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Quantitaive-Train-Speed

Train Speed = Distance / Time.

Some important facts need to remember to change km / h into m / s


,we convert it multiply by 5 / 18.

Example: 90 km / hr means to say 90 x 5 / 18 = (5 x 5 ) = 25 m / s.

We can convert m / s into km / hr multiply by 18 / 5.

Example: 90 m / s means to say 90 x 18 / 5 = ( 18 x 18 ) = 324 km / hr.


Some important Facts
There are train based problem based on two object, First is Train and second
object is that which is crossed by the train.
1.

If a train moving or cross a pole or man than the first object is train and
the second object is pole or man.

2.

If the train moving or cross the platform than the first object is train
and second object is platform which is train cross.

3.

If a train cross or moving a man who is standing on platform than the


train is first object and the second object is man.

4.

when A train crossing or moving another train in the same direction or


opposite direction than the first object is first train and second object is
second train.

Time Taken By Train:

Example1: A super fast train 150m long is running at the speed 90 Km /


hr. Find the time taken by it to pass a boystanding near the railway track.
Answer: First we convert the speed of super fast train Km / hr to m / sec
multiplying by 5 / 18 . So, ( 90 x 5 / 18 ) m / sec = 25 m / sec. so speed of
train is 25 m / sec.
The super fast train passing a standing boy near the railway track = 150 m.
Formula: Time = Distance / Speed .

So, The time taken to cross the standing boy is T = D / S = ( 150 / 25 ) sec =
6 sec.
Note: Here width of boy, light lamp, pole, tree etc are ignorable in
length.

Example 2:A Rajdhani Express train 160m long and running at speed 72
Km / h. It crosses a platform which is 240 m long .How much time will it
cross a platform .
Answer: At First we add the length of train and platform is 160m + 240m =
400m, and convert the speed into m / sec that is ( 72 x 5 ) / 18 = 20 m / sec.
Required time to cross a platform is T = D / S , = 400 / 20 = 20 sec.
Note: Here is we add the length of train and platform both because
we cant ignore the length of platform.

Example 3 :
In what time will a 350 meter long train running at the speed of 90 km / hr
cross a pole ?
Answer :
Speed = 90 x 5 / 18 = 25 m / s .
Time = 350 / 25 = 14 seconds .

Speed of Train:

Example 1: A slow Local train whose length is 150 meter long and a bridge
length is 550 meter to cross the bridge by local train is 50 sec,Then find the
speed of train to crossing a bridge.
Answer: At first we add the length of both train and bridge that is 150 + 550
= 700 meter,and we know the formula of speed = Distance / Time , So 700 /
50 = 15 meter / sec.

Example 2:A boy is standing on a railway bridge and which is 150 m long.
He find that a train passes the bridge in 40 seconds but the train himself in
10 sec,Find the length of the train and speed .
Answer: First we find the length of train, the we assume that length of train
be L meters.
than, L / 10 = L + 150 / 40 = 40 L = 10L + 1500 ,
so, L = 50 meter. and now speed of train is D / T = 50 / 10 = 5 m / sec . and
now convert it into 5 x 18 / 5 = 18 Km / hr.
So speed of train is 18 Km / hr.

Trains in same direction:


Example 1:
A train is 250 meter long is running of speed 65 Km / hr, A man running
at 5 Km / hr in same direction in which the train is moving, find the
what time will it pass a man .
Answer: If direction is given in the same direction then we subtract
it ( 65 5 ) = 60 Km /hr.
and now convert it into m / sec using 60 x 5 / 18 = 50 / 3 m / sec.If the
train time taken to passing the man who running , that is 50 / 3 m /sec. So
we can easily get the distance of m / sec so it cover 250 meter that is
= 250 x 3 / 50 = 15 sec .
So, the train time taking to cover distance is 15 sec.

Example 2 :
Two super fast train 180 meters and 180 meters in length respectively are
running in same directions , one at the rate of 58 km and the other at the
rate of 50 km an hours . What time will they be completely clear of each
other ?
Answer :
Two fast trains are running is same direction and their relative speed is = 58

50 = 8 km / hours .
8 x 5 / 18 = 20 / 9 m / sec .
Total length of both train is ( 180 + 180 ) = 360 meters .
So , the required time is = Total length / Relative speed = 180 + 180 / 30 =
360 x 9 / 20 = 162 secs .

Trains in opposite direction:

Example1:
A passenger train 330 meter long which is running at a speed of 60 Km /
hr. In what time will it pass a man who is running at a speed 6 Km / hr in
the opposite direction.In which the train is moving.
Answer: If direction is given in the opposite direction then we add both
speed that is ( 60 + 6 ) = 66 Km / hr.
and now convert it into m / sec using 66 x 5 / 18 = 55 / 3 m / sec.
If the train time taken to passing a man who running in opposite direction,
that is 55 / 3 m /sec. So we can easily get the distance of m / sec so it
cover 330 meter that is = 330 x 3 / 55 = 18 sec.

Example 2 :
Two super fast train 180 meters and 180 meters in length respectively are
running in opposite directions , one at the rate of 58 km and the other at the
rate of 50 km an hours . What time will they be completely clear of each
other from the moment they meet ?
Answer :
Two fast trains are running is opposite direction and their relative speed is =
58+50 = 108 km / hours .
So the two trains are each other meet at 108 km /hours .
108 x 5 / 18 = 30 m / sec .

So , the required time is = Total length / Relative speed = 180 + 180 / 30 =


12 secs .

Length of platform:

Example 1:
A Express train is running at speed of 90 Km / hr.It crosses a bridge whose
length is twice that of train in 36 seconds.What is the length of bridge in
meter?
Answer :
At First we convert the speed into 90 Km / hr = 90 x 5/18 = 25 m /sec.
now here is suppose the train length is x so bridge length is 2x.
according to question
25 = x + 2x / 36
x = 300 m .
length of platform is 300 x 2 = 600 m.
So length of bridge is 600 meter.
Example 2:
A express train passes a tunnel in 21 sec whose length is 130 m long moving
with speed of 90Km / hr. what is the length of tunnel ?
Answer :
Let length be the x meters.
We know the conversion of Km/hr to m/sec is = 90 x 5 / 18 = 25 m/sec
25 = 130 + x / 21
130 + x = 25 x 21
x = 525 130
x = 395
so length be the 395 meters.

Example 3:
A Express train passes by a shop boy standing on the platform in 9 seconds
and passes by the platform completely in 27 seconds . If the length of the

platform is 350 meters , What is the length of the train ?


Answer :
Let the length of the train be x meters .
Then speed of the train = x / 9 meters / sec .
And also the speed of the train = x + 350 / 27 meters / sec .
Both the speed should be equal , i e, x /9 = x + 33 / 27 .
or , 27x 9x = 9 x 350
x = 9 x 350/ 18 = 175 meters .
Shortcut tricks :
Length of train = Length of platform / Difference in time x Time taken to cross
a shop or man .
= 350 x 9 / 18 = 150 meters .

Example 4 :
A metro rail is running at speed of 90 km / hr . If crosses a platform whose
length is twice that of train in 36 seconds . what is the length of platform in
meter ?
Answer :
Speed = 90 x 5 / 18 = 25 m / s .
25 = x + 2x / 36
x = 300 meter .
Length of platform = 300 x 2 = 600 meter

Quantitaive-Speed-Distance
Formula:

Distance = Speed x Time

Generally use this formula we can find the distance of any running train, car
etc. This expressions basically used in relational algebra. If Speed of train or
car is given with time and using this multiplying this two we can find the
distance covered by train. The unit of distance is kilometers, meters, miles,
etc.

Speed = Distance / Time

To find the speed we can divide Distances by Time.


The unit of Speed is given in fraction that is Km/hr (Distance unit in
numerator and Time units in the denominator Suppose, 35 Km/hr.

Time = Distance / Speed

To find the Time we can divide distance by speed.


If in the question is Time unit given in minute then convert it into hours divide
60 before you use the equation to find the distance in miles.
and if say to find in minutes take to cover distance in meter and speed in
Km / hr then Km / hr convert into m / sec, multiplied by 5 / 18.

Formula:

B km / hr convert to m / sec = ( B x 5 / 18) m / sec.

B m / sec convert to km / sec =(B x 18 / 5 ) km / sec.

If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a : b, then the ratio of the times taken
by them to cover the same distance is 1 / a : 1 / b or b : a .
Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km / hr and an equal distance
at y km / hr. Then, average speed during the whole journey is ( 2 x y / x + y )
km / hr.

Basic Formula of speed and distance

Distance = Speed x Time

Speed = Distance / Time

Time = Distance / Speed

Example 1:
A bike covers a distance of 450 m in 2 min 30 sec.What is the speed in
Km / hr of the bike ?
Answer :
Step 1: Speed = ( 450 / 150 ) m / sec = 3 m / sec.
Step 2: now convert it into km / hr = 3 x 18 / 5 = 10.8 Km / hr.
So the speed of in Km / hr of the bike is 10.8 Km / hr .

