harvest) such as trans"ort and storage) mean around 2):00 *ilocalories are available for su""ly. >f the 1):00 *ilocalories lost to this "oint) 2/+ goes into animal feed.+22 >n average) it ta*es around 10 times more energy to "roduce 1 *ilocalorie of animal "rotein than 1 *ilocalorie of corn.+23 !t also ta*es about : times more water to "roduce 1000 *ilocalories of animal "roducts than the same energy value of "lant food.+26 'urther) many "lant foods use water more eRciently to "roduce the same amounts of "rotein and other nutrients. 'or eLam"le) using the same amount of water) "otatoes "roduce 12 times more "rotein than cow Iesh.+2: Ail* "roduces 10 grams of "rotein for every *ilolitre of water) however wheat returns 61 and corn 66. 0ven rice "roduces 1= grams "er *ilolitre. The following diagram illustrates% A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

43 of 75

'rom 3e#etarian .ites Ne(sletter5 Summer 200:% 2. Gewsletter of the A(T Vegetarian Society. Available at htt"%//vegetariansociety.org.au/new.html^newslettersonline 5ased on / 4enault and .. .allender) Nutritional producti%ity and diets) Agricultural .ater Aanagement) 12) 2000% 2:2.

/es"ite this) billions of dollars across the world go into subsidies for animal foods.+2= .hile some "eo"le say that grain fed to other animals isnHt of high enough <uality to feed humans)++0 even where this is the case) the argument avoids why resource and subsidy intensive animal agriculture is favoured in "lace of "roducing "lant food for humans. >ther arguments that animals can graNe land that wouldnHt suit cro""ing)++1 may mean that large o"en Feld cro"s on this ty"e of land arenHt "ractical) although other cro"s such as fruit and nut trees) along with some ty"es of vegetables) are.++2 !n 2006) Simon 'airlie considered how much land would be re<uired to su""ort ty"ical omnivore and vegan diets in 5ritain.+++ 8e loo*ed at + diJerent farming methods in each case% conventional agriculture using chemicals) organic "roduction and "ermaculture. (om"aring the same ty"e of farming method E for eLam"le) vegan "ermaculture with omnivore "ermaculture E he found that regardless of the method used) vegan diets needed the least amount of land. A "ermaculture vegan diet fed almost twice as many "eo"le as those on a "ermaculture omnivore diet) while a vegan diet using chemicals fed around +_ times more "eo"le than an omnivore diet using chemicals VVSQ 43 of 75

A Pound of Flesh #although of course there are other reasons to avoid chemicals$. These Fgures seem to be conservative. >ther studies have shown that omnivore diets re<uire more than + times the land that vegetarian diets #including mil* and eggs$ do.++1 ?erbensC9eenes and others have suggested that the land omnivore diets re<uire Hcould be much larger than the factor of three.H++2 5ased on their wor*) the The Vegan Society have calculated that ty"ical 0uro"ean omnivore diets need about 2 times the land that vegan diets do.++3 The director of the (enter for ?lobal 'ood !ssues) /ennis Avery) while not a vegan) ac*nowledged the eRciency of a vegan diet when he said HThe world must create Fve billion vegans in the neLt several decades) or tri"le its total farm out"ut without using more land.H++6 .hile this was meant to suggest that the way we farm for an omnivorous diet needs to become more eRcient) doesnHt it ma*e more sense to follow a naturally more eRcient diet that doesnHt eL"loit animals or rely on billions of dollars of subsidiesVegan food) and more broadly the entire vegan a""roach) holds fantastic "romise for the world. !t means food could be "roduced more chea"ly) more eRciently and without harming billions of animals every year. Go loss of nutrition would be necessary) and in fact could even "roduce nutritional beneFts such as more F bre) fruit and vegetable consum"tion and no added cholesterol. .hile some "eo"le ada"t readily to vegetarian "rotein from foods such as tofu) legumes and tem"eh) others donHt Fnd this as satisfying or Fnd that eLtra F bre from legumes create digestive "roblems. These "roblems can be solved with analogs that resemble familiar animal "roducts such as mince) sausages) chic*en nuggets and schnitNel. These are made with combinations of cereals and "rocessed legumes that remove some of the Fbre eg soy and chic*"ea Iour. Ail* "roducts including yoghurt and cheese can also be made with vegetable foods. .hile not all of these "roducts closely resemble their animal counter"arts) some do. !f more com"anies too* u" "roducing analogs) however) itHs li*ely they could "roduce a far A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ wider range of satisfying "roducts.

44 of 75

These could be made into innumerable foods) not only those that resemble familiar animal "roducts) but also those that ma*e no attem"t to emulate them eg chic*"ea chi"s. Some "roducts would also oJer advantages in storage and trans"ort. 'or eLam"le) teLtured vegetable "rotein) or "roducts resembling it) is a dry "roduct that can be rehydrated in "lace of mince. #7roducts range through unIavoured to "reIavoured varieties.$ !n an article for .orld .atch) 4obert ?oodlund) who wor*ed for many years at the .orld 5an*) and @eJ Anhang) who continues to do so) "oint out that%
!n develo"ing countries) where "erCca"ita meat and dairy consum"tion is lower than in develo"ed countries) consumers often see meat and dairy "roducts as "art of a better diet and a better life) and have not yet been informed about their adverse im"acts. ,et meat and dairy analogs can yield even better outcomes) "articularly if they are mar*eted with such intent.++:

They later eL"and on this%
Aeat and dairy analog "roBects will... hel" ease the global food crisis) as it ta*es a much smaller <uantity of cro"s to "roduce any given number of calories in the form of an analog than a livestoc* "roduct. Analogs would also alleviate the global water crisis) as the huge amounts of water necessary for livestoc* "roduction would be freed u". 8ealth and nutritional outcomes among consumers would be better than from livestoc* "roducts. Analog "roBects would be more labor intensive than livestoc* "roBects) so would create both more Bobs and more s*illed Bobs. They would also avert the harmful labor "ractices found in the livestoc* sector #but not in analog "roduction$) including slave labor in some areas such as the AmaNon forest region. .or*ers "roducing livestoc* "roducts can easily be retrained to "roduce analogs.++=

The most decisive statistic from this survey is that ==K of Australians are against cruelty to animals. 8owever) this discussion has "rovided eLam"les of the many ways in which animals are eLtensively and systematically abused for food) clothing) entertainment) s"ort and science. .eHve seen that eL"eriments on animals) as well as being far reaching and often cruel) can VVSQ 44 of 75

A Pound of Flesh rec*lessly divert scientiFc advances. Similarly) weHve seen that animals are hurt) cut u" and *illed for food even though nutritional authorities tell us that animal "roducts arenHt necessary in healthy human diets. Since eating animals or using them for entertainment is unnecessary) and Australians say they donHt Fnd cruelty acce"table) a""eals li*e Hmeat tastes goodH or HitHs fun to shoot birdsH have a hollow ring. .e canHt maintain that our desire for something alone ma*es it legitimate. !f this was the case) we could Bustify all *inds of crime. 7eo"le could "urchase slaves because they enBoy having them. Someone wal*ing down the street could bash someone else because they wanted their watch. The murderer Qatherine Qnight could have served "art of @ohn 7rice u" E as we do with animals C and left his head in a "ot of vegetables without recrimination. The ?olden 4ule holds that we should treat others as we wish to be treated. .hereas we might throw roc*s) ste" on them or grind them into a "owder) we wouldnHt see this as a "roblem in terms of the ?olden 4ule) since roc*s donHt feel "ain. .e feel "ain) however) so throwing "eo"le around) ste""ing on them or grinding them alive into a mince would defy the ?olden 4ule. ,et while animals feel "ain) li*e us) we cast the ?olden 4ule aside. .e deseL them without anaesthetic) we cli" their teeth) remove their horns) ta*e their children) drive bolts into their heads and even mince them alive #chic*s in hatcheries$. Along with many other "ractices that "ay their lives little regard. .ould we do these things to another human?enerally) no) because we have res"ect for human life C we regard that "erson as more than sim"ly a means to an end. 8owever) we donHt show a similar res"ect for other animals. .e donHt a""ly the ?olden 4ule to them. This doesnHt mean we need to regard other animals the same as us or give them eLactly the same rights. TheyHre obviously diJerent to us. 8owever) Bust as itHs our aim to res"ect diJerences of nationality) intelligence and seL as "art of our regard for other human lives) so other animals should have a basic right to life and freedom from violence. >ur society has a distaste for crimes of "ower A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

45 of 75

such as organiNed crime) Hwhite collarH crime) crimes of dictators) and crimes against children) wea*er "artners or the disabled. ,et "artly because of lac* of *nowledge) we abuse our "ower over other animals and condone their wides"read abuse. 9i*e dictators we dominate them and use them for our own ends. That we do this with the notion of abusing them HhumanelyH clouds our res"onsibility) allowing us to thin* we can use animals as long as we treat them HwellH. .hich) in any case) often doesnHt ha""en. .ould we acce"t abusing other humans this way- Aaybe by "ulling their teeth without anaesthetic) but doing it HhumanelyH- >r branding them with a hot iron on the forehead- .e consider this an outrage) an insult to humanity. The very same thing is true of animals. ,ou canHt mistreat them Hhumanely.H A recognition of their lives) that they feel "ain) demands that the only real HhumaneH way they can be treated is to sto" using them as means to our our ends. That means becoming vegan. !n an interview) the lawyer Aarybeth .os*o said%
So often ! hear "eo"le say) `you do your thing) !’ll do mine. ,ou may choose to eat vegetables and fruit and nuts and grains) ! choose to eat meat and dairya... That argument is basically and dangerously Iawed) because the most interested "erson E the one being *illed E is not "arty to the discussion... The argument ignores the basic rights of the individual most aJected... A wise "erson once said) `! would defend to the death your right to believe what you believe... but that right sto"s where your Fst hits another’s nose.a+10

.hile dismay or horror is eL"ressed over the terrible casualties that war inIicts) these ty"e of casualties occur to nonhumans every day) away from our eyes. !f these deaths were nothing to obBect to) thereHd be no need to hide these "ractices away. 8owever) slaughter of millions of animals is an unrelenting machinery that’s removed) or at least *e"t away from) the eyes and minds of most "eo"le. Aany animals today are in a far worse "osition than slaves. They suJer terrible conditions) are eL"loited for their s*ins and "roducts li*e VVSQ 45 of 75

A Pound of Flesh mil* and eggs) cut u") *illed) coo*ed then eaten. Animals) including us) are live) thin*ing) feeling creatures. 5orrowing the words of the 1=th century "hiloso"her @eremy 5entham) Bust as we wouldn’t thin* of human Iesh as Mmeat’ to be eaten) or treated human s*in as Mleather’ to be worn) terms li*e meat and leather Mdegrade’ the status of other animals as living) thin*ing) feeling creatures Minto the class of thin#s6’+11 .hile the use of animals for food) s"ort) entertainment and other "ur"oses is commonly acce"ted) this doesn’t mean this is a logical or even tolerable state of aJairs. Gumerous "ractices throughout history were considered acce"table and were even legal) although these wouldn’t be considered the same way by modern standards. Slavery was a wides"read legal "ractice throughout human history. #Aillions of "eo"le are illegally still *e"t as slaves to this day.+12$ /oes that mean it was right0ven then) slaves weren’t routinely s*inned. >r used for clothing. 9et alone eaten. ,et this is what ha""ens to billions of animals every year. !f you wor* in an animal industry) "ut yourself in "lace of the animals you de"end on for your livelihood. 4ather than having an immediate gut reaction) as* yourself honestly) H.ould ! be ha""y to eL"erience the same things the animals do-H 4ather than focusing on your livelihood) as* yourself HAm ! ha""y living oJ animals for "roFt-H >r is there something else you could do that) in turn) would also beneFt you!f youHre someone who doesnHt wor* in an animal industry) but uses animals for food or other "ur"oses) again) as* yourself honestly) H.ould ! be ha""y to eL"erience the same things the animals do-H As* yourself) H!s my convenience and "leasure really more im"ortant than the suJering and death of billions of other animals-H !s there a another way for the 21st centuryThe answer is yes% to embrace being vegan.

VVSQ

46 of 75

5

Method
1202

!nformation from Gews"oll%

Sam)le
(onducted nationally among res"ondents aged 1: years and over.

4es"ondents were selected via a random sam"le "rocess which included%

• a <uota being set for each ca"ital city
and nonCca"ital city area) and within each of these areas) a <uota being set for grou"s of statistical divisions or subdivisions random selection of household tele"hone numbers using random digit dialling #4//$ random selection of an individual in each household by a Ulast birthdayU screening <uestion.

• •

Inter0ie@in"
(onducted by tele"hone over the "eriod of 21C 2+ August 200= by fully trained and "ersonally briefed interviewers. To ensure the sam"le included those "eo"le who tend to s"end a lot of time away from home) a system of call bac*s and a""ointments was incor"orated.

.ei"htin"
To reIect the "o"ulation distribution) results were "ostCweighted to Australian 5ureau of Statistics data on age) highest level of schooling com"leted) seL and area.

IS> 20252 # Mar!et9 Social and >)inion Research
This study was carried out in com"liance with !S> 20222 C Aar*et) Social and >"inion 4esearch.

Demo"ra)hic Auestions
?iven on the neLt "age.

Sur0ey Auestions
See following "ages.

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

46 of 75

DEMOGRAPHICS 1 To make sure we’re speaking to a cross-section of people, please tell me if you are aged...? READ OUT 01-04 IF AGED 18-34 OR 05-11 IF AGED 35 AND OVER 18-19 ......... 01 20-24 .........02 25-29 .........03 30-34 .........04 35-39 .........05 40-44..................06 45-49..................07 50-54..................08 55-59..................09 60-64..................10 65+.....................11 REFUSED..........12 MALE............. 1 FEMALE ........ 2 YES ...... 1 NO........ 2 ---4(b)--CHILDREN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 3

RECORD SEX Are you the person who is most responsible for doing the household grocery shopping? IF UNSURE / SHARED EQUALLY WITH SOMEONE ELSE CODE AS “YES” IE CODE 1 How many people aged 18 years or over live in your household, including yourself? And how many children aged 17 years or younger live in your household? ---4(a)--ADULTS ONE ............................................ 1 TWO ........................................... 2 THREE........................................ 3 FOUR.......................................... 4 FIVE............................................ 5 SIX+ ............................................ 6 NONE ......................................... DON’T KNOW / REFUSED ......... 8

4(a) 4(b)

5

Are you in paid employment full time, part time or not at all? IF UNSURE / CASUAL / SELF EMPLOYED Is that closer to full time or part time hours?

FULL TIME.................................... 1 PART TIME................................... 2 NOT AT ALL ................................. 3 DON’T KNOW / REFUSED ........... 4 YEAR 9 OR BELOW ..................... 1 YEAR 10 ....................................... 2 OR, YEAR 11 OR 12..................... 3 DON’T KNOW / REFUSED ........... 4

6

To help us ensure we have a representative sample could you please tell me the highest level of primary or secondary school you personally have completed? Was it...? READ OUT 1-3

7

And apart from primary and secondary school, what is the highest level of education you personally have completed? Was it...? READ OUT 1-3

SR A DIPLOMA OR CERTIFICATE FROM A COLLEGE OR TAFE, INCLUDING AN APPRENTICESHIP ................... 1 A DEGREE OR DIPLOMA FROM A UNIVERSITY................................... 2 OR, NONE OF THESE............................................................................. 3 REFUSED / DON’T KNOW ...................................................................... 4

8

Which one of the following best describes your present marital status? READ OUT 1-6

SR NEVER MARRIED........................................ 1 DEFACTO OR LIVE TOGETHER ................. 2 MARRIED..................................................... 3 SEPARATED BUT NOT DIVORCED ............ 4 DIVORCED................................................... 5 WIDOWED ................................................... 6 REFUSED .................................................... 7 _____________________________________ _____________________________________

9

Could I please have the occupation of the main income earner of your household? IF NECESSARY Could I also have the position or job title of the main income earner of your household?

