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# THERMOCHEMISTRY

THERMOCHEMISTRY
8.4 Born-Haber Cycle

## 9.3 : Hesss Law

Hesss Law
Hesss Law

Hesss Law

Hesss Law
Applications
Algebraic Method
Energy Cycle Method

Hesss Law
Hesss Law states that when
reactants are converted to
products, the change in
enthalpy
is
the same
whether the reaction takes
place in one step or in the
series of steps.

## Germain Henri Hess

H2

H3
H1

H4

H5

H1 = H2 + H3
= H4 + H5 + H6

H6

Methods to calculate H:
Algebraic method
Energy cycle method

## Normally we use algebraic method,

energy cycle method is suitable for
simple reaction only!

EXAMPLE 6 :
Two gaseous pollutants that form in auto exhaust are CO
and NO. An environmental chemist is studying ways to
convert them to less harmful gases through the
following equation:
CO(g) + NO(g) CO2(g) + N2(g) H = ?
Given the following information, calculate
the unknown H ?
CO(g) + O2(g) CO2(g) H = 283.0 kJ
N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g)

H = 180.6 kJ

## By using Algebraic Method :

Target equation:
CO(g) + NO(g) CO2(g) + N2(g) H = ?
Rearrange equations given:
CO(g) + O2(g)

CO2(g)

H = 283.0 kJ

NO(g)

O2(g)

H = 180.6 kJ 2

N2(g) +

CO(g) + NO(g)

CO2(g) + N2(g)

## H = 283.0 kJ + ( 90.3 kJ)

= 373.3 kJ

Example 7
From the following data,
C(graphite) + O2(g) CO2(g) Hrxn = 393.5 kJ
H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l)

Hrxn = 285.8 kJ

Hrxn = 3119.6 kJ

## Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of

ethane C2H6(g) by using energy cycle method. The equation
reaction given:
2C(graphite) + 3H2(g) C2H6(g)

## By using Algebraic Method :

Target equation:
2C(graphite) + 3H2(g) C2H6(g)

Hf = ?

Rearrange equations :
Equation 1 :

Multiply by 2

Equation 2 :

Multiply by 3

## 3H2(g) + 3 O2(g) 3H2O(l)

H2 = 857.4 kJ

Equation 3 :
2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)

C2H6(g) +

7 O2(g)
2

H3 = 1559.8 kJ

## 2 C(graphite) + 2O2(g) 2CO2(g) H1 = 787 kJ

3H2(g) + 3 O2(g) 3H2O(l)

H2 = 857.4 kJ

2
2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)

C2H6(g) +

7 O2(g)
2

Hf =

## -787 kJ + (-857.4 kJ) + 1559.8 kJ

= -84.6 kJ mol -1

H3 = 1559.8 kJ

## By using Energy Cycle Method :

Step 1
Draw the energy cycle and apply Hesss Law to
calculate the unknown value.
=?

H1 = -787 kJ

H2 = -857.4 kJ

H3 = 1559.8 kJ

Step 2
Apply Hesss Law to calculate the unknown value.

= - 84.6 kJmol-1

Hf OF COMPOUNDS
o

Most

o
Hf

<0

## The compound is more stable than

its components elements
EXAMPLE:
C(graphite)

C(diamond)
CO(g)

1.9
110.5

CO2(g)

393.5

CS2(l)

87.9

## DETERMINING Hrxn FROM Hf

o

aA + bB

Ho

rxn

sum of Hf of
all of the products

cC + dD

Horxn = ?

sum of Hof of
all of the reactants

EXAMPLE
8

CHAPTER 9.3

## Nitric acid (HNO3), whose worldwide annual

production is about 8 billion kg, is used to
make many products including fertilizers, dyes,
and explosive. The first step in industrial
production process is the oxidation of ammonia:
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)
Calculate Horxn
Hof of NH3(g) = 45.9 kJ/mol
Hof of NO(g) = 90.3 kJ/mol
Hof of H2O(g) = 241.8 kJ/mol