Example 2 :
With a uniform speed a bike covers the distance in 10 hours . When speed of
bike is increased by 4 km / hr , the same distance could have been covered in
8 hours . What is the distance covered by bike ?
Answer :
let the distance be x km . Then ,
x / 8 x / 10 = 4
x = 160 km .

Example 3:
A Honda car does complete a journey in 12 hours , the first half hours
complete at 23 km / hr and the second half at 25 km / hr . Find the distance is
Answer :
let the distance be x km .
the car has time taken to complete the x / 2 km at a speed of 23 km / hr .
the car has time taken to complete the x / 2 km at a speed of 25 km / hr .
So , total time taken to complete the whole journey is ,
= x / 2 x 23 + x / 2 x 25 = 10 hrs
x = 2 x 10 x 23 x 25 / ( 23 + 25 )
x =287.5
Shortcut tricks : Distance = 2 x Time x speed 1 x speed 2 / s1 + s2
Here s1 = speed during first half and s2 = Speed of second half of journey
Distance = 2 x 10 x 23 x 25 / ( 23 + 25 ) = 287.5 km .

Basic Formula of speed and distance

Distance = Speed x Time

Speed = Distance / Time

Time = Distance / Speed

Example 1:
How many minutes does Rakesh take to cover a distance of 600 m, if he runs
at speed of 40 km / hr ?
Answer :
Rakesh speed = 40 km / hr first we convert it into m / sec .
( 40 x 5 / 18 ) = 100 / 9 m / sec
So , Rakesh Time taken to cover 600 m = (600 x 9 / 100 ) sec = 54 sec.
So Rakesh Time taken to cover distance 54 sec.

Example 2 :
A girl goes to his college from his house at a speed of 3 Km / hr and return at
speed of 2 km / hr . If he takes 5 hours in going and coming , the distance
between his house and colloge is :
Answer :
Average speed = ( 2 x 3 x 2 / 2 + 3 ) km / hr = 12 / 5 km / hr.
Distance between his house and college he travailed : ( 12 / 5 x 5 ) km = 12
km .

Example 3:
Harish on tour travels first 160 km at 64 km /hr and the next 160 km at 80
km /hr . The average speed of for the first 320 km of the tour is :
Answer :
Total time taken by Harish is : = ( 160 / 64 + 160 / 8 ) hrs = 9 / 2 hrs .
So that Average speed = ( 320 x 2 / 9 ) km / hr = 71.11 km / hr .

Quantitaive-Series
Formulas of Number Series
1.

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + + n = n(n + 1)/2

2.

(1 + 2 + 3 + .. + n ) = n ( n + 1 ) (2n + 1) / 6

3.

(1 + 2 + 3 + .. + n ) = (n(n + 1)/ 2)

4.

Sum of first n odd numbers = n

5.

Sum of first n even numbers = n (n + 1)

Mathematical Formulas
1.

(a + b)(a b) = (a b )

2.

(a + b) = (a + b + 2ab)

3.

(a b) = (a + b 2ab)

4.

(a + b + c) = a + b + c + 2(ab + bc + ca)

5.

(a + b ) = (a + b)(a ab + b )

6.

(a b ) = (a b)(a + ab + b )

7.

(a + b + c 3abc) = (a + b + c)(a + b + c ab bc ac)

8.

When a + b + c = 0, then a + b + c = 3abc

9.

(a + b) = a + ( C )a b + ( C )a b + + ( C )ab + b

n-1

n-2

n-1

n-1

Shortcuts for number divisibility check


1.

A number is divisible by 2, if its units digit is any of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8.

2.

A number is divisible by 3, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.

3.

A number is divisible by 4, if the number formed by the last two digits


is divisible by 4.

4.

A number is divisible by 5, if its units digit is either 0 or 5.

5.

A number is divisible by 6, if it is divisible by both 2 and 3.

6.

A number is divisible by 8, if the number formed by the last three digits


of the given number is divisible by 8.

7.

A number is divisible by 9, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9.

8.

A number is divisible by 10, if it ends with 0.

9.

A number is divisible by 11, if the difference of the sum of its digits at


odd places and the sum of its digits at even places, is either 0 or a
number divisible by 11.

10.

A number is divisible by 12, if it is divisible by both 4 and 3.

11.

A number is divisible by 14, if it is divisible by 2 as well as 7.

12.

Two numbers are said to be co-primes if their H.C.F. is 1. To find if a

number, say y is divisible by x, find m and n such that m * n = x and m


and n are co-prime numbers. If y is divisible by both m and n then it is
divisible by x.

Frequently Asked Questions on Number System

Given a number x, you will be asked to find the largest n digit


number divisible by x.

You will be given with a set of numbers (n1, n2, n3) and asked
to find how many of those numbers are divisible by a specified
number x.

Given a number series, find the sum of n terms, find n term etc.

Find product of two numbers when their sum/difference and sum

th

of their squares is given.

Find the number when divisibility of its digits with certain


numbers is given.

Find the smallest n digit number divisible by x.

Which of the given numbers are prime numbers.

Number x when divided by y gives remainder r, what will be the


remainder when x is divided by y.
2

Given relationship between the digits of number, find the


number.

Find result of operations (additions, subtractions, multiplications,


divisions etc) on given integers. These integers can be large and the
question may look difficult and time consuming. But mostly the question
will map onto one of the known algebraic equations given in this first tab.

Number Series
Mixed Series

Examples 1:
111, 220, 438, ?, 1746
Answer:
from 111 to 220 we get using this 111 x 2 = 222 2 = 220,similarly we follow
next steps
from 220 to 438 we get using this 220 x 2 = 440 2 = 438,
from 438 to ? we get using this 438 x 2 = 876 2 = 874,
from 874 to 1746 we get using this 874 x 2 = 1748 2 = 1746.
So the missing number is 874
Examples 2:
24, ?, 208, 622, 1864
Answer:
from 24 to ? we get using this 24 x 3 = 72 2 = 70, Similarly we follow next
steps
from 70 to 208 we get using this 70 x 3 = 210 2 = 208,
from 208 to 622 we get using this 208 x 3 = 624 2= 622,
from 622 to 1864 we get using this 622 x 3 = 1866 2 = 1864.
So the missing number is 70
Examples 3:
11, 24, 50, 102, 206, ?
Answer:
11 x 2 = 22 +2 = 24,
24 x 2 = 48 + 2 = 50,
50 x 2 = 100 + 2 = 102,
102 x 2 = 204 + 2 = 206,
206 x 2 = 412 + 2 = 414.
So the missing number is 414.

Example 4:
0, 6, 24, 60, 120, 210, ?
Answer :
The given series is : 1 1, 2 2, 3 3, 4 4, 5 5, 6 6,
3

So the missing term = 7 7 = 343 7 = 336 .


3

Example 5:
11, 14, 19, 22, 27, 30, ?
Answer :
The pattern is + 3, + 5, + 3, + 5,
So the missing term is = 30 + 5 = 35 .

Example 6:
6, 12, 21, ? , 48
Answer :
The pattern is + 6, + 9, + 12, +15 ..
So the missing term is = 21 + 12 = 33 .

Example 7:
18, 22, 30, ? ,78, 142
Answer :
The pattern is +4, +8, +16, +32, +64
So the missing term is = 30 + 16 = 46 .

Example 8:
589245773, 89245773, 8924577, 924577, ?
Answer :
The pattern is The digits are removed one by one from the beginning and the
end in order alternately, So to obtain the subsequent terms of the missing
series is = 92457 .

Example 9:
8, 35, ? , 143, 224, 323
Answer :
The pattern is (3 1), (6 1),., (12 1), (15 1), (18 1)
3

So the missing term is = (9 1 ) = 81 1 = 80 .