10

Is your household’s combined annual income from all sources, before tax... READ OUT A-D. Would that be...? READ OUT 02-04 IF 30 TO 59, 06-08 IF 60 TO 89 OR 10-11 IF 90 THOUSAND OR MORE INTERVIEWER INFORMATION UNDER $30,000 PA IS UNDER $577 PER WEEK $30,000-$39,999 PA IS $577-$769 PER WEEK --------------------------------------------------------------------$40,000-$49,999 PA IS $770-$962 PER WEEK $50,000-$59,999 PA IS $963-$1,154 PER WEEK $60,000-$69,999 PA IS $1,155-$1,346 PER WEEK $70,000-$79,999 PA IS $1,347-$1,538 PER WEEK --------------------------------------------------------------------$80,000-$89,999 PA IS $1,539-$1,731 PER WEEK $90,000-$99,999 PA IS $1,732-$1,923 PER WEEK $100,00-$109,999 PA IS $1,924-$2,115 PER WEEK OVER $110,000 PA IS OVER $2,115 PER WEEK

A) UNDER 40 THOUSAND DOLLARS UNDER 30 THOUSAND................................... 01 OR, 30 TO 39 THOUSAND DOLLARS............. 02 REFUSED / DON'T KNOW .............................. 03 --------------------------------------------------------------------------B) 40 TO 79 40 TO 49 THOUSAND ..................................... 04 50 TO 59.......................................................... 05 60 TO 69.......................................................... 06 OR, 70 TO 79 THOUSAND DOLLARS............. 07 REFUSED / DON'T KNOW .............................. 08 --------------------------------------------------------------------------C) OR, 80 THOUSAND OR MORE 80 TO 89 THOUSAND ..................................... 09 90 TO 99.......................................................... 10 100 TO 109 ...................................................... 11 OR, 110 THOUSAND DOLLARS OR MORE.... 12 REFUSED / DON'T KNOW .............................. 13 --------------------------------------------------------------------------REFUSED ........................................................... 14 DON’T KNOW ..................................................... 15

SECTION X X1

PROG NOTE: ASK ALL RESPONDENTS

Thinking now about yourself. Would you say you personally are...? READ OUT PROG NOTE: - SINGLE RESPONSE

1 2 3 4 X2

A vegan (PRON vee-gan) A vegetarian Or, neither of these DO NOT READ Don’t know Thinking now about food. Which of the following do you eat either regularly or from time-to-time? READ OUT PROG NOTE: - MULTI RESPONSES ALLOWED - IF CODE 1-5 SELECTED THEN CANNOT SELECT CODE 6

1 2 3 4 5 6 X3

Honey, royal jelly or other bee products Dairy or eggs, including foods that contain them Fish, prawns or other seafood Chicken or other poultry Beef, lamb, pork or other meat DO NOT READ None \ don’t know

Which of the following, if any, apply to you? READ OUT PROG NOTE: - MULTI RESPONSES ALLOWED - RANDOMISE 1-2 THEN 3-5 LAST - IF CODE 1-4 SELECTED THEN CANNOT SELECT CODE 5

1 2 3 4 5 X4

You buy products made from leather or wool You actively avoid buying products that have been tested on animals You sometimes visit zoos, aquatic parks or aquariums You sometimes attend or watch other events that feature animals, such as horse racing, dog racing, the circus or rodeos DO NOT READ None \ don’t know

Please say whether you personally think each of the following is acceptable or unacceptable. Firstly...? READ SCALE IF NECESSARY PROG NOTE: - SINGLE RESPONSE REQUIRED PER ROW - RANDOMISE A-B THEN SHOW C, THEN RANDOMISE D-E Acceptable Unacceptable 2 2 2 2 2 DO NOT READ Don’t know 3 3 3 3 3

A B C D E

Testing medicines on animals Testing cosmetics on animals Conducting other types of research experiments on animals Breeding animals to sell in pet shops Cruelty to animals

1 1 1 1 1

X5

Thinking now about a vegan (PRON vee-gan) diet, which is when a person does not eat any meat, seafood, dairy or eggs. Please say if you think each of the following statements are true or false. Firstly... READ SCALE IF NECESSARY PROG NOTE: - SINGLE RESPONSE REQUIRED PER ROW - SHOW A FIRST THEN RANDOMISE B-C True False DO NOT READ Don’t know 3 3 3

A B C

Vegan diets can be healthy The livestock industry causes serious environmental problems Around 500 million farm animals are killed in Australia each year

1 1 1

2 2 2

PROG NOTE: ASK IF DON’T FOLLOW VEGAN LIFESTYLE IE NOT (CODE 1 IN X1 AND CODE 2 IN X3 AND NOT CODE 2-5 IN X2 AND NOT CODE 1 IN X3). (CODE 1 IN X1 AND CODE 2 IN X3 AND NOT CODE 2-5 IN X2 AND NOT CODE 1 IN X3) GO TO X7 X6 Thinking now about a vegan (PRON vee-gan) lifestyle, which is when a person follows a vegan diet, and also avoids products that have been tested on animals, or made with animal ingredients, such as leather or wool. Which of the following, if any, would encourage you to adopt a vegan lifestyle? READ OUT PROG NOTE: - MULTI RESPONSES ALLOWED - RANDOMISE 1-7 THEN 8 LAST - IF CODE 1-7 SELECTED THEN CANNOT SELECT CODE 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Evidence that you personally can be healthy on a vegan diet Evidence that a vegan lifestyle is better for the environment Evidence that many farming practices cause stress and pain for millions of animals every year If you had friends or family who followed a vegan lifestyle If more people in general followed a vegan lifestyle If cafes or restaurants had more vegan menu items If a vegan lifestyle were cheaper than your current lifestyle DO NOT READ None \ don’t know

PROG NOTE: ASK ALL RESPONDENTS X7 The following question may contain information that is sensitive to some people, however it is an important topic and we would appreciate your opinion. Please say whether you personally find each of the following farming practices acceptable or unacceptable. Firstly... READ SCALE IF NECESSARY PROG NOTE: - SINGLE RESPONSE REQUIRED PER ROW - RANDOMISE A-D Acceptable Unacceptable DO NOT READ Don’t know 3 3 3 3 DO NOT READ Refused 4 4 4 4

A B C D

Keeping egg-laying hens in cages for their entire lives Castrating animals without using an anaesthetic Making milk producing cows pregnant every year and taking their calves from them so their milk can be used by humans Killing male chicks because they can't become egg laying chickens

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

50 of 75

6

Further Information
Reci)es
1$ Veg.eb) ecipes
htt"%//vegweb.com/indeL."h"-actionbreci"ecategories

Got all views eL"ressed in the following videos and websites are necessarily endorsed by this re"ort. Also) while sites are essentially vegan) this re"ort doesnHt endorse advertisements or views that arenHt vegan.

A vast collection of arranged by category. 2$ The Vegan (hef htt"%//www.veganchef.com

searchable

reci"es

+nimal Product Re)lacements
1$ Act Gow 'or Animals) 3e#an Products
http177(((6actno(foranimals6com7products6asp8

+$ chooseveg.com) ecipes htt"%//www.chooseveg.com/veganCreci"es.as" A broad selection of reci"es arranged by ty"e) with coo*ing ti"s and a vegan food guide.

2$ Veg.eb) *eat5 ,airy and -## Alternati%es http177%e#(e)6com7inde86php4)oard91:060 +$ Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") -## and ,airy eplacers htt"%//www.vrg.org/nutshell/vegan.htm^egg

%ideo
1$ Alife(onnected.org) A $ife Connected About 12 minutes long.
htt"%//www.nonviolenceunited.org/veganvideo.html

oo!s
1$ ?ary 9 'rancione Introduction to Animal i#hts1 ;our Child <r The ,o#4 Tem"le Pniversity 7ress) 7hiladel"hia% 2000 A com"elling introduction to animal rights with some good historical bac*ground.

2$ Gation 0arth) -arthlin#s) 5urban*) (alifornia% 2002 htt"%//www.earthlings.com A short eLcer"t from the video can be viewed online.

5ealth

1$ Vegan8ealth.org htt"%//www.veganhealth.org 2$ Veg'amily 3e#an Nutrition (ith ,ina Aronson5 *!5 ,

htt"%//www.vegfamily.com/dieticianCdina/indeL.htm

Ideas
1$ Animal 4ights% The Abolitionist A""roach htt"%//www.abolitionista""roach.com/ 2$ Abolitionist >nline htt"%//www.abolitionistConline.com +$ 8umaneAyth.org htt"%//www.humanemyth.org

A Pound of Flesh

VVSQ

50 of 75

4 References
1 C 7lutarch) <n the -atin# of "lesh) htt"%//www.animalCrightsClibrary.com/teLtsCc/"lutarch01.htm Accessed 22/1/2010 2 C .inston (raig and Ann Aangels) Position of the American ,ietetic Association1 3e#etarian ,iets) American /ietetic Association) @uly 200= Available at htt"%//www.eatright.org/About/(ontent.as"L-idb:+26 Accessed 22/1/2010 + C /ietitians of (anada) H! recently became a vegetarian. !s it "ossible to get all the nutrients ! need on a vegetarian diet-H) "requently As&ed =uestions >"A=s?) htt"%//www.dietitians.ca/"ublic/content/eatDwellDliveDwell/english/fa<sDti"sDfacts/fa<s/indeL.as"fnbviewcidb11211cidstringb1116d11+6+d1+1:d11263d11211d1==6 Accessed 22/1/2010 The many diJerent ty"es of vegetarian diet mentioned includes the vegan diet. 1 C /ietitians Association of Australia) 3e#etarian ,iets5 htt"%//www.daa.asn.au/indeL.as"-"age!/b2112:+11:= Accessed 22/1/2010 2 C 4osemary Stanton) healthy %e#etarian eatin#) Allen c Pnwin) St 9eonards) GS. 1==6% v 3 C ?ary 'rancione) Is there anythin# that you (ant to eat that )adly4) htt"%//www.abolitionista""roach.com/isCthereCanythingCthatCyouCwantCtoCeatCthatCbadly Accessed 2/1/2010 6 C Virginia Aessina) 3e#ans and *ortality) 2+/1/200= htt"%//veggiedietitian.blogs"ot.com/200=/01/vegansCandCmortality.html Accessed 22/1/2010 : C 5rian 7in*) 200@ ;ear)oo& Australia5 Australian 5ureau of Statistics) 6/2/200:% "1=1 Available at htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/APSSTATS/abs&.nsf//etails7age/1+01.0200:->"en/ocument (an be viewed online at htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/APSSTATS/abs&.nsf/bb:db6+6e2af:1b:ca22616:0012601e/'(:121=6=1A:/63 0(A226+/200105(+1-o"endocument $i%estoc& Products5 Australia5 !ep 200/) Australian 5ureau of Statistics) 1+/11/200= htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/APSSTATS/abs&.nsf/mf/6212.0 Accessed 3/12/200= = C 7oultry 8ub5 Chic&en $ayer Industry) 12/11/200= htt"%//www."oultryhub.org/indeL."h"/(hic*enDlayerDindustry This site tells us around :0K of eggs are "roduced in intensive farming) the rest coming from barn and free range chic*ens. Victorian /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustries) -## Production) htt"%//www.d"i.vic.gov.au/d"i/nrenfa.nsf/'!//C0+1=1=((00::333((A223(/'001=+31:->"en/ocument This site says around 6=K of eggs sold in Australian su"ermar*ets come from cage hens) 12K from free range birds and 3K from chic*ens *e"t in barns. Accessed 22/1/2010 10 C Victorian /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustries) -## Production) htt"%//www.d"i.vic.gov.au/d"i/nrenfa.nsf/'!//C0+1=1=((00::333((A223(/'001=+31:->"en/ocument Accessed 22/1/2010 11 C 7rimary !ndustries Standing (ommittee) HA""endiL 1H) *odel Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals A ,omestic Poultry Bth -dition) (S!4> 7ublishing) 2002% 22C23 Available at htt"%//www."ublish.csiro.au/nid/22/"id/+121.htm 4S7(A) -## Production !ystems) htt"%//www.choosewisely.org.au/eggC"roductionCsystems.htm Accessed 22/1/2010 12 C 7rimary !ndustries Standing (ommittee) *odel Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals A ,omestic Poultry Bth -dition) (S!4> 7ublishing) 2002% 21 Available at htt"%//www."ublish.csiro.au/nid/22/"id/+121.htm Animals Australia) The eal Cost of Ca#ed -##s) htt"%//www.freebetty.com/cageDeggs."h"^references Video of chic*s being ground alive at an American hatchery% Aercy 'or Animals) Cnderco%er In%esti#ation at 0y2$ine 0atchery) htt"%//www.youtube.com/watch-vb@@CCfaib6to Accessed 22/1/2010 1+ C Pnited 7oultry (oncerns) HThe Aale (hic* of the 0gg !ndustry% 8e is Treated 9i*e TrashH5 Chic&ens) htt"%//www.u"cConline.org/chic*ens/chic*ensbro.html 4S7(A) What happens (ith male chic&s4) 22/11/200: htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCha""ensCwithCmaleCchic*sD100.html Accessed 22/1/2010 11 C The Vegetarian/Vegan Society of ueensland) Why 3e#4 eferenced .oo&let Te8t A Pa#es B2:) htt"%//whyveg.com/ref/"1C2."h" /r 7hil ?latN) .ea& Trimmin#) 7oultry 8ub) htt"%//www."oultryhub.org/indeL."h"/5ea*Dtrimming Pnited 7oultry (oncerns) ,e)ea&in#) htt"%//www.u"cConline.org/merchandise/debea*Dfactsheet.html Accessed 22/1/2010 12 C 4S7(A) -## Production !ystems) htt"%//www.choosewisely.org.au/eggC"roductionCsystems.htm Animals Australia) H(aged (rueltyH) The eal Cost of Ca#ed -##s) htt"%//www.freebetty.com/cageDeggs."h"

4 References
Animal 9iberation South Australia) .eha%ioural Needs) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/henneed."h" Accessed 22/1/2010 13 C 7arliament of GS.) H7age 1+12H) Pre%ention of Cruelty to Animals Act1 ,isallo(ance of Amendment to e#ulation) htt"%//www."arliament.nsw.gov.au/7rod/"arlment/hansart.nsf/V+Qey/9(1==30=1=00+ Accessed 6/12/200= 16 C Animals Australia) H(aged (rueltyH) The eal Cost of Ca#ed -##s) htt"%//www.freebetty.com/cageDeggs."h" @9 5arnett and 0A Gewman) e%ie( of (elfare research in the layin# hen and the research and mana#ement implications for the Australian e## industry) Australian @ournal of Agricultural 4esearch) (S!4> 7ublishing) Volume 1:) 1==6% +:2) +:6) +:= Available at htt"%//www.animalwelfare.net.au/comm/download/Bb001."df Against Animal (ruelty Tasmania) Australia's .attery 0en "arms) htt"%//www.aact.org.au/batteryDhens.htm Animal 9iberation South Australia) HAaterial for dustbathingH) .eha%ioural Needs) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/henneed."h" Accessed 6/12/200= 18 - @9 5arnett and 0A Gewman) e%ie( of (elfare research in the layin# hen and the research and mana#ement implications for the Australian e## industry) Australian @ournal of Agricultural 4esearch) (S!4> 7ublishing) Volume 1:) 1==6% +=2C+=+ Available at htt"%//www.animalwelfare.net.au/comm/download/Bb001."df Animal 9iberation South Australia) HS"ace and o""ortunity for eLerciseH) .eha%ioural Needs) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/henneed."h" Accessed 6/12/200= 1= C Animals Australia) HHS"ent 8ensHH) The eal Cost of Ca#ed -##s) htt"%//www.freebetty.com/cageDeggs."h" The Vegetarian/Vegan Society of ueensland) Why 3e#4 eferenced .oo&let Te8t A Pa#es B2:) htt"%//whyveg.com/ref/"1C2."h" Animal 9iberation ueensland) Poultry) htt"%//www.animalliberation<ld.org.au/7oultry.htm Accessed 22/1/2010 20 C Animal 9iberation South Australia) HThe trauma of trans"ort and slaughterH) The chic&en industry in Australia) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/chic*ens2."h" 7oultry 8ub) H7rocessingH) *eat chic&en farm sequence) 10/1/200= htt"%//www."oultryhub.org/indeL."h"/AeatDchic*enDfarmDse<uence Accessed 22/1/2010 21 C @9 5arnett and 0A Gewman) e%ie( of (elfare research in the layin# hen and the research and mana#ement implications for the Australian e## industry) Australian @ournal of Agricultural 4esearch) (S!4> 7ublishing) Volume 1:) 1==6% +:2) +=1 Available at htt"%//www.animalwelfare.net.au/comm/download/Bb001."df Accessed 6/12/200= 22 C Animal 9iberation South Australia) HThe trauma of trans"ort and slaughterH) The chic&en industry in Australia) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/chic*ens2."h" Accessed 22/1/2010 2+ C 7oultry 8ub5 H(ost of "roducing eggsH5 Chic&en $ayer Industry) 12/11/200= htt"%//www."oultryhub.org/indeL."h"/(hic*enDlayerDindustry Accessed 22/1/2010. 21 C 4S7(A) Why are many farm animals castrated4) 22/11/200= htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hyCareCmanyCmaleCfarmCanimalsCcastratedD+30.html Accessed 22/1/2010 22 C @ !rwin) Castratin# Cal%es) GS. /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustries) Agfact A0.2.3) /ecember 2001% 2 Available at htt"%//www.d"i.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/livestoc*/beef/husbandry Animal 9iberation South Australia) HAalesH) The cattle industry in Australia) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/cattle2."h" Accessed :/12/200= 23 C 7rimary !ndustries Standing (ommittee) *odel Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals A Cattle 2nd -dition) (S!4> 7ublishing) 2001% 1: Available at htt"%//www."ublish.csiro.au/"id/1:+1.htm Animal 9iberation South Australia) H'emalesH) The cattle industry in Australia) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/cattle2."h" Accessed :/12/200= 26 C /airy 'armers) H5reedingH) student pac& A <n the "arm) 2006 htt"%//www.dairyfarmers.com.au/df/aboutus/student"ac*/onthefarm Accessed 22/1/2010 HA cow starts to "roduce mil* once her Frst calf is born C after nine months of gestation... The usual "ractice is that a cow becomes "regnant again about 100 days after her calf is born. >nce she’s "regnant she continues to give mil* for about seven months. The farmer sto"s mil*ing her two months "rior to the birth so she can give all her energy to "roducing her new calf and have a rest.H A brief summary of the "rocess is also given% H(ow is mated) becomes "regnant) and is still "roducing mil* XThat is) the cow is still "roducing mil* from a "revious birth.Y e ?estation "eriod of nine months) mil* su""ly dries u" after seven months e (ow gives birth and "roduces Frst mil* E colostrum e After three

