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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT
DJJ 2093 FLUID MECHANICS
SESI DIS 2014

TEST 1

Name

: __________________________________________

Registration No

: __________________________________________

Class

: __________________________________________

Duration

: 1 Hour

Date

Instruction

: Answer all questions on this paper

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS

Mark

100
QUESTION 1
a) Define the following terms;
i.
Fluid
ii.
Mass density
(4 marks)

b) Identify the type of pressure represented at (i) and (ii) in Figure 1. Then,
define both pressures.

(i)

(ii)
(a)

(a)

Figure 1
(6 marks)

c) Determine the pressure of air in a cylinder if the atmospheric pressure is


101.32 kN/m2 and the absolute pressure is 655.9 kN/m2. Your answer
must be in kN/m2, N/m2 and bar.
(5 marks)

d) A glass bottle with the volume of 250 cm3 is filled with a fluid that has a
relative density of 1.24. The glass bottle that is full of the fluid weighs 525
g and it has a density of 2110 kg/m3. Calculate;
i.
ii.

The mass of the glass bottle


The volume of the glass bottle

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS
(10 marks)

QUESTION 2
a) Explain with a diagram the working principle of a hydraulic jack.

(5 marks)
b) A hydraulic jack is used for lifting a vehicle weighting 2000kg which is
located on the large piston. If the diameter of a small piston is 100mm
and the large piston is 150mm. Calculate the required force;
i.

If the pistons are at the same level.


(6
marks)
ii. If the small piston is 5m above the larger piston
(Given water =1000kg/m3)
(6 marks)

c) In Figure 2, a differential U-tube manometer is used to measure the pressure


difference in two pipes. If the pressure difference between A and B is
5.4kN/m2, d=11cm, e=23cm and f=5cm, calculate the relative density of the
oil.

(Given smercury = 13.6)

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS

Oil

d
B
e

f
P

Figure 2

Q
Mercury

(8 marks)
***** End Of Questions*****

Answer Scheme Question 1


a) Define the following terms;
i.
Fluid
A substance that continually deforms under shear stress
(2m)
ii.

Mass density
Mass over volume.

m
kg
, unit= 3
v
m

(2m)
(Total = 4 marks)

b) Identify the type of pressure represented at (a) and (b) in Figure 1. Then,
define both pressures.

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS

(i)

(a)

(ii)
(a)

Figure 1
(i) Atmospheric pressure (1m)
The atmospheric pressure is the pressure that an area
experiences due to
the force exerted by the atmosphere.
(2m)
(ii) Absolute pressure (1m)
zero referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to
gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Atmospheric pressure
pabsolute = pgauge + patm (2m)
(Total = 6 marks)
c) Determine the pressure of air in a cylinder if the atmospheric pressure is
101.32 kN/m2 and the absolute pressure is 655.9 kN/m2. Your answer
must be in kN/m2, N/m2 and bar.
Pcylinder = Pabsolute - Patm
(1m)
3
3
Pcylinder = 655.9 x 10 - 101.32 x 10 (1m)
Pcylinder = 554.58 x 103 N/m2
(1m)
2
Pcylinder = 554.58 kN/m
(1m)
Pcylinder = 5.55 bar
(1m)
(Total
= 5 marks)
d) A glass bottle with the volume of 250 cm3 is filled with a fluid that has a
relative density of 1.24. The glass bottle that is full of the fluid weighs 525
g and it has a density of 2110 kg/m3. Calculate;
i.

The mass of the glass bottle


mglass bottle+fluid = m glass bottle + mfluid
m glass bottle = mglass bottle+fluid - mfluid

(1m)

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS

Given

v fluid=250 cm

1 m3
( 100 )3 cm3

v fluid=2.5 104 m3

(1m)

Given sfluid = 1.24


fluid = 1.24 (1000) = 1240 kg/m3

mfluid
v fluid
mfluid= fluid v fluid
2.5 10
( 4)
mfluid=1240
mfluid =0.31 kg
fluid =

m glass bottle = mglass bottle+fluid - mfluid


m glass bottle = 0.525 0.31
m glass bottle = 0.215 kg
ii.

(1m)

(1m)

(1m)

(2m)

The volume of the glass bottle

m glass bottle
v glass bottle
m
v glass bottle= glass bottle
glass bottle
0.215
v glass bottle=
2110
v glass bottle=1.019 m 3
glass bottle =

(Total = 10 marks)

(1m)

(2m)

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS

Answer Scheme Question 2

a) Explain with a diagram the working principle of a hydraulic jack.

A1

A2
P1

P2

1. A force, F is applied to the piston of a small cylinder


(1 mark)
2. Force from liquid flow into the large cylinder thus raising the piston
supporting the load W
(1 mark)
3. The force, F acting on area A1 produces a pressure, P1
(1 mark)
4. The pressure is transmitted equally in all direction through the liquid
(2 marks)

b) A hydraulic jack is used for lifting a vehicle weighting 2000kg which is


located on the large piston. If the diameter of a small piston is 100mm and
the large piston is 150mm. Calculate the required force;
m = 2000kg
d1 = 100mm
d2 = 150mm
F=?
W = mg = 2000 X 9.81 = 19620N

1=

d 2
4

= (0.1)2/4 = 7.855 X 10-3m2

2=

d 2
4

1 mark

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS
= (0.15)2/4 = 0.0177m2

i.

If piston are at same level


P1 = P2
F/A1 = W/A2

1 mark

F = (19620/0.0177) X 7.855X10-3

2 mark

= 8707.07N/m2 or 8.71kN/m2

2 mark

ii. If the small piston is 5m above the larger piston


(Given water =1000kg/m3)

P1 = F/A1
P2 = W/A2

1 mark

P2 = P1 + gh
W/A2 = F/A1 + gh

1 mark

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS

F = (W/A2 gh) A1
= [(19620/0.0177) (1000 X 9.81 X 5)] X 7.855X10-3
= 8321.78N/m2 or 8.32kN/m2

2 mark

c) In Figure 2, a differential U-tube manometer is used to measure the pressure


difference in two pipes. If the pressure difference between A and B is
5.4kN/m2, d=11cm, e=23cm and f=5cm, calculate the relative density of the
oil. (Given Smercury = 13.6)
(8 marks)

Oil

d
B
e

f
P

Figure 2

Mercury

PA PB = 5.4kN/m2
d = 11cm = 0.11m
e = 23cm = 0.23m
f = 5cm = 0.05m
SHg = 13.6
Since P and Q are at the same level in the same liquid at rest;
Pp = PQ

1 mark

2 mark

Seberang Perai Polytechnic


DJJ 2093-FLUID MECHANICS

10

For the left hand limb;


PP = PA + oilge

1 mark

For the right hand limb;


PQ = PB + oilg(e-d-f) + Hggf

1 mark

Since PP = PQ
PA + oilge = PB + oilg(e-d-f) + Hggf
PA PB = oilg(e-d-f) + Hggf - oilge
5.4 X 103 = oil (9.81)(0.23 0.11- 0.05) + (13.6X103)(9.81)(0.05) - oil
(9.81)( 0.23)
5.4 X 103 = 0.6867oil + 6670.8 2.2563 oil
5.4 X 103 = 6670.8 1.5696 oil
oil = (6670.8 5400) 1.5696
= 809.63kg/m3

2 marks

So;
Soil = oil water
= 809.63 1000
= 0.809

2 marks

1 mark