3

Example 10:
3, 7, 23, 95, ?
Answer :
The pattern is ( x 2 + 1 ),( x 3 + 2) , ( x 4 + 3 ) , .
So the missing term is = 95 x 5 + 4 = 479 .
Perfect Square Series
Here we see the some examples that how the perfect square are arranged
how the missing square series are arranged.
Example 1: 441, 484, 529, 576, ?,
Answer: 441 = 21 , 484 = 22 , 529 = 23 , 576 = 24 ,625 = 25 .
2

Example 2: 121, 144, 169, ?, 225


Answer: 121 = 11 , 144 = 12 , 169 = 13 , 196 = 14 , 225 = 15 .
2

Example 3: ?, 2116, 2209, 2304, 2401, 2500


Answer: 2025 = 45 , 2116 = 46 , 2304 = 48 , 2401 = 49 , 2500 = 50
2

Example 4: 961, 1024, ?, 1156, 1225


Answer: 961 = 31 , 1024= 32 , 1089 = 33 , 1156 = 34 , 1225 = 35 .
2

Example 5: 36, ?, 64, 81, 100, 121


Answer: 36 = 6 , 49 = 7 , 64 = 8 , 81 = 9 , 100 = 10 , 121 = 11 .
2

Example 6 : 121 , 169 , ? , 289 , 361


Answer : 11 = 121 , 13 = 169 , 15 = 225 , 17 = 289 , 19 = 361
2

Example 7 : 121 , 484 , 1089 , 1936 , ? , 4356


Answer : 11 = 121 , 22 = 484 , 33 = 1089 , 44 = 1936 , 55 = 3025 , 66 =
2

4356
Example 8 : 961 , 1024 , 1089 , ? 1225
Answer : 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35
2

Example 9 : 1849 , ? , 2025 , 2116 , 2209


Answer : 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47
2

Example 10 : 2500 , 2401 , 2304 , ? , 2116 , 2025


Answer : 50 , 49 , 48 , 47 , 46 , 45
2

What is Proportion?
The idea of proportions is that two ratio are equal.
If a : b = c : d, we write a : b : : c : d,
Ex. 3 / 15 = 1 / 5

a and d called extremes, where as b and c called mean terms.


Proportion of quantities
the four quantities a, b, c, d said proportion then we can express it
a:b=c:d
Then a : b : : c : d <> ( a x d ) = ( b x c )
product of means = product of extremes.
If there is given three quantities like a, b, c of same kind then then we can
say it proportion of continued.
a : b = b : c the middle number b is called mean proportion. a and c are
called extreme numbers.
So, b = ac. ( middle number ) = ( First number x Last number ).
2

Perfect Cube Series:


Example 1 : 1331 , ? , 35937 , 85184 , 166375
Answer : 11 , 22 , 33 , 44 , 55
3

Example 2 : 125, ?, 343, 512, 729, 1000


Answer : 125 = 5 , 216 = 6 , 343 = 7 , 512 = 8 , 729 = 9 , 1000 = 10 .
3

Example 3 : 1 , 9 , 125 , 343 , ? , 729


Answer : 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 8 , 9
3

Example 4 : 125, ?, 343, 512, 729, 1000


Answer: 125 = 5 , 216 = 6 , 343 = 7 , 512 = 8 , 729 = 9 , 1000 = 10 .
3

Example 5 : 8 , 64 , ? , 512 , 1000 , 1728


Answer : 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 10 , 12
3

Example 6 : 4096, 4913, 5832, ?, 8000


Answer: 4096 = 16 , 4913 = 17 , 5832 = 18 , 6859 = 19 , 8000 = 20 .
3

Example 7 : 1331 , ? , 29791 , 68921 132651


Answer : 11 , 21 , 31 , 41 , 51
3

Example 8 : 1331, 1728, 2197, ?


Answer: 1331 = 11 , 1728 = 12 , 2197 = 13 , 2744 = 14 .
3

Example 9: 1728, 1331, ?, 729, 512


Answer: 1728 = 12 , 1331 = 11 , 1000 = 10 , 729 = 9 , 512 = 8 .
3

Example 10 : 1000 , 8000 , ? ,64000 , 125000


Answer : 10 , 20 , 30 , 40 , 50
3

Example 11 : 125000 , 64000 , ? , 8000 , 1000


Answer : 50 , 40 , 30 , 20 , 10
3

Geometric Series:
Examples 1: 5, 45, 405, 3645, ?
Answer: 5 x 9 = 45, 45 x 9 = 405, 405 x 9 = 3645, 3645 x 9 = 32805.
Examples 2: 73205, 6655, 605, 55, ?
Answer: 5 x 11 = 55, 55 x 11 = 605, 605 x 11 = 6655, 6655 x 11 = 73205.
Examples 3: 25, 100, ?, 1600, 6400
Answer: 25 x 4 = 100, 100 x 4 = 400, 400 x 4 = 1600, 1600 x 4 = 6400.
Examples 4: 9, 54, ?, 1944, 11664
Answer: 9 x 6 = 54, 54 x 6 = 324, 324 x 6 = 1944, 1944 x 6 = 11664.

Quantitaive-Ratios-Proportions
What is Ratio?
A ratio is a relationship between two numbers by division of the same kind.
The ration of a to b is written as a : b = a / b In ratio a : b , we can say that a
as the first term or antecedent and b, the second term or consequent.
Example : The ratio 4 : 9 we can represent as 4 / 9 after this 4 is a
antecedent and , consequent = 9
Rule of ration : In ratio multiplication or division of each an every term of a
ratio by the same non- zero number does not affect the ratio.

Different type of ratio problem are given in Quantitative Aptitude which is a


very essential topic in banking exam. Under below given some more
example for your better practice.
Anything we learn in our school days was basics and that is well enough for
passing our school exams. Now the time has come to learn for our
competitive exams. For this we need our basics but also we have to learn
something new. Thats where shortcut tricks and formula are comes into
action.
What is Proportion?
The idea of proportions is that two ratio are equal.
If a : b = c : d, we write a : b : : c : d,
Ex. 3 / 15 = 1 / 5
a and d called extremes, where as b and c called mean terms.
Proportion of quantities
the four quantities a, b, c, d said proportion then we can express it
a:b=c:d
Then a : b : : c : d <> ( a x d ) = ( b x c )
product of means = product of extremes.
If there is given three quantities like a, b, c of same kind then then we can
say it proportion of continued.
a : b = b : c the middle number b is called mean proportion. a and c are

called extreme numbers.


So, b = ac. ( middle number ) = ( First number x Last number ).
2

Example 1:
If P : Q = 2 : 3 and Q : R = 4 : 5 , then R : P = ?
Answer :
P / R = ( P / Q x Q / R ) = ( 2 / 3 x 4 / 5 ) = 8 / 15
=R / P = 15 / 8 = R : P = 15 : 8.

Example 2: If P : Q : R = 2 : 3 : 4 , Then P / Q : Q / R : R / P = ?
Answer :
P : Q : R = 2 : 3 : 4 . Let P = 2k, Q = 3k, R = 4k. Then,
P / Q = 2k / 3k = 2 / 3 , Q / R = 3k / 4k = 3 / 4 and R / P = 4k / 2k = 2 / 1.
SO, P / Q : Q / R : R / P = 2 / 3 : 3 / 4 : 2 / 1 = 8 : 9 : 24 .

Example 3:
If 2P = 3Q = 4R, Then P : Q : R = ?
Answer :
Let 2P = 3Q = 4R = k , Then , P = k / 2, Q = k / 3 , R = k / 4.
SO , P : Q : R = k / 2 : k / 3 : k / 4 = 6 : 4 : 3.

Example 4:
If P : Q = 1 / 2 : 3 /8 , Q : R = 1 / 3 : 5 / 9 and R : S = 5 / 6 : 3 / 4 , Then P : Q :
R:S=?
Answer :
P : Q = 1 / 2 : 3 / 8 = 4 : 3 , Q : R = 1 / 3 : 5 / 9 = 3 : 5 and R : S = 5 / 6 : 3 / 4
= 10 : 9
P : Q = 4 : 3 , Q : R = 3 : 5 , R : S = 10 / 2 : 9 / 2 = 5 : 9 / 2
P : Q : R : S = 4 : 3 : 5 : 9 / 2 = 8 : 6 : 10 : 9 .

Example 5:
If P : Q = 2 : 3 , Q : R = 4 : 5 and R : S = 6 : 7 , then P : S = ?
Answer :
P / S = ( P / Q x Q / R x R / S ) = ( 2 /3 x 4 / 5 x 6 / 7 ) = 16 / 35 = P : S = 16 :
35 .

Example 6:
Rama distributes his pencil among his four friends Rakesh, Rahul, Ranjan, and
Rohit in the ratio 1 / 2 : 1 / 3 : 1 / 4 : 1 / 5 . What is the minimum number of
pencils that the person should have?
Answer : Rakesh : Rahul : Ranjan : Rohit = 1 / 2 : 1 / 3 : 1 / 4 : 1 / 5
Step 1: At First we need to do is LCM of 2,3,4 and 5 is 60.
Step 2: Then pencil are distributed in ratio among friends,
Rakesh = ( 1 / 2 x 60 ) = 30.
Rahul = ( 1 / 3 x 60 ) = 20.
Ranjan = ( 1 / 4 x 60 ) = 15.
Rohit = ( 1 / 5 x 60 ) = 12.
Step 3: Total number of pencils are ( 30 x + 20 x + 15 x + 12 x) = 77 x.
For minimum number of pencils x = 1 .
The person should have atleast 77 pencils.

Example 7:
Two numbers are respectively 40% and 60% more than third number.Find the
ration of two numbers ?
Answer :
Step 1: Let the third number is A
Then first number is 140% of A = 140 x A / 100 = 7A / 5 and second number
is 160% of B = 160 x B / 100 = 8B / 5.
Step 2: now ratio of first and second number is 7A / 5 : 8B / 5 = 35A : 40B = 7
: 8.