4 References
days starts "roducing normal white mil*H dairyinfo.biN) H8ow does a cow "hysically "roduce mil*-H) ,airyin# in =ueensland) htt"%//dairyinfo.biN/default.as"-7age!/b26 (ut /airy) (ut (ruelty) What many don't &no( a)out the Australian dairy industry) htt"%//dairycruelty.com.au/calves."h" Animal 9iberation SA) H(ows as mil* machinesH) ,airy cattle) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/cattledairy."h" Accessed 1+/1/200= 2: C 4ichard 9ovett) Photo In The Ne(s1 .oo& .ound In 0uman !&in) Gational ?eogra"hic Gews) 11/1/2003% htt"%//news.nationalgeogra"hic.com/news/2003/01/0111D030111Ds*inDboo*.html Accessed 22/1/2010 2= C Hillmer's, 'How Many Different Kinds Of Leather Are There?', 6 things to know about leather before you buy', htt"%//www.hillmers.com/leatherDessentials.htm Animals Australia Pnleashed) $eather -8posed) htt"%//www.unleashed.org.au/changeDtheDworld/goDfauLDyourself/leather."h" Accessed 10/11/200= +0 C Animal 9iberation SA) HTrans"ort and slaughterH) !heep in Australia) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/shee"2."h" Animals Australia Pnleashed) H.oolH) !heep) htt"%//www.unleashed.org.au/animals/shee"."h" Accessed 10/11/200= +1 C Animal 9iberation SA) H8andling and surgical interventionsH) !heep in Australia) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/shee"2."h" 4S7(A) What is mulesin# and (hat are the alternati%es4) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCmulesingCandCwhatCareCtheCalternativesD11+.html Animals Australia Pnleashed) !heep) htt"%//www.unleashed.org.au/animals/shee"."h" shee"101.info) !heep 2011 A .e#inner's Duide to aisin# !heep) htt"%//www.shee"101.info/201/doc*castrate.html Accessed 10/11/200= +2 C Animal 9iberation SA) H8andling and surgical interventionsH) !heep in Australia) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/shee"2."h" 4S7(A) Why are many male farm animals castrated4) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hyCareCmanyCmaleCfarmCanimalsCcastratedD+30.html ++ C Animal 9iberation SA) H/eath in the shee" industryH) !heep in Australia) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/shee"2."h" Animals Australia Pnleashed) !heep) htt"%//www.unleashed.org.au/animals/shee"."h" Accessed 10/11/200= +1 C 4S7(A) What are the animal (elfare issues (ith indi%idual sheddin# of sheep4) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCareCtheCanimalCwelfareCissuesCwithCindividualCsheddingCofCshee"D111.html Animals Australia) ultra fne (ool) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/ultraDFneDwool."h" Accessed 10/11/200= +2 C ST>7animaltests.com) Animal Testin# 101) htt"%//www.sto"animaltests.com/animalTesting101.as" Accessed 22/1/2010 +3 C About animal testing) H(osmetics TestingH) Animal Testin# in Australia) htt"%//www.aboutanimaltesting.co.u*/animalCtestingCaustralia.html Animal Aid) H8ow can we be sure that "roducts are safe if they havenHt been tested on animals-H) Cosmetics Testin#) htt"%//www.animalaid.org.u*/h/n/(AA7A!?GS/eL"eriments/A99/2:+ Accessed 12/11/200= !n 1==:) the 5ritish government reached voluntary agreement with the cosmetics industry not to conduct testing of cosmetic "roducts or ingredients. !tHs still legal in Australia) although occurs at a low level. !ngredients or "roducts that have been im"orted to Australia may also have been tested on animals. +6 C 0uro"ean (ommission) .an on animal testin#) 12/12/200= htt"%//ec.euro"a.eu/enter"rise/sectors/cosmetics/animalCtesting/indeLDen.htm Accessed 22/1/2010 +: C 9ydia Saad) epu)licans *o%e to the i#ht on !e%eral *oral Issues) 20/2/200= htt"%//www.gallu".com/"oll/11:213/4e"ublicansCVeerC4ightCSeveralCAoralC!ssues.as"L Accessed 22/1/2010 += C ?ary 'rancionce) Introduction to Animal i#hts A ;our Child or the ,o#4) Tem"le Pniversity 7ress) 7hiladel"hia) 2000% +1 10 C Andrf Aenache) $ethal .usiness) Animal Aid) Tonbridge) Govember 2002% 1. Available at htt"%//www.animalaid.org.u*/images/"df/boo*lets/lethal."df Accessed 16/11/200= 11 C 8elen 4osser) Animal -8perimentation 2 a 'necessary e%il4') 8umane 4esearch Australia) Govember

4 References
2006% 1. Available about halfway down the "age at htt"%//www.aahr.org.au Accessed 13/11/200= 12 C 7hysicians (ommittee for 4es"onsible Aedicine) Inadequacy of the $,:0 Test) Available at htt"%//www."crm.org/resch/aneL"/indeL.html Accessed 13/11/200= ?ary 'rancionce) Introduction to Animal i#hts A ;our Child or the ,o#4) Tem"le Pniversity 7ress) 7hiladel"hia) 2000% 13 1+ C Andrf Aenache) $ethal .usiness) Animal Aid) Tonbridge) Govember 2002% :. Available at htt"%//www.animalaid.org.u*/images/"df/boo*lets/lethal."df Accessed 16/11/200= 11 C 8elen 4osser) Animal -8perimentation 2 a 'necessary e%il4') 8umane 4esearch Australia) Govember 2006% 1. Available about halfway down the "age at htt"%//www.aahr.org.au (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 6 Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html Animal 9iberation SA) H/raiNe 0ye !rritancy TestH) !&in and -ye Irritancy Tests) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/s*ineye."h" 70TA) H0yeC and S*inC!rritation/(orrosion TestsH) Product Testin#1 To8ic and Tra#ic) htt"%//www."eta.org/mc/factsheetDdis"lay.as"-!/b=1 Accessed 22/1/2010 ?ary 'rancionce) Introduction to Animal i#hts A ;our Child or the ,o#4) Tem"le Pniversity 7ress) 7hiladel"hia) 2000% 12 12 C 7rofessor 7ietro (roce) HAlternative Aethods% Alternative to .hat-H) 3i%isection or !cience A A Choice to *a&e) from eLcer"t at htt"%//www."nc.com.au/gcafmr/online/research/croce1.html 8elen 4osser) Animal -8perimentation 2 a 'necessary e%il4') 8umane 4esearch Australia) Govember 2006% 1+. Available at htt"%//www.aahr.org.au Accessed 20/11/200= 13 C 8ome >Rce) !tatistics of !cientifc Procedures on $i%in# Animals A Dreat .ritain 200@) 21/6/200=% 2 Available at htt"%//www.homeoRce.gov.u*/rds/"dfs0=/s"animals0:."df 8umane 4esearch Australia) !tatistics A Animal use in research and teachin# A Australia) htt"%//www.aahr.org.au/statistics.html Sto" Animal 0L"loitation Gow #SA0G$) HThe Gational /eath TollH) Animal -8perimentation in the Cnited !tates) htt"%//www.allCcreatures.org/saen/articlesC200=1001C1.html Animal and 7lant 8ealth !ns"ection Service #A78!S$) HQ. What animals are covered under USDA’s AWA authority?', The Animal Care Pro#ram and the C! ,epartment of A#riculture's Authority Cnder the Animal Welfare Act1 .asic =uestions and Ans(ers) @uly 2002) Available at htt"%//www.a"his.usda.gov/animalDwelfare/"ublicationsDandDre"orts.shtml Accessed 1:/11/200= ?ary 'rancionce) Introduction to Animal i#hts A ;our Child or the ,o#4) Tem"le Pniversity 7ress) 7hiladel"hia) 2000% +1 16 C (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 1 Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html !mo&in# esearch on Animals) Animal Voices) htt"%//www.animalvoices.org/A/AV/reines.htm Accessed 1:/11/200= 1: C 8elen 4osser) Animal -8perimentation 2 a 'necessary e%il4') 8umane 4esearch Australia) Govember 2006% 13. Available about halfway down the "age at htt"%//www.aahr.org.au (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 2 Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html Accessed 1:/11/200= 1= C (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% +C1 Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html Accessed 1:/11/200= 20 C ?ary 'rancionce) Introduction to Animal i#hts A ;our Child or the ,o#4) Tem"le Pniversity 7ress) 7hiladel"hia) 2000% +6 21 C (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 11 Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html Accessed 20/11/200= 22 C Qristina 0 9utN) H!. Thalidomide’s Turbulent 8istoryH) "rom Tra#edy to Triumph1 The Appro%al of Thalidomide) htt"%//leda.law.harvard.edu/leda/data/+21/9utN.html (am"aign Against 'raudulent Aedical 4esearch) The Thalidomide Tra#edy1 Another -8ample of Animal esearch *isleadin# !cience) htt"%//www."nc.com.au/gcafmr/online/research/thalid2.html ViBay V Aoghe et al) Thalidomide) from 5ombay 8os"ital @ournal Vol 20 Go+) 200:% 161 available at htt"%//www.bhB.org/Bournal/200:D200+DBuly/download/"ageC162C163."df Accessed 21/11/200= 2+ C Qristina 0 9utN) H!. Thalidomide’s Turbulent 8istoryH) "rom Tra#edy to Triumph1 The Appro%al of

4 References
Thalidomide) htt"%//leda.law.harvard.edu/leda/data/+21/9utN.html Accessed 22/1/2010 21 C /r Aar* 8ill) A)normal ,e%elopment A Thalidomide) PGS. 0mbryology) htt"%//embryology.med.unsw.edu.au//efect/"age2i.htm (am"aign Against 'raudulent Aedical 4esearch) The Thalidomide Tra#edy1 Another -8ample of Animal esearch *isleadin# !cience) htt"%//www."nc.com.au/gcafmr/online/research/thalid2.html Accessed 22/1/2010 22 C (am"aign Against 'raudulent Aedical 4esearch) The Thalidomide Tra#edy1 Another -8ample of Animal esearch *isleadin# !cience) htt"%//www."nc.com.au/gcafmr/online/research/thalid2.html Accessed 22/1/2010 23 C Safer Aedicines (am"aign) Could the thalidomide tra#edy ha%e )een a%erted )y more e8tensi%e animal testin#4) htt"%//www.safermedicines.org/fa<s/fa<16.shtml 4obert Aatthews) When animals fail the test) The Gational) 1/12/200:) htt"%//www.thenational.ae/article/200:1201/'4>GT!04S/:211212+1/10+3/'>40!?G Accessed 22/1/2010 26 C (am"aign Against 'raudulent Aedical 4esearch) The Thalidomide Tra#edy1 Another -8ample of Animal esearch *isleadin# !cience) htt"%//www."nc.com.au/gcafmr/online/research/thalid2.html Accessed 22/1/2010 2: C @arrod 5ailey) The Ne8t Thalidomide Could .e Eust around the Corner) from ?ood Aedicine) S"ring 2002) Volume h!V) Gumber 2) 7hysicians (ommittee for 4es"onsible Aedicine) htt"%//www."crm.org/magaNine/gm02s"ring/animalDtests.html (am"aign Against 'raudulent Aedical 4esearch) The Thalidomide Tra#edy1 Another -8ample of Animal esearch *isleadin# !cience) htt"%//www."nc.com.au/gcafmr/online/research/thalid2.html Accessed 2+/11/200= 2= C Safer Aedicines (am"aign) Could the thalidomide tra#edy ha%e )een a%erted )y more e8tensi%e animal testin#4) htt"%//www.safermedicines.org/fa<s/fa<16.shtml Accessed 22/11/200= 30 C 4obert Aatthews) When animals fail the test) The Gational) 1/12/200:) htt"%//www.thenational.ae/article/200:1201/'4>GT!04S/:211212+1/10+3/'>40!?G (am"aign Against 'raudulent Aedical 4esearch) The Thalidomide Tra#edy1 Another -8ample of Animal esearch *isleadin# !cience) htt"%//www."nc.com.au/gcafmr/online/research/thalid2.html Andrew G 4owan) <f *ice5 *odels F *en1 A Critical -%aluation of Animal esearch) State Pniversity of Gew ,or* 7ress) Albany) 1=:1% 2+6. Available on ?oogle 5oo*s% htt"%//boo*s.google.com.au Search by title. Accessed 22/1/2010 31 C Safer Aedicines (am"aign) Could the thalidomide tra#edy ha%e )een a%erted )y more e8tensi%e animal testin#4) htt"%//www.safermedicines.org/fa<s/fa<16.shtml Accessed 21/11/200= 32 C (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 12 Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html Accessed 21/11/200= Aaureen Aartino) Am#en loo&s to )oost its F, success rate) 'ierce5iotech) =/10/200= htt"%//www.Fercebiotech.com/story/amgenCloo*sCboostCitsCrCdCsuccessCrate/200=C10C0= Accessed 1/2/2010 3+ C 4hona Ac/onald) boo* review of 3i%isection or science4 An In%esti#ation into Testin# ,ru#s and !afe#uardin# 0ealth) 5ritish Aedical @ournal #5A@$ online) from 5A@ 2001T+22%112 #1+ @anuary$) viewed at htt"%//www.bmB.com/cgi/content/short/+22/626:/112/a 4e<uires registration to view Accessed 21/11/200= 31 C 7rofessor 7ietro (roce) HAlternative Aethods% Alternative to .hat-H) 3i%isection or !cience A A Choice to *a&e) from eLcer"t at htt"%//www."nc.com.au/gcafmr/online/research/croce1.html Accessed 2+/11/200= 32 C 8elen 4osser) Animal -8perimentation 2 a 'necessary e%il4') 8umane 4esearch Australia) Govember 2006% 2+. Available about halfway down the "age at htt"%//www.aahr.org.au ?ail (harnely) Ames Test) 0ncyclo"edia of 7ublic 8ealth) htt"%//www.enotes.com/"ublicChealthCencyclo"edia/amesCtest Accessed 2=/11/200= 33 C (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 16 Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html Accessed 2=/11/200= 36 C 8elen 4osser) Animal -8perimentation 2 a 'necessary e%il4') 8umane 4esearch Australia) Govember 2006% 2+. Available about halfway down the "age at htt"%//www.aahr.org.au (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 1:. Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html Accessed 2=/11/200= 3: C 8elen 4osser) Animal -8perimentation 2 a 'necessary e%il4') 8umane 4esearch Australia) Govember

4 References
2006% 21. Available about halfway down the "age at htt"%//www.aahr.org.au (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 1:. Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html Accessed 2=/11/200= 3= C 8elen 4osser) Animal -8perimentation 2 a 'necessary e%il4') 8umane 4esearch Australia) Govember 2006% 21. Available about halfway down the "age at htt"%//www.aahr.org.au (hristo"her Anderegg et al) A Critical $oo& at Animal -8perimentation) Aedical 4esearch AoderniNation (ommittee) 2003% 1:. Available at htt"%//www.mrmcmed.org/(ritcv.html EFEP , and 0urel enter scientifc colla)oration) /rug 4esearcher.com) 23/6/2002 htt"%//www.drugresearcher.com/4esearchCmanagement/@C@74/CandC8urelCenterCscientiFcCcollaboration Technology >verview) 8urel (or"oration) htt"%//www.hurelcor".com/overview."h" Accessed 2=/11/200= 60 C The /aily Telegra"h) Animal testin# slo(5 e8pensi%e) 11/3/2006 htt"%//www.dailytelegra"h.com.au/lifestylhtt"%//www.dailytelegra"h.com.au/lifestyle/animalCtestingCslowC eL"ensive/storyCe3frf00iC111111+6111=: Accessed 2=/11/200= 61 C 0liNabeth .eise) Three C6!6 a#encies aim to end animal testin#) PSA Today) 11/2/200: htt"%//www.usatoday.com/tech/science/200:C02C11CanimalCtestsDG.htm Accessed 2=/11/200= 62 C ?ilbert A. ?aul) In C6!65 "e( Alternati%es To Testin# <n Animals5 The .ashington 7ost) 12/1/200: htt"%//www.washington"ost.com/w"Cdyn/content/article/200:/01/11/A4200:01110+6++.html Alternati%e Test *ethod ProGect *ilestones1 *ethods -ndorsed )y C6!6 A#encies) Gational ToLicology 7rogram) http://iccvam.niehs.nih.gov/methods/milestones-US.htm Accessed 2=/11/200= 6+ C ?ilbert A. ?aul) In C6!65 "e( Alternati%es To Testin# <n Animals5 The .ashington 7ost) 12/1/200: htt"%//www.washington"ost.com/w"Cdyn/content/article/200:/01/11/A4200:01110+6++.html Accessed 2=/11/200= 61 C 0liNabeth .eise) Three C6!6 a#encies aim to end animal testin#) PSA Today) 11/2/200: htt"%//www.usatoday.com/tech/scigivenence/200:C02C11CanimalCtestsDG.htm G!8 Gational ?enomics (enter5 !taH) htt"%//www.ncgc.nih.gov/about/staJ.html G!8 Gational ?enomics (enter) htt"%//ncgc.nih.gov Accessed 2=/11/200= 62 C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= 63 C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% LL. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= 66 C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% LLii. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= 6: C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% LLii. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= 6= C /ennis Trewin) H(ha"ter 1 E AgricultureH) Water Account Australia 200B20:) Australian 5ureau of Statistics) 2:/11/2003% 3:C3=) 62. Available at htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/APSSTATS/abs&.nsf//etails7age/1310.02001C02->"en/ocument (an also be viewed online at htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/A5S&.nsf/mf/1310.0 Accessed 2=/12/200= (alculated based on Fgures "rovided. Total water consum"tion in Australia in 2001C02 was 1:)636 gigalitres #selfCeLtracted E eg from farm dams) bores or rivers C distributed ie by water "roviders) and reused$. Around 32K) or 12)1=1 gigalitres) of this was used for agriculture% 1)0+2)161 megalitres to raise animals and 1)=26):=2 megalitres for "asture) a total of 2)=3+)+33 megalitres. This is around 21K of the water used for agriculture in Australia% 2)=3+)+33 megalitres for animals and "asture/12)1=1)000 megalitres total for agriculture. /airy farming follows) using about 1=K of agricultural water) 2)262)30+ megalitres. This means about 12K of AustraliaHs total water use is devoted to raising animals #including "asture$% 2)=3+)+33 megalitres for animals and "asture/1:)636)000 total consum"tion) and 12K to dairy farming% 2)262)30+ megalitres for dairy farming/1:)636)000 total consum"tion) ma*ing a total of 26K of the water used in Australia. :0 C /es 8oughton) A han#o%er from production line) couriermail.com.au) 23/1/2006 htt"%//www.news.com.au/couriermail/story/0)206=6)2112232:C+102)00.html Accessed 22/1/2010 :1 C Qerry >H5rien) Water scarcity 'due to a#riculture' ) The 6.+0 4e"ort) 13/:/2003 7rogram transcri"t htt"%//www.abc.net.au/6.+0/content/2003/s1613633.htm Accessed 22/1/2010 :2 C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% LLiii. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= :+ C Aarian .il*inson) Australia one of (orst animal destroyers) smh.com.au) 2=/6/200=
htt"%//www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/australiaConeCofCworstCanimalCdestroyersC200=062:Ce03:.html

Australian 5ureau of Statistics) H5iodiversityH) *easures of Australia's Pro#ress1 !ummary Indicators5 200/ htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/APSSTATS/abs&.nsf/9oo*u"/1+:+.0.22.001AainO'eatures1=200=^2