Example 8:
If 75 is divided into three parts proportional to 3, 5, 8, 9 then the smallest
part is :
Answer :
ratio is = 3 : 5 : 8 : 9, sum of ratio terms is = 25.
So the smallest part is = ( 75 x 3 / 25 ) = 9 .

Example 9:
If a : b = 3 : 7 and b : c = 5 : 9, find a : b : c .
Answer: A : B = 3 : 7, B : C = 5 : 9
= ( 5 x 7 / 5 ) : ( 9 x 7 / 5 ) = 7 : 63 / 5 .
= A : B : C = 3 : 7 : 63 / 5 = 15 : 35 : 63 .

Example 10:
If A : B = 4 : 9 and B : C = 3 : 6 , then A : C is :
Answer : (A / B = 4 / 9, B / C = 3 / 6 )
= A / C = ( A /B x B / C) = ( 4 / 9 x 3 / 6 ) = 2 / 9 = A : C = 2 : 9.

Example 1 :
On dividing a sum of Rs 832 between Paul and john in the ratio 1 / 3 : 1 / 5 ,
their shares are :
Answer :
So the given ratio is = 1 / 3 : 1 / 5 = 5 : 3
So , the 1st part = Rs ( 832 x 5 / 8 ) = Rs 520 , 2nd part = Rs ( 832 x 3 / 8 ) =
Rs 312
So , their shares are : 520 and 312 .

Example 2 :
Share Rs.4200 among joy, sanjay and bijoy in the ration 2 : 4 : 6.Find the
amount received by sanjay.

Answer :
Amount received by sanjay.
4 / 12 X 4200 = 1400= ( related ratio / sum of ratio ) x Total amount
So, the Amount received by sanjay is 1400.

Example 3 :
The Salary of Three friend A, B, C are divided into ratio 5 : 6 : 8.If the
increment has given of 10%, 20%, 25%, Find the new ratio of three friend
salary ?
Answer :
Step 1: We assume ration as 5x, 6x, 8x
now the increment of new salary is A = 110 / 100, B = 120 / 100, C = 125 /
100.
Step 2: A,s new salary is 110 X 5x / 100 = 55x / 10.
B,s new salary is 120 X 6x / 100 = 36x / 5.
C,s new salary is 125 X 8x / 100 = 10.
Step 3:New ratio is 55x / 10 : 36x / 5 : 10.

Example 4 :
Rs 1210 were divided among three person P, Q, R so that P : Q = 5 : 4 and Q :
R = 9 : 10. Then R gets the amount.
Answer :
P : Q = 5 : 4, Q : R = 9 : 10 = ( 9 x 4 / 9 ) : ( 10 x 4 / 9 ) = 4 : 40 / 9.
So, A : B : C = 5 : 4 : 40 /9 = 45 : 36 : 40
Sum of ratio terms is = ( 45 + 36 + 40 ) =121.
R share of amount is Rs (1210 x 36 / 121) = Rs. 400.

Example 5 :
Find the mean proportional between given two number that is 64 and 49.
Answer :
The mean proportion of two numbers is
Root of 64 and 49 is 8 x 7 = 8 x 7 = 56.
So, the mean proportional is 56.

Example 6 :
Rs 64000 are divided among three friends in the ratio 3 / 5 : 2 / 1 : 5 / 3 . The
share of the second friend is :
Answer :
Here the given ratio is = 3 / 5 : 2 / 1 : 5 / 3 = 9 : 30 : 50 .
So the Share of the second friend = Rs ( 64000 x 30 / 64) = 30000 .

Example 7 :
What number has to be added to each term of 3 : 5 to make the ratio 5 : 6 :
Answer :
Let the number to be added x , Then
3+x/5+x=5/6
6(3+x)=5(5+x)
x = ( 25 18 ) = 7
So , the number to be added is 7 .

Example 8 :
Rs. 385 were divided among P , Q , R in such a way that P had Rs 20 more
than Q and R had Rs 15 more than P . How much was Rs share ?
Answer :
Let Q gets Rs x. Then We can say P gets Rs (x + 20 ) and R gets Rs ( x + 35) .
x + 20 + x + x + 35 = 385
3x = 330
x = 110 .
Rs share = Rs ( 110 + 35 ) = Rs 145 .

Quantitaive-Permutation
General Rule and Formula
Permutation and combination methods related math calculation are given in

bank exams so its important to learn for exams.


Factorial Notation : Let n be a positive integer..Then,Factorial n,denoted by
n or n! is defined as :

n! = n ( n 1 ) ( n 2 ) .3.2.1.

1.

Ex. 5! = ( 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 ) = 120;

2.

Ex. 4! = (1 x 2 x 3 x 4 ) = 24;

3.

Ex. 3 = ( 1 x 2 x 3 ) = 6;

1! = 1

0! = 1

Permutation : The different arrangements of a given number or things by


taking some or all at a time , are called Permutations.

All permutations (or arrangements) made with the letters of a, b, c by


taking two at a time are ( ab, ba, ac, ca, bc, cb )

All permutations made with the letters a, b, c, taking all at a time are :
( abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba ).

Number of Permutations : Number of all permutations of n things, taken r


at a time, is given by :
n

p r = n ( n 1 ) ( n 2 )(n r + 1 ) = n! / ( n r ) !
1.

Ex. p
6

= ( 6 x 5 ) = 30 .
2.

Ex. p
7

= ( 7 x 6 x 5 ) = 210 ;
Note: Number of all permutation that is n things, we can take all at a
time = n!
Examples: 6! / 2! = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 / 1 x 2 = 360.

Q.In how many several ways the word HATE can be arranged, that
the vowels not come together?
A.First of all we need to know how many vowel in this given word, here is two
vowel that is A and E.

then we count the consonant that is Two.Now we count the number of vowel
as a single unit that is vowel A and E count as single unit and add it with
consonant so we have a three unit.
(2 consonant + two vowel as single unit ) = 3 x 2( two vowel)
Note: If we Subtract total number ways from within vowel ways than
we get the not come together ways,
So, ( 4! 3! x 2! ) = 12

Q.In how many several ways the word CAME can be arranged,that
the vowels not come together?
A.First of all we need to know how many vowel in this given word, here is two
vowel that is A and E.
then we count the consonant that is Two.Now we count the number of vowel
as a single unit that is vowel A and E count as single unit and add it with
consonant so we have a three unit.
(2 consonant + two vowel as single unit ) = 3 x 2( two vowel)
Note: If we Subtract total number ways from within vowel ways than
we get the not come to-gather ways,
So, ( 4! 3! x 2! ) = 12.

Quantitaive-Percentages
Basic fact and Formula
i. Now 1% we can express it as a 1%=1/100. Similarly we can write
10%=10/100 and 50%=50/100 ( 50 part of total 100 part ).
1.

If a student get 40% marks in Math that means student got marks in
math is 40 out of 100 of full marks.

1.

To Express p/q as a percentage:

We express it as p/q = (p/qx100)% .


so we can express like 1/4 = (1/4100)% = 25% .
and Now, 0.4 = 4/10 = (4/10 x 100)% = 40% .

IV. If the price of a commodity increases by R%,then the reduction in


consumption as not to increase the expenditure is [R/(100+R)x100]%

V. If the price of a commodity decreases by R%,then the increase in


consumption as not to decrease the expenditure is [R/(100-R)x100]%

VI. Results on Population :


Let the population of a town be P now and suppose it increases at the rate of
R% per annul, then :
1. Population after n years = P(1+R/100)
2. Population n years ago = P/(1+R/100)

VII. Result on Depreciation :


Let the present value of a machine be P. Suppose it depreciates at the rate
of R% per annul, then :
1. Value of the machine after n years =P(1-R/100) .
n

2. Value of the machine n years ago = P/(1-R/100) .


n

VIII.
If A is R% more then B, then B is less than A by
[R/(100+R)x100]% .
If A is R% less than B, then B is more than A by
[R/(100-R)x100]% .
Remember it :
It help in fast calculation in percentage:

1 = 100%

1/3 = 331/3%

1/2 = 50%

1/5 = 20%

1/4 = 25%

1/7 = 142/7%

1/6 = 162/3%

1/9 = 111/9%

1/8 = 121/2%

1/11 = 91/11%

1/10 = 10%

1/13 = 79/13%

1/12 = 81/3%

Percentage Type1 Shortcut Tricks


Example 1:
If the difference between 45% of a number and 3/5th of that number is 18.
What is the number?
Solution:
Let the number be a .
Then a x 45% a x 3/5 = 18
a x 45% a x 60% = 18 ( 60% = 3/5 )
a x 15% =18
a = 10018 = 1800/15 = 120
Tricks:
we know 3/5 = 30%
45% 30% = 15 %
15% = 18 = 120
Find the missing term

? % of 35 = 672

Let x % of 35 = 672
Then, (x / 100) of 35 = 672
672 x 100 =67200 / 35 = 1920
Example 3:
Sixty-five percent of a number is 21 less than four-fifth of that number. What
is the number?
Solution:
Let the number be Y.
Then, 4 / 5 Y -( 65% of Y ) = 21
4 / 5 Y 65 / 100Y = 21
15Y = 2100
Y = 140.
Example 4:
In expressing a length 81.472 Km as nearly as possible with three significant

digits , Find the percentage error.


Solution :
Error = ( 81.5 81.472 )Km = 0.028.
So Required percentage = ( 0.028 /81.472 X 100 )% = 0.034%.
Example 5:
The ratio 6 : 4 expressed as a percent equals to as.
Solution :
6:4=6/4
6 / 4 = (6 / 4 x 100 )%
= 150%

Example 6:
Evaluate the Example ?
25% x 280 + 24% x 750
Solution:
25 / 100 x 280 + 24 /100 x 750
70 + 180 = 250

Example 7 :
The difference between 60% of a number and 30% of the same number is
24500 . What is 75% of that number ?
Answer :
difference between 60% of a number and 30% of the same number is 24500
60% 30% = 24500
30% = 24500
24500 x 100 / 30
So , 75% of that number is = 24500 x 75 / 30
= 2450 x 25 = 61250 .

Example 8 :
A Nokia dealer sold a smart phone at 15% discount on print rate . If the
customer paid Rs , 8500 and the printed price is 25%more than its cost
price , What is the cost price of smart phone ?

Answer :
Cost price of smart phone = 8500 x 100 / 85 x 100 / 125
=85000000 / 10625 = 8000 .

Example 9 :
Evaluate the Example ?
52% of 8540 + 15% of 7860 = ? + 2540
Answer :
4440.8 + 1179 = ? + 2450
5619.8 2540 = ?
? = 3079.8

Example 10 :
Evaluate the Example ?
58% of 30102 32% of 17344
Answer :
17459.16 5550.08 = ?
? = 11909.08

Percentage Type2 Shortcut Tricks


Example 1:
Bibhas work in shop and his 30% of income is Rs.1800 . Now Find the 65% of
his income and also find the 1 / 5 of Bibhas income .

Solution: 30% = 1800 So, 65% = 1800 x 65 / 30 = 3900

Shortcut Trick: 1800 x 65 / 30 = 3900.

Solution: we know that 1 / 5 = 20% so, 1800 x 20 / 30 = 1200.

Example 2:
Bibhas s salary was decreased by 20% and subsequently increased by 20%,
How much percent does he lose?

Solution:
Let Bibhass original salary = Rs.100
Now salary is = 120% of 20% of 100 = 150 / 100 x 80 / 100 x 100 = 24.
So, Bibhas Decrease salary is = 4%

Example 3:
Nilam who invest 25% of her income and she is able to save Rs.1500 per
month.How much money her monthly expenses (in Rs.) :
Solution :
Let her monthly income be Rs. X
Then ( 100 25)% of X = 1500
(75 % of X) = 1500
(75 /100) x X = 1500
X = 1500 x 100 / 75
X = 2000
Monthly expenses is = Rs.(2000 1500) = Rs. 500

Example 4 :
Karans monthly income is Rs. 14000 . If his monthly income is increased by
10% . Find the total income after 2 months ?
Solution :
= 14000 x 110 x 110 / 100 x 100
= 16940

Example 5 :
If the sum of 40% & 20% of a number is 425 . Find the 75% of that number ?
Answer :
40% + 20% = 520
60% = 520
1% = 520 / 60
75% = 520 x 75 / 60 = 650

Example 6 :
If the product of 15% & 20% of a number is 360 . Find the sum of the 15%
and 20% of that number ?
Answer :
15% x 20% = 360
300% = 360
1% = 360 / 300
Sum of ( 15 + 20 )% = 35%
35% = 360 x 35 / 300 = 42

Example 7 :
If Rahuls income is 20% more than Rohan then how much % Rohans income
is less than that of Rahuls income ?
Answer :
We applied formula = ( increment% / 100 + increment% ) x 100
20 / 100 + 20 = 20 x 100 / 120 = 50 / 3

Example 8 :
Jamals salary is increased by 10% & he got now Rs. 6000 . Find the salary
before the increase ?
Answer :
6000 x 100 / 110 = 5454.54

Example 9 :
Falgunis salary is 40% of Dipika salary which is 25% of Rimas salary . What
percentage of Rimas salary is Falgunis salary ?
Answer :
Falguni : Dipika : Rima = 40 : 100 : 400
= 2 : 5 : 20
So , Required percent = 2 x 100 / 20 = 10%

Example 10 :
If X = p % of q and Y = q % of p, then which of the following is true?
a)X is smaller than Y.
b)Relation between X and Y cannot be determined.
c)If p is smaller than q,then X is greater than Y.
d)None of these.
Answer :
p % of q = p x q / 100
q % of p = q x p / 100
So, X = Y
So both are equal.
Ans : d.

Example 1:
Bijoy spend his money from his saving in different way that is he spends 30%
on travel,10% on food,15% on wages and 22% on purchase a bike and after
that all expenditure he saved 4600.Find the how much he spent on bike.
Solution:
Let the total income of bijoy x. then total expenditure from income X x (30%
+10%+15%+22%)=X x 77% =Total savings= X x 23%
X = 4600 x 100 / 23 = 20000 and expenditure on Bike = 22% so,20000 x 22 /
100 = 4400.
Shortcut Tricks
The total income as 100% so ,(100% 30%+10%+15%+22%) = 77% and
now (100% 77% ) = 23%
Bike Expenditure is now 4600 x 22 / 23 = 4400.

Example 2:
If X is 80% of Y, then What percent of X is Y ?
Solution :
X = 80 / 100 x Y

X=4/5xY
Y / X = 5 / 4.

Example 3 :
What is 25% of 25% equal to ?
Answer :
25% of 25% = 25 / 100 x 25 / 100 = 1 / 16 = 0.0625.

Example 4:
Subtracting 60% of a number from the number, We get the result as 20. The
number is :
Solution :
Let the number is x, then ,
x 60 / 100x = 20
x 3 / 5 = 20
2x / 5 = 20
x = 20 x 5 / 2 = 50.

Example 5 :
54.5% of 600 + 30.5% of 1800 = (?) + 147
Answer :
327 + 549 = (?) + 147
(?) = 729
? = 27

Example 6 :
In Mumbai due to reduction by 10% in the price of sugar , a person is able to
buy 2kg more for Rs . 280 . Find the reduced rate/kg of sugar ?
Answer :
10% of 280 is due to reduction of price in sugar
Rs . 28 = 2kg
Rs . 14 = 1kg

Example 7:
In an party election between two candidates, one got 45% of the total valid
votes, 20% of the votes were invalid. If the total number of votes was 7500,
the number of valid votes that the other candidate got, was
Answer :
Number of valid votes
= 80% of 7500
= ( 80 / 100 ) x7500 = 6000.
one got 45% of the votes
So other Valid votes polled by other candidate = 55% of 6000
= (55/100)6000 = 3300.
the number of valid votes that the other candidates got is 3300.

Example 8 :
In an general election a candidate who gets 64% of the total votes and wins
by 476 votes . What is the total number of votes polled ?
Answer :
64% ( 100% 64% )
= 64% 36%
= 28% = 476
= 476 x 100 / 28 = 1700

Example 9 :
If the sugar price is increased by 8% , then by how much percent should a
housewife reduce her consumption of sugar , to have no extra expenditure ?
Answer :
Less% = 8 x 100 / 108
= 800 / 108
= 7.40%

Example 10 :
If the price of diesel is increased by 25% , by how much percent a car owner
must reduce his consumption in order to maintain the same budget ?
Answer :
25% = 25 x 100 / 125 = 20% less
20% a car owner must reduce his consumption in order to maintain the same
budget .

Example 1 :
In a class test , it is required to get 45% marks to pass . Joy got 618 marks
and failed by 57 marks . What is the maximum marks in class test ?
Answer :
Joy got 618 marks and failed by 57 marks
X x 45% = 618 + 57
X x 45% = 675
X = 675 x 100 / 45 = 1500

Example 2 :
Sanjay got 88 marks in Hindi , 81 marks in Science , 74 marks in Maths , 68
marks in Social Science and 57 marks in History . The maximum marks of
each subject is 100 . How much overall percentage of marks did he get ?
Answer :
Percentage = 368 x 100 / 500 = 73.6

Example 3 :
The average marks of Rahim in 9 subject is 68 . His average marks in 7
subjects except Math is 65 . How many marks did he get in Math ?
Answer :
( 68 x 9 ) ( 65 x 7 ) = ?
612 455 = 157

Example 4 :
Ranjan got 82 marks in Math , 78 marks in Physics , 65 marks in Computer ,
68 marks in English , The maximum marks of each subject are 85 . How much
overall percetage of marks did ranjan get ?
Answer :
Total marks get in all subject ( 82 + 78 + 65 + 68 ) = 293
Maximum marks ( 85 x 4 ) = 340
Percentage = 293 x 100 / 340 = 86.17

Example 5 :
A engineering student has to secure 60% marks to pass . He gets 70 and
fails by 50 marks . Find the maximum marks .
Answer :
He gets 70 and fails by 50
So , 60% = 70 + 50
60% = 120
100% = 120 x 100 / 60 = 200 marks
So , the maximum marks is 200 .