4 References
Accessed +0/12/200= :1 C /e"artment of Gatural 4esources and .ater) $and co%er chan#e in =ueensland 200IA0J1 a !tate(ide $andco%er and Trees !tudy >!$AT!? eport) 5risbane) /ecember 200:% 2=. Available at htt"%//www.derm.<ld.gov.au/slats/re"ort.html Accessed +0/12/200= :2 C Aarian .il*inson) Australia one of (orst animal destroyers) smh.com.au) 2=/6/200= htt"%//www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/australiaConeCofCworstCanimalCdestroyersC200=062:C e03:.html Accessed +0/12/200= :3 C /e"artment of the 0nvironment) .ater) 8eritage and the Arts) $and clearance) 21/1/2010 htt"%//www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/*t"/clearing.html :6 C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% LLiii. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= :: C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% LLCLLi. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= := C /ennis Trewin) H9and Pse for AgricultureH) (ha"ter 11 E Agriculture) 2003 ;ear .oo& Australia) Australian 5ureau of Statistics) 2003% 103C106. Available at htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/APSSTATS/abs&.nsf//etails7age/1+01.02003->"en/ocument (an be viewed online at htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs&.nsf/13d1bc16ac=d0c6bca223c160022J:6/3'++(20'A+3/2/=3( A2260/000132+5'-o"endocument Accessed 2=/12/200= 'igures calculated values from those given% 110.1 million hectares) or about 26K of AustraliaHs total land area is devoted to agriculture. Therefore a""roLimate total land area b #110.1 million hectares/26$ L 100 b 662.1 million hectares. (ro"s ta*e u" 23.1 million hectares) while graNing uses about +3: million hectares. The "ro"ortion of agricultural land cro""ed is 23.1 million hectares/110.1 million hectares b 0.02=+) or around 3K. The "ro"ortion of agricultural land graNed is +3: million hectares/110.1 million hectares b 0.:+32) or around :1K. The "ro"ortion of all land cro""ed is 23.1 million hectares/662.1 million hectares b 0.0++:) or around +K. The "ro"ortion of all land graNed is +3: million hectares/662.1 million hectares b 0.1633) or around 16K. =0 C 4S7(A) What is the !PCA position on racin# t(o2year old horses4) 1/12/200= htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCtheC4S7(AC"ositionConCracingCtwoCyearColdChorsesD+63.html (raig @ 5ailey) Wasta#e in the Australian Thorou#h)red Industry) 4!4/() @une 1==:% 2:. Available at htt"s%//rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/=:C022."df Accessed =/12/200= =1 C Animal 9iberation South Australia) H.astageH) The racin# industry) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/racing."h" Accessed =/12/200= =2 C Animal 9iberation South Australia) H0LerciseC!nduced 7ulmonary 8aemorrhageH) The racin# industry) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/racing."h" Accessed =/12/200= =+ C @essica Qushnir) H!ntroductionH) Treatin# equine #astric ulcer syndrome) 200+ Available at htt"%//vi".vetsci.usyd.edu.au/contentP"load/contentD2362/Qushnir."df Accessed =/12/200= =1 C Geil (lar*son) Dastric ulceration common in NZ racehorses5 study sho(s) horsetal*.co.nN 1+/1/2006 htt"%//www.horsetal*.co.nN/health/103Cgastriculcers.shtml Animal 9iberation South Australia) HStomach ulcersH) The racin# industry) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/racing."h" Accessed =/12/200= =2 C Amanda /oughty) An epidemiolo#ical sur%ey of the dentition and foot condition of slau#htered horses in Australia) School of Animal Studies and The (entre for Animal .elfare and 0thics) The Pniversity of ueensland) ?atton) @une 200:% 21C22. Available at htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisChorseCwastageCinCtheCracehorseCindustryD2+2.html Accessed =/12/200= =3 C Amanda /oughty) An epidemiolo#ical sur%ey of the dentition and foot condition of slau#htered horses in Australia) School of Animal Studies and The (entre for Animal .elfare and 0thics) The Pniversity of ueensland) ?atton) @une 200:% 1+) 22. Available at htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisChorseCwastageCinCtheCracehorseCindustryD2+2.html Accessed =/12/200= =6 C Amanda /oughty) An epidemiolo#ical sur%ey of the dentition and foot condition of slau#htered horses in Australia) School of Animal Studies and The (entre for Animal .elfare and 0thics) The Pniversity of ueensland) ?atton) @une 200:% 1+) 22. Available at htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisChorseCwastageCinCtheCracehorseCindustryD2+2.html Accessed =/12/200= =: C Amanda /oughty) An epidemiolo#ical sur%ey of the dentition and foot condition of slau#htered horses in Australia) School of Animal Studies and The (entre for Animal .elfare and 0thics) The Pniversity of ueensland) ?atton) @une 200:% 22. Available at htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisChorseCwastageCinCtheCracehorseCindustryD2+2.html Accessed =/12/200=

4 References
== C 9orna 0dwards) 0ounded to death) smh.com.au) 22/10/2001 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2001/10/21/10=:2232=031+.html 70TA) H8el" and 8o"eH) Dreyhound acin#1 ,eath in the "ast $ane) htt"%//www."eta.org/A(/factsheetDdis"lay.as"-!/b3: Accessed 11/12/200= 100 C 9orna 0dwards) 0ounded to death) smh.com.au) 22/10/2001 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2001/10/21/10=:2232=031+.html Accessed 11/12/200= 101 C (laudette Vaughan) Dreyhound Action International1 A)olishin# the Dreyhound Industry in Australia) abolitionistConline) htt"%//www.abolitionistConline.com/interviewDgreyhound.action.shtml Animal 9iberation) The ,irty .usiness of Dreyhound acin#) htt"%//animalClib.org.au/subBects/animalsCforCentertainment/+:CgreyhoundCracing.html Accessed 11/12/200= 102 C 9orna 0dwards) 0ounded to death) smh.com.au) 22/10/2001 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2001/10/21/10=:2232=031+.html Aar* 4ussell) Ne( )reed needed to end deaths 'scandal') theage.com.au) 11/2/2006 htt"%//www.theage.com.au/news/s"ort/newCbreedCneededCtoCendCdeathsC scandal/2006/02/10/1160221+16161.html Accessed 11/12/200= 10+ C Aar* 4ussell) Ne( )reed needed to end deaths 'scandal') theage.com.au) 11/2/2006 htt"%//www.theage.com.au/news/s"ort/newCbreedCneededCtoCendCdeathsC scandal/2006/02/10/1160221+16161.html Accessed 11/12/200= 101 C 9orna 0dwards) 0ounded to death) smh.com.au) 22/10/2001 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2001/10/21/10=:2232=031+.html Accessed 11/12/200= 102 C Sally 0vans and 5reanna Tuc*er) I00 do#s may die) The 5order Aail online) +0/1/200= htt"%//www.bordermail.com.au/news/local/news/?eneral/300CdogsCmayCdie/1200+3=.as"L Accessed 11/12/200= 103 C ?reyhound Getwor* Gews5 Article on #reyhound (elfare in Australia ta&en from Dreyhound Net(or& Ne(s !prin# 2002) S"ring 2002 on ?reyhound Action !nternational website) near bottom of "age% htt"%//www.greyhoundaction.org.u*/iaustralianews.html Accessed 11/12/200= 106 C 9orna 0dwards) 0ounded to death) smh.com.au) 22/10/2001 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2001/10/21/10=:2232=031+.html 9orna 0dwards) .rutalised #reyhound found )uried ali%e) theage.com.au) 3/10/2001 htt"%//www.theage.com.au/articles/2001/10/02/10=3=1=20:212.html-frombstorylhs Accessed 11/12/200= 10: C 9orna 0dwards) 0ounded to death) smh.com.au) 22/10/2001 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2001/10/21/10=:2232=031+.html Accessed 11/12/200= 10= C 9orna 0dwards) 0ounded to death) smh.com.au) 22/10/2001 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2001/10/21/10=:2232=031+.html Qane ,oung) *utilated #reyhound left to die in a#ony) news.com.au) 21/=/2001 at ?reyhound Action !nternational site) htt"%//www.greyhoundaction.org.u*/iaustralianews.html^herald 9orna 0dwards) .rutalised #reyhound found )uried ali%e) theage.com.au) 3/10/2001 htt"%//www.theage.com.au/articles/2001/10/02/10=3=1=20:212.html-frombstorylhs Accessed 11/12/200= 110 C ?reyhound Getwor* Gews5 Article on #reyhound (elfare in Australia ta&en from Dreyhound Net(or& Ne(s !prin# 2002) S"ring 2002 on ?reyhound Action !nternational website) near bottom of "age% htt"%//www.greyhoundaction.org.u*/iaustralianews.html Accessed 11/12/200= 111 C Qylie 8ansen) B00 do#s in 3ictoria die each year in the name of research) heraldsun.com.au) 12/3/200= htt"%//www.heraldsun.com.au/news/dogsCinCvictoriaCdieCeachCyearCinCtheCnameCofC research/storyC0C12226+16116=+ Accessed 11/12/200= 112 C 'iona (urruthers) unnin# for their li%es) Australian 'inancial 4eview) +0/2/200+ at ?reyhound Action !nternational website) about 2/+ of the way down the "age% htt"%//www.greyhoundaction.org.u*/iaustralianews.html Accessed 2+/1/2010 11+ C 'iona (urruthers) unnin# for their li%es) Australian 'inancial 4eview) +0/2/200+ at ?reyhound Action !nternational website) about 2/+ of the way down the "age% htt"%//www.greyhoundaction.org.u*/iaustralianews.html Accessed 2+/1/2010 111 C 9orna 0dwards) 0ounded to death) smh.com.au) 22/10/2001 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2001/10/21/10=:2232=031+.html Accessed 11/12/200= 112 C www.Animal(ircuses.com) Why (e )elie%e animals should )e )anned from circuses) htt"%//www.animalcircuses.com/ourreasons.as"L Animal 9iberation South Australia) H.hatHs wrong with animals in circuses-H) Animals in Circuses) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/circuses."h"

4 References
4S7(A) What is the !PCA's %ie( on the use of animals in circuses4) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCtheC 4S7(AsCviewConCtheCuseCofCanimalsCinCcircusesD113.html Accessed 12/12/200= 113 C Animal 9iberation South Australia) H.hatHs wrong with animals in circuses-) Animals in Circuses) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/circuses."h" 4S7(A) What is the !PCA's %ie( on the use of animals in circuses4) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCtheC4S7(AsCviewConCtheCuseCofCanimalsCinCcircusesD113.html G((A.) NCCAW Position !tatement No 2I 2 ecommended National Circus !tandards) Se"tember 2002% 11C2+. Available at htt"%//www.daJ.gov.au/animalC"lantChealth/welfare/nccaw/guidelines/dis"lay/circus ueensland /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustries) =ueensland code of practice for the (elfare of animals in circuses 200K) 200+% =C16. Available at htt"%//www.d"i.<ld.gov.au/16=0D321:.htm Accessed 2+/1/2010 116 C ? !ossa et al) Are (ild animals suited to a tra%ellin# circus life4) Animal .elfare 200= Volume 1: Gumber 2) Aay 200=% 12=. Available at htt"%//www.saveNooele"hants.com/"df/.!9/K20AG!AA9SK20!GK20(!4(PS."df Accessed 2+/1/2010 11: C 4S7(A) What is the !PCA's %ie( on the use of animals in circuses4) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCtheC4S7(AsCviewConCtheCuseCofCanimalsCinCcircusesD113.html ? !ossa et al) Are (ild animals suited to a tra%ellin# circus life4) Animal .elfare 200= Volume 1: Gumber 2) Aay 200=% 12= . Available at htt"%//www.saveNooele"hants.com/"df/.!9/K20AG!AA9SK20!GK20(!4(PS."df Animal /efenders !nternational) Animals in Tra%ellin# Circuses1 The science of suHerin#) 2003 Available at htt"%//www.adCinternational.org/animalsDinDentertainment/go."h"-idb161csib1cssib10 Accessed 12/12/200= 11= C Animal 9iberation South Australia) Animals in Circuses) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/circuses."h" Animal /efenders !nternational) Animals in Tra%ellin# Circuses1 The science of suHerin#) 2003 Available at htt"%//www.adCinternational.org/animalsDinDentertainment/go."h"-idb161csib1cssib10 120 C 4S7(A) What is the !PCA's %ie( on the use of animals in circuses4) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCtheC4S7(AsCviewConCtheCuseCofCanimalsCinCcircusesD113.html Animal 9iberation South Australia) Animals in Circuses) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/circuses."h" The Aaryland ;oo in 5altimore) "acts a)out African -lephants1) htt"%//www.marylandNoo.org/ele"hants/factsCaboutCafricanCele"hants.as"L Sarah ,ang) !ocial standin# inLuences ho( far elephants tra%el for food5 study fnds) P( 5er*eley Gews) 2=/10/2006 htt"%//ber*eley.edu/news/media/releases/2006/10/2=Dele"hants.shtml African Safari 7ictures) -lephant Trun&) htt"%//www.africanCsafariC"ictures.com/ele"hantCtrun*.html African 0le"hant) African -lephant .eha%iour) htt"%//www.africanele"hantlearningNone.com/africanDele"hantDbehavior."h" .i*i"edia) -lephant) htt"%//en.wi*i"edia.org/wi*i/0le"hant Sea.orld) -lephants) htt"%//www.seaworld.org/animalCinfo/infoCboo*s/ele"hants/behavior.htm Accessed 1+/12/200= 121 C Animal /efenders !nternational) "irst e%er eye (itness accounts to circus cruelty li%e on internet) 21/1/2003) htt"%//www.adCinternational.org/animalsDinDentertainment/go."h"-idb232cssib10 Animal /efenders !nternational) !top Circus !uHerin#) htt"%//sto"circussuJering.org (a"tive AnimalsH 7rotection Society) Animal circuses5 animal suHerin#) @une 2001 htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/circuses/circus.htm 8umane Society of the Pnited States) Circus $ife1 No $ife for Wild Animals) +/11/2001 htt"%//www.hsus.org/videoDcli"s/"age.Bs"-item!/b2622:::2 Accessed 1+/12/200= 122 C Animal /efenders !nternational) .lo( The Whistle) htt"%//www.adCinternational.org/animalsDinDentertainment/go."h"-idb1310cssib10 Accessed 1+/12/200= 12+ C Sarah ?antN) in#lin# elephant careta&er alle#es a)useM trial )e#ins Wednesday ) (hicago Tribune) +/2/200= htt"%//archives.chicagotribune.com/200=/feb/0+/nation/chiCringlingDforDwebfeb01 Accessed 1+/12/200= 121 C www.Animal(ircuses.com) H(ircuses and educationH) What the e8perts ha%e to say6) htt"%//www.animalcircuses.com/eL"erts.as"L-eL"ertidb1 Accessed 1+/12/200= 125 - 5orn 'ree 'oundation and 4S7(A) it's time parliament chan#ed its Act) 2003% 3C6 Available at htt"%//www.rs"ca.org.u*/allaboutanimals/wildlife/ca"tivity/circuses 70TA) $e#islation Prohi)itin# or estrictin# Animal Acts) 21/=/2002. Available at htt"%//www.circuses.com/"dfs/AnimalActsD9egislation."df @ean 'riedmanC4udovs*y) .oli%ia's "reed Circus Animals Need 0omes) Time) 26/10/200=

4 References
htt"%//www.time.com/time/world/article/0):2==)1=+2+1+)00.html 5orn 'ree 'oundation) Circuses and Performin# Animals Welfare) htt"%//www.bornfree.org.u*/cam"aigns/NooCchec*/circusesC"erformingCanimals Tim Aoynihan) Campai#ners demand )an on (ild animals in circuses) The !nde"endent PQ) 1:/1/2003 htt"%//www.inde"endent.co.u*/news/u*/thisCbritain/cam"aignersCdemandCbanConCwildCanimalsCinC circusesC22+1=1.html Animals Australia) -8otic Animal Circuses .anned )y Three *ore Councils) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/features/moreCanimalCcircusCbans."h" Animal 9iberation Australian (a"ital Territory) HAnimals in entertainmentH) A)out Cs) htt"%//www.alCact.org/aboutus Tom 'orbes) Dold Coast La#s circus )an) A5( ?old and Tweed (oasts) 1/:/200= htt"%//www.abc.net.au/news/stories/200=/0:/01/23122++.htm-sitebgoldcoast AA7) Ips(ich to #o throu#h (ith )an on circuses) brisbanetimes.com.au) 13/3/200=
htt"%//www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/i"swichCtoCgoCthroughCwithCbanConCcircusesC200=0313Ccg=u.html

4udi AaLwell) Council crac&s the (hip on circuses) The Gorthern 4ivers 0cho) 13/1/200= htt"%//www.echonews.com/indeL."h"-"agebGewsK20Articlecarticleb230:2cissueb100 A5( Gews) Perth )ans circus animal acts) 23/2/200+ htt"%//abc.gov.au/news/stories/200+/02/23/6=2:=:.htm Accessed 12/12/200= 123 C Animal /efenders !nternational) Animals in Tra%ellin# Circuses1 The science of suHerin#) 2003% 1 Available at htt"%//www.adCinternational.org/animalsDinDentertainment/go."h"-idb161csib1cssib10 Accessed 1+/12/200= 126 C Associated 7ress) 9a 7aN) .oli%ia )ans all circus animals) guardian.co.u*) +1/6/200= htt"%//www.guardian.co.u*/world/200=/Bul/+1/boliviaCbansCcircusCanimals Accessed 1+/12/200= 12: C Associated 7ress) 9a 7aN) .oli%ia )ans all circus animals) guardian.co.u*) +1/6/200= htt"%//www.guardian.co.u*/world/200=/Bul/+1/boliviaCbansCcircusCanimals Accessed 1+/12/200= 12= C Senate Select (ommittee on Animal .elfare) -quine Welfare in Competiti%e -%ents <ther Than acin# X(ha"ter 1% 4odeos in AustraliaY) Senate 7rinting Pnit) (anberra) 1==1% 11. Available at
htt"%//www.a"h.gov.au/Senate/(ommittee/history/animalwelfareDctte/welfareDcom"etitiveDevents/indeL.htm

Accessed 13/12/200= 1+0 C Vancouver 8umane Society) rodeos1 animal a)use for the sa&e of entertainment) htt"%//vancouverhumanesociety.bc.ca/rodeos.html Accessed 11/12/200= 1+1 C 4S7(A) What does the !PCA thin& a)out rodeos4) 20/+/200= htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCdoesCtheC4S7(ACthin*CaboutCrodeosD2+=.html Accessed 11/12/200= 1+2 C Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association) -%ent ,escriptions) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/events.htm Accessed 13/12/200= 1++ C Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association) -%ent ,escriptions) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/events.htm Accessed 13/12/200= Animal 9iberation South Australia) H5uc*ing eventsH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" Animals Australia) odeos) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" Accesssed 13/12/200= 1+1 C A74A) H.hat is a Ian* stra"-H) Animals in odeo) 7/' available at htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/animals.htm Animal 9iberation South Australia) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" Animals Australia) odeos) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" 'AA(0) H>ne of the tric*s to ma*e the animals buc* #The Ian* stra"$H) All A)out odeo) htt"%//www.faace.co.u*/rodeo.htm Accessed 11/12/200= 1+2 C 4odeo Tasmania) The "acts A)out "lan& !traps) htt"%//www.rodeotasmania.com/facts."h" A74A) H/o rodeo cowboys use s"urs during arena com"etition-H) Animals in odeo) 7/' available at htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/animals.htm Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association) -%ent ,escriptions) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/events.htm Animals Australia) odeos) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" Animal 9iberation South Australia) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" Accessed 11/12/200= 1+3 C 4odeo Tasmania) H5ullsH) The "acts A)out "lan& !traps) htt"%//www.rodeotasmania.com/facts."h" S8A4Q) odeoCruelty6com 1 .uc&in# horses 2 -8posin# the lie of the NmeanN rodeo horse) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/rodeocrueltyhorsebuc*ing.mv Accessed 11/12/200= 1+6 C Animal 9iberation South Australia) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" Go 4odeo) ou#h O.ronc F .ullP idin#) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/roughriding.htm