Example 6 :
A student scores 25% & failed by 35 marks while another student who scores
65% get 45 marks more than minimum required marks to pass . Find the
maximum marks in the exam ?
Answer :
25% 35 = 65% g+ 45
65% 25% = 45 + 35
40% = 80
100% = 80 x 100 / 40 = 200 marks

Example 7 :
In an examination it is required to get 57% of the aggregate marks to pass . A
student gets 237 marks and is declared failed by 7% marks . What are the
maximum aggregate marks a student can get ?

Answer :
57% = 237 + 7%
57% 7% = 237
50% = 237
100% = 237 x 100 / 50 = 474

Example 8 :
A student has obtain 34% of the total marks to pass in paper. He got 113 and
failed by 40 marks. The maximum marks are :
Answer :
Let the maximum number is X
Then , 34% of X = 113 + 40
34 / 100 x X = 153
X =153 x 100 / 34
X = 15300 / 34 = 450

Example 9 :
Raju has to score 60% to pass exam . He scores 225 marks & failed by 15% .
Find the maximum marks of exam .
Answer :
60% 15% = 225
45% = 225
100% = 225 x 100 / 45
= 500 marks .

Example 10 :
If N is equals to 20% of M and P is equals to 30% of N, then which one of the
following equals to 40% of P?
Answer :
N = 20% of M = ( 20 / 100 ) x M = 0.2M.
P = 30% of N = ( 30 / 100 ) x N = 0.3N = 0.3 x 0.2M.
So here 40% of P = ( 40 / 100 ) x P = ( 0.4 )( 0.3 )( 0.2M )
= 0.024M

Example 1:
35% of 250 + 25% of 350
Solution:
35 X 2.50 + 25 X 3.50 = 87.5 + 87.5 = 175
( We can write 250 / 100 = 2.50 and 350 / 100 = 3.50 when any number
divide by 100 then put the two decimal point above the number which help in
quick calculation )

Example 2:
20% of 400 + 60% of 800
Solution: 20 x 4 + 60 x 8 = 560( We can write 400 / 100 = .4 and 800 / 100
= .8 when any number divide by 100 then put the two decimal point above
the number which help in quick calculation ).
Example3:
48 % of 200gm 18% of 400gm
Solution:
48 x 2 = 96, 18 x 4 = 72, ( 96 72 ) = 24.
Example4:
5 is what percent of 50 ?
Solution:
(5 / 50)= 10 and (100/10)% = 10%

Example 5:
A is six times as large as B. The percent that B less than A, is:
Solution :
A = 6B So, B is less than A by 5B
Required percentage is :
(5B / 100)% = (5B / 6B x 100)% = 250 / 3 %

Example 1:
If a town the present population is 52500 and it is decreased by 20% per
annul .What will be its population 2 years hence.
Solution:
We know
Population after n year = P(1+R/100)n
So Here we
P = 52500
R=20% ( decreased )
n = 2 years.
Population after 2 years
Short Tricks :
= 52500 x 80/100 x 80/100
= 33600

Example 2 :
The population of a city increases by 5% annually. If its population in 2010
was 138915 then, What it was in 2007 ?
Solution :
We need to find the population of city 3 years back.and also the population of
a city increases by 5% annually.
So the population of city was in 2007
=138915 / (1 + 5%)^3
=138915 / (1 + 5 / 100)^3
=138915 x ( 20 / 21 x 20 / 21 x 20 / 21 )
= 120000.

Example 3:
The population of a city was 2 years ago 62500. cause of migration
population decreases every year at the rate of 4 %. Find the present
population of the city.
Solution :
due to some migration population was decreases at a particular rate so

Present population of that city is


=62500 x ( 1 4 %)^2
=62500 x ( 1 4 / 100)^2
=62500 x ( 24 / 25 x 24 / 25 )
=57600.

Example 4:
The population of city was 1,60,000 three years ago. If it increased by 3%,
2.5% and 5% respectively in the last three years , then Find the present
population of the city.
Solution :
Here population increased by continuous three years respectively, So Present
population is the city is
=160000 x (1 + 3 / 100 )( 1 + 5 / 2 x 100 )( 1 + 5 / 100 )
= 160000 x 103 / 100 x 41 / 40 x 21 / 20
=1777366.

Example 5 :
60% of the population of a city are men and 15% are women . If the number
of children are 20000 , then the number of men will be of that city ?
Answer :
25% = 20000
60% = 20000 x 60 / 25 = 48000 .

Example 6 :
The total population of a village is 6000 . The number of males and females
increases by 10% and 20% respectively and consequently the population of
the village becomes 7500 . What was the number of males in the village ?
Answer :
The total % increased population
= 7500 6000 x 100 / 6000
= 1500 x 100 / 6000 = 25%

By allegation method
Male

Female

+10

+20

+25
5

15

Male population before increment


= 6000 x 5 / 20 = 1500

C P( Cost Price ):
The Price at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price or In shot
called C P.
Cost price is amount of money goes out from us when purchase any article.
SP( Selling Price ):
The price at which an article is sold, called its selling price or In short called
SP.
Selling Price is a amount of money came in when selling by any thing.
Profit or Gain:
If S.P. is greater than C.P, then seller is said to have a profit or gain.
Loss:
If S.P. is less than C.P., the seller said to have a loss.
Marked Price :
When we purchase any item we saw the label price or marked Price or listed
Price and denoted by MP.

When we Add Simple Interest into Principle.It becomes into Amount.

Formulas Need to Remember

S.I =( P X R X T / 100 ).
Here, P = Principle.
R = Rate per annul.
T = Number of years.
Formula:
In case S.I ( Simple Interest ), T ( Number of years ) and R (Rate per
annul ) are given in Question then we can easily find the Principle or Sum.
P = ( S.I X 100 / R X T ).
Formula:
In case S.I ( Simple Interest ), T ( Number of years ) and P
( Principle ) are given in question then we can easily find the R (Rate per
annul ).
R = ( S.I X 100 / P X T ).

Example 1:
Find the simple interest on Rs 500 for 5 years at 5 per cent ?
Answer :
SI = 500 x 5 x 5 / 100
Simple interest in 5 years is Rs 125 .

Example 1: Find the Simple Interest on Rs. 75000 at 4% per annul for 4
years.
Solution:
we know principle
P = Rs. 75000
R% = 4 per annul
T year = 4 years.
we just put the value into formula.
P = Rs. 75000, R = 4% p.a ( per annul ) T = 4 years.
S.I = ( P X R X T / 100 ) = 75000 X 4 X 4 /100 = 12000.
So the S.I is 12000.

Example 2: Find the Simple Interest on Rs. 40000 at 25 / 4 % per annul for
the period from 4th January, 2013 to 18th march, 2013.
Solution:
Step 1: First we calculate the period of time taken that is = January = (31
4) = 27 days, February = 28 days, March = 18 day. Add all together ( 27 +
28 + 18 ) = 73 / 365 year = 1 / 5 years.
Step 2: we know Principle P = 40000, and R = 25 / 4 % p.a.
Step 3: S.I = Rs. ( 40000 X 25 X 1 X 1 / 4 X 100 X 5 ) = Rs. 500
So the S.I is 500.
Example 3:
What will be the Ration of the Simple interest earned by certain amount at
the same rate of interest for 5 years and 7 years ?
Answer :
step 1: Let Principle P and Rate of interest be R %.
So Required interest of 5 years is S.I = PRT / 100 = P x R x 5 / 100 = 5PR /
100.
Required interest of 7 years is S.I = PRT / 100 = P x R x 7 / 100 = 7PR / 100.
Step 2: Required ration is = 5PR / 7PR = 5 / 7 = 5 : 7.
So Required Ration is 5 : 7.
Example 4:
On amount of 7530 at the rate of 18 p.c.p.a for 6 years What will be the
simple interest ?
Answer :
S.I = PRT / 100
S.I = 7530 x 18 x 6 / 100
S.I = 8132.40
So the simple interest is 8132.40

Example 1:
At what rate percent annul will a sum of money double in a 4 years.
Answer :

Let Principle is = P.Then S.I = P and Time = 4 years.


S.I. = ( PRT/100 ).
So, R = ( 100X P / P X T ) %.
R = 25%
Similarly we learn another example:
Example 2:
A sum of money is in double in 12 years At what rate percentper annul.
Answer :
Let Principle = P. Then S.I = P and T is given 12 years.
Rate = ( 100 X P / P X 12 ) = 8.33%
So R = 8.33 %
Example 3:
If the Simple interest accrued in 8 years on a principal of Rs.40,000/- is 8000
of the principal.What is the rate of simple interest p.c.p.a?
Answer :
SI = PRT / 100
Let the rate of simple interest is x
So
x = 100 x 8000 / 40000 x 8
x = 2.5
So the rate of simple interest is 2.5.
Example 4:
What is the rate of p.c.p.a ? If the simple interest accrued on amount of
Rs.25500 at the end of 3 years is 9180.
Answer :
we know the formula is S.I = PRT / 100
So, S.I = 9180 , P = 25500 , T = 3 years , R = ?
9180 = 25500 x R x 3 / 100
R = 9180 / 765 = 12 %
So rate of p.c.p.a = 12 %

Example 1:
Samar take a sum from Anup at simple interest at 25x / 2 per
annul and amounts to Rs.3202.50 after 6 years.Find the Sum or
Principle taken by Samar from Anup .
Answer :
First We consider sum is x and Rate percent is 25x / 2 and Time is 6
years, So
Step 1:Then S.I. = Rs. P X R X T / 100 = 3x / 4.
Step 2: Amount = Sum + Simple Interest = x + 3x / 4 = 7x / 4.
Step 3: 7x / 4 = 3202.50 and x = 3202.50 X 4 / 7 = 1830.
Samar taken sum from Anup is 1830.
Example 2:
Suresh take a sum of money at simple interest amounts to Rs.985 in 2
years and to Rs. 885 in 3 yearsfind The sum of money suresh was taken.
Answer :
Step 1: Simple interest in 1 year is = Rs.( 985 885 ) = 100.
Step 2: Simple Interest in 2 years = Rs.100 X 2 = 200.
Step 3: So, Principle = ( 985 200 ) = 785.
Example 3:
John borrowed some money at the rate of 4% p.a for the First 3 years. at rate
of 7% p.a. for the next 4 years. If he pays a total interest of Rs. 12,600 at the
end of seven years, how much money did he borrow?
Answer :
Let sum borrowed x then P = x
( P X R X T / 100 )
( x X 4 X 3 / 100) + ( x X 7 X 4 / 100) = 12600
( 3x / 25 + 7x / 25 ) = 12600
10x / 25 = 12600
x = 12600 x 25 / 10
x = 31500
So, sum he borrowed = Rs. 31500
Example 4:

What is the amount of Rs.16000 at 5% per annul compound interest in 3


years?
Answer :
Time = 3
rate = 5%
16000 x ( 105 / 100 ) = 16000 x 1157625 / 1000000
= 18522
So the amount is 18522.

Some important formula of Compound Interest


A = Amount.
P = Principal.
R = Rate of Interest.
N = Number of Years.

Type I : When interest compounded yearly :


A = P ( 1 + r / 100 )

Type II : When interest compounded half yearly :


Amount = P [ 1 + r / 2 / 100 ] or = P = [ 1 + r / 200 ]
4n

2n

Type III : When interest compounded quarterly :


Amount = P [ 1 + r / 4 / 100 ] or = P [ 1 + r / 400 ]

4n

In Compound Interest problems asked in exams up to the period of 3 years .

In case we apply basic formula : Amount = Principle ( 1 + r / 100 )

here r

= Rate and n = Time


As consider if Principle is Rs. 1 , then the it will be in first year and second
and third years .
( 1 + r / 100 )1
( 1 + r / 100 )

( 1 + r / 100 )

If the rate of interest is 5% , then the value will be .


In first year = (21 / 20 ) = 21 / 20 .
In second year = ( 21 / 20 ) = 441 / 400 .
2

In Third year = ( 21 / 20 ) = 676 / 625 .


3

Quantitaive-Partnership
Example 1:
Anil, Mukesh and Ritesh started a business eachINVESTING Rs.20,000. After
4 month Anil withdraws Rs.6000, Mukesh withdraws Rs.8000, RiteshINVEST
Rs.6000 more At the end of the years,a total profit was Rs.65600. Find the
share of each.
Answer:
Ratio capital of Anil, mukesh and Ritesh.
= ( 20,000 x 4 + 14000 x 8 ) : ( 20,000 x 4 + 12000 x 8 ) : ( 20,000 x 4 +
26000 x 8 )
= 192000 : 176000 : 288000
Anil share = (65600 x 192 / 656 ) = 192000
Mukesh share = ( 65600 x 176 / 656 ) = 176000
Ritesh share = (65600 x 288 / 656 ) = 288
So, here we learn and find how the share of each members from
annual profit of withdrawn money after month.

Example 2:
Joy started a business and heINVESTED in 76000, After some month, amar
came to join with him andINVEST 57000.The end of the year the total profit
was divided among them into ratio form 2 : 1.Find after how many months
amar join.
Answer :
Step 1: we can assume that amar join into business after x months.So amar
money wasINVEST into ( 12 x ) months.
Step 2: 76000 x 12 / 57000 x ( 12 x ) = 2 / 1
912000 = 114000 ( 12 x ) = 114 ( 12 x ) = 912
=x=4
After 4 months amar join the business.

Example 1:
Anil, Mukesh and Ritesh started a business byINVESTING

Rs. 125000

Rs. 150000 and Rs.175000 respectively. Find the share of each, out of
an annual profit of Rs. 93,600.
Answer :
Ration of share Anil, Mukesh and Ritesh = Ratio of theirINVESTMENT
Anil : Mukesh : Ritesh = 125000 : 150000 : 175000 = 5 : 6 : 7
Anil share = Rs. [93600 x 5 / 18 ] = 26000.
Mukesh share = Rs. [93600 x 6 / 18 ] = 31200.
Ritesh share = Rs. [93600 x 7 / 18 ] = 36400.
So, here we learn and find how the share of each members from
annual profit

Example 2:
Samir started a software business byINVESTING Rs. 40,000 . After six
months , Nitish Joined him with a capital of Rs. 60,000 . After 3 years , they
earned a profit of Rs . 27,900 . What was Samirs share in the profit ?
Answer :
Short tricks : Samir : Nitish share of capital
= ( 40,000 x 36 ) : ( 60,000 x 30 ) = 1440000 : 1800000 = 4 : 5 .
Samirs share is = Rs . 27900 x 4 / 9 = Rs. 12400.

Example 3 :
Jon and Harry started a partnership businessINVESTING some amount of
money in the ratio of 2 : 3 . Ron joined them after six months with an amount
equal to that of Harry . In what proportion should the profit at the end of one
year be distributed among Jon , Harry and Ron ?
Answer :
Short tricks :
Let the initialINVESTMENT money ratio of Jon and Harry is 2x and 3x
So Jon , Harry and Ron ratio ofINVESTMENT is ( Jon : Harry : Ron ) = (2x X 12
) : ( 3x X 12 ) : ( 3x X 6 ) = 24 : 36 : 18 = 4 : 6 : 3 .

Quantitaive-Interest-Calculations
What is Principle?
The money borrowed for a certain time period called Principle or Sum.
What is Amount?
The Addition of Simple Interest and Principle is called the Amount.
A = S.I + P ( Principle ).
S.I = A ( Amount ) P ( Principle ).
What is Per annul means?
Per annul means For a year.

P = Principle
R = Rate of per annul
T = Number of years

Quantitaive-Boats-Streams
Important Facts and Formula

First thing is : The speed of water or stream that denoted by v km/hr.

Second thing is : Speed of boat or boatman in calm water which we


denoted by u km/hr.

Speed downstream = ( u + v ) km / hr

Speed upstream = ( u v ) km / hr.

Third thing is : In water, the direction along with stream is called


Downstream.

Four thing is : The direction of boat against the stream is called


Upstream.

If the speed downstream is x km / hr and the speed upstream is y km /


hr, then :

Speed in still water = 1 / 2 ( x + y ) km / hr

Rate of Stream = 1 / 2 ( x y ) km / hr .

Example 1:
If a boat goes 7km upstream in 21km and the stream is 5 kmph, then the the
speed of the boat ?
Answer :
Rate of stream = d / t = 7 x 60 / 21 = 20 kmph.
Let speed in still water be x km / hr.

Then, speed upstream = (x 5 ) km /hr.


So, ( x 5 ) = ( 20 5 ) = 15 km /hr.

Example 2
A boat can travel with a speed of 14 km / hr in still water.if the speed of the
stream is 4 km/ hr, find the time taken to go 72 km downstream.
Answer :
Speed of downstream (14 + 4 ) = 18 km/ hr
Time taken to travel 72 km downstream
= 72 / 18 = 4 hrs
So time taken to go downstream is 4 hrs.
Example 3:
A man can row upstream at 10 km /hr And downstream at 18 kmph.what is
the speed of the stream ?
Answer :
Speed of stream = 1 / 2(a b )
1 / 2 ( 18 10 ) kmph = 4 kmph .

Example 3:
Jonny can row a certain distance downstream in 8 hours and upstream the
distance in 10 hours , If the stream flows rate at of 4 km / hour then , Find the
speed of jonny in still water .
Answer :
Speed of jonny in still water be z km /hr
downstream speed = ( u v)
upstream speed = ( u + v)
Shortcut tricks :
Speed of jonny in still water is =
rate ( upstream speed + downstream speed / upstream speed downstream
speed )
4 ( 10 + 8 ) / 10 8 = 36 km / hr .

Example 1:
A boy can row upstream at 6 km/hr and downstream at 12
km/hr.find boys rate in still water and the rate of current ?
Answer :
We Know the formula of
Rate in still water that is = 1 / 2 ( x + y )km /hr
So we applied formula 1 / 2 ( 12 + 6 ) = 1 / 2 X 18 = 9 km/ hr. and
we also know the formula of
Rate of current that is = 1 / 2 ( x y )km /hr
So we applied formula of 1 / 2 ( 12 6 ) = 3 km / hr.

Example 2:
A man can go 40 km/hr upstream 36 km/hr downstream . Find the speed of
current & speed of man in still water ?
Answer :
So , Speed of current Y is
=UV/2
= 40 36 / 2 = 4 / 2
= 2 km/hr .
So , Speed of man in still water x is
=U+V/2
= 40 + 36 / 2
= 38 km/hr .

Example 3 :A boy can row downstream at 24 km and upstream 16 km . If he


takes 8 hours to cover each distance , then what is the velocity of the current
?
Answer :
The rate of downstream = 24 / 8 km/hr ,
The rate of upstream = 16 / 8 km /hr .

So , the velocity of the current is 1 / 2 ( 24 / 8 16 / 8 ) km /hr = 8 / 8 = 1 km


/hr

Example 1:
Find the speed of current and speed of Sharmistha in still water .when
Sharmistha can go 40Km / hr upstream and 54Km / hr downstream ?
Answer :
upstream speed is = 40Km / hr and downstream speed is = 54 Km / hr.So,
Speed of a current
=UV/2
= 54 40 / 2 = 14 / 2 = 7 Km /hr.
So Speed of current 7Km / hr.
Speed of main in still water
U+V /2 = 54 + 40 / 2 = 47 Km / hr.
Speed of main in still water is 47Km / hr.

Example 2:
A small ship covers a certain distance downstream in 1 hour ,when it comes
back in 3 /2 hours . If the speed of the stream be 4 km/hr ,
what is the speed of the boat in still water ?
Answer :
Suppose the speed of the ship in still water be x km/hr , Then
speed of downstream = ( x + 4 ) km /hr .
speed of upstream = ( x 4 ) km /hr .
So , ( x + 4 ) x 1 = ( x 4 ) x 3 / 2
2x + 8 = 3x 12
= 3x 2x = -12 8
= x = 20 km /hr .

Example 3:
Jonnycan row a certain distance downstream in 8 hours and upstream the
distance in 10 hours , If the stream flows rate at of 4 km / hour then , Find the
speed of jonny in still water .
Answer :
Speed of jonny in still water be z km /hr
downstream speed = ( u v)
upstream speed = ( u + v)
Shortcut tricks :
Speed of jonny in still water is =
rate ( upstream speed + downstream speed / upstream speed downstream
speed )
4 ( 10 + 8 ) / 10 8 = 36 km / hr .

Quantitaive-Average Methods
Formula:
Average: = ( Sum of observations / Number of observations ).
Find the Average Speed
Suppose Rahulcovers a certain distance at P Kmph and an equal distance at
O Kmph. Then,
the average speed during the whole journey is (2PO / P + O ) Kmph.
Find the Average of all numbers ?
There are Five Numbers,we are going to calculate the average of 29, 31, 33,
37, 49.
Average = (29 + 31 + 33 + 37 + 49 ) / 5 = 179 / 5 = 35.8.

Example 1:
The average of five numbers is 29. if one number is exclude the average
becomes 27. what is the exclude number ?

Answer :
let the exclude number is
= ( 29 x 5 ) ( 27 x 4 )
= 145 108
= 37 .

Example 1:
Find the average of first 20 natural numbers ?
Answer :
Sum of first n natural numbers = n ( n + 1 ) /2
So, we can find easily average of first 20 natural numbers 20 x 21 / 2 = 210
So, then Required average is = 210 / 20 = 10.5.

Example 3:
Find the average of first 20 multiplies of 5 .
Answer:
Required average = 5 ( 1 + 2 + 3 +.. + 20) /20
= ( 5 x 20 x 21 / 20 x 2) = 2100 / 40 = 52.5 .
So the Required average is 52.5.

Example 4 :
The average of 13 result is 40 , that of the first six is 30 and that of the last
six is 32 . Find the value of the 7th number .
Answer :
Shortcut tricks :
7th number = Total of 13 result ( Total of first six + Total of last six results )
= 13 x 40 ( 6 x 30 + 6 x 32 )
= 520 180 + 192
= 148 .

Quantitaive-Ages
Example 1: The ratio of present age of A & B is 2 : 3 the present age of A is
30 years. Find the age of B after 5 years ?
Answer :
Step 1: A : B present age ratio is 2 : 3 and A = 30 years.
Step 2: B present age is 30 / 2 x 3 = 45 years.
Step 3 : B age after 5 years is 45 + 5 = 50 years.

Example 2 : Niloy is as younger to Ganesh as he is older to Dev. If the sum


of the ages of Ganesh & Dev is 58 years. What is Niloy age ?
Answer :
Step 1 : G N = N D
Step 2 : G + D = 2N
Step 3 : 58 = 2N
Step 4 : N = 29 years

Example 1:
Ratio of ages of M & N 4 years ago was 3 : 5. If the sum of present ages of M
& N is 64 years than , Find the present ages of M & N.
Answer:
Let the ages is M & N 4 years ago are 3x and 5x.
Hence,
( 3x + 4 )+( 5x + 4 ) = 64 years,
= 8x + 8 = 64, = 8x = 56, x = 7. ( we get the value of x).
So the age of M , 4 years ago = 7 x 3 = 21years,
and the age of N, 4 years ago = 7 x 5 = 35 years.
Now the present age of M is = ( 21 + 4 ) = 25 years,
and present age of N is = ( 35 + 4) = 39 years.

Example 2:
Ratio of ages of M & N 4 years ago was 3 : 5. If the sum of present ages of M
& N is 64 years than , Find the present ages of M & N.
Answer :
Step1: M : N = 3 : 5 , According to Question ( P + Q ) = 64 years.
Sum of both ages 4 years ago is ( 64 8 ) = 56 , (say that before age
thats why subtract)
Step2: M = ( 56 / 8 ) x 3 = 7 x 3 = 21 years
and N = (56 / 8 ) x 5 = 5 x 7 = 35 years,
Step3: present age of M = ( 21 + 4 ) = 25 years
and present age of N = ( 35 + 4 ) = 39 years.
Example 3:
The total age of gangotri ,sabir, and bibhas is 96 years.10 years ago , the
ratio of their ages was 2 : 4 : 5.What is the present age of bibhas?
Answer :
Step 1: Let 10 years before gangotri, sabir, and bibhas ages 3x, 4x, 5x years
respectively.
Then ( 2x + 10 ) + ( 4x + 10 ) + ( 5x + 10 ) = 96,
= 11x = 66 = x = 6.
Step 2: Bibhas present age is ( 5x + 10 ) = ( 5 x 6 + 10 ) = 40 years.

Example 1:
The present ratio of ages of P & Q is 4 : 6 . If the sum of present ages of P & Q
is 50 years. Find the ages of P & Q before 4 years.
Answer:
Let ages of P & Q is x , so P & Q ages are 4x and 6x Gradually.
Now according to question Sum of present ages ,
4x + 6x = 50, 10x = 50, x = 5 years, (We got the value of x = 5)
And than the present age of P is = 4x = 4 x 5 = 20 years.
So, years ago the age of P = ( 20 4 ) = 16 years, and present age of Q is
= 6x = 6 x 5 = 30 years.
So, years ago the age of Q = (30 4 ) = 26 years.

Example 2:
The ratio of ages of P & Q after 5 years will be 3 : 5 . If the sum of ages of P &
Q at present is 38 years . Find the ages of P & Q before 5 years .
Answer :
Let the ages of P & Q are 3x and 5x respectively after 5 years .
( 3x 5 ) + ( 5x 5 ) = 38 years
6x 10 = 38 years
8x = 48 years
x=6
The ages of P after 5 years
=6x3
= 18 years
Then the ages of Q after 5 years
6 x 5 = 30 years
The ages of P & Q before 5 years is
P = ( 18 10 ) = 8 years
Q = ( 30 10 ) = 20 years