4 References
Animals Australia) odeos) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" 70TA) HTools of TormentH) odeo1 Cruelty for a .uc&) htt"%//www."eta.org/mc/factsheetDdis"lay.as"-!/b3= S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv S8A4Q) odeoCruelty6com 1 .uc&in# horses 2 -8posin# the lie of the NmeanN rodeo horse) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/rodeocrueltyhorsebuc*ing.mv Accessed 11/12/200= 1+: C Qate /ennehy) *ayor e8presses horror at 'cruel' rodeo) The smh.com.au) 12/3/200=
htt"%//www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/mayorCeL"ressesChorrorCatCcruelCrodeoC200=0311Cc6=m.html

Accessed 11/12/200= 1+= C Aercy 'or Animals) odeos) htt"%//www.mercyforanimals.org/rodeos.as" Animal 9iberation South Australia) H5uc*ing eventsH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" Accessed 11/12/200= 110 C S8A4Q) odeoCruelty6com 1 .uc&in# horses 2 -8posin# the lie of the NmeanN rodeo horse) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/rodeocrueltyhorsebuc*ing.mv S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv 70TA) HTools of TormentH) odeo1 Cruelty for a .uc&) htt"%//www."eta.org/mc/factsheetDdis"lay.as"-!/b3= Accessed 11/12/200= 111 C Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association) -%ent ,escriptions) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/events.htm Animal 9iberation South Australia) H5uc*ing eventsH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv Go 4odeo) ou#h O.ronc F .ullP idin#) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/roughriding.htm Accessed 11/12/200= 112 C Go 4odeo) ou#h O.ronc F .ullP idin#) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/roughriding.htm Animal 9iberation South Australia) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" 70TA) HTools of TormentH) odeo1 Cruelty for a .uc&) htt"%//www."eta.org/mc/factsheetDdis"lay.as"-!/b3= S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv Accessed 11/12/200= 11+ C Go 4odeo) ou#h O.ronc F .ullP idin#) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/roughriding.htm S8A4Q) odeoCruelty6com 1 .uc&in# horses 2 -8posin# the lie of the NmeanN rodeo horse) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/rodeocrueltyhorsebuc*ing.mv S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv 70TA) H!nBuries and /eathsH) odeo1 Cruelty for a .uc&) htt"%//www."eta.org/mc/factsheetDdis"lay.as"-!/b3= Senate Select (ommittee on Animal .elfare) -quine Welfare in Competiti%e -%ents <ther Than acin# X(ha"ter 1% 4odeos in AustraliaY) Senate 7rinting Pnit) (anberra) 1==1% 11. Available at
htt"%//www.a"h.gov.au/Senate/(ommittee/history/animalwelfareDctte/welfareDcom"etitiveDevents/indeL.htm

Accessed 13/12/200= 111 C Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association) HSteer .restlingH) -%ent ,escriptions) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/events.htm Animal 9iberation South Australia) HSteer wrestling H) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" Animals Australia) HSteer wrestling or bulldoggingH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv S8A4Q) !teer Wrestlin# 22 It Ne%er 0appened on the anch) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/rodeocrueltysteerwrestling.mv Go 4odeo) !teer Wrestlin#) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/steerwrestling.htm Accessed 13/12/200= 112 C Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association) H4o"e and TieH) -%ent ,escriptions) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/events.htm Animal 9iberation South Australia) H(alf ro"ingH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" Animals Australia) H(alf/steer ro"ingH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" 5ungendore 4odeo) H4o"e and tieH) -%ents) htt"%//www.bungendorerodeo.com.au/events.html (owboy .ay) HTie /own 4o"ingH Xtowards the bottom of the "ageY) Tie ,o(n opin# Ne(s) htt"%//www.cowboyway.com/4odeoGews/Tie/own4o"ingGews.htm /e"artment of Agriculture) 'orestry and 'isheries) H@er* 9ineH) !tandards "or The Care and Treatment of odeo $i%estoc&1 Part B A -quipment equirements and !pecifcations) htt"%//www.daJ.gov.au/animalC"lantChealth/welfare/nccaw/guidelines/dis"lay/rodeo/e<ui"ment 4ichard 8. ?alley) /VA) The Team opin# 0orse) 7roceedings of the Annual (onvention of the AA07 1==6)

4 References
Volume 1+) 1==6% 11. Available at htt"%//www.ivis.org/"roceedings/aae"/1==6/?alley."df S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv S8A4Q) Calf ropin# 22 The *ost Co(ardly odeo -%ent) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/-7b00000003:0 Go 4odeo) Calf opin# O ope F TieP) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/calfro"ing.htm Accessed 13/12/200= 113 C S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv S8A4Q) Calf ropin# 22 The *ost Co(ardly odeo -%ent) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/-7b00000003:0 116 C Animal 9iberation South Australia) H(alf ro"ingH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/rodeos."h" S8A4Q) Calf ropin# 22 The *ost Co(ardly odeo -%ent) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/-7b00000003:0 Accessed 13/12/200= 11: C /e"artment of Agriculture) 'orestry and 'isheries) HSelection of Animals for 4o"e and TieH) !tandards "or The Care and Treatment of odeo $i%estoc&1 Part : A !toc& !election and Cse) htt"%//www.daJ.gov.au/animalC"lantChealth/welfare/nccaw/guidelines/dis"lay/rodeo/stoc* Accessed 20/12/200= 11= C Animals Australia) odeos) H(alf/steer ro"ingH) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv 4ichard Aoss) ,airy eplacement 0eifers) ueensland /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustries and 'isheries) @anuary 200+ htt"%//www2.d"i.<ld.gov.au/dairy/3621.html Accessed 20/12/200= 120 C @eJ .olf) odeo (ary of (ron#s in name of animal ri#hts) 9as Vegas 4eview @ournal online) =/12/2001 htt"%//www.reviewBournal.com/lvrBDhome/2001//ecC0=CThuC2001/s"orts/221+:201.html S8A4Q) H1. 4ule =.0H) !0A Q e8poses the N<%er I0 0umane ulesN of the P CA http177(((6shar&online6or#74P900000002JI Accessed 1=/12/200= 121 C /r 0ugene Aversa) 0umane rodeos do not e8ist) Santa'eGewAeLican.com) 3/3/200= htt"%//www.santafenewmeLican.com/>"inion/AyCViewCC8umaneCCrodeosCdoCnotCeListC Accessed 20/12/200= 122 C Go 4odeo) Calf opin# O ope F TieP) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/calfro"ing.htm S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv Accessed 16/12/200= 12+ C Qate /ennehy) Calf ropin# 'inherently cruel') 5risbane Times) 1:/10/200= htt"%//www.brisbanetimes.com.au/<ueensland/calfCro"ingCinherentlyCcruelC200=101:Ch2sy.html Go 4odeo) Calf opin# O ope F TieP) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/calfro"ing.htm S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv Accessed 16/12/200= 121 C Animals Australia) H(alf/steer ro"ingH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" Qate /ennehy) Calf ropin# 'inherently cruel') 5risbane Times) 1:/10/200= htt"%//www.brisbanetimes.com.au/<ueensland/calfCro"ingCinherentlyCcruelC200=101:Ch2sy.html Go 4odeo) Calf opin# O ope F TieP) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/calfro"ing.htm S8A4Q) Animal A)use Inherent In odeo) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/abuseinherent.mv Accessed 16/12/200= 122 C Australian 7rofessional 4odeo Association) HTeam 4o"ingH) -%ent ,escriptions) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/events.htm Accessed 20/12/200= 123 C Animals Australia) HTeam ro"ingH) odeos) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/rodeos."h" 126 C 4S7(A Victoria) HTeam ro"ingH) Stamp <ut odeos) htt"%//www.rs"cavic.org/cam"aignsDnews/cam"aignsDstam"DoutDrodeos.htm Accessed 20/12/200= 12: C A74A) H8ow often are rodeo animals hurt-H) Animals in odeo) 7/' available at htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/animals.htm Accessed 20/12/200= 12= C Senate Select (ommittee on Animal .elfare) -quine Welfare in Competiti%e -%ents <ther Than acin# X(ha"ter +% (oncerns About (ertain As"ects of 4odeosY) Senate 7rinting Pnit) (anberra) 1==1% 22. Available at
htt"%//www.a"h.gov.au/Senate/(ommittee/history/animalwelfareDctte/welfareDcom"etitiveDevents/indeL.htm

130 C A74A) H.ho ta*es care of rodeo animals-H) Animals in odeo) 7/' available at htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/animals.htm Accessed 20/12/200= 131 C A74A) H8ow often are rodeo animals hurt-H) Animal Welfare) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/animals.htm Accessed 20/12/200= 132 C !nBury re"orts and information "rovided by A74A through email in /ecember 200=. 13+ C Go 4odeo) The !outh Australian odeo Circuit) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/circuit.htm

4 References
S8A4Q) "or#et The *ythR) htt"%//www.shar*online.org/-7b0000000+1= 9ifeforce 'oundation) odeo 101) htt"%//www.lifeforcefoundation.org/rodeo."h" Accessed 20/12/200= 131 C Go 4odeo) Wilmin#ton rodeo 200I) htt"%//www.norodeo.org/wilmington03.htm Accessed 20/12/200= (onFrmed by email with Go 4odeo between 1C12/1/2010. 132 C (ommunication by email with with Go 4odeo between 1C12/1/2010. 133 C A74A) A)out the AP A) htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/about.htm Accessed 10/1/2010 136 C As A74A say they govern over a 100 rodeos a year) letHs say this means 101 rodeos a year) of which half are smaller rodeos. That means 22 larger rodeos and 22 smaller ones. Psing Go 4odeoHs Fgures of 1 serious inBury or death every 1 rodeos and 20C22 less serious inBuries at every larger rodeo) this translates to 23 serious inBuries or deaths a year and 1111 less serious inBuries at larger rodeos #based on 22 inBuries each rodeo$. !f the rate of less serious inBury at smaller rodeos is half that at larger rodeos) then the inBury rate at smaller rodeos is around 12 each rodeo. That ma*es 321 less serious inBuries at smaller rodeos. Adding the diJerent rates together E 23 O 1111 O 322 C gives a total of 16=1 inBuries each year. 13: C A74A) H8ow often are rodeo animals inBured-H) Animal Welfare5 htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/animals.htm and H8ow >ften Are 4odeo Animals 8urtH) Animals in odeo) A74A. Available at htt"%//www."rorodeo.asn.au/animals.htm Accessed 11/1/2010 (onFrmed by A74A through email in /ecember 200=. 13= C According to A74AHs 2006 and 200: inBury re"orts) there were 11)2=2 runs in 2006 and :)10+ in 200:. This ma*es a total of 1=)=0: runs) which if we divide by 2) gives us an average of =)=== runs a year. 5ased on 16=1 inBuries over =)=== runs a year) we get an inBury rate of about 1:K C over 200 times more than A74AHs 2006 and 200: rate of 0.0:K. 160 C 7eggy .. 9arson) odeo is Cruel -ntertainment) 7ace 0nvironmental 9aw 4eview) 7ace Pniversity) 1==:% 116. Available at htt"%//digitalcommons."ace.edu/envlaw/+63 Accessed 20/12/200= 161 C 7eggy .. 9arson) odeo is Cruel -ntertainment) 7ace 0nvironmental 9aw 4eview) 7ace Pniversity) 1==:% 116. Available at htt"%//digitalcommons."ace.edu/envlaw/+63 Accessed 20/12/200= 162 C Australian (om"anion Animal (ouncil5 Pet <(nership !tatistics5 200= http177(((6acac6or#6au7petScare6html The Po(er of Pets) Australian (om"anion Animal (ouncil) St 9eonards GS.) 200=% 2 Available at htt"%//www.acac.org.au/indeL.html #see menu on left side$ Accessed 2+/12/200= 16+ C Animals Australia) H>verbreedingH) companion animals666 a cherished part of Australian life) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/com"anionDanimals."h" (arole .ebb) H.hy 7romote 7aediatric /eseLing-H in -arly a#e dese8in# of puppies and &ittens) /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustries C Victoria) 2001% 10. Available at htt"%//www.d"i.vic.gov.au/d"i/nrenfa.nsf/9in*View/=A56:1002=61'AA/(A226251001A21160+6A=(1/123 =6'=1(A2262510020(/20 Accessed 22/12/200= 161 C Animals Australia) H>verbreedingH) companion animals666 a cherished part of Australian life) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/com"anionDanimals."h" The 4e"orter) Animal shelter o%er2run) 6/12/200= htt"%//www.there"orter.com.au/story/200=/12/06/animalCshelterCoverCrun NQate 7atterson) !PCA s(amped )y )reedin# season) couriermail.com.au) 11/11/2006 htt"%//www.news.com.au/couriermail/story/0)2+6+=)226+2162C+102)00.html Accessed 22/12/200= 162 C deathrow"ets.net) H/o you wor* in a 7et Sho"- A 7u""y 'arm- /o you *now someone who has-H) Petshops and shelters) htt"%//www.deathrow"ets.net/"etsho"sDshelters.html Accessed 23/12/200= 163 C 8agar (ohen) H7ets euthanisedH) Cruel trade1 thousands of puppies euthanised) A5( Gews) 26/11/200= htt"%//www.abc.net.au/news/stories/200=/11/26/2622160.htm Accessed 2+/12/200= 166 C 8agar (ohen) H7ets euthanisedH) Cruel trade1 thousands of puppies euthanised) A5( Gews) 26/11/200= htt"%//www.abc.net.au/news/stories/200=/11/26/2622160.htm deathrow"ets.net) 5ac*ground) htt"%//www.deathrow"ets.net/bac*ground.html Accessed 2+/12/200= 16: C The Po(er of Pets) Australian (om"anion Animal (ouncil) St 9eonards GS.) 200=% 3 Available at htt"%//www.acac.org.au/indeL.html #see menu on left side$ Accessed 2+/12/200= 16= C 7aula S"agnoletti) H7et Sho"s in South AfricaH) Articles) say G> to animals in "et sho"s) about 2/+ of the way down the "age htt"%//www.saynotoanimalsin"etsho"s.com/articles.html Accessed 22/12/200= 1:0 C deathrow"ets.net) "A='s) htt"%//www.deathrow"ets.net/fa<s.html say Go to animals in "et sho"s) H,ouHre being unfair to some 7et Sho"s. Aany already donHt sell animals or are sim"ly trying to Fnd homes for abandoned or homeless animalsH) "requently As&ed =uestions) htt"%//www.saynotoanimalsin"etsho"s.com/fa<.html Accessed 22/12/200= 1:1 C 5ased on list at 7aws for Action) Pet !hops) htt"%//www."awsforaction.com/-"ageDidb22= Accessed

4 References
23/12/200= 1:2 C say Go to animals in "et sho"s) ,on't .uy Animals In Pet !hopsR) htt"%//www.saynotoanimalsin"etsho"s.com/indeL.html 7etStoreAbuse.com) H!m"ulse SalesH) What's (ron# (ith pet stores4) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/moreinfo.html Gic* ?alvin) Drim end for Christmas puppies) smh.com.au) 2+/12/200:) htt"%//www.smh.com.au/news/environment/grimCendCforCchristmasC "u""ies/200:/12/22/12+1001061=3=.html-"agebfull"age^contentSwa"+ Accessed 26/12/200= uote from a former "et sho" wor*er% HThe most im"ortant thing was) when a customer went to a cage) to get that dog out and "ut it in the customerHs hands. .e really wanted *ids in our sho". >nce you got a *id with a dog in its arms the mother normally canHt say no. That was our aim C attac* the *ids to get to the "arents.H 1:+ C AAPS) Pet !hops) htt"%//www.ebc.com.au/"roduct/"roduct.as"-locb1.23.2 Accessed 22/12/200= 1:1 C deathrow"ets.net) H/o you wor* in a 7et Sho"-'5 Pet shops and shelters) htt"%//www.deathrow"ets.net/"etsho"sDshelters.html Accessed 22/12/200= 1:2 C deathrow"ets.net) <ur .lo#) see entry for 12/=/200: htt"%//www.deathrow"ets.net/blog.html Accessed 23/12/200= 1:3 C deathrow"ets.net) H/eath4ow7ets res"onse 1% H) !u##ested esponses to *inisters o)Gections to proposed Animals .ill6 Available at http177(((6deathro(pets6net7P,"s7CpdateSB7!u##estedS, PresponsesStoS*PsS.illSo)GectionsS K6doc Accessed 22/12/200= 1:6 C deathrow"ets.net) H/o you wor* in a 7et Sho"-'5 Pet shops and shelters) htt"%//www.deathrow"ets.net/"etsho"sDshelters.html Accessed 22/12/200= 1:: C 9auren .illiams) ,od#y pet shops face tou#h ne( penalties) The /aily Telegra"h online) 11/=/200:
htt"%//www.dailytelegra"h.com.au/news/nswCact/threeCdayCwaitCforC"etsCintroduced/storyCe3freuNiC1111116113116

Accessed 23/12/200= 1:= C deathrow"ets.net) H/o you wor* in a 7et Sho"-'5 Pet shops and shelters) htt"%//www.deathrow"ets.net/"etsho"sDshelters.html Accessed 22/12/200= 1=0 C 4S7(A) What is the !PCA policy on pet shops4) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCtheC4S7(AC"olicyConC"etCsho"sD222.html Accessed 21/12/200= 1=1 C where do "u""ies come from-) HU.e sell "urebred labradoodles with "a"ers.UH) Pet shops A #et the facts) htt"%//www.wheredo"u""iescomefrom.com.au/"etCsho"sCgetCtheCfacts Gic* ?alvin) Drim end for Christmas puppies) smh.com.au) 2+/12/200:) htt"%//www.smh.com.au/news/environment/grimCendCforCchristmasC "u""ies/200:/12/22/12+1001061=3=.html-"agebfull"age^contentSwa"+ Accessed 26/12/200= 1=2 C Adelaide now) ,esi#ner do# )reedin# disaster) 26/11/2006 htt"%//www.news.com.au/adelaidenow/story/0)22303)2232==+2C=10)00.html Accessed 23/12/200= 1=+ C ,esi#ner do# )reedin# disaster) Adelaide now) 26/11/2006) htt"%//www.news.com.au/adelaidenow/story/0)22303)2232==+2C=10)00.html Accessed 23/12/200= 1=1 C 7aws for Action) H1.H) Pet !hops) htt"%//www."awsforaction.com/-"ageDidb22= 7etStoreAbuse.com) H!nade<uate 8usbandry 7racticesH) What's (ron# (ith pet stores4) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/moreinfo.html Accessed 26/12/200= 1=2 C Gic* ?alvin) Drim end for Christmas puppies) smh.com.au) 2+/12/200:) htt"%//www.smh.com.au/news/environment/grimCendCforCchristmasC "u""ies/200:/12/22/12+1001061=3=.html-"agebfull"age^contentSwa"+ Accessed 26/12/200= 1=3 C .here do "u""ies come from) HQarin 5ridgeH) What the e8perts say) htt"%//www.wheredo"u""iescomefrom.com.au/whatCtheCeL"ertsCsay Accessed 26/12/200= 1=6 C 7aws for Action) H6.H) Pet !hops) htt"%//www."awsforaction.com/-"ageDidb22= 7etStoreAbuse.com) HThe ris*s involved..H) What's (ron# (ith pet stores4) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/moreinfo.html Gic* ?alvin) Drim end for Christmas puppies) smh.com.au) 2+/12/200:) htt"%//www.smh.com.au/news/environment/grimCendCforCchristmasC "u""ies/200:/12/22/12+1001061=3=.html-"agebfull"age^contentSwa"+ Accessed 26/12/200= The article eL"lains the eL"erience of a former "et store wor*er% HGo more than about V200 was allowed to be s"ent on veterinary treatment for an individual "u""y) after which it would be destroyed.H uote from former "et sho" manager% H!Hd often ta*e "u""ies home because they were oJ their food

4 References
and they wouldnHt be allowed treatment because they werenHt worth it. ! had "u""ies die in my garage at nightCtime.H 1=: C 7aws for Action) H6.H) Pet !hops) htt"%//www."awsforaction.com/-"ageDidb22= Accessed 26/12/200= 1== C Animals Australia) H7et sho"sH) companion animals666 a cherished part of Australian life) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/com"anionDanimals."h" Annette 5asile) The tra#ic truth a)out cats and do#s) = Gews) 1+/6/2003 htt"%//news.ninemsn.com.au/article.as"L-idb11+613 Alison Sandy) Councils to trial mandatory dese8in# of cats and do#s) couriermail.com.au) 1/:/200: htt"%//www.news.com.au/couriermail/story/0)2+6+=)2112:1::C=22)00.html 'iL GS. Animal 7olicy) The dama#e of mass )reedin#7puppy farmin#) htt"%//www.FLnswanimal"olicy.com/-"ageDidb21+ HAs "u""y farm animals are sold in mass via 7et Sho" stores they are sold undeseLed and they are more li*ely to have babies. They are sold to anyone who has money and often on an im"ulse buy) meaning they are more li*ely do be dum"ed) or to have babies that are then dum"ed.H Accessed 23/12/200= 200 C Animals Australia) H5ac*yard breedingH) companion animals666 a cherished part of Australian life) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/issues/com"anionDanimals."h" Annette 5asile) The tra#ic truth a)out cats and do#s) = Gews) 1+/6/2003 htt"%//news.ninemsn.com.au/article.as"L-idb11+613 The 8umane Society of the Pnited States) *yths and "acts A)out !payin# and Neuterin#) 1+/10/200= htt"%//www.humanesociety.org/issues/"etDover"o"ulation/facts/s"ayDneuterDmythsDfacts.html (om"anions 'or 9ife 7et 4escue) *yths .ustedR) htt"%//www.com"anionsforlife.com.au/mythsbusted.htm 7etrescue.com.au) !ome Common *yths A)out ,ese8in#) htt"%//www."etrescue.com.au/fa</whyDnoDdeseLedDanimals/"g2 Accessed 23/12/200= 201 C (om"anions 'or 9ife 7et 4escue) H.hy should ! deseL my "et-H) *yths .ustedR) htt"%//www.com"anionsforlife.com.au/mythsbusted.htm Gational /eseLing Getwor*) .enefts of ,ese8in#) htt"%//www.ndn.org.au/beneFtsCofCdeseLing.html 7et 4escue.com.au) Why is your policy 'No Cndese8ed Animals' to )e listed on Pet escue4) htt"%//www."etrescue.com.au/fa</whyDnoDdeseLedDanimals Accessed 23/12/200= 202 C 8el"ing Animals) H.here the Animals (ome 'romH) Pet !hops1 No .ar#ain for Animals) htt"%//www.hel"inganimals.com/factsheet/Fles/'actsheet/is"lay.as"-!/b+3 'iL GS. Animal 7olicy) The dama#e of mass )reedin#7puppy farmin#) htt"%//www.FLnswanimal"olicy.com/-"ageDidb21+ 7etStoreAbuse.com) H5efore they reach store shelves...H) What's (ron# (ith pet stores4) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/moreinfo.html Accessed 26/12/200= 20+ C 4S7(A) What is a )ac&yard )reeder4) 6/=/200= htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCaCbac*yardCbreederD++1.html 'iL GS. Animal 7olicy) The dama#e of )ac&yard and ho))y )reedin#) htt"%//www.FLnswanimal"olicy.com/-"ageDidb2=2 say Go to animals in "et sho"s) H.hat eLactly is a Ubac*yard breederU-H) "requently As&ed =uestions) htt"%//www.saynotoanimalsin"etsho"s.com/fa<.html Accessed 26/12/200= 201 C 'iL GS. Animal 7olicy) The dama#e of )ac&yard and ho))y )reedin#) htt"%//www.FLnswanimal"olicy.com/-"ageDidb2=2 Accessed 23/12/200= 202 C 7awsforAction) .ac&yard .reeders) htt"%//www."awsforaction.com/-"ageDidb2+6 deathrow"ets.net) .ac&#round) htt"%//www.deathrow"ets.net/bac*ground.html 'iL GS. Animal 7olicy) A simple summary of the pro)lem) htt"%//www.FLnswanimal"olicy.com/-"ageDidb21= Accessed 26/12/200= 203 C Aarissa (alligeros) !PCA in%esti#ate =$, couple o%er record rat sei+ure) brisbanetimes) 1/:/200: htt"%//www.brisbanetimes.com.au/news/<ueensland/rs"caCinvestigateC<ldCcou"leCoverCrecordCratC seiNure/200:/0:/01/1216601=023==.html Aalcolm .eatheru") T:05000 slu# A To(ns%ille pair fned for animal cruelty) Townsville 5ulletin) 1+/12/200: htt"%//www.townsvillebulletin.com.au/article/200:/12/1+/26=+1Dh"news.html /avid 5arbeler) Puppy farmers fned for mistreatin# do#s) theage.com.au) 12/12/200: htt"%//news.theage.com.au/national/"u""yCfarmersCFnedCforCmistreatingCdogsC200:1212C3LgB.html Accessed 26/12/200= 206 C 4S7(A) What is a )ac&yard )reeder4) 6/=/200= htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCaCbac*yardCbreederD++1.html 'iL GS. Animal 7olicy) The dama#e of )ac&yard and ho))y )reedin#)

4 References
htt"%//www.FLnswanimal"olicy.com/-"ageDidb2=2 7etStoreAbuse.com) H5efore they reach store shelves...H) What's (ron# (ith pet stores4) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/moreinfo.html 7etStoreAbuse.com) X5ird AillsY) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/birdbreeding.html 5udgie (ommunity 'orums) .ird .reedin# *ills) 7ost 10) htt"%//forums.budgiebreeders.asn.au/indeL."h"-showto"icb21=6=cstb0c"b2=3322c^entry2=3322 (heryl Qucsera) The a))it .reedin# and aisin# Process) 7etStoreAbuse.com) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/rabbitmills.html Accessed 26/12/200= 20: C Animal 9iberation Victoria) H7u""y breeding factoriesH) Campai#ns) htt"%//www.alv.org.au/cam"aigns."h" say Go to animals in "et sho"s) H! do not *now of any 7et Sho" manager who would consent to buy a "u""y from a "u""y farmH) "requently As&ed =uestions) htt"%//www.saynotoanimalsin"etsho"s.com/fa<.html where do "u""ies come from-) What is a puppy mill4) htt"%//www.wheredo"u""iescomefrom.com.au/indeL.htm Animals Australia) H7u""ies 5red for 0L"ortH) Companion Animals "act !heet) htt"%//www.animalsaustralia.org/factsheets/com"anionDanimals."h"^toc12 Accessed 26/12/200= 20= C 4S7(A) What is a puppy mill7puppy farm4) =/=/200=) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCaC"u""yCmill/"u""yCfarmD+22.html Accessed 26/12/200= 210 C 4S7(A) What is a puppy mill7puppy farm4) =/=/200=) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCaC"u""yCmill/"u""yCfarmD+22.html (aroline ;ambrano) Puppy "arms) /ogs9ife) htt"%//www.dogslife.com.au/dogsDlifeDarticles-cidb=120c"idb120231 'iL GS. Animal 7olicy) The dama#e of mass )reedin#7puppy farmin#) htt"%//www.FLnswanimal"olicy.com/-"ageDidb21+ 7aws for Action) Puppy *ills) htt"%//www."awsforaction.com/-"ageDidb222 7etStoreAbuse.com) What's (ron# (ith pet stores4) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/moreinfo.html 7etStoreAbuse.com) X5ird AillsY) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/birdbreeding.html 5udgie (ommunity 'orums) .ird .reedin# *ills) 7ost 10) htt"%//forums.budgiebreeders.asn.au/indeL."h"-showto"icb21=6=cstb0c"b2=3322c^entry2=3322 (heryl Qucsera) The a))it .reedin# and aisin# Process) 7etStoreAbuse.com) htt"%//www."etstoreabuse.com/rabbitmills.html Accessed 26/12/200= 211 C 4S7(A) What is a puppy mill7puppy farm4) =/=/200=) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCaC"u""yCmill/"u""yCfarmD+22.html Accessed 26/12/200= 212 C (aroline ;ambrano) HThe 4S7(A H) Puppy "arms) /ogs9ife) htt"%//www.dogslife.com.au/dogsDlifeDarticles-cidb=120c"idb120231 Accessed 26/12/200= 21+ C 4S7(A) What is a puppy mill7puppy farm4) =/=/200=) htt"%//*b.rs"ca.org.au/.hatCisCaC"u""yCmill/"u""yCfarmD+22.html Accessed 26/12/200= 211 C (aroline ;ambrano) HAustralia "u""y farms shut downH) Puppy "arms) /ogs9ife) htt"%//www.dogslife.com.au/dogsDlifeDarticles-cidb=120c"idb120231 Animal 9iberation Victoria) Prisoners for proft) htt"%//www.alv.org.au/storyarchive/0201"risoners/indeL."h" Gic* ?alvin) Drim end for Christmas puppies) smh.com.au) 2+/12/200:) htt"%//www.smh.com.au/news/environment/grimCendCforCchristmasC "u""ies/200:/12/22/12+1001061=3=.html-"agebfull"age^contentSwa"+ Accessed 26/12/200= 212 C Gic* ?alvin) Drim end for Christmas puppies) smh.com.au) 2+/12/200:) htt"%//www.smh.com.au/news/environment/grimCendCforCchristmasC "u""ies/200:/12/22/12+1001061=3=.html-"agebfull"age^contentSwa"+ Accessed 26/12/200= 213 C (aroline ;ambrano) HAustralia "u""y farms shut downH) Puppy "arms) /ogs9ife) htt"%//www.dogslife.com.au/dogsDlifeDarticles-cidb=120c"idb120231 Accessed 26/12/200= 216 C Animal 9iberation Victoria) Prisoners for proft) htt"%//www.alv.org.au/storyarchive/0201"risoners/indeL."h" Animal 9iberation Victoria) Prisoners for proft O2 CorrespondenceP) htt"%//www.alv.org.au/storyarchive/0201"risoners/corres"ondence."h" (aroline ;ambrano) Puppy "arms) /ogs9ife) htt"%//www.dogslife.com.au/dogsDlifeDarticlescidb=120c"idb120231 Accessed 26/12/200= 21: C Gic* ?alvin) Drim end for Christmas puppies) smh.com.au) 2+/12/200:)

4 References
htt"%//www.smh.com.au/news/environment/grimCendCforCchristmasC "u""ies/200:/12/22/12+1001061=3=.html-"agebfull"age^contentSwa"+ Accessed 26/12/200= 21= C 8agar (ohen) H7u""y farmsH) Cruel trade1 thousands of puppies euthanised) A5( Gews) 26/11/200= htt"%//www.abc.net.au/news/stories/200=/11/26/2622160.htm Accessed 2+/12/200= 220 C !an Sam"le) H(lose <uartersH) Wild oamin# Animals "are Worst in Zoo -nclosures) guardian.co.u*) htt"%//www.guardian.co.u*/u*/200+/oct/02/environment.science The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) HThe longest life sentenceH) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm Accessed 10/11/200= 221 C The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) HThe longest life sentenceH) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm Accessed 10/11/200= 222 C The 8umane Society of the Pnited States #8SPS$) H9ife in the .ildH) *arine *ammals in Capti%ity) htt"%//www.hsus.org/marineDmammals/whatDareDtheDissues/marineDmammalsDinDca"tivity Accessed 10/11/200= 22+ C 70TA) HAda"ting to an Alien .orldH) *arine Animal -8hi)its 2 Chlorinated Poisons) htt"%//www."eta.org/factsheet/Fles/'actsheet/is"lay.as"-!/b3+ Accessed 11/11/200= 221 C The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm Andrea 9ord) No Way <ut) Gew Scientist) 23/1/200= htt"%//www.newscientist.com/article/mg16+2+261.200CnoCwayCout.html Ardeth 5aLter) Zoos Are Prisons "or Innocent Animals) Associated (ontent htt"%//www.associatedcontent.com/article/+23022/NoosDareD"risonsDforDinnocentDanimals.html-catb13 70TA) Animal i#hts Cncompromised1 Zoos) htt"%//www."eta.org/cam"aigns/arCNoos.as" Animal 9iberation SA) htt"%//www.animalliberation.org.au/Noos."h" Accessed 10/11/200= 222 C 55( Gews) H.ildlife classicsH) .orn "ree star *cQenna honoured) +1/12/200+ htt"%//news.bbc.co.u*/2/hi/entertainment/++26116.stm Accessed 11/11/200= 223 C Nicholas Schoon) Animal #roups say +oos fool the pu)lic) 3/6/2001 htt"%//www.inde"endent.co.u*/news/u*/animalCgrou"sCsayCNoosCfoolCtheC"ublicC1111:=6.html Ardeth 5aLter) Zoos Are Prisons "or Innocent Animals) Associated (ontent htt"%//www.associatedcontent.com/article/+23022/NoosDareD"risonsDforDinnocentDanimals.html-catb13 Steve 5est) HThe Ayths of (onservationH) Zoos and the -nd of Nature) htt"%//www.animalsvoice.com/edits/editorial/investigations/enter/bestDNoos2.html Animal 9iberation Victoria) HThe (onservation (laimH) WhatUs Wron# With Zoos) htt"%//www.alv.org.au/issues/whatswrongwithNoos."h" Accessed 11/11/200= 226 C The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) H10H) 10 facts a)out animals in +oos) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/Nfact1.htm^no10 Steve 5est) HThe Ayths of (onservationH) Zoos and the -nd of Nature) htt"%//www.animalsvoice.com/edits/editorial/investigations/enter/bestDNoos2.html 70TA) Animal i#hts Cncompromised1 Zoos) htt"%//www."eta.org/cam"aigns/arCNoos.as" Accessed 1/1/2010 22: C @ordi (asamitBana) Aquatic Zoos) 2001% 30) 61. Available at htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/a<uarium/suJering.htm Accessed 11/11/200= 22= C @ordi (asamitBana) Aquatic Zoos) 2001% 31C32. Available at htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/a<uarium/suJering.htm Accessed 11/11/200= 2+0 C /avid SuNu*i 'oundation) CanUt rely on capti%e )reedin# to sa%e species) 23/=/2006 htt"%//www.davidsuNu*i.org/aboutDus//rD/avidDSuNu*i/ArticleDArchives/wee*ly0=230601.as" @ordi (asamitBana) Aquatic Zoos) 2001% 3=. Available at htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/a<uarium/suJering.htm The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) HThe con in conservation-H) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm 70TA) Animal i#hts Cncompromised1 Zoos) htt"%//www."eta.org/cam"aigns/arCNoos.as" Animal Aid) Zoos and Aquaria) htt"%//www.animalaid.org.u*/h/n/,>PT8/Noos//1=2= Accessed 11/11/200= 2+1 C The (a"tive AnimalsH 7rotection Society) H:H) 10 facts a)out animals in +oos) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/Nfact1.htm^ref Accessed 1/1/2010 2+2 C The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) HThe con in conservation-H) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm Accessed 12/11/200= 2++ C @ordi (asamitBana) Aquatic Zoos) 2001% 36C3:) 12+. Available at

4 References
htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/a<uarium/suJering.htm Andrew /arby) .orn to )e (ild) smh.com.au) 2+/6/200+ htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/200+/06/22/102::2+063013.html Accessed 2+/12/200= 2+1 C The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) H/isease ris*sH) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm @ordi (asamitBana) Aquatic Zoos) 2001% 12C23. Available at htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/a<uarium/suJering.htm /ale @amieson) HArguments for ;oosH) A#ainst Zoos) htt"%//www.animalCrightsClibrary.com/teLtsCm/Bamieson01.htm A#ainst Zoos is re"roduced from the boo* edited by 7eter Singer) In ,efense of Animals6 Accessed 12/11/200= 2+2 C Andrew /arby) .orn to )e (ild) smh.com.au) 2+/6/200+ htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/200+/06/22/102::2+063013.html Accessed 12/11/200= 2+3 C Andrew /arby) .orn to )e (ild) smh.com.au) 2+/6/200+ htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/200+/06/22/102::2+063013.html Accessed 12/11/200= 2+6 C 7ina*i 4oy) $ion dies in ,ha&a Zoo) 11/=/200= htt"%//www.thedailystar.net/new/esign/newsCdetails."h"-nidb102+03 Accessed 16/11/200= 2+: C Agence 'ranceC7resse #A'7$) Qeepers suspended o%er deaths at .an#ladesh +oo) =/11/200= htt"%//www.google.com/hostednews/af"/article/A9e<A2hr1B=sw;eG'le>r07fTm"o'G;0nA Accessed 16/11/200= 2+= C /avid SuNu*i 'oundation) CanUt rely on capti%e )reedin# to sa%e species) 23/=/2006 htt"%//www.davidsuNu*i.org/aboutDus//rD/avidDSuNu*i/ArticleDArchives/wee*ly0=230601.as" The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm 70TA) Animal i#hts Cncompromised1 Zoos) htt"%//www."eta.org/cam"aigns/arCNoos.as" Accessed 10/11/200= 210 C The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) HThe con in conservation-H) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm Accessed 10/11/200= 211 C Agence 'ranceC7resse #A'7$) Qeepers suspended o%er deaths at .an#ladesh +oo) =/11/200= htt"%//www.google.com/hostednews/af"/article/A9e<A2hr1B=sw;eG'le>r07fTm"o'G;0nA Accessed 16/11/200= 212 C ?eoJ Strong) "rosty reception for *el)ourne Aquarium's Pen#uin ,isplay) theage.com.au) 23/11/200:
htt"%//www.theage.com.au/national/frostyCrece"tionCforCmelbourneCa<uariumsC"enguinCdis"layC200:1123C3ind.html

Accessed 16/11/200= 21+ C 4oyce Aillar and (ameron 8ouston) Animal ri#hts and (ron#s) 1=/1/200:) htt"%//www.theage.com.au/news/inCde"th/animalCrightsCandCwrongs/200:/01/1:/12003202061:1.html Accessed 16/11/200= 211 C 70TA) H0ntertainment) Got 0ducationH) Zoos1 Pitiful Prisons) htt"%//www."eta.org/factsheet/Fles/'actsheet/is"lay.as"-!/b36 Accessed 1:/11/200= 212 C @ordi (asamitBana) Aquatic Zoos) 2001% :1)11=. Available at htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/a<uarium/suJering.htm Accessed 1:/11/200= 213 C @ordi (asamitBana) Aquatic Zoos) 2001% :2C:=) 121. Available at htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/a<uarium/suJering.htm Accessed 1:/11/200= /ale @amieson) HArguments for ;oosH) A#ainst Zoos) htt"%//www.animalCrightsClibrary.com/teLtsCm/Bamieson01.htm 4e"roduced from the boo* edited by 7eter Singer) In ,efense of Animals Accessed 12/11/200= 216 C Taronga ;oo) Chimpan+ees6 Champion ,r Eane Doodall 3isits Taron#a) 11/10/200:
htt"%//taronga.org.au/tcsa/media/mediaCreleases/chim"anNeesHCcham"ionCdrCBaneCgoodallCvisitsCtaronga.as"L

Accessed 1:/11/200= 21: C The (a"tive Animals’ 7rotection Society #(A7S$) H.hat ha""ens to sur"lus animalsH) !ad -yes F -mpty $i%es) htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/Noos/factsheet.htm Steve 5est) HThe Ayths of (onservationH) Zoos and the -nd of Nature) htt"%//www.animalsvoice.com/edits/editorial/investigations/enter/bestDNoos2.html /ale @amieson) HArguments for ;oosH A#ainst Zoos) htt"%//www.animalCrightsClibrary.com/teLtsCm/Bamieson01.htm A#ainst Zoos is re"roduced from the boo* edited by 7eter Singer) In ,efense of Animals6 Accessed 12/11/200=

4 References
21= C @ordi (asamitBana) Aquatic Zoos) 2001% :=. Available at htt"%//www.ca"tiveanimals.org/a<uarium/suJering.htm Accessed 1:/11/200= 220 C 4oyce Aillar and (ameron 8ouston) Animal ri#hts and (ron#s) 1=/1/200:) htt"%//www.theage.com.au/news/inCde"th/animalCrightsCandCwrongs/200:/01/1:/12003202061:1.html Accessed 1:/11/200= 221 C Steve 5est) H!m"erialism 5y >ther AeansH) Zoos and the -nd of Nature) htt"%//www.animalsvoice.com/edits/editorial/investigations/enter/bestDNoos1.html Accessed 2:/11/200= 222 C Aichael 7elly) Animal la( a stron# dra( for students) The Australian online) 6/+/200: htt"%//www.theaustralian.com.au/business/legalCaJairs/animalClawCaCstrongCdrawCforCstudents/storyC e3frg=6LC11111126+00+= Gational 8ealth and Aedical 4esearch (ouncil) Australian code of practice for the care and use of animals for scientifc purposes) 6th edition) 2001. Available at htt"%//www.nhmrc.gov.au/"ublications/syno"ses/ea13syn.htm Accessed 11/11/200= 22+ C 4ecFsh Australia) HTreating Fsh humanely by%H) National Code of Practice for ecreational and !port "ishin# 2001) can be viewed and downloaded at htt"%//www.daJ.gov.au/Fsheries/recreational/recFshinggrants/code Accessed +/1/2010 221 C .i*i"edia) Intelli#ence) 1/1/2010) htt"%//en.wi*i"edia.org/wi*i/!ntelligence Accessed 2/1/2010 222 C @ennifer Viegas) Chimps outsmart uni students) A5( Science) 1/12/2006 htt"%//abc.gov.au/science/articles/2006/12/01/210=101.htm-to"icbs"ace @ames 4anderson) Chimps outsmart humans in tests) theage.com.au) 2/12/2006
htt"%//www.theage.com.au/news/world/chim"sCoutsmartChumansCinCtests/2006/12/01/11=32+0366026.html

Sana !noue and Tetsuro AatsuNawa) Wor&in# memory of numerals in chimpan+ees) (urrent 5iology) Volume 16 !ssue 2+) 1/12/2006. Available at htt"%//www.cell.com/currentCbiology/su""lemental/S0=30C=:22#06$020::Ch Accessed +/12/200= 223 C @ennifer Viegas) Chimps outsmart uni students) A5( Science) 1/12/2006 htt"%//abc.gov.au/science/articles/2006/12/01/210=101.htm-to"icbs"ace Accessed +/12/200= 226 C 4owan 8oo"er) Chimps outperform humans at memory tas&) Gew Scientist) +/12/2006 htt"%//www.newscientist.com/article/dn12==+Cchim"sCout"erformChumansCatCmemoryCtas*.html Accessed +/12/200= 22: C (atherine Aadden) Chic&ens are no N)ird )rainsN) Science Getwor* .estern Australia) +0/11/2006 htt"%//www.sciencewa.net.au/indeL."h"-o"tionbcomDcontentcviewbarticlecidb1=2:%chic*ensCareCnoC <birdCbrains<ccatidb161%Gewsc!temidb2000:2 Accessed +/12/200= 22= C (atherine Aadden) Chic&ens are no N)ird )rainsN) Science Getwor* .estern Australia) +0/11/2006 htt"%//www.sciencewa.net.au/indeL."h"-o"tionbcomDcontentcviewbarticlecidb1=2:%chic*ensCareCnoC <birdCbrains<ccatidb161%Gewsc!temidb2000:2 Accessed +/12/200= 230 C (atherine Aadden) Chic&ens are no N)ird )rainsN) Science Getwor* .estern Australia) +0/11/2006 htt"%//www.sciencewa.net.au/indeL."h"-o"tionbcomDcontentcviewbarticlecidb1=2:%chic*ensCareCnoC <birdCbrains<ccatidb161%Gewsc!temidb2000:2 Accessed +/12/200= 231 C .illiam ?rimes) If Chic&ens Are !o !mart5 Why Aren't They -atin# Cs4) Gew ,or* Times) 12/1/200+
htt"%//www.nytimes.com/200+/01/12/wee*inreview/ifCchic*ensCareCsoCsmartCwhyCarenCtCtheyCeatingCus.html

Accessed +/12/200= 232 C Aichael S"ecter) The -8tremist) 1/1/200+ htt"%//www.michaels"ecter.com/200+/01/theCeLtremist Accessed +/12/200= 23+ C Qeven 9aland et al) $earnin# in fshes1 from three2second memory to culture) 'ish and 'isheries) Volume 1 !ssue +) 12/:/200+. Available at htt"%//www+.interscience.wiley.com/Bournal/11::==+13/abstract Accessed 1/12/200= 231 C 4obert Aatthews) "ast2learnin# fsh ha%e memories that put their o(ners to shame) The Telegra"h ) +/10/2001 htt"%//www.telegra"h.co.u*/sconlineience/scienceCnews/+++12=2/'astClearningCFshChaveC memoriesCthatC"utCtheirCownersCtoCshame.html Accessed 1/12/200= 232 C /avid 5raithwaite) "ish aren't thic&1 scientist) smh.com.au) 12/=/2003 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/0=/12/1126:23=16=26.html Accessed 1/12/200= 233 C Aar* 8orstman) "ish !chools A teachin# the little tac&ers ho( to sur%i%e) (atalyst transcri"t) 12/1/2006 htt"%//www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s1:=2103.htm Accessed 1/12/200= 236 C 4obert Aatthews) "ast2learnin# fsh ha%e memories that put their o(ners to shame) Telegra"h.co.u*) +/10/2001 htt"%//www.telegra"h.co.u*/science/scienceCnews/+++12=2/'astClearningCFshChaveCmemoriesC thatC"utCtheirCownersCtoCshame.html Accessed 1/12/200= 23: C /avid 5raithwaite) "ish aren't thic&1 scientist) smh.com.au) 12/=/2003 htt"%//www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/0=/12/1126:23=16=26.html

4 References
Aar* 8orstman) "ish !chools A teachin# the little tac&ers ho( to sur%i%e) (atalyst transcri"t) 12/1/2006 htt"%//www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s1:=2103.htm Accessed 1/12/200= 23= C Aar* 8orstman) "ish !chools A teachin# the little tac&ers ho( to sur%i%e) (atalyst transcri"t) 12/1/2006 htt"%//www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s1:=2103.htm Accessed 1/12/200= 260 C 7eggy >renstein) Champion of the ,eep) Gew ,or* Times AagaNine) 2+/3/1==1 htt"%//www.nytimes.com/1==1/03/2+/magaNine/cham"ionCofCtheCdee".html-"agewantedball Accessed 1/12/200= 261 C See for eLam"le) the deFnition of HvegetarianH in the (om"act >Lford 0nglish /ictionary% Hi noun a "erson who does not eat meat for moral) religious) or health reasons. i adBecti0e eating or including no meat.H As*>Lford.com) %e#etarian) htt"%//www.as*oLford.com/conciseDoed/vegetarian-viewbu* The same source deFnes HmeatH as Hthe Iesh of an animal as food.H As*>Lford.com) meat) htt"%//www.as*oLford.com/conciseDoed/meat-viewbu* Accessed 1+/2/2010 262 C The Vegetarian Society) What is a %e#etarian4) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/whatis.html Accessed 3/11/200= 26+ C The 3e#an Ne(s5 Govember 1=11) Gumber 1% 1) htt"%//www.u*veggie.com/veganDnews Accessed 3/11/200= 261 C The Vegan Society) H.hat is a vegan-H) 3e#an .asics 2 "A='s) htt"%//www.vegansociety.com/hub"age.as"L-idb1=2^ uestion%K20.hatK20isK20aK20vegan Accessed 1/1/2010 262 C . Ac9ennan and A 7odger) National Nutrition !ur%ey1 !elected 0i#hli#hts ) Australian 5ureau of Statistics//e"artment of 8ealth and 'amily Services) 1==2% 23. Available at htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/APSSTATS/abs&.nsf//etails7age/1:02.01==2->"en/ocument . Ac9ennan and A 7odger) National Nutrition !ur%ey1 Csers Duide) Australian 5ureau of Statistics//e"artment of 8ealth and 'amily Services) 1==2% +1) ++. Available at htt"%//www.abs.gov.au/APSSTATS/abs&.nsf//etails7age/1:01.01==2->"en/ocument Accessed 3/11/200= 263 C 4oy Aorgan 4esearch) Qids Pies and 3ideo Dames) 2001 htt"%//www.roymorgan.com/news/"ressCreleases/2001/+23 Accessed 3/11/200= 266 C Gews"oll) HGews"oll 4esults C Australian (om"onent of Sanitarium Vegetarian StudyH) !anitarium 3e#etarian !tudy 2000% 1. Tele"hone survey of 1200 Australians aged 1: and over from :C10 Se"tember 2000. Vegetarian Getwor* of Victoria) HSanitarium Vegetarian Study #Gews"oll$ #Australian (om"onent$ #2000$H) !tatistics on 3e#etarianism htt"%//www.vnv.org.au/site/indeL."h"-o"tionbcomDcontentctas*bviewcidb2+c!temidb31^Sanitarium Vegetarian Study #Gews"oll$ #Australian (om"onent$ #2000$ Accessed 21/1/2010 26: C Sanitarium) The Trend To(ards 3e#etarianism) 200:% X2 E "ages not numberedY 26= C Gi**i 'isher) Who Needs *eat4) theage.com.au) 2/12/200: htt"%//www.theage.com.au/news/entertainment/e"icure/whoCneedsC meat/200:/12/01/1226=6=:=2302.html-"agebfull"age^contentSwa"2 Vegetarian Getwor* of Victoria) H4oy Aorgan 4esearch #2003$H) !tatistics on 3e#etarianism5 htt"%//www.vnv.org.au/site/indeL."h"-o"tionbcomDcontentctas*bviewcidb2+c!temidb31^4oy K20AorganK204esearchK20#2003$ Accessed 3/11/200=. 2:0 C 'or eLam"le) vegetarian "references of rugby su""orters% 4oy Aorgan 4esearch) N $ !upporter $adder1 .roncos F !torm $ead The Way) 2/:/2006) htt"%//www.roymorgan.com/news/"ressCreleases/2006/331 Vegetarian "references of Australian 4ules su""orters% 4oy Aorgan 4esearch) Interstate Clu)s !till Top the $adder of !upport) 22/+/2001) htt"%//www.roymorgan.com/news/"ressCreleases/2001/+12 Accessed 3/11/200= 2:1 C ,ogendra ,adav and SanBay Qumar) The food ha)its of a nation) The 8indu online) 11/:/2003 htt"%//www.hinduonnet.com/2003/0:/11/stories/20030:110+661200.htm The 8induC(GGC!5G State of the Gation Survey interviewed 11)3:0 "eo"le across !ndia between 1 and 3 August 2003. Accessed 6/11/200= 2:2 C 4enato 7ichler and ?eorgia 5lac*well) 0o( many 3e##ies 666 45 0uro"ean Vegetarian Pnion) htt"%//www.euroveg.eu/lang/en/info/howmany."h" Some Fgures give no date for when the information was obtained and may vary C in some cases considerably C from 2002 Fgures that a""ear in !sla ?ower ed) MVegetarian 'oods’) Qey Gote Aar*et Assessment) 2006% 10 Available at htt"%//www.*eynote.co.u*/mar*etCintelligence/view/"roduct/1=31/vegetarianCfoods-

4 References
highlightbvegetarianK20foodcutmDsourceb*n.re"orts.search Accessed 6/11/200= 2:+ C .i*i"edia) H/emogra"hicsH) 3e#anism) htt"%//en.wi*i"edia.org/wi*i/Veganism^/emogra"hics Accessed 6/11/200=. The reference .i*i"edia gives for this is% 5Bjrn 7ettersson) 3e#ans& nVrin#slVra pW %etens&apli# #rund #2nd edition C in Swedish$) >rsa% 8k9SAbjc*er/0nergica 'jrlag) @une 2002% 16E1=. !S5G =1:22036=3. 2:1 C (hristel 9arson) ;oun# 3e#etarians and <mni%ores) /octoral thesis) /e"artment of 'ood and Gutrition) Pmea Pniversity) 2001% +=C10. Available at htt"%//www+.umu.se/Q>ST/fors*ning/fullteLt(9."df .i*i"edia) H/emogra"hicsH) 3e#anism) htt"%//en.wi*i"edia.org/wi*i/Veganism^/emogra"hics Accessed 6/11/200= 2:2 C .i*i"edia) H/emogra"hicsH) 3e#anism) htt"%//en.wi*i"edia.org/wi*i/Veganism^/emogra"hics Accessed 6/11/200= Study conducted by the 'ederal Ainistry of 'ood) Agriculture and (onsumer 7rotection. The lin* to a "df .i*i"edia gives for this reference seems to be out of date) since it "roduces Hnot foundH errors. 8owever) the root of the lin* is the 'ederal Ainistry site% htt"%//www.bmelv.de 2:3 C The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) Information !heet A !tatistics5 htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg.html Accessed 6/11/200= 2:6 C The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) H5A45 Access 7anel research for Qey GoteH) Information !heet A !tatistics) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg.html Accessed 6/11/200= 2:: C ?f* Social 4esearch) Pu)lic Attitudes to "ood) 'ood Standards Agency 200=% +) 1=) 3:. Available at htt"%//www.food.gov.u*/science/socsci/surveys/"ublicattitudesfoodissues The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) H'ood Standards Agency E 7ublic Attitudes to 'ood survey 200=H) Information !heet A !tatistics) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg.html Accessed 6/11/200= 2:= C TGS) Consumer Attitudes to "ood !tandards 2 Wa%e @) 'ood Standards Agency 200:% 1) 1:. Available at htt"%//www.food.gov.u*/news/"ressreleases/200:/feb/cas2006u*"r The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) H'ood Standards Agency E (onsumer Attitudes to 'ood Standards survey 200:H) Information !heet A !tatistics) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg.html Accessed 6/11/200= 2=0 C /e"artment for 0nvironment) 'ood and 4ural AJairs #/0'4A$) !ur%ey of Pu)lic Attitudes and .eha%iours to(ard the -n%ironment1 200J) /ata tables) 2006% contents) 1:1 #Table 210$. /e"artment for 0nvironment) 'ood and 4ural AJairs #/0'4A$) !ur%ey of Pu)lic Attitudes and .eha%iours to(ard the -n%ironment1 200J) uestionnaire) 2006% 22 /e"artment for 0nvironment) 'ood and 4ural AJairs #/0'4A$) !ur%ey of Pu)lic Attitudes and .eha%iours to(ard the -n%ironment1 200J) 4e"ort) 2006% 21C22 All available at htt"%//www.defra.gov.u*/evidence/statistics/environment/"ubatt/indeL.htm The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) H/efra survey of attitudes) *nowledge and behaviour in relation to the environmentH) Information !heet A !tatistics) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg.html Accessed 6/11/200= 2=1 C According to !maner (onsultants) the study Herroneously estimated the number of vegans in the PQ at over 1.+ million #2.2K$. This was due to a "roven misclassiFcation between vegans and vegetarians and resulted in a "ublished Fgure that was incorrect by a factor of ten.H !maner (onsultants) htt"%//www.imaner.net/"anel/statistics.htm^note Accessed 13/1/2012 After initial attem"ts to get a res"onse from /0'4A about this failed) they "rovided an answer by email on 10/10/2012. !n it they said that 2.2K of "eo"le did res"ond that they were vegan. 8owever) "rom"ted by The Vegan Society) /0'4A followed u" on this <uestion and found that Halmost everyone who had said they were `Vegana had misunderstood the term and were not vegan.H 2=2 C The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) Information !heet 2 !tatistics from the 1/@0s) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg:0.html The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) !ummary of eal-at polls 1/@B A 2001) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/realeat.html Accessed =/11/200= 2=+ C The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) Information !heet 2 Deneral !tatistics from the 1//0s5 htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg=0.html /avid 5rown) The 'recipe for disaster' that &illed @0 and left a X:)n )ill) Telegra"h.co.u*) 26/10/200)
htt"%//www.telegra"h.co.u*/news/u*news/1+61=31/TheCreci"eCforCdisasterCthatC*illedC:0CandCleftCaC2bnCbill.html

Accessed =/11/200= 2=1 C (enters for /isease (ontrol and 7revenation) .!- >.o%ine !pon#iform -ncephalopathy5 or *ad Co( ,isease?) htt"%//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/bse /avid 5rown) The 'recipe for disaster' that &illed @0 and left a X:)n )ill) Telegra"h.co.u*) 26/10/200) htt"%//www.telegra"h.co.u*/news/u*news/1+61=31/TheCreci"eCforCdisasterCthatC*illedC:0CandCleftCaC2bnC bill.html

4 References
.i*i"edia) .o%ine spon#iform encephalopathy) htt"%//en.wi*i"edia.org/wi*i/5ovineDs"ongiformDence"halo"athy Accessed 10/11/200= 2=2 C The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) HGational (onsumer (ouncil #AA'' s"onsored$ @an 1==2H) Information !heet 2 Deneral !tatistics from the 1//0s) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg=0.html Accessed 10/11/200= 2=3 C The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) H!(A 7oll for Today 7rogrammeH) Information !heet A !tatistics) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg.html Accessed 10/11/200= 2=6 C The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) H4ationing 4ecords 1=12H) Information !heet A !tatistics) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statveg.html 4obin AcQie) HThe world by numbersH) .ritain set to )ecome most populous country in -C) guardian.co.u*) 20/+/200= htt"%//www.guardian.co.u*/world/200=/mar/22/environmentC"o"ulationCconferenceCbritain Accessed =/11/200= 2=: C The Vegetarian Society of the PQ) Information !heet 2 !tatistics1 Children7;oun# People) htt"%//www.vegsoc.org/info/statvegCyouth.html Accessed :/11/200= 2== C Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") H8ow many "eo"le are vegetarian-H) *ore "requently As&ed =uestions) htt"%//www.vrg.org/nutshell/fa<.htm^"oll Accessed :/11/200= +00 C !"sosC4eid) Consumer Perceptions of "ood !afety and =uality) Agriculture and AgriC'ood (anada) Govember 2001% 32. Available at htt"%//www1.agr.gc.ca/resources/"rod/doc/agr/"df/(anadianD7erce"tions."df Accessed 6/11/200= +01 C American /ietetic Association and /ietitians of (anada) Position of the American ,ietetic Association and ,ietitians of Canada1 3e#etarian ,iets) 200+% 3+. Available at htt"%//www.dietitians.ca/news/downloads/vegetarianD"ositionD"a"erD200+."df Accessed 6/11/200= +02 C (harles Stahler) H5eyond Aar*etingH) 0o( *any 3e#etarians Are There4) Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") +0/:/2000 htt"%//www.vrg.org/nutshell/"oll.htm Accessed 6/11/200= +0+ C Time/(GG) htt"%//www.time.com/time/covers/1101020612/"oll Accessed 6/11/200= +01 C (harles Stahler) 0o( *any Adults Are 3e#etarian4) Vegetarian @ournal 2003 !ssue 1) Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") htt"%//www.vrg.org/Bournal/vB2003issue1/vB2003issue1"oll.htm Accessed :/11/200= +02 C Vegetarian Times) 3e#etarianism In America) htt"%//www.vegetariantimes.com/features/archiveDofDeditorial/336 Accessed :/11/200=. 7oll <uestioned "eo"le 1: and over and was run by 8arris !nteractive Service 5ureau) with data analysis by 44( Associates. +03 C Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") 0o( *any 3e#etarians Are There4) +/3/200= htt"%//www.vrg.org/"ress/200="oll.htm Accessed :/11/200= +06 C (harles Stahler) H5eyond Aar*etingH) 0o( *any 3e#etarians Are There4) Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") +0/:/2000 htt"%//www.vrg.org/nutshell/"oll.htm Accessed 6/11/200= +0: C Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") 0o( *any 3e#etarians Are There4 2 As&s the 3e#etarian esource Droup in a 1//J oper Poll5 +0/:/2000 htt"%//www.vrg.org/Bournal/vB=6se"/=6="oll.htm (harles Stahler) 0o( *any 3e#etarians Are There4) Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") +0/:/2000 htt"%//www.vrg.org/nutshell/"oll.htm Accessed 6/11/200= +0= C Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") 0o( *any 3e#etarians Are There4 2 A 2000 National Zo#)y Poll sponsored )y the 3e#etarian esource Droup >3 D?5 +0/:/2000 htt"%//www.vrg.org/nutshell/"oll2000.htm Accessed 6/11/200= +10 C Vegetarian 4esource ?rou") H7oll 4esultsH) 0o( *any 3e#etarians Are There4 2 As&s the 3e#etarian esource Droup in a 1//J oper Poll5 +0/:/2000 htt"%//www.vrg.org/Bournal/vB=6se"/=6="oll.htm Accessed 6/11/200= +11 C 0dgar (roo*) -arly Australian 3e#etarian !ocieties) htt"%//www.ivu.org/history/societies/australia2.html Accessed 1+/11/200= +12 C 0dgar (roo*) -arly Australian 3e#etarian !ocieties) htt"%//www.ivu.org/history/societies/australia2.html Accessed 1+/11/200= +1+ C 0dgar (roo*) -arly Australian 3e#etarian !ocieties) htt"%//www.ivu.org/history/societies/australia2.html Accessed 1+/11/200= +11 C 'A>Stat) $i%estoc& Primary) htt"%//faostat.fao.org//es*to"/efault.as"L-7age!/b23=^ancor) 'A> A/A7TT) H>rigins of the Animal Qill (ounterH) 1B0 .illion Animals !lau#htered -%ery ;ear) htt"%//www.ada"tt.org/*illcounter.html Accessed 1+/1/2010 +12 C A Aood and 7 5roo*e) -stimatin# the Num)er of "ish Cau#ht in Dlo)al "ishin# -ach ;ear) 'ishcount.org.u*) @uly 2010% 1) 1+C12. A Aood and 7 5roo*e) -stimatin# the Num)er of "armed "ish Qilled in Dlo)al Aquaculture -ach

4 References
;ear) 'ishcount.org.u*) @uly 2012% 1) 2=. The Frst study about global Fshing estimates the number of Fsh *illed for food at around one trillion. The neLt study) on farmed Fsh) estimates about :0 billion animals are *illed a year. +13 C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% LLi. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= +16 C 'A>) World a#riculture 20K01 *ain fndin#s) htt"%//www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2002/6:++Cen.html H(ereals are still by far the worldHs most im"ortant sources of food) both for direct human consum"tion and meat "roduction.H 'A>) !taple foods1 What do people eat4) htt"%//www.fao.org/docre"/P:1:00/P:1:0006.htm 'A>) H(ha"ter 2 E 8ow the world is fedH) A#riculture5 food and (ater) can be viewed online at htt"%//www.fao.org/docre"/003/,13:+0/y13:+e03.htm^72+D122: Accessed :/1/2010 +1: C 0dith A 9ederer) CN -8pert Calls .iofuel 'Crime A#ainst 0umanity') Associated 7ress on 9ive Science) 26/10/2006 htt"%//www.livescience.com/environment/061026Ca"CbiofuelCcrime.html @eremy 9aurance) HSo where is the grain going-H) The .i# =uestion1 Is chan#in# our diet the &ey to resol%in# the #lo)al food crisis4) The !nde"endent) 13/1/200: htt"%//www.inde"endent.co.u*/lifeC style/healthCandCfamilies/healthCnews/theCbigC<uestionCisCchangingCourCdietCtheC*eyCtoCresolvingCtheC globalCfoodCcrisisC:0=233.html 4ight to food) http177(((6ri#httofood6or# Accessed :/1/2010 +1= C .orld 'ood 7rogramme) 0un#er !tats) htt"%//www.wf".org/hunger/stats) Accessed 3/12/200= +20 C @eremy 9aurance) H.ould cutting car use solve the food crisis-H) The .i# =uestion1 Is chan#in# our diet the &ey to resol%in# the #lo)al food crisis4) The !nde"endent) 13/1/200: htt"%//www.inde"endent.co.u*/lifeCstyle/healthCandCfamilies/healthCnews/theCbigC<uestionCisCchangingC ourCdietCtheC*eyCtoCresolvingCtheCglobalCfoodCcrisisC:0=233.html +21 C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% 12. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= +22 C 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% 136. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= +2+ C @ohn 9 5lac* (onsulting) H!ncreasing demand by livestoc*H) Dro(in# #rains for li%estoc&) ueensland /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustries) htt"%//www.d"i.<ld.gov.au/23D10023.htm Accessed 6/1/2010 +21 C 'A>) 0un#er in the "ace of Crisis) 0conomic and Social 7ers"ectives) 7olicy 5rief 3) Se"tember 200= Available at htt"%//www.fao.org/economic/esC"olicybriefs/detail/en/-uidb+2210 ?eorge Aonbiot) Credit crunch4 The real crisis is #lo)al hun#er6 And if you care5 eat less meat) guardian.co.u*) 12/1/200: htt"%//www.guardian.co.u*/commentisfree/200:/a"r/12/food.biofuels H>f the 2.1+bn tonnes li*ely to be consumed this year) only 1.01bn) according to the Pnited GationHs 'ood and Agriculture >rganisation) will feed "eo"le.H Accessed :/1/2010 +22 C @ 9und<vist at al) !a%in# Water1 "rom "ield to "or& A Cur)in# $osses and Wasta#e in the "ood Chain5 S!.! 7olicy 5rief) S!.!) 200:% 2) 22. Available at htt"%//www.siwi.org/documents/4esources/7olicyD5riefs/75D'romD'iledDtoD'or*D200:."df Accessed :/1/2010 +23 C /avid and Aarcia 7imentel) !ustaina)ility of meat2)ased and plant2)ased diets and the en%ironment) The American @ournal of (linical Gutrition) 200+T6:#su""l$%331SE332S Available at htt"%//www.aBcn.org Accessed :/1/2010 +26 C @ 9und<vist at al) !a%in# Water1 "rom "ield to "or& A Cur)in# $osses and Wasta#e in the "ood Chain5 S!.! 7olicy 5rief) S!.!) 200:% 11. Available at htt"%//www.siwi.org/documents/4esources/7olicyD5riefs/75D'romD'iledDtoD'or*D200:."df Accessed :/1/2010 +2: C / 4enault and 7rofessor .. .allender) Nutritional (ater producti%ity and diets) Agricultural .ater Aanagement) 12) 2000% 2:1C2:=. Available at htt"%//www.sciencedirect.com /avid and Aarcia 7imental say that "roducing 1 *ilogram of animal "rotein re<uires about 100 times more water than 1 *ilogram of "lant "rotein. See the H.ater 4esourcesH section on "age 332S of the "reviously cited article by /avid and Aarcia 7imental. +2= C @ens 8olm c Toivo @o**ala) The li%estoc& industry and climate A -C ma&es )ad (orse) 0uro"ean Pnited 9eft/Gordic ?reen 9eft 7arliamentary ?rou") 0uro"ean 7arliament) 13C1=. Available at htt"%//www.guengl.eu/u"load/meatDclimateDre"ort."df Steve Airs*y) The World Is "at1 <)esity No( <ut(ei#hs 0un#er WorldWide) ScientiFc American) 7odcast transcri"t) 22/:/2006

4 References
htt"%//www.scientiFcamerican.com/"odcast/e"isode.cfm-idb:/'':332C06'2C==/'C+:036331A5''1/02 H!n our country) in the P.S. and in most of the higherCincome world) we subsidiNe the "roduction of animalC source food) and we donHt give money in the same amount to fruits and vegetables.H 8enning Steinfeld et al) $i%estoc&'s $on# !hado( A -n%ironmental issues and options) 'A>) 4ome) 2003% LLiii) 1:) 222) 226) 2+2. Available at ft"%//ft".fao.org/docre"/fao/010/A06010/A0601000."df Accessed 2:/12/200= ++0 C 'or eLam"le% 5eef 'rom 7asture to 7late) "requently As&ed =uestions 2 .eef *yths F "acts) htt"%//www.beeJrom"astureto"late.org/mythmeat"roductioniswasteful.as"L @ohn 9 5lac* (onsulting) H'eed grains and grain growersH) Dro(in# #rains for li%estoc&) ueensland /e"artment of 7rimary !ndustries) htt"%//www.d"i.<ld.gov.au/23D10023.htm Accessed 6/1/2010 ++1 C 'or eLam"le% animalag.org) *;T0! 3!6 "ACT!) htt"%//www.animalag.org/myths.as"L Accessed :/1/2010 HThe o"timal use of natural resources involves use of both animals and "lants to "roduce the nutrients that humans re<uire. 'or eLam"le) about half the land area of the Pnited States is strictly graNing land E not suitable for cro" "roduction. That land would be of no use as a food resource if it were not for ruminant #fourCstomach$) graNing livestoc*.H ++2 C The Vegan Society) H7ut out to "astureH) $and) htt"%//www.vegansociety.com/hub"age.as"L-idb1=2ctermsbland Simon 'airlie) HVegan 7ermacultureH) Can <r#anic A#riculture "eed the World4) The 9and 1 .inter 2006C:) 2006% 21. Available at htt"%//transitionculture.org/w"Ccontent/u"loads/2006/(an5ritain."df Accessed =/1/2010 +++ C Simon 'airlie) Can <r#anic A#riculture "eed the World4) The 9and 1 .inter 2006C:) 2006% 1:C23 Available at htt"%//transitionculture.org/w"Ccontent/u"loads/2006/(an5ritain."df Accessed =/1/2010 >mnivore diet "roduced using chemicals% 2.2 hectares of land feed 11 "eo"le. Therefore 1 hectare of land feeds 2.3 "eo"le. Vegan diet "roduced using chemicals% 1 hectare of land feeds 20 "eo"le. This is around + _ times more "eo"le. >rganic omnivore diet% 2 hectares of land feed 6.2 "eo"le. Therefore 1 hectare of land feeds +.62 "eo"le. >rganic vegan diet% 1 hectare of land feeds : "eo"le. This is Bust over twice as many "eo"le as the organic omnivore diet. 7ermaculture omnivore diet% 1.: hectares of land feeds : "eo"le. Therefore 1 hectare of land feeds 1.11 "eo"le. 7ermaculture vegan diet% 1 hectare of land feeds :.2 "eo"le. This is almost twice as many "eo"le as a "ermaculture omnivore diet. ++1 C 7. ?erbensC9eenes) S Gonhebela and .7A' !vens) A method to determine land requirements relatin# to food consumption patterns) modiFed version of article that a""eared in Agriculture) 0cosystems c 0nvironment) Volume =0) !ssue 1) @une 2002% 16C2:. AodiFed article available at htt"%//dissertations.ub.rug.nl/'!90S/faculties/science/2003/".w.gerbensCleenes/c+."df 7ages referred to in modiFed article% 21C22. ++2 C 7. ?erbensC9eenes) S Gonhebela and .7A' !vens) A method to determine land requirements relatin# to food consumption patterns) modiFed version of article that a""eared in Agriculture) 0cosystems c 0nvironment) Volume =0) !ssue 1) @une 2002% 16C2:. AodiFed article available at htt"%//dissertations.ub.rug.nl/'!90S/faculties/science/2003/".w.gerbensCleenes/c+."df 7age referred to in modiFed article% 2=. ++3 C The Vegan Society) HThe 9ivestoc* (onnectionH) $and) htt"%//www.vegansociety.com/hub"age.as"Lidb1=2ctermsbland Accessed =/1/2010 ++6 C The Vegan Society) $and) htt"%//www.vegansociety.com/hub"age.as"L-idb1=2ctermsbland (enter for ?lobal 'ood !ssues) Center ,irector an Authority for 3e#an Acti%ists) 10/1/2006 htt"%//www.cgF.org/2006/01/10/centerCdirectorCanCauthorityCforCveganCactivists Accessed =/1/2010

4 References

++: C 4obert ?oodlund and @eJ Anhang) $i%estoc& and Climate Chan#e) .orld .atch) Govember//ecember 200=% 16. Available at htt"%//www.worldwatch.org/node/32=1 Accessed =/1/2010 ++= C 4obert ?oodlund and @eJ Anhang) $i%estoc& and Climate Chan#e) .orld .atch) Govember//ecember 200=% 1=. Available at htt"%//www.worldwatch.org/node/32=1 Accessed =/1/2010 +10 C 0liBah Sweete) HAoral !ssueH) Inter%ie( With A 3e#an5 Part T(o) The Aoderate Voice) 1/1/2010 htt"%//themoderatevoice.com/2:022/interviewCwithCaCveganC"artCtwo Accessed 1+/1/2010 +11 C ?ary 'rancione) Introduction to Animal i#hts1 ;our Child or the ,o#4) Tem"le Pniversity 7ress) 7hiladel"hia) 2000% 1+0) 1++ +12 C Terrence AcGally) There Are *ore !la%es Today Than at Any Time in 0uman 0istory) AlterGet) 21/:/200= htt"%//www.alternet.org/world/112161/thereDareDmoreDslavesDtodayDthanDatDanyDtimeDinDhumanDhistory/ -"agebentire 8oward /odson) !la%ery in the T(enty2"irst Century) Pnited Gations) htt"%//www.un.org/7ubs/chronicle/2002/issue+/0+02"2:.html .i*i"edia) 0istory of !la%ery) htt"%//en.wi*i"edia.org/wi*i/8istoryDofDslavery Accessed 2/1/2010

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful