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Design and Execution of Steel Structures and Composite Steel-concrete Buildings

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**AUG 2003 Draft Revision of ISO 8800
**

Design and execution of steel structures and

composite steel-concrete buildings

Procedure

Source: NBR 8800:1986

CB-02: Brazilian Committee on Construction

EC 02:

NBR 8800:200 x - Design and construction of steel and composite structures

for buildings

Descriptors: Design and construction. Steel structures. Steel and concrete

composite structures. Buildings.

It is planned to cancel and replace the full NBR 8800:1986

Keywords: Design and implementation structures, structures

289 pages

steel, composite steel-concrete structures, buildings

Abstract

Foreword

Introduction

Objective 1

2 Normative References

3 Definitions, symbols and units

4 General conditions of project

5 Specific conditions for sizing steel elements

6 Specific conditions for design of steel connections

7 Specific conditions for design of steel-concrete composite members

8 Specific conditions for design of composite joints

9 Additional Considerations resistance

10 Additional conditions of project

11 limit states

12 Manufacturing, assembly and quality control

Annex A (Normative) - structural steel and metal bonding materials

Annex B (Normative) - AP

Annex C (Normative) - Recommended maximum displacements

Annex D (Normative) - Bending Moment resistant characteristic of non-slender beams

Annex E (Normative) - Local Buckling in compressed bars

Annex F (Normative) - Bending Moment resistant characteristic of slender beams

Annex G (Normative) - shear force resistant characteristics including the effect of field drift

Annex H (Normative) - Length buckling by bending and twisting of compressed bars

Annex J (Normative) - Length buckling by bending the pillars of continuous structures

Annex K (normative) - Normal force of elastic buckling

Annex G (Normative) - Openings souls of beams

Annex F (Normative) - Fatigue

Annex C (Normative) - Particular requirements for bars of varying section

Annex E (Normative) - Best practices for implementing structures

Annex Q (normative) - Beams composite steel-concrete

Annex R (normative) - Pillars mixed steel-concrete

Annex S (normative) - steel-concrete composite slabs

Annex T (normative) - steel-concrete composite connections

Annex U (normative) - Control of cracking in concrete composite beams

Annex V (Normative) - Procedures for approximate elastic second-order analysis

Annex

(Normative)-- Orientation

Guidance for

floor vibration

Annex W

X (Normative)

to in

vibrations

due to wind

Page 2

2

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

Foreword

ABNT - Brazilian Association of Technical Standards - is the National Standardization Forum.

The Brazilian Standards, whose content is the responsibility of the Brazilian Committees (CB) and

Standardization Bodies Sector (ONS), are prepared by Study Groups (EC),

formed by representatives of the sectors involved including: producers,

consumers and neutral (universities, laboratories and others).

The Brazilian Standard projects, developed through CB and ONS circulate to Vote

National ABNT among members and other interested parties.

This standard contains Annexes A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V and W

normative character.

This standard cancels and replaces in its entirety NBR 8800:1986 - Design and implementation of

steel structures for buildings - Procedure.

This standard includes the steel-concrete composite columns, the steel-concrete composite slabs and links

composite steel-concrete, which were not foreseen in the NBR 8800:1986 - Design and implementation of

steel structures for buildings - Procedure.

Introduction

For the development of this standard philosophy of the previous was maintained: NBR 8800, so that the

this standard set fits the general criteria governing the design ambient temperature and

implementation of structural steel and composite steel-concrete structures of buildings. Thus, it should

be complemented by other rules which establish criteria for specific structures.

Objective 1

1.1 This standard, based on the method of limit states, the general principles that

should be followed in the design room temperature and execution, including inspection,

structures of steel and steel-concrete composite structures for buildings in which:

- Profiles are rolled or welded steel;

- The elements of steel sections, plates and bars have thickness

less than 3 mm;

- Connections are bolted or welded or composite steel-concrete.

A related type of profile requirement does not apply to steel formwork slabs of composite steelconcrete and the shear connectors C profile cold-formed, and related to the thickness

steel formwork at least mentioned, shims and filler plates.

The requirements of this standard apply only to steel profiles non-hybrids. Case

hybrid profiles are used, the necessary adjustments must be made.

1.2 The steel-concrete composite structures, including steel-concrete composite joints, provided by

this Standard are those formed by components of steel and concrete, reinforced or otherwise,

working together. The concrete may be of normal density or low density

**except when some restriction is made
**

in a specific part of the Standard.

Page 3

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

1.3 Profiles, rolled or welded shall be constructed obeying the Brazilian standards

applicable. In the absence of such standards, it is permissible to use test results from the literature

specialized or foreign standards or specifications, as provided in 1.7. Profiles

soldiers can be fabricated by depositing weld metal or by electro-fusion.

1.4 The general principles in this standard apply to building structures

for housing and commercial and industrial uses and public buildings, and the solutions

usual for bars and links. Also apply to structures pedestrian walkways.

1.5 To strengthen or repair of existing structures, the application of this standard may require study

and special adaptation to take into account the date of construction, type and quality of materials

were used.

1.6 The design of a structure made

in accordance with this Standard should follow

coherently all your criteria.

1.7 The responsibility for the design shall identify all applicable limit states, even though

some are not mentioned in this standard, and design the structure so that they do not

are violated. For types of structures or situations not covered by this standard, or covered

simply, it is permissible to use test results, professional literature

or foreign standards or specifications. In such cases, the responsibility for the project, if

necessary, shall make the necessary adjustments to maintain the level of security provided by

this Standard. Additionally, tests may be performed following procedures are

internationally accepted, the relevant literature used should have recognition and

acceptance by the international technical community and the standards and specifications

foreign should be internationally recognized and ready to use, being valid.

2 Normative References

The standards listed below contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this Standard. Editions indicated were valid at the time

this publication. All standards are subject to revision, we recommend to those who perform

agreements based on this to verify the possibility of applying the most recent editions of

standards listed below. ABNT has the information of the Brazilian Standards in force

any given time.

ASME B18.2.6: 1996 - Fasteners for use in structural applications

ASME B46.1: 2002, 2003 - Surface texture, surface roughness, waviness and lay

ASTM A6/A6M: 2001b - Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Structural

Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes, and Sheet Piling

ASTM A108: 1999 - Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon, Cold-Finished, Standard

Quality

ASTM A307: 2000 - Standard specification for carbon steel bolts and studs, 60,000 PSI tensile

strength

ASTM A325: 2000 - Standard specification for structural bolts, steel, heat-treated, 120/105 ksi

minimum tensile strength

3

Specification for carbon steel electrodes and fluxes for submerged arc welding AWS A5.Specification for low-alloy steel electrodes for gas shielded arc welding AWS A5.1: 2003 .18: 2001 .Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50 ksi [345 MPa] Minimum Yield Point to 4-in. Low-Alloy.9 and 10. for General Industrial Use ASTM A913/A913M: 2001 .Specification for carbon steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding AWS A5.Specification for low-alloy steel electrodes and fluxes for submerged arc welding AWS A5. low alloy and high strength NBR 5004:1981 . low alloy and high strength . for Structural Steel Joints [Metric] ASTM A568/A568M: 2003 . Carbon and Alloy.Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Shapes of Structural Quality.steel ISO 898-1:1999 .Standard Specification for Steel Forgings.Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel . Carbon.Part 1: Bolts.Standard Specification for Structural Bolts.Specification for low-alloy steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding AWS A5.20: 1995 .Heavy plate steel.Based Text Revision ASTM A325M: 2003 .5: 1996 .9.Structural welding code .Specification for carbon steel filler metals for gas shielded arc welding AWS A5.Standard specification for steel heat-treated structural bolts.Standard symbols for welding.3.Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Washers AWS A2.28: 1996 .Page 4 4 NBR 8800 .17: 1997 . and nondestructive examination AWS A5.Standard Specification for Steel. screws and studs NBR 5000:1981 . 150 ksi minimum tensile strength ASTM A490M: 2000 Standard Specification for High-Strength Steel Bolts. brazing. General Requirements for ASTM A588/A588M: 2001 .Specification for carbon steel electrodes for flux cored arc welding AWS A5. Classes 10.1: 2002 .29: 1998 . Sheet.4: 1998 . [100 mm] Thick ASTM A668/A668M: 2002 .23: 1997 .thin sheets of steel. Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled. Produced by Quenching and Self-Tempering Process (QST) ASTM F436: 2002 .Specification for low-alloy steel electrodes for flux cored arc welding AWS D1. and High-Strength. Steel Heat Treated 830 MPa Minimum Tensile Strength [Metric] ASTM A490: 2000 .

Design of concrete structures NBR 6120:1980 .Loads for calculation of building structures NBR 6123:1988 . the following definitions: 3.Based Text Revision NBR 5008:1997 . cold shape. resistant atmospheric corrosion for structural use .1 Definitions For the purposes of this International Standard.Page 5 NBR 8800 .Part fused high-strength steel for structural purposes NBR 8261:1983 .Tubular Profile. symbols and units 3.Part molten carbon steel for general use NBR 6648:1984 .thin cold and thin cold rolled coils sheets. for structural use .Hot Tin plates and thin hot rolled coil steel.Design of steel structures consist of cold formed profiles Research Council on Structural Connections: 2000 .Cold Plates thin carbon steel for structural use NBR 6650:1986 . corrosion resistant Atmospheric.1 Action: Any influence or set of influences can produce stress states or deformation or rigid body motion in a structure.Design of steel structures of buildings in fire NBR 14762:2001 .Forces due to wind on buildings NBR 6313:1986 . low alloy.Hot thin sheets of carbon steel for structural use NBR 7007:2002 . with and without sewing section circular. low alloy steel. for structural use . low alloy steel.Requirements NBR 5921:1997 .Mobile loads on road bridges and pedestrian walkways NBR 7242:1990 .Requirements NBR 6118:2003 .Specification for structural joints using ASTM A325 or ASTM A490 bolts 3 Definitions.Stocks and security structures NBR 14323:1999 .Steels for structural carbon and microalloyed use and general NBR 7188:1984 . 5 . resistant to atmospheric corrosion.2 share calculation: value per share used in the design of the structure.1.Requirements NBR 5920:1997 .Heavy plate and thick coils.Heavy plate carbon steel for structural use NBR 6649:1986 . 3. square or rectangular for structural uses NBR 8681:2003 . carbon steel.1.

Page 6

6

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

**3.1.3 Structural Steel: Steel produced based on the specification that classifies as structural
**

and establishes the chemical composition and mechanical properties.

3.1.4 Structural analysis: Determination of the effects of actions (normal force, shear force,

bending moment, stress, displacement, etc..) bars and links.

3.1.5 rod: Component structure wherein the length is much greater than the dimensions

the cross section.

3.1.6 weighting resistance: Value by which the resistance should be divided

characteristic to take into account uncertainties inherent in and get the same resistance

calculation (see 3.1.16).

3.1.7 Unlocked length: Length between two sections contained laterally (see

3.1.18).

3.1.8 component: a constituent part of a profile as table, soul, tab, etc., or bar or whatever.

another component of the structure.

3.1.9 limit states: states from which a structure no longer fulfills the purpose for

which it was designed.

3.1.10 limit states: States that, by its occurrence, repetition or duration

cause effects incompatible with the conditions of use of the structure, such as dislocations

excessive, permanent deformations and vibrations. Also called limit states

service.

3.1.11 ultimate limit states: corresponding to the ruin of the whole structure states, or part of

same, by rupture, excessive plastic deformation, instability, etc..

3.1.12 element width: width of the flat portion of a constituent element of a profile,

measured in the plane of the cross section.

3.1.13 Hybrid Profile: Profile elements whose components have steels with properties

different.

3.1.14 non-hybrid Profile: Profile elements whose components have the same steel.

3.1.15-thickness aspect ratio: ratio between the flat part of a constituent element of

a profile and thickness.

3.1.16 Calculation of resistance: Resistance value used in the design of the structure. It

obtained from the characteristic value of the material properties and the sections together

with a formula deduced rationally, based on analytical and / or experimental model, and

that represents the element's behavior in the limit state. Resistance calculation is equal

the characteristic resistance value divided by a coefficient that takes into account the uncertainties

attached thereto.

3.1.17 characteristic strength: Value set from tests or some rational method

connected to a resistance property.

Page 7

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

7

**3.1.18 section contained laterally: Section compressed whose face has its lateral displacement
**

prevented or impeded submit twist.

3.1.19 tubular section: circular or rectangular hollow section steel with uniform thickness,

laminated or formed by cold working with continuous longitudinal weld.

3.1.20 characteristic value of shares: A value that quantifies the actions provided for in the rules of

actions and set the NBR 8681. A action with its characteristic value can be referred

simply as characteristic action.

3.1.21 conventional value of shares outstanding: arbitrated value for exceptional actions

by consensus between the building owner and government authorities

have an interest in it.

3.2 Symbols

The symbols are used in this standard, regarding the steel structures and composite steelconcrete base is constituted by symbols (same size as the current text) and Symbols

subscribed.

The basic symbols used most frequently in this Standard are set out in

3.2.1 and 3.2.2 subscripts symbols in the same length plain text, to

easy viewing.

The general symbology is found established in this subsection and the more specific symbology

some parts of this standard is presented in the relevant sections in order to simplify

understanding and therefore the application of established concepts.

3.2.1 Symbols basis

3.2.1.1 Roman Lowercase

the

the

the

b

bf

bf

bfc

bs

bw

d

db

dF

dh

dp

ds

and

f

f CD

**- Distance in general; distance between transverse stiffeners; region height
**

compressed into slabs of composite beams; center to center distance between beams

- Length of the openings

- Width; effective width of the concrete screed

- Effective width

- Table width

- Width of the pillar table; width of the compressed table

- Width of stiffener

- The nominal size of the fillet weld

- Diameter in general; total height of the cross section; cylinder diameter

- Diameter of the screw; outer diameter of the thread of threaded round bar

- Distance from the upper surface of the concrete slab to the center of gravity of the area

the effective formwork

- Hole Diameter

- Pin diameter

- Distance from the center of gravity of the steel profile to the center of gravity

armor

- Eccentricity of loading

- Voltage characteristic obtained by testing or resistant strain calculation

- Calculation of the actual resistance to compression

Page 8

8

f ck

**NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision
**

- Characteristic compressive strength of concrete

f ckn

fckb

f ctm

f dc

f dt

fr

fu

f ub

f ucs

fy

f yF

f ys

fw

g

h

hc

hcs

hf

hF

hthe

hr

ht

kcs

ks

kv

l

lc

ln

lw

n

No '

nb

ncs

nE

p

qRd

r

r the

r x, Ry

s

t

tc

tF

**- Characteristic strength of the concrete density
**

low-density

normal

compression

to the compression

- Average tensile strength of concrete

- Voltage resistant compression calculation on the upper surface of the concrete slab

- Voltage resistant traction calculation table at the bottom of the steel beam

- Residual stress

- Tensile strength of steel traction

- Tensile strength of the bolt material or round bar threaded at

traction

- Tensile strength of steel connector

- Yield strength of steel at normal stress

- Yield strength of the steel pan

- Yield strength of steel reinforcement

- Minimum tensile strength of weld metal

- Drilling template; acceleration of gravity

- Overall height; Cell height; height of floor

- Height of the concrete slab above the steel pan

- Length of the pin after welding

- Effective height

- Rib height of steel formwork

- Distance between the centroid of the tables; height of the openings

- Height of the slab coating

- Total height of the slab, including the concrete and formwork

- Initial stiffness of the connectors

- Initial stiffness of the bars of the armature; parameter associated tear

between holes

- Coefficient for shear buckling of the soul

- Length overall; length unlocked laterally length

cylinder; buckling length of the column

- Clear distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and the edge of the hole

or adjacent the edge of the connected part

- Length of action of the force in the longitudinal direction of the beam

- Total length of the weld

- Number of connectors

- Number of connectors between the section with concentrated load and the adjacent section

of zero moment

- Number of screws

- Number of shear connectors per rib

- The ratio between the modulus of elasticity of steel and the elastic modulus

concrete

- Tax width of the screw

- Calculating a resistance to shear connector

- Radius of gyration; radius

- Polar radius of gyration of the gross section in relation to the center of shear

- Radii of gyration of the cross section with respect to x and y axes,

respectively

- Longitudinal spacing between two consecutive holes; minimum spacing

between edges of openings

- Overall thickness

- Thickness of the concrete slab

- Thickness of mold steel

Page 9

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

tf

t fc

t fcs

t

- Thickness of table

- Thickness of the pillar table, thickness of the compressed table

- The thickness of the board connector

- Thickness of plate pulled

9

Gross cross-sectional area .Coordinates of the center of shear . OD eyelet head .Net area of the pulled table .Distance from the center of gravity of the compressed portion of the steel beam section to the upper surface of this beam 3.Area of additional armor .Effective area . cross-sectional area Concrete .Thickness of the stiffener .The neutral axis position .Compressed area of the steel section profile .Diameter of apertures .Equivalence of moments .2.Net area .Reduction factor of the strength of the shear pin type connector with head . area of the soul .Reduction coefficient used in the calculation of the effective net area Page 10 10 Cv Cw D Dthe E NBR 8800 .Coefficient used in the calculation of slender beams .Web thickness of the connector .Pulled area of the steel section profile .2 Roman Uppercase The The the The ac The at The b The be The c The cs The and The f The F The f The fe The fg The fn The fnt The g The MB The n The s The sa The w Cb Cd C d' Cm Cpg Cred Ct .Constant warping of the cross section .Total transverse reinforcement area per unit length.Outer diameter of tubular circular section.Distance from the neutral axis of the section laminated to the top surface of the steel beam . effective area of the weld.Modification factor for bending moment diagram nonuniform .Resistant area or effective area of a bolt or threaded round bar .Effective area of table pulled .Cross-sectional area of the steel profile .Based Text Revision .Effective net cross-sectional area .Distance from the center of gravity to the center of the steel shear beam .tp s tw t toilets w xthe Y the yc y LNP yp ys yt .Resistance calculation of the compressed thickness of the concrete slab .1.Area of mold steel .Cross-sectional area of the connector .Cross-sectional area of the connected elements. area cross section of the longitudinal reinforcement .The tangent modulus of elasticity of steel .Size of the fillet leg strengthening or contour .Floor area of tensioned or compressed table .Coefficient of shear .Web thickness .Net area of tensioned or compressed table .Effective area of shear.Theoretical area of the face melting .Area of the table .General area .Distance from the center of gravity of the compressed portion of the steel beam section to the upper surface of this beam . including additional equipment and any equipment provided to bending of the slab.Gross area of bolt .Resistance calculation of the compressed portion of the steel profile .

385 E. for limit state of lateral buckling Distorted .Moment of inertia effective .dist M- .Moment of inertia of the beam .Buckling coefficient used in sizing bars compressed .Characteristic bending moment resistant .Secant modulus of elasticity at normal density concrete limit compressive strength .Bending moment corresponding to the onset of flow .Distance between the sections of maximum positive and negative moments .Resistant bending moments for calculating the left and right ends.Shear span .xM Rd. Ry K L L' Lb Lcs Land LF Lp Ls Lt Lv M M the M cr Mp l Mr M Rd M Rd.M- .Length of the input strength of concrete .Moment of inertia of the cross section of the concrete .Initial secant modulus of elasticity of concrete at the limit of resistance compression . equal to 0.Bending moment .The beam will . distance between points zero moment .Resistant bending moment calculation in the region of negative moment .Ec .Resistant to bending moments calculated respectively around the axes x ey cross section .Moment of inertia of the cross section of the reinforcement of concrete .Bending moment of elastic buckling .Length unlocked . center of gravity of the bar .Tangent modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement of concrete .Resistant bending moment calculation in the region of negative moment. respectively .Moment of inertia . characteristic action permanent.Height of the floor for a pillar .Length of the stretch of positive moment.Based Text Revision M Rd .Moment of inertia of the pillar .Modulus of transverse elasticity of steel.Resistant bending moment calculation of steel girder isolated .Moment of inertia of the cross section of the steel profile .Bending moment plasticizing section .Characteristic value of variable actions .Resistant bending moment calculation . p l Page 11 NBR 8800 . y M Rk MRd MRd.Moment of inertia of uniform twisting of the steel section .Length of the U profile connector .Bending moment resistant plasticizing calculation E 'c Ecb Ecn Es FG FQ FQ.Moment of inertia of the homogenized composite section .Initial secant modulus of elasticity of the concrete in the low density limit Compressive strength .Characteristic value of permanent actions .Moments of inertia of the cross section with respect to x and y axes.Will theorist steel pan toward the ribs .Characteristic value of the outstanding shares .Or length will generally .Modulus of elasticity of concrete reduced due to the effects of shrinkage and creep . 11 . exc G I I the Ic If Ip Is IT I tr Iv I x.

Requesting traction force calculation on the screw without leverage .Normal force of elastic buckling Np .Resistant feature request Sd .dirrespectively.Normal force requestor compression calculation Nt. The connectors shear section located between the maximum positive moment and the section adjacent zero moment Q Rd ' . p .Sum of the individual resistance calculation.Fillet radius between the head and the body of the lug Rd . . taking into account the shear and contact pressure in the holes PSRD .Rd. q Rd.Requesting bending moments of calculation respectively about axes x and y of the cross section N .Calculation of resistance of the armature bars Q .Calculation of resistance region pulled the steel profile . R .Reduction factor for joints up only a couple of fillet weld transverse RPJP .Maximum bending moment calculation requesting the bar. q . the number of cycles of variation of tension during the useful life of the structure Nc.Tough normal force calculation NRd. q Rd.Sum of the individual resistance calculation.Bending moment resistant characteristic in the region of negative moment Rk M Sd .Bending moment calculation in requesting biapoiada beam function of the abscissa x M Sd. additional traction force caused by the leverage Qthe .Resistant shear force calculation . module of composite beams subjected to negative moment in case of continuous beams.Normal force resistant traction calculation Ny . or mixed connections in the case of semicontinuous beams M.Coefficients that take into account the local buckling of AA and AL elements.Length of action of the force in the longitudinal direction of the beam. max .Reduction factor for welds notch partial penetration RRd .Request for calculation Page 12 12 Tb Td TRds TSd Vp l VRd VRd l VRd. Qs . determined by the analysis of the first order M Sd.Normal force corresponding to the flow of the compression section effective cross P .Calculating a resistance screw. coefficient of local buckling.Normal force corresponding to the flow cross section l NRd .Variable action. y . G .Normal force resistant compression calculation Nand .GM' Sd.Bending moment calculation requestor M Sd. xM Sd.Resistant shear force calculation to puncture caused by a load concentrated .Shear force corresponding to yielding of the soul shear . p V NBR 8800 .Applicants bending moments calculation due to active actions respectively before and after the strength of concrete reaches f 0.75 ck M Sd.Sturdy traction force calculation in the longitudinal reinforcement bars .Sturdy vertical shear force calculation of composite slabs .Based Text Revision . The connectors shear located between sections of maximum positive and negative moments R .Resistance calculation RFIL .Thread pitch Pdub .Resistant request calculation RRk .Sturdy longitudinal shear force calculation of composite slabs . respectively QRd .Tough normal force calculation of the cross section to the total lamination l NSd .Minimum strength prestressing screw . Rd .esq Rd..

Slenderness parameter . arrow . respectively.Weighting the strength of steel armor .Shear resistant feature .Minimum modulus of section of elastic strength relative to bending axis .1.Weighting coefficient of stiffness Page 13 NBR 8800 .Slenderness parameter corresponding to the lamination .Specific weight of the concrete of low density .Shear resistant characteristics including the effect of field drift .Module plastic resistance of the armature of the concrete section 3.Coefficient for setting the order of magnitude of the horizontal displacements .Reduction factor . coefficient related to the effect Rüsch .Module plastic resistance of the concrete section .Strain corresponding to the yield strength of the armor isolated .Poisson's ratio of concrete normal density .Relative slenderness .Poisson's ratio of concrete of low density 13 .Average coefficient of friction . relative to the bending axis . weighting the resistance of the concrete .Weighting coefficient of resistance of the connector . respectively .Specific deformation of free shrinkage of concrete .Elastic modulus of resistance of the tablet and pulled next to the section.Poisson's ratio of structural steel . W y Zpa Zpc Zps . weighting the strength of steel .Strain corresponding to the tensile strength of the armor isolated . W t Wf W tr W x.Shear strength calculation in requesting biapoiada beam function of the abscissa x .Weighting coefficient of resistance .Weighting of permanent actions . scroll. q W W the W c.VRd.Elastic resistance modules with respect to x and y axes.Coefficient of thermal expansion of steel .Diameter of the reinforcement bars .Effective elastic modulus of resistance .Specific weight of concrete.Based Text Revision γ s γ z λ λ the λ p λ r λ rel μ ν the ν cn ν cb ρ .Modulus of the homogenized elastic resistance section in composite beams .Coefficient of thermal expansion of the normal density concrete .Coefficient which takes into account the rotation capacity required for connection .Slenderness parameter corresponding to the onset of yield .Shear strength calculation requestor .Resistance of the elastic modulus of the steel section profile .Module plastic resistance of the steel profile section .Specific weight of concrete normal density unarmored .3 Greek Lowercase α β β the β cn β vm δ ε cs ε smu ε su ε sy φ γ γ the γ c γ cb γ cn γ cna γ cs γ g γ q γ r .Deformation of the concrete armor involved .Related to sizing the compression curve coefficient.Specific weight of steel. Rk v VRkt VSd VSd.Reduced slenderness ratio .Contributor steel.Weighting of variables shares .Specific weight of normal density concrete with reinforcement .2.

ψ 1j 2j associated with the distortion compressive strength .Resistant strain calculation .On the x-axis .Utilization factors of 3.Based Text Revision .Order number .Requesting tension calculation .Tension in general .Low density concrete .Soul.ρ dist σ σ cr σ c.Calculation . solder .Armor . relative to the y axis 3.Effective .1.Break .Screw. threaded round bar .Resistant characteristic .Resistant calculation .Critical elastic buckling stress .Traction .Permissible limit of range of voltages.2. for an infinite number of request cycles .SUM 3.Permissible limit for the range of variation of stresses .Deformation capacity of the armature bars . R σ and σ Rd σ Sd σ SR σ TH τ Rk ψ oj ψ .Tension buckling .Normal density concrete .2.4 Greek Uppercase Δu s Δu i Σ .Reduction factor for lateral buckling of the cross section with .Mold steel .Steel .2 Symbols subscribed 3.2.Factor combination of variable actions .Tension buckling . compression .Voltage characteristic shear .2 Roman Uppercase F Rd Rk Sd .1 Roman Lowercase the b c cb cn cs d and f f g i n .Net Page 14 14 pl s t u w x y NBR 8800 .Runoff.Elastic .Shear connector .Requesting calculation .2.Gross .2.Table .Lamination .2.Concrete.Deformation capacity of the connection .

1.3 Units Most of the expressions presented in this standard is dimensionless.Based Text Revision 4.2.1 The fully or partially executed works with steel frame or mixed structure steel-concrete must comply with elaborate design in accordance with this standard.2. Page 15 NBR 8800 . etc. must be given the positions that are temporarily occupied by main or auxiliary equipment mounting on the structure. if the connection is friction or contact. 4.2.7 Where necessary. In addition. the data for consideration dynamic effects.1. eventually. 4. if the bolts to work shear.2 Design drawings 4.2.4. 4.2. specifications and manufacturing Mounting structure.5 Welded connections should be characterized by appropriate symbology containing to complete its execution information in accordance with AWS A2. Should be taken into account coefficients appropriate for the type of equipment to be used in assembling impact.2 It is understood as the set of design calculations. 4.1 The design drawings must be executed in an appropriate scale for the level of desired information. Should contain all the necessary data for the detailed structure for the implementation of assembly drawings and the design of foundations. 4. 4.4 For connections with high strength bolts.3 In addition to the materials. they are according to the International System of Units. 4. the conditions should be considered for installation and indicated provided lifting points and weights of the parts of the structure.2. drawings.2. data must be reported to the actions of calculation adopted and calculation of internal forces to be resisted by bars and links.8 In cases where the lengths of the frame pieces may be influenced by 15 . When units are mentioned. and in the latter case. so they should be employed quantities with consistent units. under responsibility of a legally qualified professional with experience in design and construction these structures. the design drawings shall indicate whether the tightening will be normal or initial prestressing. the values of these actions and. mooring position cables or spies.3. 4 General conditions of project 4. Other situations that may affect the safety of the structure should also be considered. shall be made on the design drawings schema location of the most important actions resulting from equipment that will be supported by the structure. when required to proper preparation of fabrication drawings.1 General 4.. which must be manufactured and constructed by competent companies and keep running under competent supervision.6 In the case of industrial buildings.2 The design drawings shall indicate which standards were used and give specifications for all structural materials used.2. 4.

5.5. the information contained in the design drawings.1. However.1. provided free of surface imperfections. elevations of lower faces of plates base pillars.3 Drawings manufacturing 4.3.1 steels approved for use in this standard for profiles.3.2 Where necessary.5.5.2.1.2. 4. Also applies here to the provisions in 4.2. dimensions of bars (when required for approval).5. lease. including materials and specifications. the relationship between resistance characteristics rupture and drain not less than 1. all dimensions for detail placement of anchors and other information necessary for the assembly of the structure. 4.2 Steels 1 for profiles. must be given the variation ranges considered.5.3 are the corresponding specifications and more information on the structural steels and materials metal binding are in Annex A.25 and that the responsibility for the project to analyze the differences between these grades and specifications mentioned in 4.2.2 and 4.1 The fabrication drawings should translate faithfully to the factory.5.2 and are cited in the concrete and steel for armor in 4. rods and plates are those with structural qualification ensured by Brazilian standard specification or standard or foreign.5 Materials 4. brand of parts.4 Assembly drawings The assembly drawings shall indicate the main dimensions of the structure.2.2 is still allows the use of other structural steels since they have resistance feature to the maximum flow 450 MPa.3.2.1 Introduction 4.18.1. giving complete information to manufacture all Component elements of the structure.temperature variations during assembly.2 Structural Steels and metal bonding materials 4.1 The structural steel and metal materials approved for use by this connection Standard 4. rods and plates 4. it should be indicated on the drawings the execution sequence of links important to avoid the appearance of excessive residual stresses or warping.5. 4. provided they have characteristic resistance maximum flow 450 MPa and relationship between resistance characteristics to rupture and drain not less than 1.1.3 It is recommended not to use structural steels without qualification. only minor parts and details .5. Page 16 16 NBR 8800 .5. 4.5.9 should be indicated in the design drawings of the contraflechas beams soul filled and lattice.5. 4.5.2 Full details of the materials listed in 4. type and size of all bolts.1. this is tolerated use. 4.Based Text Revision 4.3. Should be clearly indicated all permanent elements or essential to the integrity of the temporary structure partially Built.1 and mainly the differences between the sampling methods used in determining its properties mechanical. welds factory and field. 4. 4.

20.5. where the properties of steel and its weldability not affect the resistance of structure. c) for bare mild steel electrodes and flux for submerged arc welding: AWS A5.2 Steel castings and forgings Where the use of fabricated structural elements with molten steel is necessary or wrought Brazilian standards related to the issue or standard or must be obeyed foreign specification.9.5. f) to bare steel electrodes.4 Electrodes.2.5. coated.importance. coated.2.5. b) electrodes for low alloy steel.2.2.5 Shear Connectors 4.5.2.5. respectively.28.1: 2002. including nuts and washers appropriate hardened.1 is taken regardless of the requirements for impact tests which in most cases are not required for buildings.5.5.2.5. g) for low alloy electrodes for arc welding with shielding gas: AWS A5.5.5. ASTM A490M or 898 ISO Class 10.2.2.4. for electric arc-welding: AWS A5. Page 17 NBR 8800 . 4.1 The electrodes.2. welding wire and flux 4. 4.4.Based Text Revision e) for mild steel electrodes for arc welding with flux in the core: AWS A5.2 Approval of specifications for electrodes cited in 4.29.6. 4.5.17.1.3 Bolts The screw steel low carbon must meet ASTM A307 or ISO 898 Class 4. 4. If this type of steel is used.8 and screws alloy steel hardened and tempered shall meet ASTM A490. 17 . d) for mild steel electrodes for electric arc welding with shielding gas: AWS A5. for electric arc-welding: AWS A5.18.2 The steel shear connectors in the profile laminate U must comply with 4. 4.5.23. 4. shall comply with ASTM A325. ASTM A325M or ISO 898 Class 8.1. wires and fluxes for welding shall meet the following Specifications: a) for mild steel electrodes. h) for low alloy electrodes for arc welding with flux in the core: AWS A5. the high-strength bolts. should not be adopted in the project higher values 180 MPa and 300 MPa for the characteristic flow resistance and resistance feature at break. low alloy and flux for submerged arc welding: AWS A5.1 The pin type connectors steel with heads shall meet the requirements of Chapter 7 of AWS D1.4.2.

6 Steel mold of the slab The steel mold of the slab and its coat must comply with Section S. reinforced concrete.6 ° C . 4.5.2 The properties of low density concrete must comply with standard or relevant domestic or foreign specifications. the b) Poisson's ratio. 4.4.1.7 (Annex S). the following values Mechanical properties: a) tangent modulus. E = 4760 f . if applicable. cn c) coefficient of thermal expansion.5.Based Text Revision d) specific weight. β = 12 ×10 .8 General Mechanical properties For calculation purposes should be adopted for steels listed.3.7 Identification The materials and products used in the structure must be identified by their specification. using the following methods: a) quality certificates provided by plants or producers duly related to the products supplied.2. Where E cn f ckn are given in megapascals (f cn ckn characteristic of normal density concrete compressive). = 020 .5.5. including type or grade.5 °C . So the characteristic compressive strength of concrete of this type should be between 10 MPa and 50 MPa. ν =03. Page 18 18 NBR 8800 . the c) coefficient of thermal expansion.5. the 4. 4.5.2.3 Concrete and steel reinforcement 4. d) specific weight. b) legible markings applied to the material by the producer.3 The steel shear connectors C profile cold-formed must obey requirements of ISO 14762.5. = 24 kN / m 3 in concrete without armor and γ cna = 25 kN / m 3 on 4. This type of concrete should have specific weight .3.5. E = 205000 MPa . γ = 77 kN / m 3 .1 The properties of normal density concrete should conform to NBR 6118. γ cn ckn is the resistance β cn = 10 . in accordance with the standards of corresponding standards.1.2. and the following values should be used: a) initial secant modulus of elasticity in compression yield strength.2. ν b) Poisson's ratio.

γ 15.3. one or more states limit has been exceeded. 4. the secant modulus of elasticity. = f . The states ultimate limits are related to the safety of the structure subject to more combinations unfavorable actions of calculation provided for in the lifetime. without reinforcement in a quilonewton cb cubic meter. depending ultimate limit state. For Poisson's ratio. 4.6. β = β and on c cn ck ckn c cn c cn c cn concrete without reinforcement orγ = γ for reinforced concrete.Based Text Revision 19 4. When the structure no longer meets objectives for which it was designed. The thermal expansion coefficient must be determined by specific study.5. β = β and c cb ck ckb c cb c cb c cb c cba for reinforced concrete. = f . thermal expansion coefficient and the specific weight of the concrete will be always represented by E cF ck.4 The properties of steel reinforcement shall conform to NBR 6118.6 Dimensioning for ultimate limit states 4. 6. S is calculated for the applicable limit state and is equal to the quotient of the sturdy request characteristic S RkAnd the weighting coefficient γ of resistance. Resistant requests S characteristics Rkand the coefficient γ of resistance are given in sections 5. compressive strength characteristic. Other security-related checks are in Section 9. The limit states are related performance of the structure under normal service conditions. Respectively.1. it is necessary to combine through expressions of appropriate interaction terms reflecting relations between active requests calculation and resistant requests from different calculation. ν = ν .1 The design for the ultimate limit states implies that the request Tough for calculating each component or assembly of the structure equal to or greater than the active calculation request. f ckb is the characteristic strength of the concrete low-density compression in megapascals. in a transient situation or When acting exceptional action.1. in accordance with 4.3. f cb ckb where: γ is the specific weight of the concrete of low density.at least 15 kN / m 3 unarmored.2 (equal to the density of the concrete normal).3 this standard. Poisson's ratio. In some situations.5.7.6. Page 19 NBR 8800 . 7 and 8. 4. Ν c. and if low density c cna γ = γ for the concrete without reinforcement orγ = γ E =E f. . can be used value of 0. Β c and cγ.2 The calculation of active request must be determined for combinations of actions calculation that are applicable. Rd. Each sturdy request calculation. and the modulus of elasticity in the initial drying limit compression strength in megapascals should be taken equal to: E cb = 40 5. 1 4. ν = ν .6 Basis for sizing The method of states limits used for sizing the components of a structure requires that no applicable limit state is exceeded when the structure is subject to all appropriate combinations of actions. So if the concrete is of γ =γ Normal density must be taken E =E f.

exc : Exceptional actions .Based Text Revision In the rules of combinations of actions for ultimate limit states and use.2..7.2): n Σm ( γ F ) + F + Σ (γ ψ F ) gi Gi Q.1 Combinations of actions for ultimate limit states.6. Exceptional actions can be taken to their values exceptional standard. wind. etc. shocks vehicles. 4.7.1 Values and classification The actions to be taken in the design of structures and their components are set by Brazilian standards NBR 6120. etc. these shares are classified according to their variability in time.f Qj .2 Scaling to limit states The structure should be checked for serviceability limit states in accordance with the requirements Section 11.2 Combinations of actions for ultimate limit states 4.7..f Qj = = i1 j2 c) exceptional recent combinations. 4. temperature variation. .). Page 20 20 NBR 8800 . .2. except for the case where the outstanding action Fire follows (see 4. permanent walls. which are called indirect permanent actions. or other applicable standards.F QVarying actions .7. are: a) normal combinations latest: Σm ( γ F ) + γ F + Σn ( γ ψ F ) gi Gi 1qQ1 qj oj Qj i=1 j=2 b) past or special construction (temporary situation) combinations: Σm ( γ F ) + γ F + Σn ( γ ψ F ) gi Gi 1qQ1 qj oj.actions resulting from the use and occupation of the building (due to actions overloads on floors and roofs. NBR NBR 6123 and 7188. and actions from effects of support settlements. etc.. buoyancy of earth. in the following three categories: .F Q.3 respectively.).7. seismic effects..F G: Permanent actions .7. retraction materials and prestressing. tiles. pressure hydrostatic.actions resulting from fires. According to NBR 8681.exc qj oj.4. which are called actions Direct permanent. coatings and finishes. and also in Annex B of this Standard..2 and 4. according to NBR 8681. fixed equipment. explosions.7 Actions and combinations of actions 4.actions resulting from the own weight of the structure and all Component elements of the building (floors. equipment and movable partitions. etc. given 4. actions must be taken with their characteristic values according to NBR 8681.

00) Effect of temperature 2) Permanent actions (γ g) 1) 3) Direct Own weight of Own weight of structures elements molded in constructive site and industrialized elements with additions "in constructive loco " industrialized 1. or Q1 with exceptional action F .15 (1.00) (1.00) 1. 21 have a time Q1or exceptional action F Q. γ are the weighting coefficients of permanent actions.20 (1.25 1.30 (1. provided in Table 1 (for gi further information should be consulted to NBR 8681). exc is the exceptional action. The factor ψ factor is equal to ψ oj adopted in combinations Q.15 1. FQjother variables are the shares.40 1. f factors are effective combination of live loads that may act concurrently with the main variable action F During the transitional situation.25 (1.30 (1.00) 1. ψ factors are the combination of variables that can act concomitantly actions oj with the main variable action F Q1Under normal combinations.00) 1.00) 1.20 (0) 1.20 1.00) 1. FQ. provided in Table 1 (for qj further information should be consulted to NBR 8681). exc j.20 1.20 (1.00) 1.30 .40 (1. γ are the weighting coefficients of the variables shares.10 (1. f 2 Table 1 .00 1.Weighting coefficients actions Combinations Normal Special or Construction Exceptional Own weight structures metal Weight own structures premolded 1.00) (1. in which case ψ (Table 2).00) Shares variables (γq) 1) 4) Wind action Own weight elements Indirect constructive and in general equipment 1.00) 1.00) (1. exc may be taken equal to the corresponding ψ j. as shown in Table 2.15 (1.40 (1. or as leading to transient situation in special combinations or building. FQ1 variable is considered as the main action in the normal combinations.30 (1. f Page 21 NBR 8800 . ψ j.50 (1.00) 1.i=1 j=1 Where: FGi are the permanent actions.Based Text Revision normal except when the main action F very small role.35 1.00) 1.00) 1.50 Special or Construction 1.20 (0) 0 (0) Other variables actions including those arising the use and occupation Normal 1.

1j Qj ψ F are the quasi-permanent values of the action.7.7. 3)Direct permanent actions that are not conducive to security may optionally be considered all grouped with weighting equal to 1.40 when it is not. which must be regarded as action resulting from the use and occupancy of the building. 2)The temperature effect mentioned does not include the generated equipment.40 when the variables arising from the use and occupation shares are equal to or greater than 5 2Or 1.00 1.00 1.Based Text Revision a) quasi-permanent combinations of use (combinations that may act during much of the lifetime of the structure. FQ1is the main variable action of the combination. the temperature effect can be seen kN / m separately. 4. of the order of 10 total duration equal to a not insignificant part of that period.2 Combinations of exceptional past actions to ultimate limit states in fire situation should be determined according to NBR 14323. ψ F are the common values of the action. and the actions variables corresponding to each of the types of combinations as follows: Page 22 22 NBR 8800 .50 when it is not (even in this case. 4)If the direct permanent actions that are not conducive to safety are grouped variables actions that do not are favorable safety can optionally also be considered all grouped with coefficient equal weighting of 1. 2j Qj ψ . the order of half of that period): Σm F + Σn (ψ F ) Gi j2Qj i=1 j=1 b) frequent use combinations (combinations that repeat often 5 times 50. or having during the lifetime of the structure. of the order of 5%): Σm F + ψ F + Σn (ψ F ) Gi 1 Q1 j2Qj i=1 j=2 c) use of rare combinations (combinations that can act at most a few time during the life of the structure): Where: Σm F + F + Σn (ψ F ) Gi Q1 j1Qj i=1 j=2 FGi are the permanent actions. 4. including permanent deformation imposed.3 Combinations of actions for serviceability limit states In the combinations of actions for serviceability limit states are considered all actions permanent. 1j 2j . variables and exceptional actions favorable safety should not be included in the combinations.2. Ψ factors are used as table 2.00 NOTES: 1)The values in parentheses correspond to the coefficients for permanent actions favorable to safety. with its own weighting).35 when the stock variables arising from the use and occupation is equal to or greater than 5 kN / m2Or 1.Exceptional 1.

5 0.3 ψ 2j Uniform temperature variations compared to the local average annual 0.6 0. 4.7 0. shear walls structural or other means equivalents. 4.5.4 0.2 are defined braced and not braced structures and provided guidelines for assessment their stability.8.0 unless it is demonstrated by the analysis of the structure.3 Note: 1)The coefficients ψ must be accepted as 1.8.Factors combo and use factors Share ψ 1) oj 0.1 This subsection deals with the analysis and stability of structures. warehouses.6 Moving loads and their dynamic effects: . If analysis is done second order.8 0. Thus. here classified as braced structures.8.6 ψ 1j 0.Table 2 .5 .1 In those trusses and structures whose lateral stability is guaranteed by system suitable bracing. the buckling coefficient K to be used in the design of compressed bars.1 General 4.1. 4.2 Structural analysis for verification of limit states must be ugly as stipulated in this standard parts dealing with the issue. 4.2.Beams bearing crane 1.8. but using the combinations of actions appropriate for these types of limit states.4 0.4 .1 General The stability of the structure as a whole and must be guaranteed for each component element.8.With predominance of equipment that remain fixed for long periods of time or high concentrations of persons 0.No predominance of equipment that remain fixed for long periods of time or high concentrations of persons 0.3.Based Text Revision 4.8 Stability and structural analysis 4.2 braced structures 4. 4. general rules are presented for structural analysis for verification of ultimate limit states.8.2 Structural Stability 4.2.8.4 Cases not covered in this Standard For cases of combinations of actions related to the ultimate limit states or use not covered in this standard shall be in compliance with the requirements of ISO 8681.8.0 shares for variables of the same nature of the variable action oj main F Q1 .1.2. can be taken equal to 1.0 0.8 0.5 0. workshops and garages 0. should follow the procedures given in 4. archives.Libraries.Pedestrian Walkways 0.8. considering the significant actions of the deformed structure effects.7.2.8. or 23 .3 Dynamic pressure of the wind on structures in general 0 Actions resulting from the use and occupation: .3. provided the requirements of 4.8.3 . and 4.6 0.6 0.7 0. Page 23 NBR 8800 .

3.7.1.2.8. according to .2 A second-order analysis that includes the initial imperfections of the structure.1.7.3. The destabilizing effects of gravity loads on pillars and other vertical structural members without ability to withstand horizontal forces should be considered in the analysis.3. must be obtained through elastic analysis.2.8. depending on the sensitivity of the structure to horizontal displacements (see 4.4.8.if applicable.7. as Annex J. Adjustments reducing the stiffness of pillars requested outside elastic allowed.8. Columns. beams and diagonal when used as part of the vertical bracing system can be considered as bars a vertical trellis swing study of buckling and lateral stability of the structure.3 vertical bracing system must be determined by structural analysis and be adequate to prevent buckling and maintain the stability of the structure.2. can be used in place of the requirements presented in 4. Page 24 24 NBR 8800 .5.3 Structures not braced 4. for combinations appropriate actions listed in 4.3 Structural Analysis 4.1.8. except when permissions for other types of analysis are explained in parts of this Standard.0.2. Case there is a rigid connection between beams and columns.4 respectively.8. as 4.1 In structures where the lateral stability depends on the flexural rigidity of beams and columns rigidly connected to each other. as 4. combinations of shares for calculation stipulated in 4.8.3.3.4. reducing the stiffness adjustments of pillars requested outside elastic allowed. here classified as not braced structures.3. In any analysis must take into account the effects of initial imperfections of the structure as a whole.8.1.1.8.2 If analysis of the structure is taken directly into account the effects of initial imperfections of the structure as a whole.2. which values less than 1. 4. 4.2.2 Elastic second-order analysis must be rigorous.8. Still admits the use of elastic analysis estimated and approximate second order. 4.2 and 4. as 4.3.3. as 4.8. if applicable. 4.3. described in 4.8.8.2.3 In determining the effects of the strength of the instability should be included structural and axial deformation of the pillars. 4.3.Based Text Revision The axial deformation of all the bars of the vertical bracing system must be included the study of lateral stability. 4.8.3.4 Lets consider that the internal and external structural walls and slabs and floor covering part of the vertical bracing system provided appropriately sized and connected to the structure.1 Types of analysis and second order effects 4.8.0 may be used.8.2.8.3 can be consider the buckling coefficient K equal to 1. combinations of shares for calculating stipulated in 4.3 and 4. the coefficient K buckling of compressed bars should be determined by structural analysis or.3.2) and since the conditions shown are met. including resisting the destabilizing effects of gravity loads on pillars and other structural components vertical unable to withstand lateral forces.1 The internal forces calculation in bars and links the structure to check the ultimate limit states.4.2.2.8.3. by the use of attachments H and J. 4.8.8. 4.2. 4.8.

Δ is the horizontal relative displacement (between floors). requiring a strategy of numerical resolution involving iterative procedures.3.3.3.3.4 Submitted to vertical and horizontal forces. with the combinations of actions of calculation.3.3.2. also called P-Δ effects are the answers Page 25 NBR 8800 .1. it is limited in principle to cases in which the second order effects do not exceed 40% analysis of the first order. which are obtained by establishing equilibrium in the deformed configuration structure represented by the polygon defined by the strings of the various bars.1. 4.8.5 respectively.Based Text Revision arising from horizontal displacements on the ends of the bars (rotations of ropes).8. the unless it is demonstrated that the stresses acting. oh Σ H is the sum of all horizontal forces producing displacement calculation Sd horizontal on the floor considered. the coefficient B 2 is greater than 1. This type of analysis usually has a high degree of complexity.8.2. the coefficient B 2Given by the following expression. defined in 4.8. depending on the sensitivity of the structure 25 . we must increase the rigidity of the structure to reduce the horizontal displacements.8.1 The rigorous elastic second-order analysis.4 and 4. Global second order effects.1.3.8. 4.5 The local second order effects. structures moving horizontally.3. Its validity in However. considered on the floor. 4.1: B = 2 1 1- Σ N Sd oh h Σ H Sd Δ Where: Σ N is the sum of the normal forces applicants calculation across all pillars and Sd resistant to vertical loads other elements (including the pillars and other elements that not belong to the system resistant to horizontal forces). 4. 4. also called P-δ effects are the answers resulting displacement of the deformed configuration of the structure of each bar subject to the normal force in relation to the position of the respective string.8.2 Structures little too sensitive to horizontal displacements 4.8. in all their floors. h is the height from the floor (wheelbase beams).4.8.7.1.1 The structure is considered to be very sensitive to horizontal displacements are. and allows properly account the overall effects and local second order. If this occurs.3.8. even if including the residual stresses do not exceed the yield strength steel in any cross section.3.3 Analysis estimated second order 4.3 The term rigorous elastic second-order analysis that in which the equations equilibrium is established in the deformed configuration of the structure. not exceed 1.1.3. as 4. or place an elastoplastic analysis of second order.8.2 The structure is considered very sensitive to horizontal displacements are in the least one of his stories.1. 4.4.

3.2.3.3. according to 4.85 bar with both ends embedded and 1. with the following rules: .In very sensitive to horizontal displacements structures with the highest coefficient B taking all floors not exceeding 1.4.8. taken as positive when the curvature and moments cause reverse cause negative when a single curve. obtained by structural analysis elastic first order. M Sd 1requestor is the bending moment calculation at bar.8. .3.040 M M 1 2 being M M the ratio between the smallest and the largest bending moments of 1 2 applicants in calculating the bending plane.3. N is the normal force of elastic buckling of the bar in the plane considered. M SdIncluding the local second-order effects.8. the second global and local effects order can be considered a simplified form as 4. Is the Sd.2.3.Insensitive to the horizontal displacements global structures for secondary order can be neglected and the local second-order effects should be considered a simplified form as 4. 4. given by: . . N N 1 . the supported ends of the bar. the value of Cm should be determined by rational analysis or be taken in the case of 0.Based Text Revision M= Sd B M 0 Sd1 Where: B0 is a coefficient given by: C m ≥ 1 If the requester normal force calculation on the bar.If lateral forces between the ends of the bar in the plane bending. Cm is an equivalence of moments.the horizontal displacements can be replaced by an analysis taking into account the effects of initial imperfections in accordance withestimated.3. For traction. can be determined by: Page 26 26 NBR 8800 .2 In some structures sensitive to horizontal displacements. N 0 Sd.8.If no transverse forces between the ends of the bar in the plane bending: C m = 060 . 4.Sd N and compression. 2.3. B = 0 B = 1If the normal force on the bar requesting calculation. calculated and based on their buckling length. the bending moment requestor calculation.8. .0 in other cases.

4. 4. allows himself not consider it in combinations that work forces due to wind.1 Annex V procedures are presented to approximate elastic analysis second order.8. Where h floor height (distance wheelbase beams).1 The effect of initial imperfections of the structure as a whole may be taken into account directly in the analysis by considering an equivalent geometric imperfection in form of an initial displacement between floors 200 h . M Sd.2.3.8.1). 2 4. considering all the floors.8. The values cutting shall be used in the verification of ultimate limit states. taken equal to 0. This force notional should be considered acting in all combinations of shares used for calculating the calculation of the structure.3.3.3.4.3.5% of the sum of normal forces applicants calculation in all pillars and other elements resistant to vertical loads.8.3.95 times higher B obtained for normal forces and 2. a fictitious horizontal force called Force notional.The other internal forces to be used in the verification of ultimate limit states can be those obtained directly by first-order elastic analysis.2 The effect of initial imperfections of the structure can be taken into account by application on each floor of the structure.4. 4. considered on the floor. the only option allowed in place of the analysis elastic rigorous second order is the use of the approximate analysis described in 4. However. accumulated over the height of the building. ie can consider it only for the combination of actions that act only in calculating actions Direct permanent and result from the use and occupation of the building (see 4. 4.Based Text Revision M= Sd 27 B M 0 Sd2 Where: B0 should be determined as 4. 2 4.8.7.8. It is also admitted consider it through the simplified procedure of notional forces given in 4.3.8.4.4 Consideration of initial imperfections of the structure as a whole 4.2.3 In very sensitive to horizontal displacements structures with the highest coefficient B not more than 1.3.8.4 In very sensitive to horizontal displacements structures with the highest coefficient B greater than 1. requestor is the bending moment calculation obtained from the above analysis. . 2. and that generally provide more accurate results than those obtained by the analysis described in estimated 4.3.2 Other procedures for approximate elastic second-order analysis can be used provided they lead to accurate results equivalent to the procedures of Annex V. but additionally the requestor bending moment calculation to be used must also include the local effects of second order.3. to avoid an overly conservative condition.3.8.8.8.4 Analysis approximate second order 4. multiplying the actions that cause horizontal displacements of the found by combining 0. a simplified solution for the assessment of the overall effect of second order consists in determining the internal forces based on elastic analysis first order. is given by: 2 Page 27 NBR 8800 .3.3.3. which can be used for any larger value of the coefficient B considering all floors of the structure. It is not necessary to consider them in the calculation of the horizontal support reactions. 4. even when it exceeds 1.3.4.2.4.8.

5.1.4. resistance (force or moment) and stiffness (force per displacement unit time or per unit of rotation) sloping or containments diagonals should be adjusted to the angle of inclination.1 for non-braced structures.1 General 4.1. 4.4.8. The strength and stiffness provided by the stability analysis of restraint should not be less than the required limits. if the requirements of 4. The restraint on controlling the motion of a point contained in contained relation to adjacent points. 4. One should strive to put perpendicular to the bar retainers.Based Text Revision 4.4. The evaluation of the rigidity provided the retainers must include its dimensions and geometric properties as well as the effects links and anchor details.2.5. while Specifically containing the nodal point movement control contained no interaction contained with the adjacent points (1 illustrates the two types of restraint bars compressed and flexed).8. relative and nodal are considered. so that.5 Strength and stiffness of containments 4.2.3 The effect of initial imperfections is to be applied in all horizontal directions relevant.8. but only one at a time (considering both directions). Page 28 28 NBR 8800 .4 Allows the analysis of the structure without directly considering the effect of imperfections initials.2.1 are met for braced structures and 4.8. bars compressed can be calculated considering the buckling length equal to the distance between the points at which these contentions are present. for example.5. The possible torsional effects must also be considered.2 Two types of containment.1 The following requirements relate to minimum resistance and stiffness that side retainers must have in order to be effective.8.8.3.8.8. N N N N h Sum Diagonal N N Relative N N Nodal a) Containment in compressed bars Relative Nodal .

the tensile shear strength and Page 29 NBR 8800 . by: P= br β br 0004 N = Sd 2γ N r Sd L b Where: γ is the weighting coefficient of rigidity equal to 1. These stability requirements should be combined with those related to forces and Side other sources.5.5.4.8. respectively.35.5.3.8.Types of containment 4. by: P β br br = 0004 Σ N = Sd 2γ ΣN r Sd h Where: γ is the weighting coefficient of rigidity equal to 1. shear walls or equivalent means.5. h is the height from the floor.8.3. Lb is the distance from contention.8.2 Floors with diagonal bracing panels or In structures in which the lateral stability is ensured by diagonal bracing.3. such as wind movements.8.35. 4. 4.Based Text Revision stiffness necessary for stability of these systems on each floor. respectively.2 The required strength and stiffness of the restraints on are given. r NSdrequestor is the normal force calculation on the pillar.3.3 The strength and rigidity necessary nodal restraints.b) Containment flexed in bars Figure 1 . 4. when these are equally spaced. are given respectively by: P= 001 N 29 .1 A single pillar can be contained in intermediate points along its long and contentions relative or nodal. r ΣN is the sum of the normal forces requesters calculate the pillars and other Sd resistant elements to vertical forces considered the floor.8. observing the provisions in 4. making wheelbase beams.5.3 Pillars 4. are given.5.

except for containment located in the vicinity of the point tipping in bars subjected to bending reverse camber.4. Cd is a coefficient equal to 1. Additionally.8. Page 30 30 NBR 8800 .4. 4. Γr andbLare defined in 4.8. respectively.5.3 The required strength and stiffness of contention for translation are given.4.4. observing the provisions in 4. inflection point can not be considered by itself as a restraint. Bars subjected to bending with reverse curvature. the balance beams.4 Beams 4.5.8. hthe is the distance between the centroid of the tables.4 The required strength and stiffness of contention nodal translation are given. Where L q is b equal to Lq.br Sd 8γ N β = r Sd br L b where NSd. r M Sdis the bending moment calculation requestor.2.00.8.5. 4.4 When the distance between the points of restraint is smaller than L Unlocked maximum length that allows the pillar resists normal force requestor calculation of the buckling coefficient k = 1.00. 4. can take L q.1 The contentions of a beam shall prevent the relative displacement of the top tables and bottom. Contentions translational must be fixed near both tables when located in the vicinity of the point inflection in beams subjected to reverse curvature. a contention in end without support should be set close to the pulled table. 4.5.5. respectively.5.2 The contentions of translation can be relative or nodal and should be fixed near the compressed table.8. torsion (twisting restraint) or combination of the two movements. by: P= br 002 M C Sd d .Based Text Revision 4.8.3.5.5.3.8.8. Lb is the distance between restraints (length unlocked).4. Lateral stability of beams must be provided to prevent the restraint lateral displacement (translational containment).35. by: P= br β br 0008 = M C Sd d h the 4γ M C r Sd d L h b the Where: γ is the weighting coefficient of rigidity equal to 1.00.5. should be taken when equal to 2.

Such contentions may be fixed in any position of the cross section.4. given by: T β = T LM2 r Sd nE I C2 y b 2 γ4 β sec is the stiffness of the beam web distortion.6.5.7 The contentions of nodal twist must have a connection with the beam capable of supporting the bending moment. one can take G equal to L .8.8. C is a modification factor defined in 5.4. b q q. including the effect of stiffeners Cross the soul.4.2. b β is the stiffness of the containment excluding the distortion of the beam web. given by: β sec = t b3 3 3 E 1 5. 4.3.8. r .8.4. not needing to stay near the compressed table.5. are: 0024 M Sd nC L b b M= br β Tb β = 1- T β β L T sec Where: M SdandbLare defined in 4. n is the number of nodal points of contention within the range.4.5 and 5.4. Where L q is 4.5. M br.35.4. β Tb. Whose values.5 When the distance between the points of restraint is smaller than L unlocked maximum length which allows the beam to resist the bending moment requester calculation. if any. Γr andbLare defined in 4. L is the span of the beam.h t 3 thew + s s h 12 12 the γ is the weighting coefficient of rigidity equal to 1.3.Based Text Revision β = br 31 10γ M C r Sd d L h b the where MSdC dH the . And a minimum stiffness gantry or diaphragm. 4.5.6 contentions torsional nodal or may be continuous along the length of the beam.5. respectively.h the Page 31 NBR 8800 .8.2.

shipping. taking n L equal to 1.1 The structural design. hthe is the distance between the centroid of the tables. recycling and reuse of materials. 4. and rigidity to the distortion of the soul. should allow the manufacturing. Each part of a building between expansion joints should be treated as an isolated building. . Alternatively. t s is the thickness of the stiffener.5.9. t4 of w q. Then L b may be taken equal to L 4.3 The structure must be designed as a three-dimensional entity.4.4. When the spacing of the points of restraint is smaller than L q. it must be extended to the total height of the bar contained and must be fixed to the table if containment torsion is also fixed to the table.E is the modulus of elasticity of steel.2 The basic anatomy of the structure by which actions are transmitted to the foundations must be clearly defined. handling and assembly of the structure are performed so proper and safe working condition. When the stiffener is required.9. 4. the stiffener is allowed to interrupt a distance equal to any table of the beam that is not directly attached to the containment twist.9.9. bs the width of the stiffener is located on one side (using twice the width of the stiffener for pairs of stiffeners). preferably orthogonal at each level supported by this pillar. Β Tb will be negative. indicating that the containment torsion beam is not effective due to inadequate rigidity to the distortion of the beam web. It must also take into account the need to future maintenance.5.8. must be robust and stable under normal load conditions and should not occur in the event that one accident or be used inappropriately.4 Each pillar of a building shall be effectively locked by means of struts (retainers) at least two horizontal directions. If β secis less than β T.9. demolition. 4. Page 32 32 NBR 8800 . in addition to providing a framework capable of meeting the limit states past and the intended period of use for the building lifespan.8. suffering disproportionate damage to their causes.7.8 For the contentions of continuous torque must be used the same expressions given in 4.8.9. t wis the thickness of the beam web. In absence of specific sophisticated studies should be followed given prescriptions 4. including roofing.4 to 4. Any structure characteristics that influence the stability Global must be identified and properly considered in the design.00 times and the rigidity per unit length. according to Figure 2. β beam As: sec β 3 3Et3 w sec 12 h the = 4.9 Structural Integrity 4.Based Text Revision I y is the moment of inertia of the beam about the axis situated in the bending plane.

4. the struts must meet the applicable requirements given in 4.5 Continuous lines of struts should be placed as close as possible to the edges of the floor or roof line and each pillar.1. and reentrant corners anchors should be and connected to the structure according to Figure 2. at least 75 kN. which should not be added to other actions.Based Text Revision 33 4.1.1 Classification of cross sections 5.1. including those used for other purposes. which should not be added to other actions. 5 Specific conditions for the design of steel elements 5. at least 2% of the requesting force calculation on the pillar or 75 kN. such as floor joists and hedge shears.6 The horizontal struts may consist of steel profiles. pillars of the amendments should be able to withstand a force corresponding to the larger reaction of traction calculation.1. respectively slenderness parameter corresponding to the lamination and parameter slenderness corresponding to the onset of yield. obtained from the combination of load permanent and overhead applied on the pillar of a floor located between the amendment in consideration and positioned immediately below the seam. whichever is greater.1 Relations width / thickness on tablets elements of steel profiles 5.Page 33 NBR 8800 . or the reinforcement of slabs properly connected to the steel frame.5.2). the struts of the pillars and their end their connections shall be designed for the actions of calculation and also to support a compressive force calculation. Anchors of the pillars Anchors edge Reentrant corner Anchor for Dike the reentrant corner Anchors edge The Anchor for containment The abutment Anchors edge Beams not used as anchors Figure 2 . 4.9.9.1. the cross sections are classified into: .9.8 In buildings with multiple floors. In addition.Example of bracing the pillars of a building 4.7 The horizontal struts and their connections must be compatible with the other elements of the structure to which they belong and be sized for shares calculation and also to withstand a pulling force calculation. On case covers without concrete slabs.9.1 Depending on the value of the slenderness of the compressed components in relation to λ p andrλ(To see 5.8.

4).Page 34 34 NBR 8800 .3 The width (b) of some of the most common AA elements should be taken as follows: a) for the souls of sections I.1.2.1.2 The slenderness of compressed elements is defined in 5.1.3).1.1 For the purposes of local buckling.1.2. and be doubly symmetric when subjected to normal compression forces. but should. the free distance between the inner faces of the souls. 5.2.2 Types and slenderness of the component elements 5.4 semicompactas In sections. c) for welded sections coffin tables.1. the elements of the cross sections usual.1. and AL. except the circular tubular sections are classified into AA when have two linked longitudinal edges.1. t / 5.Based Text Revision . 5.1. 5. the length of the flat part of the element.Semicompactas: sections that have one or more elements tablets exceeding the parameter λ pBut not the parameter λ r (See 5. having a shaft symmetry in the plane of loading when subjected to bending.1. when they have only one longitudinal edge bound.1. .1.Slender: sections that have one or more elements tablets exceeding the parameter λ r (See 5.1. the free distance between tables.2 and the parameters of slenderness λ andrλare provided for different request types along this Standard. p 5. H or U-rolled. for this type of analysis. U or welded coffin.1. p .2. the distance between the parallel lines of fasteners or welding. 5. 5.1. H. 5.4 The width of some of the most common elements AL should be taken as follows: .2 The slenderness of the component elements of the cross section is defined by the relationship between width and thickness (ratio b). e) for plates.3 Compact sections are capable of achieving a stress distribution "fully Plastic "and have a great rotation before the occurrence of local buckling.1.5).1.1.Compact: sections tablets whose elements have not exceed the slenderness parameter λ and whose tables are connected continuously to the soul or souls (see 5.5 In the sections slender elements tablets before flambam resistance flow is achieved. the tablets reach the resistance elements runoff before local buckling occurs. b) for the souls of sections I.1. but not resist inelastic local buckling the intensity of tension required to achieve "fully plastic" distributing strains. These sections are suitable for cosmetic analysis.1. d) to souls rectangular tubular sections and tables. the free distance between the two tables less rays of agreement between table and soul.

half of the total width of the table. Rdis the normal force of sturdy traction calculation. 5.8 should still be met. b) to flaps and gussets U sections tables. including bars linked by pins and lugs and round bars with Threaded ends. is the smallest of values obtained. Sd combinations of actions given in 4.2.7. Rd for round bars with threaded ends and bars linked by pins. the distance from the free edge to the first row of bolts or welding. c) for plates. the total height of the cross section. determined from the t. d) for the souls of sections T. considering the limit states for disposal of gross section and Liquid break section according to the expressions given below: a) for the disposal of the gross section N TRd = The f g y γ b) to break the net section N Where: Page 36 TRd = The f andu γ . relating to the maximum value of slenderness ratio and.2. H and T.1.2.2. N To be used in the design. except t.2. including the height of the soul and the thickness table. in the case of a bar composed.7. the total width of the element.2 sturdy Normal force calculation The normal force resistant traction calculation.6 or 5.1 General 5.2.Based Text Revision 35 a) sections of tables for I. must be met given the rules in 5.1 This subsection applies to prismatic bars subjected to normal traction force caused by static actions. whichever is applicable. Nt.1.2. determined according to 5. the condition must be met: N TSd ≤N TRd Where: N is the normal force of requesting traction calculation. 5.Page 35 NBR 8800 . The condition specified in 5.2 In the design. 5.9.2. 5.2 prismatic bars subjected to normal traction force 5.2.2.2.

4. And Mon respectively.2. The the bar.35 for net section rupture. d) for angles. the net area. b) if a series of holes distributed transversely to the axis of the bar in to this axis diagonal or zigzag. g is the gross cross-sectional area of The is the effective net area of cross section.2 In areas where there are no holes.Based Text Revision γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance. The Is given by: and A = C The and t n Where: The n is the net area.2. and f y is the yield strength of steel.10 for disposing of gross section and 1. f u is the tensile strength of steel. equal to 1. A 37 . The . made for switching or for any other purpose. A bar is the sum of the thickness of the liquid products width of each n element. Page 37 NBR 8800 . subtracted from its thickness.5. Should be taken equal to the area . Ct is a reduction coefficient of net area determined according to 5. c) the net width of that critical part of the bar will be obtained by the chain holes gives the least net widths for the different possibilities of lines break. calculated as follows: a) bolted to the width of the holes must be considered greater than 2.3. 5. the net width of that part of the bar shall be calculated by deducting from the gross width the sum of the widths of all the holes in the chain.Based Text Revision 5.36 NBR 8800 . measured from the edge of the ledge.2. the area Net.3 Effective Net Area The effective net area of a bar. given bar as 5. feedback g holes in opposite flaps should be considered equal to sum of jigs.2. as determined Bar 5.0 mm nominal size of these holes. defined in 6.5.1 In regions with holes.4. the amount s 2 4 g . 5.4 Net Area 5.2. and adding to each line connecting the two holes.2.4. e) in determining the net section area comprising welds or welds buffer Fillet holes in the area of the weld metal must be discarded. the longitudinal and transverse spacings (feedback) between these two holes.3.2. perpendicular to the direction of the force applied.

Illustration of values and and in cross sections consisting of c lc flat elements c) when the traction force is transmitted only by transverse welds: Page 38 38 NBR 8800 . C t. including rectangular tubular sections has the following values: a) when the traction force is transmitted directly to each of the elements of cross section of the bar. n 5. each related to a shear plane of the connection. the connection should be symmetrical in relation to this plane are considered and two separate bars and symmetric. l cIn the welded joints. L.2. The g.2. by welds or bolts: C = 100 t b) when the traction force is transmitted only by only by bolts or welds Longitudinal or by a combination of longitudinal and transversal welds to some. Bars with cross sections constituted by more than one rectangular element. the length of the link is equal to the length of welding and bolted in is the distance from first to last screw thread drilling with larger screws.90 as the upper limit and lower limit 0. equal to the distance from the center of gravity of the bar.5. for example.5 Reduction Coefficient 5. toward the normal force.75): and C =1. elements of the cross section of the bar (should. two T sections in case I or H profiles linked the tables). but not all. be used 0. the shear plane of the connection (in profiles with a plane of symmetry.Based Text Revision The c C= t The g Center of gravity higher T Center of gravity lower T and c .c t l c Where (Figure 3): and c is the eccentricity of the bond. however.gross cross section.1 The reduction coefficient of net area. and c Higher T G and c lc Lower T lc Figure 3 .

b is the plate width (distance between the welds located on both edges). as in the situation shown in Figure 4.5.5.2 The reduction coefficient of net area.2. C Circular has the following values: t. has following values: C = 100 To t l C = 087 To t 2b > l C = 075 To t 1 5.b Where: l w is the length of the weld.2. g gross cross-sectional area of 5. c is the cross-sectional area of The the bar. The flat plates when the traction force is transmitted only by longitudinal welds along both its edges.3 The reduction coefficient of net area. 5.1. C t. by welds or bolts: C = 100 t b) when the traction force is transmitted to only a portion of the cross section.b > l ≥ b w w ≥ 2b w ≥ 1 5.2. Page 39 NBR 8800 . Bars with tubular cross sections a) when the traction force is transmitted almost uniformly throughout the cross section.Based Text Revision 39 Centre of gravity semi-circle top .Where: The the connected elements.5. the procedure should be used as in b) of 5.

Illustration of transmission of force to the tubular part of circular cross section 5. f u is the tensile strength tensile steel.6.2.6. Page 40 40 NBR 8800 . as 6.1 bars connected by pin 5.and c and c lc Centre of gravity lower semi-circle Figure 4 .35. 5. a is the shortest distance from the edge of the hole to the end of the bar measured in the direction parallel to the acting normal force.2.1. t is the thickness of the plate connected by the pin.2. c) rupture of the net section tensile N TRd = 2 bt f f u γ d) rupture of the net section shear N TRd = 060 The f sf u γ with The = t2 to+( d / ) 2 sf p Where: γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance equal to 1.1. bf is an effective width equal to t2 +16 mm But not more than the distance from the edge of hole to the nearest edge of the part measured in the direction perpendicular to the normal force acting.2.6.2 the following requirements (Figure 5) must be met: .1. is the lowest value considering the following limit states: a) disposing of gross section tensile as 5. b) pressure resistance of the projected contact area of the pin.6.6 bars connected by pin and lugs 5.2.1 The normal force resistant traction calculation of a bar connected by pin except eyebolts.Based Text Revision dp is the diameter of the pin.2.

parallel to the axis of the workpiece.33 fb The bf b 2 N b dh N b 2 bf Section AA The dp 45 ° ≥ 1. .Plaque connected by pin 5. d h. B ≥ 2f + D p t a ≥ 1. - the head should be circular.2. its diameter d pIt can be a maximum of 1. Dp and defined in 5. .2 Eyelets The eyebolts are pieces for pin connections (Figure 6).Corner bar. - the pin diameter may not be less than 7 8 / the width of the ring body. concentric with the through hole pin contour. in addition to the through hole of the pin can be cut at angles 45 ° to the longitudinal axis. distance from the edge of the hole to the edge of the plate in the direction perpendicular to the force applied must be greater than 2 3 /the width of the ring body.1). and .. Page 41 NBR 8800 . which must meet the following requirements: - have uniform thickness without additional reinforcement in the area of passage of the pin.2.0 mm smaller than the hole.The pin hole must be in the middle distance between the edges of the bar toward acting perpendicular to located the normal force.6.Based Text Revision 41 the radius of the agreement between the head and the body of the ring (R) must be equal to or larger than the outside diameter of the eye (D) head. perpendicular to the shear plane.33 b f Figure 5 .The length of the plate beyond the edge of the hole can not be smaller than 2 b( and the distance can not be less than 133 b f f +d ) p (Bf . - the plate thickness of the body of the lug (t) can not be less than 13 mm. provided that the net cross-sectional area between the edge of hole and the cut edge. is not less than that required beyond the edge of the hole.1.6. .When the pin's function also prevent relative movement between the parties connected.

.1 The normal force resistant traction calculation.2. Such values should be obtained from According to 5. the normal force of sturdy traction calculation.7 Round bars with threaded ends 5. N determined according to 5. Except rods round bars pre-tensioned or other bars that have been pre-assembled with voltage must be less than or equal to 300. c) profiles or plates.7.2. K L r .2. with an gross area equal to the width of the body of the grommet. b. can not be greater than: Page 42 42 NBR 8800 . Must be t. or two plates in contact.2. separated from each other by a distance equal to the thickness of Spacer plates must be interconnected through these spacer plates.14 or t greater than 180 mm.2. for bars made with unpainted resistant steel atmospheric corrosion or painted bars.Based Text Revision . so D . for the ultimate limit state flow of gross section.2. for bars made with unpainted steel not Resistant to atmospheric corrosion.3. The round bars with t.0 mm dp ≥7 8b ≥2 b 3 The Figure 6 . Rd R≥D t ≥ 13 mm ≥2 b 3 The N b N Section AA dp≤ dh≤ dp+ 1. Rd threaded ends.Eyelet 5.24 or t greater than 300 mm.2. it is the smallest of the values considering the limit states of disposing of gross section and break the threaded part.off the pin in the hole.0 mm. Met these requirements.3. 5. d hCan not be greater than 1. 5. . respectively.8 Index slenderness limit The slenderness ratio of tensile bars. the thickness t (Figure 6).9 Bars composite tensile The composite tensile bars shall conform to the following rules (Figure 7): a) the longitudinal spacing between bolts or intermittent fillet welds connecting a plaque with a profile. b) the longitudinal spacing between bolts or intermittent welds connecting two or more contact sections can not be longer than 600 mm.2) and 6.2. N .

The distance between two lines b. thickness should be less than screws or welding.Based Text Revision N r 5. should have a length equal to or greater than 3 bolts or welds that connect to the main truss members. this range is not more than 300. should be connected to the main components by screws or welds intermittent longitudinal distance below or equal to 150 mm. the latter being: a.9-a Ve N 43 N N lete phi and d 600mm ≤ Screws 300 ≤ Screws max /(LR) 3 ≥2b /intermittent n mm 150 ≤ I weld b 300 ≤ . d) can be used in the open faces continuous sheets with access openings or intermittent connecting plates. should be spaced so that the greater spacing between plates connection must be such that the slenderness ratio greater l r / for each component principal. d. c. not exceed 300.2. /1 50 the distance between lines Page 43 NBR 8800 .the largest slenderness ratio of any profile or sheet between these connections.

A bar. Page 44 44 NBR 8800 . determined as 5.1. R. must be met given the rules in 5.7.3.composite tensile bars 5.1. The condition specified in 5.1 General 5.3. considering the states ultimate limits of instability by bending. Sdis the normal force of requesting compression calculation.2 sturdy Normal force calculation The normal force resistant compression calculation.2. Ris the normal force resistant compression calculation. 5.3.3 prismatic bars subjected to normal compressive force 5.3. torsional or flexo-torsion and local buckling. relating to the maximum value of slenderness ratio and.2. should be determined by the expression: N CRd = χ Q Thef g y γ b/50 ≥ .1 This subsection applies to prismatic bars subjected to the normal force compression caused by static actions.Based Text Revision Nc.3.2 In the design.9-a Ve D lete andl B phi d mm 150 ≤ intermittent n I weldC b C N N 2b 3 ≥ / Screws N N t rMin Section AA DC Court DD cut BB Cut Figure 7 . in the case of a bar composed.2./max (LR) D lete phi and Thed B The intermittent n I weld 600mm ≤ r 5. determined from the combinations of actions given in 4. 5.6.3.3. N c.5 should still be met. the condition must be met: N ≤N C Sd CRd Where: Nc.

curves respectively for sizing compression. 1 + [ α λ .3. obtained as Annex K. Q is the local buckling coefficient. equal to the product l The f (A is the gross cross-sectional area and f the yield strength of steel). With ( ) β = 0 5. Page 45 NBR 8800 .4).λ 2 ) the ≤ 1 0. in cases of instability due to bending is equal to 0.10.3.3. according to . the curve b to be used). χ. c or d). Table 3 Their values can be obtained from figure 8 and in Table 4 or determined by: 1 χ = β + (β 2 . 0.21.0 2 + λ2] the the where α is related to the scaling coefficient curve compression and λ reduced slenderness.2 The coefficient α.3.34 (Ie. y g y g Nand is the normal force of elastic buckling.3.3.4 Length of buckling 45 . equal to 1.3.3 Reduction factor χ 5. α should always be taken equal to 0.3.1 The reduction factor associated with resistance to compression. theis the index 5.49 and 0. given respectively in 5. In cases of instability by twisting or flexion-torsion.3. 5.76.34. b. The the bar. depends on the curve sizing the compression (a. 5.Where: γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance to compression.3 The reduced slenderness ratio.3.3. given in 5.3.3.3.3. g is the gross cross-sectional area of f y is the yield strength of the steel.3. χ is the factor associated with resistance to compression reduction. which is the type of cross section. Np is the flow corresponding to the cross section normal force. λ λ = the QN N For compressed bars is given by: the pl and Where: Q is the local buckling coefficient obtained from Annex E.Based Text Revision 5.2 and 5. the mode instability and the axis for which instability occurs. whose value should be obtained from Annex E. depending on buckling length (see 5. 0.

Curves sizing Compressive instability due to bending Cross section Instability around the axis 3) Tubular sections No soldering longitudinal the Any With solder longitudinal Sections welded coffin d tf tw b d t / < 30 w Other cases Sections H and I rolled y b t / < 30 f Welds great thickness to>( 0 t5 ) f d b> / 12 t ≤ 40 mm f Curve 1) 4) c Any c Any b x.The buckling coefficient K allows to obtain the buckling length of the rod.y b . Page 46 46 NBR 8800 .x the y.Based Text Revision Table 3 .8. should be determined in accordance with 4.

20 2.y d 2) Sections U.40 0. 2)If the soldier profile is manufactured by depositing weld metal plates cut with a torch.y c 2) t > 40 mm i (I = 1 or 2) x.60 1.6 should be adopted curve c for instability relative to the axis that does not intersect the major components profiles.20 0.tf d x 40 < t ≤ 100 mm f x y b d b≤ / 12 t ≤ 100 mm f t > 100 mm f Sections I and welded H y y t1 x x t1 x y t2 x y x.x b 2) y.500 0.300 0. can be used to curve b for any instability about the axis. it should be used to curve b.400 d 0.00 λ the Figure 8 .900 the 0.20 1. T and solid laminated Any c Any b L sections (angles) rolled NOTES: 1)In cases of instability by twisting or flexion-torsion.000 0. Page 47 NBR 8800 .700 0.Based Text Revision 47 χ 1. 3)Sections not included in the table are classified analogously.000 0. subject to the limitations of 5.x y.dimensioning the compression curves (see Table 3) .y x.x c 2) y.3.00 1.40 2.60 2.100 0.80 2.40 1.800 0.80 3.00 2.600 b 0. 4)For compressed composite bars.00 0.x b c b y.200 c 0.80 1.y c Any d t ≤ 40 mm i (I = 1 and 2) x.60 0.

2 1.306 0.631 0.9 2.927 0.707 0.530 0.806 0.221 0.9 Page 48 48 NBR 8800 .000 1.108 - 0.103 0.2 2.167 0.120 0.204 0.989 0.149 0.511 0.234 0.000 1.171 0.116 0.00 1.8 0.6 0.267 0.125 0.160 0.138 0.09 1.124 0.132 0.8 1.Values of χ for curve b ( α = 0.166 0.156 0.399 0.906 0.556 0.390 0.121 0.119 0.145 0.197 0.146 0.000 1.135 0.404 0.140 0.000 1.287 0.936 0.668 0.223 0.950 0.105 0.0 2.964 0.185 0.413 0.000 0.281 0.970 0.000 0.1 1.182 0.857 0.7 1.807 0.980 0.115 0.4 2.1 0.243 0.111 0.572 0.766 0.457 0.176 0.217 0.0 1.229 0.852 0.245 0.000 0.000 1.0 0.8 1.133 0.262 0.116 0.107 0.000 0.151 0.219 0.7 0.9 0.128 0.148 0.341 0.110 - 0.7 0.9 2.914 0.918 0.273 0.117 0.200 0.603 0.Table 4a .134 0.252 0.257 0.136 0.908 0.417 0.1 2.268 0.861 0.0 2.523 0.209 0.635 0.000 1.106 - 0.987 0.454 0.130 0.344 0.3 1.489 0.162 0.179 0.832 0.559 0.536 0.394 0.418 0.833 0.238 0.512 0.104 0.115 0.0 2.386 0.452 0.8 2.184 0.108 - 0.250 0.857 0.112 0.143 0.122 0.897 0.447 0.428 0.165 0.000 1.5 0.247 0.484 0.100 λthe 0.159 0.000 1.276 0.178 0.000 1.342 0.800 0.5 2.603 0.112 0.9 1.979 0.000 1.2 0.236 0.02 1.866 0.270 0.680 0.000 0.734 0.638 0.0 0.164 0.718 0.882 0.699 0.215 0.000 0.7 2.335 0.142 0.164 0.902 0.529 0.240 0.265 0.137 0.06 1.192 0.250 0.05 1.493 0.986 0.569 0.2 2.170 0.101 0.506 0.364 0.000 0.8 0.113 0.382 0.231 0.175 0.9 1.07 1.197 0.5 2.673 0.117 0.112 0.163 0.930 0.131 0.811 0.955 0.945 0.470 0.905 0.433 0.399 0.145 0.996 0.323 0.505 0.818 0.199 0.924 0.961 0.215 0.1 1.408 0.365 0.06 1.3 0.5 0.275 0.186 0.120 0.500 0.4 0.3 2.190 0.192 0.236 0.2 0.766 0.478 0.693 0.000 1.105 - 0.000 1.227 0.107 0.110 0.219 0.373 0.9 2.1 1.562 0.125 0.487 0.894 0.190 0.109 - 0.958 0.778 0.642 0.886 0.2 0.000 1.549 0.617 0.223 0.174 0.790 0.107 - 0.982 0.465 0.21) λthe 0.255 0.2 1.837 0.6 1.596 0.0 2.260 0.0 1.4 1.893 0.9 3.127 0.9 3.795 0.975 0.968 0.5 1.000 0.124 0.4 2.225 0.918 0.998 0.157 0.000 0.880 0.852 0.5 2.284 0.119 0.597 0.118 0.2 0.193 0.108 0.989 0.02 1.934 0.3 1.443 0.740 0.231 0.755 0.843 0.159 0.991 0.221 0.000 0.5 1.133 0.0 1.966 0.3 2.324 0.361 0.2 2.938 0.8 1.319 0.125 0.949 0.589 0.208 0.102 .610 0.629 0.123 0.172 0.144 0.169 0.000 0.259 0.348 0.154 0.308 0.187 0.432 0.0 0.295 0.132 0.356 0.930 0.437 0.871 0.761 0.727 0.8 2.109 0.194 0.141 0.0 1.149 0.169 0.659 0.404 0.346 0.165 0.687 0.473 0.182 0.155 0.229 0.378 0.731 0.910 0.115 0.874 0.724 0.130 0.148 0.278 0.971 0.749 0.372 0.1 0.262 0.360 0.180 0.760 0.7 1.518 0.273 0.4 2.772 0.204 0.875 0.205 0.318 0.168 0.6 2.623 0.661 0.000 0.123 0.296 0.3 0.114 0.1 2.942 0.616 0.357 0.195 0.000 1.996 0.812 0.778 0.977 0.747 0.4 1.126 0.326 0.390 0.947 0.000 0.993 0.4 0.823 0.7 1.591 0.467 0.890 0.140 0.122 0.187 0.106 0.155 0.07 1.4 0.129 0.243 0.000 1.114 0.576 0.000 1.126 0.963 0.933 0.993 0.207 0.889 0.975 0.03 1.939 0.292 0.184 0.706 0.957 0.737 0.5 2.8 2.000 1.3 1.154 0.211 0.0 0.139 0.753 0.2 1.6 0.Values of χ for the curve ( α = 0.103 0.309 0.926 0.152 0.700 0.189 0.772 0.314 0.5 0.377 0.784 0.142 0.578 0.354 0.109 0.960 0.127 0.257 0.953 0.838 0.5 1.4 0.134 0.438 0.175 0.680 0.7 0.000 0.901 0.206 0.7 2.114 0.2 1.303 0.312 0.385 0.202 0.915 0.147 0.408 0.01 1.541 0.139 0.172 0.395 0.339 0.000 0.Based Text Revision Table 4b .3 2.265 0.118 0.543 0.178 0.462 0.6 1.321 0.158 0.6 2.553 0.152 0.381 0.111 0.953 0.7 2.328 0.968 0.270 0.176 0.686 0.6 0.6 1.6 0.7 0.6 1.04 1.225 0.000 1.05 1.945 0.5 0.3 1.423 0.168 0.000 0.151 0.714 0.8 0.784 0.247 0.8 0.6 2.299 0.255 0.0 0.9 1.000 1.6 2.252 0.350 0.789 0.188 0.311 0.442 0.104 0.369 0.9 2.129 0.04 1.000 0.870 0.111 0.848 0.911 0.279 0.535 0.00 1.147 0.652 0.547 0.141 0.08 1.861 0.3 0.1 0.000 0.245 0.743 0.143 0.160 0.104 - λthe 0.721 0.645 0.922 0.422 0.000 1.842 0.5 1.135 0.121 0.3 0.000 0.217 0.238 0.816 0.584 0.866 0.34) λthe 0.8 2.117 0.105 0.712 0.200 0.982 0.847 0.01 1.448 0.08 1.2 2.106 - 0.287 0.624 0.655 0.499 0.0 0.495 0.1 1.181 0.331 0.179 0.281 0.610 0.137 0.9 1.161 0.7 2.330 0.8 1.293 0.000 0.352 0.4 1.476 0.4 1.482 0.518 0.234 0.138 0.289 0.305 0.150 0.153 0.131 0.674 0.202 0.03 1.173 0.211 0.828 0.337 0.1 0.302 0.119 0.299 0.146 0.129 0.796 0.1 2.09 1.827 0.693 0.240 0.113 0.136 0.973 0.459 0.101 0.195 0.7 1.427 0.921 0.368 0.878 0.566 0.897 0.128 0.413 0.000 1.582 0.3 2.666 0.198 0.000 1.1 2.648 0.213 0.227 0.884 0.284 0.524 0.984 0.333 0.316 0.942 0.4 2.162 0.290 0.209 0.157 0.122 0.801 0.822 0.213 0.

349 0.881 0.546 0.196 0.121 0.000 1.7 2.287 0.474 0.364 0.504 0.108 0.108 0.135 0.207 0.1 0.8 2.098 - 0.0 0.0 1.592 0.772 0.279 0.793 0.142 0.744 0.102 0.138 0.162 0.095 0.758 0.7 1.127 0.06 1.637 0.139 0.251 0.3 2.138 0.5 0.7 0.299 0.146 0.291 0.9 2.125 0.111 0.107 0.07 1.094 0.123 0.433 0.213 0.544 0.938 0.164 0.112 0.279 0.954 0.4 0.767 0.809 0.483 0.558 0.146 0.132 0.761 0.218 0.121 0.380 0.000 0.154 0.452 0.000 1.946 0.662 0.800 0.183 0.700 0.385 0.302 0.000 1.114 0.0 2.093 - 0.237 0.3.02 1.150 0.266 0.090 - 0.111 0.155 0.901 0.908 0.829 0.388 0.434 0.779 0.961 0.000 0.228 0.419 0.311 0.122 0.253 0.2 1.4 0.574 0.190 0.123 0.6 0.6 2.517 0.162 0.710 0.219 0.151 0.143 0.089 - 0.096 - λthe 0.103 0.712 0.8 1.8 1.153 0.265 0.000 1.000 0.328 0.8 0.137 0.7 2.110 0.180 0.0 1.116 0.174 0.7 0.134 0.096 0.000 0.000 0.397 0.097 - 0.598 0.346 0.00 1.397 0.342 0.151 0.07 1.110 0.872 0.552 0.3 2.892 0.107 0.538 0.192 0.03 1.000 0.216 0.139 0.197 0.01 1.Based Text Revision 49 Table 4d .837 0.227 0.104 0.185 0.02 1.528 0.3 1.174 0.606 0.248 0.126 0.368 0.918 0.099 0.650 0.357 0.414 0.112 0.931 0.000 1.181 0.510 0.000 1.109 0.969 0.222 0.140 0.0 Table 4c .0 0.582 0.8 0.338 0.1 2.170 0.1 1.122 0.268 0.569 0.443 0.140 0.832 0.115 0.099 - 0.9 2.755 0.299 0.05 1.210 0.6 1.335 0.929 0.406 0.843 0.000 1.000 1.717 0.133 0.9 3.718 0.7 0.5 1.233 0.0 0.9 2.172 0.731 0.220 0.594 0.4 0.182 0.124 0.000 1.826 0.08 1.166 0.995 0.202 0.694 0.168 0.03 1.676 0.815 0.178 0.6 2.9 3.532 0.000 0.488 0.1 1.120 0.415 0.372 0.773 0.428 0.223 0.860 0.094 0.822 0.656 0.235 0.189 0.120 0.521 0.457 0.179 0.5 2.08 1.8 0.000 0.Values of χ curve for d ( α = 0.743 0.091 - 0.276 0.089 - λthe 0.183 0.000 0.000 1.749 0.980 0.328 0.6 0.410 0.687 0.090 - 0.448 0.221 0.106 0.8 2.118 0.9 1.490 0.103 0.420 0.000 0.384 0.725 0.624 0.000 1.113 0.683 0.7 0.913 0.1 1.643 0.226 0.4 1.263 0.271 0.916 0.2 2.815 0.321 0.293 0.170 0.290 0.3 0.3 2.157 0.000 1.225 0.3 0.349 0.177 0.495 0.274 0.107 0.198 0.123 0.6 0.240 0.463 0.102 0.092 - 0.670 0.161 0.239 0.127 0.612 0.2 2.254 0.04 1.000 0.0 0.469 0.0 0.580 0.113 0.49) λthe 0.954 0.118 0.194 0.2 0.284 0.923 0.230 0.637 0.934 0.133 0.7 1.000 1.214 0.803 0.438 0.393 0.894 0.808 0.5 2.100 0.8 1.4 2.095 0.540 0.000 0.854 0.117 0.342 0.1 2.152 0.617 0.114 0.204 0.785 0.191 0.258 0.250 0.9 2.205 0.091 - 0.101 - 0.193 0.703 0.09 1.158 0.791 0.000 0.76) λthe 0.261 0.706 0.681 0.096 - Page 49 NBR 8800 .296 0.865 0.439 0.000 1.186 0.7 2.1 0.302 0.136 0.4 1.849 0.171 0.288 0.315 0.402 0.130 0.9 1.765 0.111 0.423 0.000 1.167 0.118 0.132 0.335 0.135 0.309 0.244 0.429 0.2 2.000 0.7 1.6 2.8 0.134 0.255 0.0 2.887 0.0 0.897 0.324 0.650 0.199 0.5 2.515 0.1 2.131 0.269 0.6 1.903 0.100 - 0.376 0.909 0.144 0.586 0.124 0.195 0.05 1.100 0.285 0.879 0.169 0.000 1.4 2.119 0.442 0.000 0.992 0.361 0.147 0.145 0.209 0.277 0.148 0.258 0.376 0.949 0.190 0.534 0.368 0.985 0.172 0.206 0.188 0.125 0.526 0.5 1.116 0.346 0.1 1.467 0.163 0.2 1.4 1.797 0.312 0.119 0.176 0.353 0.372 0.143 0.246 0.166 0.117 0.663 0.177 0.01 1.093 - 0.2 1.203 0.06 1.157 0.098 0.145 0.550 0.128 0.1 2.164 0.154 0.944 0.625 0.2 2.500 0.159 0.04 1.184 0.099 - 0.160 0.1 0.247 0.113 0.3 1.820 0.523 0.000 0.5 0.458 0.137 0.2 0.556 0.656 0.144 0.097 0.406 0.975 0.115 0.116 0.105 0.332 0.7 2.731 0.156 0.321 0.690 0.5 1.6 1.110 0.153 0.160 0.159 0.109 0.121 0.271 0.2 0.4 2.8 1.600 0.453 0.141 0.631 0.097 - 0.3 0.843 0.130 0.231 0.128 0.858 0.0 2.000 0.104 0.9 1.871 0.605 0.447 0.401 0.104 0.102 0.101 0.668 0.115 0.9 3.325 0.000 1.273 0.237 0.224 0.000 1.6 0.281 0.209 0.8 2.850 0.315 0.923 0.102 0.306 0.9 1.0 .738 0.339 0.293 0.235 0.6 2.0 1.357 0.232 0.187 0.611 0.969 0.207 0.195 0.165 0.6 1.173 0.106 0.318 0.3 0.308 0.618 0.215 0.3 2.493 0.786 0.263 0.200 0.305 0.136 0.462 0.4 0.0 0.201 0.424 0.964 0.09 1.9 3.7 1.200 0.168 0.506 0.088 0.5 0.156 0.132 0.724 0.150 0.511 0.836 0.175 0.242 0.3 1.472 0.129 0.484 0.411 0.696 0.180 0.984 0.101 0.575 0.212 0.5 2.097 0.229 0.000 1.3 1.477 0.126 0.1 0.149 0.296 0.630 0.127 0.389 0.095 0.000 0.499 0.108 0.217 0.243 0.353 0.568 0.737 0.109 0.0 1.260 0.5 1.643 0.098 0.099 - - - - - - - - - 3.0 0.331 0.256 0.4 1.4 2.000 0.675 0.104 0.562 0.141 0.249 0.887 0.977 0.2 1.479 0.000 0.865 0.00 1.588 0.000 1.751 0.364 0.129 0.779 0.990 0.282 0.000 1.380 0.563 0.106 0.Values of χ for curve c ( α = 0.241 0.939 0.186 0.147 0.131 0.361 0.149 0.000 1.393 0.211 0.105 0.959 0.2 0.5 0.318 0.8 2.876 0.0 2.

5. r ib is the radius of gyration of a component of the composite profile bar relative to its axis main parallel to the axis of bending buckling of composite bar inertia. 5.2 At the ends of composite rods compressed supported on base plates or .3.3. the mode of instability involve producing deformations on shear forces in the connecting elements of the components of these profiles bars.Based Text Revision KL r = m KL 2 r + 082 the ( h )( ) r2 2 ther 2 ib ib ( ) 1 + h r2 2 ib Where: ( KL / ) Ris the slenderness of the composite bar. However. 5. index slendernessKL r / mode instability and bending of the bending mode instability in flexion-torsion should be modified.3.6.3.5.3.6.1 Dimensioning The composite bars compressed must be scaled obeying the subsections 5.6.1 to 5.6 Composite Bars 5.5 Index slenderness limit The slenderness ratio KL r For / compressed bars can not be greater than 200. see 6.2. the a is the distance between the connecting elements of the components of the composite bar profiles.3.2 Requirements for the design 5. the longitudinal spacing intermittent welds or screws must be suitable for the transfer of requests active.2. Related to maximum spacing limitations and maximum distance between holes of a hole the edges.3.1 Along the length of composite bars.3. assuming the following values: a) if the connectors are connected to the bar profiles consisting of screws with normal grip: KL r = m the 2 r the i KL 2 r + b) if the connectors are connected to the bar profiles consisting of screws prestressed or soldering: Page 50 50 NBR 8800 .6.9. h is the distance between the centers of gravity of the components of the composite profiles in bar direction perpendicular to the axis of buckling.3. r i is the minimum radius of gyration of a component of the composite profile bar.5.

each weld line joining a sheet to a component page should have a sum of lengths of not less than 3 / 1 the length of the plate. the longitudinal spacing of the screws can not be greater six diameters and each plate must be connected to each main component with minimal three screws.2. does not exceed 3/4 of the slenderness ratio of the composite bar unless use more accurate to determine the resistance of the bar process. and also plates at intermediate positions of the bar if there is interruption travejamento. should be arranged such that the slenderness ratio l r / of each major component.75 t E f Or 305 mm.5 The open faces of composite plates compressed bars or profiles should be travejamento provided with lattice plates as well as at each end. and 70% of the length of the case arrangement X.2.3.4 Bars compressed composite of two or more profiles in touch with lost or equal to the thickness of spacer plates must have links from these profiles at intervals regular. When bolts or welds Intermittent are lagged. The elements of travejamento shall be designed to resist a shear force requesting calculation. Furthermore. the distance between lines of bolts or In the case of bolted plates.5 times the greatest width of the bar. And ta thickness thinner outer plate can not be y greater than 460 mm. Such plates Page 51 NBR 8800 .3. so that the slenderness ratio l r / any profile between two connections adjacent. spacing maximum can not exceed 0.2.3 In cases where the bar has composed the external profiles sheets. the maximum spacing on each line drilling or welding does not can overcome 112 t E f . in the case of simple arrangement. than 200. normal to the axis of the bar equal to 2% of the strength of the requesting Compression calculation that acts on the composite bar. shapes U profile or any other.3. angles.6. the plates edge should have a length not less than the distance between the screws or welds that connect to the main truss members. 5.Machined surfaces. 5. they are flat bars. In the case of welded plates. in a double arrangement (array X). the length L is taken equal to free length between bolts or welds that connect the elements of the travejamento the main components. Plates in intermediate positions should have a length not less than half that distance.3. The slenderness ratio l r / of elements in travejamento simple arrangement can not be greater 140 that. all components in contact withwidth each other bescrew connected by welding Continuing having a length not less than the largest of themust bar or the longitudinal spacing can not exceed four diameters in length not less than 1. when there screws in all longitudinal lines drilling or welding intermittently along the edges of the components of the section.6.2. 5.6. For each profile component. 5. the slenderness ratio should be calculated on your minimum radius of gyration. between the points of attachment of travejamento does not exceed the rate slenderness of the bar as a whole.6.Based Text Revision 51 should extend as much as possible to the longitudinal sides of the bar. The thickness of the plates can not be less than 50 /1 welds connecting these plates to the main truss members.6 Elements of travejamento lattice. thickness ta of the outer sheet y thinner. In dual arrangement (X) must be a link between the elements of travejamento in .

6. preferably. and 10.2. Page 52 52 NBR 8800 . the corresponding sections to openings may be considered participating in resistance to normal force. d) the openings have a minimum radius of 38 mm around the perimeter. N And y f mm and 12 t 460 1 ≤ ≤ And y f mm and 75 t 0.6. The angle of inclination of elements travejamento to the longitudinal axis of the bar. The net width of these plates. should not be less than 60 º to 45 º and simple arrangement for double arrangement (X).3.Based Text Revision c) the clear distance between openings in the direction of the normal force.7 travejamento elements may be replaced by continuous plates with a succession of access openings.3. In this construction. Replacing travejamento lattice by regularly spaced plates forming travejamento in context. ≤ ≤ N N tes sthe iten m d ryou the fas in of the ld So l tno onju et s iten the C ) max rm nh you read KL (r in 3 in the ≤4 ld So m )/ R ax (l sso of o fu sa he the tn rtthe P fand d onjuB C ) max r KL 3(≤4 the The sso nh m ax fu he read )/ R rtthe P in (l sthe fusion For B l to un et s iten rm you in the x the conj the m ) r KL 3( 4 ≤ . 5. the reduction of resistance due to shearing distortion can not be ignored. the arrangement must preferably be double (X) or consisting of angles. provided that: a) their relationship b t / is limited to 186 E f . ≤ ≤ 305 And y f mm and 12 t 460 1 ≤ ≤ And y f The mm and 75 t 305 0.8 The requirements for compressed composite rods are illustrated in Figures 9 . When the transverse distance between the screws or welds that connect the elements travejamento the main components exceeds 380 mm. is not covered by this Standard.intersection thereof. 5. y b) the relationship between the length (in the direction of the normal force) and the gap width not is greater than 2.2. is not less than the transverse distance between nearest lines of fasteners or welds that connect these plates to the main components.

composite bars compressed Page 53 NBR 8800 .b 1. ithe IAR d and term ≥ °45 G tn o jn c)ruo (≤ l KL x ma /(LR) In plate b ≥ b b≥2 L ples sim tjhe ran air in he ten m eja ar v T ≥06° and tremidad x and and l 14 ad ≤0 ap l/1R Ch b ≥ F b r les tn o the p ple jn c)ruo us m sor du rthe to KL l (≤ 80to n hey myes and o nn 3 t n L > x j ove a m j b ma AC and he /(LR)rtPa c / travbeam Solder Length F total weld2 3≥ 2 ≤D H 8 ≥r 3 D b ≤ 1.86fEyt t GG Cut t rMin EE Court and ad id in tr x and ad ap h C E X u the he ltu p d jthe ran air in the en m eja raTv N b 3 sso b mo ≥ nithe míRafu p b 6 ≤ dE N G l 0 1≤ 20 7/ lR 0.0 Li ex ≥ b 4d ≤ ld So m )(l/ R ax C C b N Baseplate or machined surface N N rMin t DC Court rMin BB Cut Section AA Figure 9 .Based Text Revision 53 b ≤ 1.86fEyt H t .5 ≥ l and ad sofd im b and tio gatre 1.

I and H sections with two axes of symmetry flexed around one of these axes.2.Composite Bars compressed 5.4.1.2 The transverse loading should always be on a plane of symmetry. 5.2.7.Sections I and H with an axis of symmetry in the plane of the soul flexed around the axis center of inertia perpendicular to the soul. except U-profiles bent in relation to the axis perpendicular to the soul.Based Text Revision .3 In sizing so that the last limit states occur not related to performances of the bending moment and shear force. must be met the following conditions: M Sd ≤M Rd V ≤V Sd Rd Where: M Sd requestor is the bending moment calculation. when the result of the load must pass through the shear center of the cross section.Solid circular or rectangular sections.2.1.N r1= Radius of gyration minimum element of travejamento FF Cut b≥50 HH Court n m rí Figure 10 .4.7.4.4.Circular tubular sections flexed around any axis passing through the center of gravity. . . .1.4.4 prismatic bars subjected to bending normal single 5. M Rdis resistant bending moment calculation determined according to 5. derived from the combinations of actions given in 4. 5. derived from the combinations of actions given in 4.1 This subsection shall apply to the design of prismatic bars subjected to normal single static bending caused by actions under the following conditions: Page 54 54 NBR 8800 . .1 General 5.U sections flexed around a central axis of inertia. flexed around a central axis inertia. VSdshear strength is requesting calculation. . .Tubular sections and rectangular casket with two axes of symmetry flexed around of these axes.

M RkShould be determined according to Annexes D or F.2.4 To ensure the validity of the elastic analysis.4.4.In all other cases: C = b 2 5. forces whose direction deviates from the shear center of the section cross during buckling. 5. complying with the provisions of 5. M Rkis the characteristic resistant bending moment determined according to 5.2.3. the ultimate limit states of lateral torsional buckling with (FLT) local buckling of the compressed table (FLM).4. local buckling of the soul (FLA).4.2. 5.7. Must still be checked all limit states apply.3 to 5.Based Text Revision γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance to bending.4.4.4) and the end not supported without restraint: C = 100 b .M Where: 12 5. 5.4. 5. 5. This factor.8.4. W being the minimum elastic modulus of resistance of y section in relation to the bending axis f y the yield strength of the steel. local buckling wall of the pipe (FLP) and the pulled flow table (EMT). When used in the case of stabilizing forces.VRdis resistant to shear force calculation.3 The characteristic values of bending moment resistant to buckling limit state with lateral torque (FLT) are only valid for the application of external forces on the center level shear of the cross section and can not be used when there forces destabilizing.M max +3 M + 4 M + 3 M max The B C 55 .2.5.6. equal to 1. as appropriate.5 For the determination of characteristic bending moment resistant to limit state FLT.4. M M Rd = RdIs given by: M Rk γ Where: Page 55 NBR 8800 .Beams cantilevered from a section in the lateral torsional buckling with (see 4.2 resistant bending moment calculation 5. except for the situation provided in 5.2. lead to conservative results.2.2 The characteristic resistant bending moment. is given by: . the moment resistance characteristic not can be taken greater than 150 W f . ie forces whose direction approaches the shear center of the cross section during buckling. ie.2. Are apply.10.2.2. may be necessary to calculate a modification factor for bending moment diagram does not uniform length for the unlocked (U b) Analyzed. as applicable. as existing requirements in different parts of this Standard. determined as 5.4.1 The calculation resistant bending moment.4.2.

module.M max is the value of the maximum moment requestor calculation in module. subjected to an action evenly distributed. with only the table contained continuously pulled against lateral displacement: C = 200 b . 5.Based Text Revision In checking the FLT. and rectangular tubular sections coffin and flexed around a central axis of inertia. modification factor for nonuniform bending moment is given by: . M 1 is the value of the bending moment calculation requesting the other end of length unlocked (if that moment to pull free table. located in section three quarter length unlocked.2. the Unlocked length. . should be taken as bending moment calculation requesting the largest time (positive or negative) in length unlocked considered. M C is the value of the applicant moment calculation. the central section of Unlocked length.In all other cases: C = 100 b . M is the value of the applicant moment calculation. with a positive sign if the free traction table and a negative sign if tractionate table with continuous lateral restraint. H and U flexed around the central axis of inertia perpendicular the soul. M B is the value of requesting time calculation in module. will have positive sign the second term of the equation and should be taken equal to zero in the third term and pull the table with continuous lateral restraint.6 In beams with sections I. M 2 requestor is the bending moment calculation in the central section of length unlocked.4. Page 56 56 NBR 8800 . the section located at a The quarter of the length unlocked. module. with sign negative. unlocked in a length (L b) In which one of the tables is free to move laterally and the other table has continuous lateral restraint against this type of displacement.In stretches with zero moment at the ends. will have a negative sign in the second and third terms in the equation).When the table with continuous lateral restraint is pulled in at least one unlocked edge length: M 2 M 8 12 C = 300 b 3M 3 (M + M ) 0 0 1 Where: M 0 is the largest value of requesting time calculation that pulls the table with continuous lateral restraint at the ends of the length unlocked.

with or without reinforcement plates table (lamellae . equal to 1.3. 5.In checking the FLT.4. 075 f The < 090 f The The resistant bending moment u fn y fg Page 57 NBR 8800 . 5. fnt is the net area of The tensioned or compressed table.Based Text Revision 57 characteristic. The feGiven by: 5 f u The fnt 6f y A= fe Where: f is the yield strength of steel.4. whichever is applicable.3. determined in accordance with 5.3 resistant shear force calculation 5.7 The beams. y f u is the tensile strength tensile steel.4.10.4. whichever is applicable. W is the least resistant elastic modulus of the cross section. H and U flexed around the axis perpendicular to the soul and sections coffin and rectangular tubular 5. The the pulled table. since 075 f The ≥ 090 f The in both tables. can be scaled to the bending moment on the basis of gross section properties.2.1 The sturdy shear calculation. if at any table. strength shear resistant feature. calculated fn is the net area of accordance with 5.2. as applicable. and the properties of the cross section y shall be calculated based on the effective area of the pulled table.3.2 Sections I. V V Rd = RdIs given by: V Rk γ Where: V is the shear resistant feature.4. The tensioned or compressed table.4).3.2 or Rk 5. V Is given by: Rk .3.4. should be taken as bending moment calculation requesting the largest time length considered unlocked. the region in which the non-compressed table is contained against lateral displacement.2.3. M RkCan not be taken more than Wf.2. γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance to bending. H and U flexed around the central axis of inertia perpendicular to the soul and coffin rectangular tubular sections and flexed around a central axis of inertia. determined by taking pulled to the table area A fe. fg is the gross area of 5.4. even with holes screw on the tables.1 In section I.4. calculated in accordance with 5.see 5.4.4. On u fn y fg However.

2.2. h is the vertical clearance of the soul between tables. for theh 2 k = v 500 .2 The cutting force corresponding to the lamination (s) soul (s) is given by shear by: V= pl 060 The f w y . 5.3.4. t wis the thickness (s) of core (s).3. a is the distance between the center lines of two adjacent transverse stiffeners.λ ≤λ a) for V= Rk λ b) To p V lp <λ ≤ λ p r Page 58 58 NBR 8800 .4.2.Based Text Revision V Rk = λ pV lp λ λ >λ c) To V Rk r = 128 λ p λ 2 V lp Where: λ= λ p h t w = 110 λ = 137 r k E v f y k E v f y 5 5 + () . for the ≤3 h 2 the the 260 > 3 or > ( ) h h h t/ w Vp is the shear force corresponding to the lamination (s) soul (s) for shear. l given in 5.

5. ()theh 2] .3 For sections I and H the following rules must be obeyed: a) the transverse stiffeners are welded to the (s) soul (s) and the tables of the profile.2. w b) in the symmetrical souls coffin and tubular rectangular sections: 2 th .2. w Page 59 NBR 8800 .3. the tensioned side of the table.2 ≥ 0 5. it may. coffin and rectangular tubes.. y c) the moment of inertia of the stiffener section of a single or a pair of stiffeners (One on each side of the web) in relation to the axis plane of the heart can not be less than ta3 j Where j = 2 [5. be interrupted so that the distance between the nearest points of solders table / stiffener and soul / soul remains betweent4 and t6.4. If solder fillets are used flashing. In the case of sections U. H and U: td.Based Text Revision where d is the total height of the cross section. w the h / can not exceed 3 nor e) if the stiffeners are attached by screws to the soul. the ratio the[260 h ( t / ) ]2 . the clear distance between these fillets can not exceed 16 times the thickness of soul. w d) when h / tw is equal to or greater than 260. is presented in Annex G. nor 250 mm. If the shear force Tough is determined by this Annex. and: 060 075 V Rkt ≤ V ≤ Sd γ V Rkt γ M M Rk ≤ M ≤ Rk Sd γ γ must be verified interaction between bending moment and shear force by meeting the following expression: M M Where: V Sd + 0625 Sd ≤ 1375 γ γ V Rk Rkt 59 . however. A w is the effective shear area. the maximum spacing between centers of these screws can not exceed 300 mm. w w b) width / thickness ratio of the elements forming the stiffeners can not exceed 055 E f .4.3. which should be taken equal to: a) souls in sections I. 5.In this equation. using the concept of field strength. these rules should be properly adapted.4 An alternative method for determining the shear resistant characteristic.

are inferior those who work in the elements perpendicular to this axis. they must extend beyond the section which theoretically would be unnecessary.3.1 When overlapping plates are used to tables with less than the length ranging from beam. Page 60 60 NBR 8800 . f b) in rectangular solid sections: c) in circular solid sections: d) in circular tubular sections: 067 The. sized to a request calculation equal to the resultant of the normal stresses on the slide. U sections flexed around the central axis of inertia parallel to the soul. solid circular and rectangular sections and circular tubular sections. M Rk is the characteristic resistant bending moment determined under subsection F.4.4. 5.4 plates reinforcing the overlapping tables (lamellae) 5.3. H and U symmetrical to the central axis of inertia perpendicular to the soul: 133 The. called transition section.γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance to bending. Such extension should be attached to the parent table by high strength bolts (connected by friction) or fillet welds. equal to 1. g 075 The . 5. . respectively. caused by bending moment calculation requesting the transition section (Figure 11).1 assumes that the section does not has elements subject to local buckling by shear stresses.1 The shear resistant feature.2 Annex F.1 Rkt Annex G.3.3.3.4.3 Strength shear resistant feature in other cases 5.3.Based Text Revision M Sd and V Sd are requesting the bending moment calculation and shear strength requestor calculation. g 5. which should be taken equal to (A gross cross-sectional area): the table and f is the area of g the a) sections in tables I. is equal to: V= V Rk pl with V= pl 0 6 The f w y Where: The w is the effective shear area.2 The shear resistant feature given in 5. g 050 The .10. and the stresses of shear acting on elements of the section parallel to the axis of flexion.4.4.4. V is resistant to shear determined characteristic according to subsection G. V RkFor sections I and H flexed around the axis passing through the median plane of the soul.3.4.

however. b) equal to 1. where there is continuous fillet weld.2.6.4.4. where there is a continuous weld fillet size Nominal (see 6.5 nominal size of the fillet b Transition section a = 2b Figure 11 . caused by bending moment requestor calculating a section on the far 'end of the coverslip with a' (figure 11): a) equal to the width of the lamella.5 times the width of the slide.2 Additionally.2) less than 75% of the thickness of the lamella along the edges the same longitudinal length a 'and by its end.Overlapping plates of the beams tables 61 . there are continuous fillet welds along their edges the longitudinal length '. in case of welded lamellae.2.6.2) equal to or greater than 75% of the thickness of the lamella along the edges the same longitudinal length a 'and by its end. Transition section Overlying plate (lamella) Diagram of bending moments b Transition section Extension beyond the transition section b Transition section a = b or b depending 1. the nominal size (See 6.Page 61 NBR 8800 . c) equal to twice the width of the flap when there is no welding through its end.Based Text Revision 5. their longitudinal welds ends in the length 'should be sized to a request for calculation equal to the resultant of the normal stresses on the slide.

5.4.1 5.5. M Sdy Sd + + ≤ 1 0. The condition appears to be met in 5.5 Additional requirements related to welded sections 5.2 In the condition appears to be met by prismatic bar whose section Cross having one or two axes of symmetry.5.3.5.6.1.5 prismatic bars subjected to a combination of axial force and moments bending and torsion This subsection shall apply to the verification of the ultimate limit states prismatic bars subject the combined effects of normal force and bending moment caused by static actions.Based Text Revision 5.1.4.Page 62 62 NBR 8800 . the weld joining tables and soul must be designed to withstand the Total horizontal shear resulting from bending. the limitation must be obeyed provided by the following expressions of interaction: a) for N N Sd ≥ 0 2 Rd N 8 M Sdx. In addition addition.1.9) and 5.2 Unless we make a more precise analysis of the interaction between the combined effects normal force of tension or compression and bending moments. with or untwisted.2.5. 5. unless they make checks evidencing the transmission of such force only by contact. 5. or subject only to torsion. the solder joining table and soul must be sized to transmit any force to the soul applied directly on the table. subjected to the combined effects of strength normal and bending moment around one or both of the central axes of inertia loaded so no twisting occurs.3 respectively pulled and compressed to tables. The horizontal distribution of welds flashing should be proportional to the intensity of shear.5. the spacing Longitudinal can not exceed the maximum allowed for compressed or tensile bars. Rdy Where: .5. however. should be checked every state usage limits apply. Rdy b) for N N Sd < 0 2 Rd M M N Sdx. N 9 M M Rd Rdx.1. Sd + 2N M M Rd Rdx.2 In welded.2.1 symmetrical bending and subjected to normal and oblique simple flexion and composed 5. Additionally. 5. according to 5.4.1 The tables consist of welded beams can have varying thickness or width due to the splice plates in different sizes or use of lamellae. Sections 5.4 for the purpose the cutting forces acting simultaneously along the central axes of inertia of the section cross. as existing in various parts of this standard prescriptions. + Sdy ≤ 1 0.

4.1. Sd. N compression.5. M Rd xand M Rd. respectively M Rd xand M Rd. xand M Sd. hc is twice the distance from the center of gravity of the cross section to the inner face of compressed table in welded and equal to that value minus the fillet radius between table and soul in rolled sections. yare resistant bending moment calculation. M Sd. changing the values of λ and λ for the limit state of local buckling of the soul towards flexion p r around the axis perpendicular (s) core (s) when the normal strength calculation requesting. 5. yare the bending moments requesters calculate respectively around the x and y axes of the cross section. determined in accordance with 5. whichever is applicable. whichever is applicable.Page 63 NBR 8800 . taken equal to the distance between inner faces of the profile tables soldiers and equal to that value minus the two rays of agreement between the table and the soul Rolled sections. Is . h is the height of the soul. f y is the yield strength of steel.5.Must y be determined according to 5. Rd respectively determined in accordance with 5. for γ f y y N N Sd > 0125 γ y h ≤ 150 h c 1 + 283 N h Sd 1h N γ c y ≤ 570 N E Sd 1 . respectively around the x and y axes of the cross section.3.Based Text Revision 63 NSdrequestor is the normal force calculation traction or compression. as follows: a) value of λ p λ p = 376 h p h E f 1- y 275 N Sd .074 f N γ y y Where: E is the modulus of elasticity of steel.3 The calculation resistant bending moments around the central inertia axes of x and y the cross section.8.8.1.3. for N γ y N N Sd ≤ 0125 γ y or λ h = 112 p p h b) value of λ r for E λ = 149 r f y E f y 075 ≤ 233 - N N Sd ≥ 149 E .2 or 5. determined according to 4. determined in accordance with 4. N is resistant to normal force calculation of traction or compression.

4. normal force. bending moments. For cases of oblique bending. using the Sd.5. should evaluate the need to consider superposition of the effects of shear forces requesters calculation that act on the axes center of inertia of the cross section.1. σ shear stress. g y determined in accordance with Annex E and A cross-sectional area. given by the product ( Q The f ) And Q local buckling coefficient. 5. g gross γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance to compression.4 For patients with normal flexion.10. taking Page 65 λ .2 In the conditions to be met by prismatic bars are presented asymmetric section subjected to the combined effects of normal force and bending moment around one or both main axes of inertia of the section. 5.5. which is and applicable) of elastic buckling.5. Ny is the normal compressive force corresponding to the flow cross section effective. for the limit state of instability in question. bending moments and shear 5. σ RdFor the ultimate limit states the following should be greater than or equal to the requesting voltage calculation expressed in terms of normal stress.Page 64 64 NBR 8800 . so that load does not occur twist. Like this: Sd. checking the shear force should be taken as 5.2 asymmetric bending and subjected to normal and oblique simple flexion and sections subjected to torsion.Determined v combinations of shares calculation.1 5.2.2. ≤ χf γ y b) for the limit states of instability under the effect of shear stress: σ Sdv ≤ 060 χ f γ y Where: γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance equal to 1.5.2 The resistant strain calculation. 5.Or n a) for the limit states of instability under the effect of normal stress: σ Sdn. and the prismatic bars subjected to torsion. shear forces and normal force.5. σ by the elasticity theory.2.3. f y is the yield strength of steel.3.10. χ is a reduction factor associated with the compression strength determined according to = fσ λ = 060 f σ for voltages to normal stresses and the y and the y and shear with σ equal to the yield stress (normal or shear.3. Sections 5.Based Text Revision hp is twice the distance from the plastic neutral axis of the cross section for the performance only bending the inner face of the welded compressed time table is equal to this value less the fillet radius between table and soul in rolled sections. equal to 1.

7.10. and F Rkbis the resisting force characteristic is given by: = 625 t 2 f F Rkb f y Where: t f is the thickness of the loaded table. applied to the external face of at least one of the tables.5 If the concentrated force requestor calculation overcome the resistant force calculations shall be placed on the actuation force section. 5. The concentrated forces should be centered on the axis of the cross section passing through the plane of the soul. soldiers loaded the table and extending until at least half the height of the soul.Based Text Revision 65 taking into account.7.7. 5. the resistant force given in 5.7.3 Unless the provisions in 5. 5. 5.1 General This subsection provides requirements for verification of ultimate limit states caused by concentrated forces between two stiff sections. The weld connecting transverse stiffeners to the soul must be sized to transmit the force eccentric relative thereto.2.7. Page 66 66 NBR 8800 .7. transverse stiffeners on both sides of soul.2. Tables 5. 5. 015 b b.7. where b is the 015 b To 5. equal to 1.2. equal to F γ is the coefficient Rkb weighting for local bending resistance of the soul.5.6 bars of varying section The calculation and design of bars of variable section must be made in accordance with Annex N.2.4 When the concentrated force acts at a distance from the lower end 10 bar times the thickness of the table. 5. f y is the yield strength of the steel. If the length of action of the force is less than check must be made. where relevant.2. the interaction between local buckling and global instability.3 should be halved.NBR 8800 .2 Local Bending the table 5. perpendicular to your face in sections I and H.1 The table of a bar.Based Text Revision .2.2. should be checked for ultimate limit state local bending.7 and souls of profiles I and H subjected to concentrated forces 5.7. the weld between the table and the soul should be able to forward tractive force between these two elements.2.2 The check presented only applies to concentrated force with length acting in the direction perpendicular to the length of the bar located between width of the loaded table.6 In the case of welded.7.7. the applicant concentrated force calculation can not γ Where / overcome the resistant force calculation of the bar table. requested by a concentrated force producing traction on the soul.

t wis the web thickness. the stiffeners should be in perfect contact with the table charged or be welded to this table to impart strength to the soul.4 In the case of welded and concentrated tensile force.7. in the case of rolled profiles. the case of welded.Based Text Revision 5. If the force is compression. 5. 5.3. should be checked for the ultimate limit state flow location. requested compression caused by a concentrated force that acts on the table.4 Wrinkle soul 5.3. the applicant concentrated force calculation can not γ Where / overcome the resistant force calculation of the bar soul.7. should be checked for the ultimate limit state wrinkling. equal to 1.1 The Soul of a bar.7.3.3.5. the weld between the table and the soul must be able to transmit the force between these two elements.3 If the concentrated force requestor calculation overcome the resistant force calculations shall be placed reinforcing plates of soul or placed on the actuation force section transverse stiffeners on both sides of the soul. equal to F γ is the coefficient Rke 67 . the stiffeners are welded to the loaded table. requested by tension or compression caused by a force concentrated that acts on the table.7. equal to F γ is the coefficient RKW weighting for local flow resistance of the soul.7.7.3.k + l ) f t F RKW n y w Where: f y is the yield strength of steel. Page 67 NBR 8800 .7.4.7.3. If the force is tensile. the concentrated force acting calculation can not overcome γ Where / resistant force calculation of the bar soul. k is the thickness of the table loaded over the side of the weld bead parallel to the soul. l n is the length of action of the force in the longitudinal direction of the beam. The solder connecting transverse stiffeners to the soul must be sized to convey the eccentric force relative to same.1 The Soul of a bar.7.2 Unless the provisions in 5.00. 5. extending until at least half the Cell height. the thickness of the table plus the fillet radius to soul.2 Unless the provisions in 5.4. 5.7. and F is the resisting force RKW characteristic is given by: a) when the force is concentrated at a greater distance from the end of the bar height of the cross section: = (5 k + l ) f t F RKW n y w b) when the power is concentrated at a distance from the bottom edge or equal to the height of the cross section: = ( 2 5.3 Local Drain Soul 5.4.3.

**weighting of resistance to wrinkling of the soul, equal to 1.35, and F
**

characteristic is given by:

Rkand

is the resisting force

**a) when the compressive force is concentrated at a distance from the end of the bar
**

greater than or equal to half the height of the cross section:

= 080 t 2 1 + 3

F

Rke

w

l

n

d

t

t

w

15,

Ef t

y f

t

w

f

**b) when the compressive force is concentrated at a distance from the end of the bar
**

less than half the height of the cross section:

- To

l n d≤02

= 040 t 2 1 + 3

F

Rke

w

- To

l

n

d

t

t

w

15,

f

Ef t

y f

t

w

l n d>02

= 040 t 2 1 +

F

Rke

w

4l

d

n - 02

t

t

w

f

15,

Ef t

y f

t

w

Where:

d is the height of the cross section of the bar;

t f is the thickness of the loaded table;

t wis the thickness of the soul;

l n is the length of action of the force in the longitudinal direction of the beam.

5.7.4.3 If the concentrated force requestor calculation overcome the resistant force calculations shall

be placed reinforcing plates or soul, placed in the action section that forces a

a transverse stiffener side of the heart or transverse stiffeners placed

both sides of the soul, in perfect contact with the loaded table or soldiers at this table,

extending until at least half the height of the soul. The weld connecting the stiffeners

Cross the soul must be sized to convey the eccentric force in relation to

thereof.

5.7.5 Lateral Buckling of the soul

5.7.5.1 The Soul of a bar, requested compression caused by a concentrated force

that operates in the compressed table, should be checked for the ultimate limit state buckling

Page 68

68

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

**side, if the lateral relative displacement between the compressed table and loaded the table
**

pulled is not prevented at the point of force application.

5.7.5.2 Unless the provisions of 5.7.5.3, 5.7.5.4 and 5.7.5.5, the force concentrated requestor

γ/

**calculation can not overcome the resistant force calculation of the bar soul, equal to
**

FRkl

the weighting coefficient of resistance to lateral buckling of the soul, equal to 1.20, and F

strength resistant characteristic, given by:

a) if the rotation of the loaded table is prevented, for

=

F

Rkl

(h t ) ( b ) ≤ 230

w l f

3

C t3 t

h t

r w f 1+ 0 4

w

h2

l bf

b) if the rotation of the compressed table is not prevented to

=

F

Rkl

Where γ is

Rkl it is

(h t ) ( b ) ≤ 170

w l f

3

C t3 t

h t

r w f 04

w

h2

l b

f

Where:

l is the longer length unlocked laterally between the two tables involving

section performance of the concentrated force;

bf is the width of the table;

t f is the thickness of the table;

t wis the thickness of the soul;

h is the distance between the inner faces of the radii of less tables in accordance

case of rolled sections, or the distance between the inner faces of tables in the case of

welded;

M < M and

331 ×10 6 MPa when

d

r

M ≥ M section of the force (F d requestor is the bending moment calculation and M r is

d

r

bending moment corresponding to the onset of yield as Annex D without

consider the residual stresses).

Cr is equal to

662 × 10 6 MPa

when

**(h t ) ( b ) exceed 2.30 or 1.70, respectively, when the rotation table
**

5.7.5.3 If

w l f

charged or is not obstructed, the ultimate limit state of lateral buckling of the soul has

likely to occur.

5.7.5.4 If the rotation of the loaded table is prevented and concentrated strength calculation requestor

overcome the resisting force calculation given in 5.7.5.2-a), a lateral restraint at the table

pulled the actuation force section should be provided. Can optionally be

placed in this section transverse stiffeners on both sides of the soul, in perfect contact

with the loaded table or welded thereto, extending until at least half the height of

Page 69

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

soul. The weld connecting the stiffeners to the soul must be sized to transmit the force

between these two elements. Another alternative is the placement of reinforcing plates soul

extending until at least half the height of the soul, which must be scaled

to resist all of the concentrated force.

5.7.5.5 If the rotation of the loaded table is not prevented and the strength concentrated requestor

calculation overcome the resisting force calculation given in 5.7.5.2-b), lateral restraints in both

69

**tables section of action of the force should be provided.
**

5.7.6 Buckling of compression soul

5.7.6.1 The Soul of a bar, requested compression caused by a pair of forces

concentrated opposite directions, acting in both tables of the same cross-section must

be checked for the ultimate limit state buckling compression.

5.7.6.2 Unless the provisions in 5.7.6.4, the force concentrated requesting calculation (value of each

under par) can not overcome the resistant force calculation of the bar soul, equal to

F

where γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance to buckling of the soul, equal to 1.10, and F

is the resisting force characteristics, given by:

=

F

Rkc

24 t 3 E f

w

y

h

**5.7.6.3 When the pair of concentrated forces located at a distance from the end of the beam
**

less than half the height of the cross section, the resisting force should be given in 5.7.6.2

halved.

5.7.6.4 If the concentrated force requestor calculation overcome the resistant force calculations shall

be placed reinforcing plates of soul, placed in the activity section that forces a

a transverse stiffener side of the heart or transverse stiffeners placed

both sides of the soul, in perfect contact with the loaded table or soldiers at this table,

extending the full height of the heart. The weld connecting transverse stiffeners to the soul

must be sized to transmit the force eccentric with respect thereto.

5.7.7 Shear in the web panel zone

5.7.7.1 Reinforcing Plates soul or diagonal stiffeners shall be provided

within the outline of a rigid connection between beam and column (the area of

the column web panel),

whose souls lie in the same plane when the shear strength calculation requester,

γ Where

/

transmitted by the beam tables, F

Exceeds the F

γ is the resistance coefficient

Sdv

RKV

flexion, equal to 1.10, and F RKV

is the shear resistant feature, given by:

a) when the effect of deformation of the column web panel zone of stability

structure is not considered in the analysis:

- To

F ≤ 04N

Sdv

lp

= 060 f d t

F

RKV

y c w

- To

>04N

F

Sdv

lp

Page 70

70

**NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision
**

F

= 060 f d t 1 4 - Sdv

F

RKV

y c w

N

lp

b) when the stability of the structure, including the plastic deformation of the panel zone

the column web is considered in the analysis:

- To

F

≤ 075 N

Rkc

γ ,/

Rkc

when used. extending the full height of the soul. w bfc is the width of the abutment table. without regard to local buckling.Based Text Revision 5. dc is the height of the column cross section.7. 5.3 diagonal stiffeners.7.2 Reinforcing Plates soul. b) the thickness of the stiffener can not be smaller than half the thickness of the table 71 .7. t fc is the thickness of the abutment table. Page 71 NBR 8800 .Sdv lp 3b t2 = 060 f d t 1 + fc fc F RKV y c w d d t v c w - for > 075 N F Sdv lp 3b t2 fc fc = 060 f d t 1 + F RKV y c w d d t v c w 19- 1 2F Sdv N lp Where: t is the thickness of the soul.8 ends of beams without restriction to rotation and soul free Transverse stiffeners should be used at ends of beams that have no type of restriction to rotation about the longitudinal and in which souls are not attached to shaft other beams or pillars.7.7.7. must be connected to the column web with solder sized to resist the eccentric force transmitted by the beam. dv is the height of the cross section of the beam. g is the gross area of 5. Np is the normal compressive force corresponding to the flow section l Cross-pillar. when used. f y is the yield strength of the pillar.1 The transverse and diagonal stiffeners must also meet the following requirements: a) the width of the stiffener added to half the thickness of the bar can not be soul less than one third of the width of the table or plate which receives the force connection concentrated.9.7. 5. These stiffeners shall be welded to the tables and the soul section Cross.9 Additional Requirements for stiffeners to concentrated forces 5. y g The the column cross section. equal to f The. must be properly welded to absorb the expected portion of the total shear force.

and also can not be less 179 f E . always consisting of two plates placed next to the soul of both its sides must have a thickness and length allowing them to reach resistance necessary to prevent the occurrence of the ultimate limit state which led to their placement and be welded so as to absorb the expected portion of the concentrated force.2 The transverse stiffeners used to prevent the occurrence of ultimate limit states related to the action of concentrated force. resistance calculation can also be based on limit state. with the stiffness Drying corresponding to 2 3 /resistant bending moment calculation of the bond.3 The weld connecting the stiffeners to the soul must be sized to convey the excess shear stiffeners for the soul.2 Stiffness of the connections between beam and column 6. its width multiplied by y 5. respectively beam. (2) as resistance of a specified percentage of the connected bar. connection plates. In some specific situations. 5. threaded rods and round pin). i v v Where: Si the rigidity of the connection is calculated from the rotation-time diagram. when the stiffeners are not welded to the loaded table. can be considered as rigid if S ≥ 8EI L in the case of structures i v v i v v and indeslocáveis S ≥ 25 E I L in the case of movable structures (see 6.2..1 Basis of design Metallic bonds consist of binding elements (stiffeners. bolts. etc.1.Based Text Revision 6.1.1 In the elastic structural analysis. 6 Specific conditions for the design of steel connections 6. I vL vare the moment of inertia of the cross section in terms of structure and length connected to the link.E I L .7.7. when Tablets must be compressed and scaled bar according to 5.Bar or connecting plate that receives the concentrated force. valances.1.3 for the ultimate limit state of instability by bending about an axis in the plane of the soul.9.1 General 6. 5.10 Use of reinforcing plates soul to concentrated forces Reinforcing plates of soul. extending the full height of the soul.2.7. as 4.1.2).7. corbels.9. a beam-column connection can be considered labeled if S ≤ 0 5. Page 72 72 NBR 8800 . The length of buckling should be taken equal to 075 h Where h is the Cell height.) and connecting means (welds. . The cross section is considered to be formed by stiffeners over a range of soul equal width 12 t If the stiffeners are end and equal to 25 t If they are in w w an inner section. These components must be sized so that its resistance calculation a certain ultimate limit state is equal to or greater than the request calculation determined: (1) the analysis of the structure subjected to combinations of calculating shares.

1.1.1.5. the requirements of 4. the analysis for elastic connection may be considered semi-rigid. which may be considered rigid connections whose stiffness Home is less than the upper limits of the expressions presented in 6. bibliography specialized on the criteria for the classification of bonds.2 The limit L can be used only for walk in which each floor is v v satisfy the relation K K ≥ 0 1 Where K is the average value I L / for all beams at the top v v p v v the floor and K p is the average value I / L for all the pillars of the floor (I v is the time to p p inertia of a beam in the plane of the structure I p is the moment of inertia of a pillar in the plane of structure G v is the will of a beam considered center-to-center pillars. It is recommended to consult for this type of analysis. shall be designed for a calculation request equals 45 kN. and resist the normal forces Applicants for calculating the bar.1. 6.2 Connections subject to a request under 45 kN calculation.5 Minimum resistance of connections 6.3 Bars with flexible connections at supports The flexible connections of beams and trusses can take into account only the reactions calculation compatible with the hypothesis of flexibility.3 The connections of tensioned or compressed bars. If 25 E I S ≥ 25 E I L But i v v movable structures. For other situations.1.1.9 must be met.2. based on capacity and the resilient deformability thereof. 6. and L p is the height of floor for a pillar). rods made of round bars and sleepers lateral closing of buildings. Links with initial stiffness equal to or less than the lower limits of the expressions given in 6.Based Text Revision total or partial stiffness connections.3. disregarding the effects of the stiffness in the global response of the structure. 6.5.1. The connection should be considered semi-rigid to p 6.1. unless otherwise indicated in responsible for the project. with stiffness Si constant throughout the loading.1.5.5. 6. K v K < 0 1 .5.1. must also be sized to equal the forces calculation 73 . In any case. 6. except for diagonal travejamento of composite bars. the effect of the moment-rotation behavior of the connections can only be considered if it is possible to reproduce numerically the characteristics of nonlinearity of this behavior. For plastic analysis.2 may be considered as links flexible.E is the modulus of elasticity of steel. from Page 73 NBR 8800 .2.1 To ensure structural integrity.4 Bars with rigid or semi-rigid connections at the supports In determining the strength calculation of rigid or semi-rigid connections must be considering the combined effects of all internal forces calculation.1. for it allows the consideration of deformations inelastic autolimitáveis the link. These flexible connections must allow rotation of beams simply supported at the ends.2 and 6. apply 6.

unless it is taken into account the effect of eccentricity.1 Groups of screws or welds at the ends of any axially bar required. 6. high strength bolts in connections per contact or common screws can not be considered working together with welds.1.6. apply 6. the end connections with plates support.1.6.9 Combination of connecting means 6.9 must be met. 6. shall be designed to resist the total requests calculation of connection. 6.6.6 Bars efforts transmitting compressed by contact 6.1. 6.1. welds.6. 6.6.8 Layout of welds and bolts 6. 6.1.1 In new construction.4. must have their centers of gravity about the axis passing through the center of gravity boom section. High-strength bolts in friction connections.7 Prevention of rotation at the supports The points of support beams and trusses must be prevented from rotating around its axis longitudinal.1. Requests due to new shipments must be resisted by reinforcing welds that are added to .6.50%onofit.2 In making changes in existing structures by welding.1. must be made with bolts or welds able to keep their positions safely connected all parts.1. the requirements of 4. 6.9.8.1.Based Text Revision fatigue.1 bolts in combination with welds 6. For other situations.9.1.1. 6.1.2 In cases of simple valances or double bars and the like. or between pillars.4 In both previous cases. when used.1.2.1.1 To ensure structural integrity. the said bonds shall be designed to resist also 100% the calculation requests that are not transmitted by contact.1.the resistance calculation of the bar to the types of normal force (tension or compression) that act 6. for cases not subject to bar Page 74 74 NBR 8800 .6.1. rivets and screws high strength (which are adequately tightened) can be considered existing to withstand the stresses due to the calculation of loads acting now.8.9.3 and 6.1.1.3 Other compressed bars with machined ends. passing efforts by contact means and elements should be positioned in connection to keep all aligned parts of the connection and dimensioned to withstand 50% of the normal resistive force calculation connected bar. including cases of reversal efforts. 6. properly installed. can be considered working together with welds. but must be taken into account in bars subjected to fatigue.2 pillar whose ends are machined for example by cutting with a saw to transmit compressive forces by contact. eccentricity between the axis of the bar and the links can be neglected in bars applied statically. applied axially is not required that the center of gravity of groups of fillet welds or bolts to rest on the baricêntrico axis of the bar at the ends thereof.

the height of a structure must be considered as the vertical distance between the average level of the surrounding ground structure and top of the beams of the roof. The garrets may be excluded in determining the height of the structure.2 For purposes of paragraphs a).1. and media links parts of cranes.9.1. the vertical distance is measured between one middle and the upper face of the roof trusses at the half height of the sloping part. or with common screws. On case of roofs with a slope greater than 25%. 6.10 lamellar fracture Should be avoided whenever possible. is Knife through the planar element in a direction not parallel to the face (for example. links can be made with screws high strength.2).1.3 For cases not listed in 6.1.11.1.1. welded joints where transmission of stresses traction from shrinking welding performed under constraint conditions of distortion.12 Amendments of heavy sections Seams welded with tables or soul of a thickness exceeding 50 mm and profiles laminates with more than 44 mm thick tables. subject to tensile stresses due to 75 . b). where the smaller horizontal is less than 40% of the time (see 6. installed in accordance with 6. L-joints or T). truss connections with pillars.1.2).11.11. d) connections of beams and trusses of which depends on the bracing system and links beams and trusses with pillars. connections or French hands corbels used for reinforcement of gateways. amendments pillars.1 welds or high strength bolts with initial prestressing should be used in following cases: a) amendments pillar structures with over 60 m in height (see 6.2). 6. b) seams pillar structures with a height between 30 and 60 m.1.Based Text Revision f) connections supports parts of machinery or parts subject to impact loads or cyclical. the lower case horizontal dimension is less than 25% of the time (see 6.1.11.11. precautions should be taken to prevent the occurrence of lamellar fracture.11. 6. Page 75 NBR 8800 .11. 6. g) any other connection that is specified in the drawings of the structure. without initial prestressing.11. 6.11. in the case of flat roofs or less than 25% slope. the structures with cranes with a capacity exceeding 50 kN.1. can be considered working together with rivets. structures with over 38 m in height (see 6.2).1. If it can not be avoided that kind of connection.11 Limitations of use for welded and bolted 6. c) and d) of 6. pillars of bracing connections.7.2 High-strength bolts in combination with rivets In new or existing buildings.connection.1. c) amendment of pillar structures of less than 30 m tall. high-strength bolts in friction connections. e) connections and splices roof trusses.1.1. 6.1.

The height should be adequate for proper deposition of weld metal and the adjacent plates should be provided for any extenders enough to weld the material space where the opening is made. requirements for preheating given in footnote 8) of the Table 8 and the requirements of surface preparation for flame cutting and inspection are given in 12.1 All access openings required to facilitate the welding operation should have a minimum length of 1.bending moment and normal force. for example.Based Text Revision 6. the relevant requirements of that standard apply in lieu of these requirements.13.1 and the following publications: a) Wardenier.13. Germany. which have unique characteristics of behavior. bolted splices. should be abraded to bright metal and inspected by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant before the deposition of seam welds. details of the access opening for the welding data 6. D. must meet the following requirements: a) when the plates of the tables or soul are amended before forming the profile of accordance with the appropriate item of AWS D1.1.2. 6.1.1. or combinations of bolts and fillet welds in seams with splints.3 In the case of welded with tables or soul of a thickness exceeding 50 mm and Rolled sections with thickness exceeding 44 mm tables.13 Scraps of beams table for connections and access openings for welding 6. If the region transition curve of such clippings and openings is performed through drill or saw.13. this region does not need to be polished. surfaces clippings beams and access openings for welding obtained by flame cutting. including cases of bars subjected to tension due to wind action. J. may be made by means of details not induce large deformation retraction. b) on all seams subjected to traction extenders and plates waiting for welding must be removed and the surfaces abraded to face milling.2 applicable.14 Considerations links with tubular profiles Many of the requirements of this section may not apply in part or in full the links involving one or more tubular profiles.13. slot welds partial penetration combined with seamless tables soul through splints and welds fillet.13. It is recommended for the design of these connections. becoming the adjustments necessary to maintain the level of security provided by this standard. openings access for welding necessary for the implementation of full penetration welds shall meet the requirements given in 6. N. Kurobane.1. Dutta.1. Packer. & Yeomans. Page 76 76 NBR 8800 . JA. 6. Verlay TÜV Rheinland. but no less than the thickness of the material. the use of AWS D1.1.1. Alternatively.1. If welds are used in slot full penetration to transmit tensile forces. .2 Scraps of beams table for connections and access openings for welding should be free slots and reentrant corners. Y.1. such amendments. 6.. (1991) Design guide hollow section (CHS) joints under predominantly circular for static loading.5 times the thickness of the material in which the opening is made. c) at all seams are subject primarily to the compression bars. Pour le Developpement International Committee et l'Etude de la Construction tubulaire (CIDECT). the requirements of material toughness given in footnote 7) Table 8..

which should be applied instead of AWS D1.b) Packer.1.1. Verlay TÜV Rheinland.1.2.1 All provisions of AWS D1. 6. Page 77 NBR 8800 . A only exception should be made to the provisions given in 6.15 Fatigue Connections subject to fatigue. are applicable to the implementation of scaled structures in accordance with this standard. e) the effective thickness of the neck of a weld joints curved surface when the Soldering is flush with the surface of the bar is shown in Table 6. see Annex M.2. & Yeomans.1 for the welded joints not subject to fatigue.2. J. N. Pour le Developpement International Committee et l'Etude de la Construction Tubulaire (CIDECT).2. 6. including returns. Germany.2.1.2 Solder 6.2 Effective Areas 6. The use of larger throat thicknesses than indicated in the table is permitted 77 . Dutta. 6. b) the effective length of a weld notch is equal to its actual length.2. Kurobane.14.1. should be made sampling of welds performed for each welding procedure. 6.2.Based Text Revision 6.2.2. 6. Wardenier.2.1 Solder Slot The following provisions shall apply: a) the effective area of groove welds shall be calculated as the product of length effective thickness of the weld effective throat.1 items dealing with same subjects. d) the effective throat of a weld notch partial penetration is indicated in the table 5.1 General 6. c) the effective throat of a slot weld full penetration shall be taken equal to smaller thicknesses of the welded parts. Y. JA. shall be indicated on design drawings and manufacturing.13.. 6.2 The length and arrangement of welds.. D. Samples be taken into random sections or perhaps in the sections indicated in the document Project.2 and Table 8 this Standard. prove to that the effective throat of these welds is being taken regularly. which should be equal to the width of the connected part.6. (1992) Design guide for rectangular hollow section (RHS) joints under predominantly static loading.

that these thicknesses can be obtained with greater regularity. 6. Leg of the fillet is the smaller of the two sides.6.Shielded Metal Arc Welding 2)SAW . located on the faces melting.Effective throat thickness of the weld joints curved surface Welding Type Opening the composite gasket a flat surface and curve Opening the composite gasket two curved surfaces Radius (R) of the bar or Folding Effective throat thickness Any R 5 R / 16 Any R R 2 1) / Note: 1)Use 3R 8 for / the electric arc process with shielding gas (except in the transfer process by short circuit) when R ≥ 25 mm .Flux Cored Arc Welding 5)Chamfer angle is the angle between the faces melting Page 78 78 NBR 8800 .Submerged Arc Welding 3)GMAW .2 Solder Fillet The following provisions shall apply: a) the effective area of a fillet weld should be calculated as the product of length effective thickness of the weld effective throat. or as required by the responsible project. the largest triangle that can be inscribed in the weld section. through training.Effective throat thickness of the weld notch partial penetration Position welding Welding process Electrical arc coated electrode (SMAW) 1) 2) Submerged arc welding (SAW) Electrical arc Shielding gas (GMAW) 3) Arc with flow in the core (FCAW) 4) Throat thickness effective Type chamfer J-groove or U Depth chamfer All Bevel or bevel V-groove angle of ≥ 60 º chamfer 5) Bevel or bevel Depth V-groove angle of least 3 mm chamfer chamfer between 45 º and5) 60 º NOTES: 1)SMAW . . except for fillet welds with orthogonal legs performed by submerged arc process when the effective throat can be increased by 3 mm.2. These cuts must be made to a number dimensions of combinations of materials in order to cover the range to be used for manufacturing. b) the effective throat of a fillet weld shall be the shortest distance measured from the root to the face theoretical weld flat. perpendicular to the axis of the half-length of the weld and the terminal ends of the weld. Table 5 . and can be taken equal to the leg to solder Fillet equal to or less than 10mm legs. provided the manufacturer can demonstrate. for fillet welds with greater than 10mm legs.Gas Metal Arc Welding 4)FCAW .2. The qualification consists of cutting the bar with curved surface.Based Text Revision Table 6 .

2.4 Requirements for the weld metal and welding procedures 6.3. If the area a fillet weld run in the hole or slot.2. except for the situations presented in d) and e) below.4.1: 2002.2.2. given in 6. β = 12 - 0002 lw ≤ 1 0.6.2. are presented base metals and welding electrodes that can be used in pre-qualified welding procedures.2.60.2. must be equal to the area Nominal cross-section of the hole or tear in the plane of the surfaces in contact.2. calculated from this length. See also 4.4. However.3 Welding of buffer holes or tears The effective shear area of a solder cap.1 Table 7. including the returns at the ends.1. b w Where: l w is the total length of the weld.2. 79 . 6.1: 2002.3 For other qualifying welding procedures. 6. the effective length should be taken as the total length of the weld multiplied the reduction factor β equal to 0. then the latter should be used as an effective area the fillet weld.1: 2002.Root of the weld is the intersection of the faces melting. with a length exceeding 300 times the nominal size of the weld. 6. 6. including preheat temperatures and interpasses See Section 3 of AWS D1. must be equal to the total length of the weld size uniform. calculation of the resistance of each of these types must be determined and separately to the axis of said group in order to determine the resistance of calculating the combination. c) the effective length of a fillet weld. shall be used in the calculations only resistance of the latter.2 For specifications for pre-qualified welding procedures. and the length is between 100 and 300 times the β is given by: nominal size of the weld. extracted AWS D1. 6.1.2.2. see Chapter 4 of AWS D1. Page 79 NBR 8800 . d) for longitudinal fillet welds in connections axially extreme elements requested. bw is the nominal size of the weld. this method of composing individual resistances of welds shall not apply to welds the overlapping slot fillet welds.4.3 Combination of different types of solders If a single link two or more types of welding (notch fillet buffer are used holes or slots).Based Text Revision is larger than the area given in 6. hole or tear.1 of AWS D1. e) the effective length of a fillet weld in holes or tears must be measured at along the line joining the midpoints of the uniform effective throats points.

-13.5 AWS A5.5 Resistance calculation 6. -3. 5000 NBR (G-35) A570 Grade 50 ER70S-X.2. E70XX F6XX-ECXXX.29 NBR 7007 (AR-290) NBR 7007 (AR-345) E7XTX-X E7XTX-XM NBR 7007 (AR-COR 4) 345 A or B) NBR 8261 (Grade B and C) 5)5)5). E7XTX E7XT-XM (except 2-2M.29 E6XTX-X E6XT-XM E7XTX-X E7XTX-XM 5000 NBR (G-30) A36 (T> 20 mm) A5. In this table. NBR 5004 (F32/Q32) A570 Grade 55 E7XT-XM E7018.1AWS E7015.1 The resistance calculation.23 AWS A5. E70C-XC.5. GS and except -11 5)A5.yfis lower w is the effective area of flow resistance between the metal base of the joint ef the minimum tensile strength of w weld metal. NBR 5004 (F35/Q35) A572 Grade 42 E70C-XM (Except -2. F7XX-ECXXX-XX XXX-E70C Arc with the flow core (FCAW) AWS A5. ER70S-X. the MBis the theoretical area of the face melting.23 (Except-GS) 3.-2M. -10. -10.ER70S-XXX. Page 80 80 NBR 8800 . 2 and 2A A572 Grade 55 F7XX-EXXX-XX. F6XX-EXXX.20 E6XT-X E6XT-XM.thickness 4) 4) AWS F7XX-ECXXX-XX AWS A5. E7XT-X E7016.6.AWS A5.4 in Annex A.5 I t ≤ 100 mm) 5). -13.Compatibility with the base metal of the weld metal Metal base ABNT ASTM NBR 6648 (CG-24 A36 .28 A588 (T ≤ 100 mm) E7015-X 4) ER70S-XXX.28 . Given by the ratio between the characteristic resistance R Rk and weighting coefficient γ of resistance of various types of solder.18 . E70C-XM 5)AWS A5. obtained from Table A.28 F7XX-EXXX-XX.Based Text Revision Table 7 .2. In any situation the weld strength can be made greater than the resistance of the base metal. F7XX-EXXX.23 AWS A5.F7XX-ECXXX E70C-XC.F7XX-EXXX.29 5)A913 Grade3) 60 AWS A5. E7028 5)NBR 5008 (ClassesA572 Grade 50 AWS A5. R Rd.1 AWS A5.17 AWS A5.(t ≤ 20 mm) t ≤ 20 mm) A500 Grade A NBR 6648 (CG-26 A500 Grade B A570 Grade 40 t ≤ 20 mm) 6649 NBR (CF-24)A570 Grade 45 I 6649 NBR (CF-26) 6650 NBR (CF-24) 6650 NBR (CF-26) Group NBR 7007 (MR 250 t ≤ 20 mm) 1). 2) Metal solder compatible Arc Arc with electrode Submerged arc protected lined gas (SMAW) (SAW) (GMAW) AWS A5.5 F7XX-ECXXX (Except-GS) X-E70XX 5)5)AWS A5. and -14 I 1.18 E60XX. The the weld.AWS A5.20 AWS A5. more than 12 mm) NBR 5920 A913 Grade 50 E7016-X 4) XXX-E70C NBR 5921 A992 E7018-X Group 5)AWS A5.17 AWS A5. And GS-14 and except 11 thickness more than 12 mm) 5)AWS A5. is shown in Table 8.

5.2.Elements of Arithmetic Welding Type 81 Rk/ γ welds Request type and orientation Traction or compression parallel to axis of weld Resistance calculation R γ /1) 2) 4) Rk Same as the base metal Traction or compression perpendicular to the effective γ = 110 5) 7) R =section Thef and Rk w y solder Slot welds full penetration 8) Shear (vector sum) in the effective section Traction or compression parallel to axis of weld3) Slot welds partial penetration8) Normal tensile effective section of the weld The smaller of the two values: a) Metal base and γ = 110 R Rk= 060The wf y b) Weld Metal γ = 125 R = 060Thef and Rk ww Same as the base metal The smaller of the two values: a) Metal base γ = 110 and R Rk= 060The wf y b) Weld Metal and γ = 125 RRk= 060The wf w Compression perpendicular to the effective section of Same the weld as the base metal Fillet welds Welding of buffer holes or tears Shear parallel to the axis of the weld. XXX-E80C ER80S-XXX. Preheating should be based on the group of greatest resistance.23. B8. do not apply to ASTM A913. B7L.3 AWS D1.28 and A5. related to the heat input. and 60 degrees 65. groups or any degree BXH in AWS A5. Page 81 NBR 8800 .05% vanadium. A5. E8XTX-XM E8XTX-X Group 1) together consist of different groups of base metals. B8L. B6L.see section 3. in the section Weld metal 6) and γ = 135 RRk= 060The effective wf w Traction or compression parallel to axis of weld3) Same as the base metal Shear on effective section (a request calculation is equal to the resultant vector of all Weld metal 6) calculating the joint forces that produce tensions 9)and γ = 135 RRk= 060The wf w normal or shear contact surface from related parties) Weld metal 6) Shear parallel to the surfaces in contact.1: 2002. B4L.II I A913 Grade3) 65 E8015-X E8016-X E8018-X F8XX-ECXXX-XX F8XX-EXXX-XX. solder metals may be used consistent with the base metal higher resistance or lower resistance. B5L. A5. 5) Metal welding of B3. 3) The limitations of item 5. the γ = 135 R = 060Thef and effective section Rk ww NOTES: 1)For definition of effective areas of welds see 6. one should use low hydrogen electrodes for second option.7.2. low alloy E80XX X) to meet characteristics of atmospheric corrosion resistance and impact resistance of the base metal . 2) When performed stress relieving welds the weld metal can not contain more than 0.7 of AWS D1. B6. B7.1: 2002.29 are not prequalified. B5. B4. B3L. .Based Text Revision Table 8 . B9. 4) A special welding processes and materials needed (eg electrodes.

linking the elements of welded (Tables and souls). parallel to the axis of the weld. the weld metal should have a Minimum tenacity of 27 J at 4 ° C in Charpy test V-Notch can dispense with the requirement of tenacity since the gasket is sized using the weighting coefficient of resistance and characteristic strength of a partial penetration weld. dimension of the weld should be established according to the part more thick welded. the shearing stresses caused by forces Cutting and local effects. special care must be taken using preheating.2.2)The solder metal to be used for each base metal is given in Table 7.5.6.sen 15. The same requirement applies to toughness welded seams welded with thick table and / or greater than 50 mm soul and rolled profiles with more than 44 mm thick tables (in this case there is no alternative to waive such a requirement).35 and up to 6.5.5.Based Text Revision 6.3. Table 9 Minimum effective throat thickness of a slot weld penetration partial Greater thickness of the base metal joint (mm) Below 6. 5)In this case.2.5 Minimum thickness of the throat Effective (mm) 1) 3 5 6 8 . with the resulting actions through the center of gravity of group of fillets. and T. a preheating exceeding be applied 175 ° C.35 Over 6. 7)For corner joints. however.5 Over 12. the resistance characteristic R can be determined by: Rk R Rk =06 f w Σ The 1 +( 0 5.2 and 6. should be considered. Partial penetration welds can not be used in splices flexed parts.5. Page 82 82 NBR 8800 . the request of calculation and the resistance calculation will be determined based on unit lengths effective. 3)Fillet welds and groove welds partial penetration.2.35 to 12. 4) In welds subject to non-uniform stresses.5. θ is the angle between the resultant of the actions and the longitudinal axis of the thread in question.1 Solder Slot The minimum thicknesses of effective throats of welds are partial penetration groove indicated in Table 9. with plate waiting not removed from the weld. 8) In welded seams welded with thick table and / or greater than 50 mm soul and profiles laminates with thickness exceeding 44 mm tables. 6. when two types of strength of the weld metal in table 7 can be used only class greater resistance. except that such size need not exceed the thickness of less thick. 6)The base metal shall meet the requirements in 6.2. 9)See also 6. For this exception and that to obtain a good quality welding. can be calculated without considering the tensile or compressive these elements. The w f ware defined in 6.1.2 For calls made with a group of fillet weld located in the same plane and shares subject to this plan.6 Limitations 6.2. since the resistance of calculation required is obtained.2.5 up to 19 Over 19 up to 37.θ ) wi i i Where: i is the number associated with each thread group.

6.5 mm unless the drawings that solder is indicated as enhanced during execution.5 up to 19 Over 19 Minimum nominal dimension of 1)(Mm) fillet weld 3 5 6 8 Note: 1)Performed only with a pass. and also to connect bar elements composed. 6.2 The maximum nominal size (size of the leg) of a fillet weld that can be used along the edges of welded parts is as follows: a) along edges of material with thickness less than 6.2.2 Solder Fillet 6.35 and up to 6.35 mm. can not be less than 4 times its nominal size or then this nominal size can not be considered more than 25% of the effective length the weld.2. no more than material thickness. no more than the thickness of the material minus 1.5 Over 12. special care should be taken may be necessary to use preheating. When only longitudinal fillet welds are used in extreme link bar tensile boring.1 The minimum nominal size (size of the leg) of a fillet weld is given in 10 table.2 for the definition of effective throat.35 mm.4 Intermittent fillet welds may be used.3 The minimum effective length of a fillet weld (see 6.2.2.6. in the case of links between table and Soul welded. The effective length of any segment of intermittent fillet weld not 83 .2.2. Additionally.35 to 12. 6.5 up to 57 Over 57 up to 152 Above 152 10 13 16 Note: 1)See 6. 6.2.5.2.2. 6. according to the thickest part welded.Based Text Revision Table 10 . For this exception and to obtain a good weld quality. the effective length of a fillet weld subject to any request calculation can not be less than 40 mm. scaled to a solicitation of any calculation.Minimum size of a fillet weld Greater thickness of the base metal joint (mm) Below 6.6.35 Over 6. Page 83 NBR 8800 . in order to obtain the total thickness desired throat .2). this dimension need not exceed required to develop resistance calculation of the soul.2. sized to convey requests calculation when calculating the resistance required is less than a weld Continuous nominal size of the smallest allowed. See also the provisions in 5.Over 37.2. b) along edges of material with thickness less than 6.2.2. except that.6..2.6. the length of each fillet may not be smaller than the transverse distance among them.

c) for connections whose project requires flexibility of elements in projection.2.2. except when the end of the stiffener is welded to the table.2.8 fillet welds may be used with angle between the faces melting understood between 60 º and 120 º.7 fillet welds may be used in holes or slots to transmit shear forces to contact surfaces in connections to prevent buckling or superposition (or separation) of overlapping parts and for connecting section bars compound.2 shall be met.may be lessrequires than fourspecial times the or less than 40 dimension. whichever is less.6 Terminations fillet welds may extend until the end or until the edges of related parties.3 Welding of buffer holes or tears Welds buffer can be used in holes or tears to transmit shear forces to contact surfaces in connections to prevent buckling or superposition (or separation) of overlapping parts and for connecting section bars compound.2. except when the deformation of the Overlapping is sufficiently contained to prevent opening of the connection effect of requests calculation.5 The minimum overlay in overlay connections. therefore.2.2. e) fillet welds on opposite sides of a common plan must be stopped at the corner Common to both welds. b) for connections and structural elements with normal cyclical forces in the elements projection.6.2.2. welds must be fillet along the edges of both parties. d) fillet weld connecting transverse stiffeners welded to the souls should be interrupted at a distance from the intersection of the surface of the solder composition profile with the soul no less than four times nor more than six times the thickness of the soul. 6. or disrupted near these sites.2. frequency and magnitude that would tend to cause progressive fatigue from a point at the end of the weld. if Used returns at the ends of the threads. solder fillets should bypass the corners. Plates or bars connected by superposition only and subject to transverse axial loading fillets. the length of the returns is not exceed four times the size of the leg. The fillet welds in holes or tears can not be regarded as solders buffer. The use of welds intermittent carenominal with local buckling andmm corrosion. 6. it is inappropriate for broadcast efforts. For other angles can not be regarded as the solder structural. For such solders the provisions of 6. the threads must be stopped at a distance this edge not less than the size of the leg of the fillet. provided there is contact between the welded parts across a flat surface (And not just an edge).6. The diameter of the holes for welding of buffer holes can not be less than the thickness of the part containing the .Based Text Revision a) Joints by superposition in which one party extends beyond an edge subjected to longitudinal tensile stresses. 6.6.2. extending a distance not less than twice the size of the leg or width of the connected party.6. 6.6. contour or form a closed. 6. should be equal to 5 times the thickness of the connected part less thick and not less than 25 mm.2. except as limited below: Page 84 84 NBR 8800 .

1 Effective Area for contact pressure The effective area and contact pressure of the screw is equal to the diameter of the screw multiplied the plate thickness considered. 6.3. Are also provided round bar threaded.6 with Class 2A tolerance.3 Bolts and threaded round bars The requirements of this standard refer specifically to ordinary bolts ASTM A307 and high strength bolts to ASTM A325 and A490. When the thickness of the material is greater than 16 mm. The length of solder tearing buffer slots can not be greater than 10 times the weld thickness. the thickness of the weld shall be at least equal to half the same material thickness. where it is assumed the normal grip: a) connections per contact in which the slip is allowed. Screws mounted uncontrolled initial prestressing shall be clearly indicated in the design drawings. Screws with countersunk head are not covered by this 85 .25 times the thickness of the weld. always ensuring firm contact between related parties. It is considered that normal tightening can be obtained by some to be a key impact impact or the maximum effort of a worker using a normal key. However.7. 6. The spacing between the centerlines of tears.Based Text Revision equal to or less than 16 mm should be equal to the thickness of the material.1 High-strength bolts In bolted with high strength bolts requirements of connections must be met subsection 6.9.1.2.greater than 8 mm and not greater than 2.6 bolts and bolts of high-strength ASTM A325M.6 for hex nuts. ASTM A490M. The thickness of solder cap into holes or tears located in thick materials Page 85 NBR 8800 . except those ends which extend to the edge of element soldier. with the mutatis mutandis.7.25 times the thickness of the weld.2. measured in the direction transverse to the length of the slots should be equal to or greater than 4 times the groove width. fabrication and assembly. since for these screws.4.2. 6. the threads must meet the requirements of ASME B18. b) ASTM A325 bolts subject to tension or draw and cut when no fluctuations loading causing fatigue or loosening the screws. The ends of these Tears should be semicircular or shall have not less rounded corners radius to thickness of the part containing them.8 Class 10. ISO 898 and ISO 898 Class 8. allows the common use of ISO 898 Class 4. The center-to-center slots located on the same longitudinal line the length of thereof measured on this line should be equal to or greater than 2 times the length of the Tears. except as follows. given in Table 16 and obtained as 6.2 Areas of calculation 6. All high strength bolts must be tightened in order to develop a force minimum prestressing. The width of the slots can not be less than the thickness of the part containing the greater than 8 mm and not greater than 2. but not less than 16 mm. nuts of round bars must be the same threaded bar material and should have dimensions as specified ASME B18. The center-tocenter-hole solder buffer must be equal to or greater than 4 times the hole diameter.3.3. with UNC thread. all demands made for Similar ASTM screws are met.

bea are the dimensions shown in Figure 12 (if a> 125 b . based on the diameter of the bolt or outer diameter of the thread of threaded round bar. This standard this area is considered equal to 0. The screws should be determined by the relationship between resistance characteristic.3.d ) . In short: A= be 075 The b Page 86 86 NBR 8800 . 1 b . R And the weighting coefficient of resistance. in addition to external stresses must be taken into account the leverage effect. 6. to draw The tough area or effective area of a screw or a threaded round bar (The be) To Traction is a value between the gross floor area and the root area of the thread.Effective width between two screws: the lesser of and/ ( ) 2andb + ( 0 5.3. f y is the lowest flow resistance of the plates connected (the process does not apply if the value of f y the lower plate is greater than the thickness of the thicker plate).Standard. R Rd. In determining the Rk request of computation for bolts subject to tension.3. d b. Where Ab gross floor area. t is the smallest thickness t 1 et 2 connected plates (Figure 12). and exclude the prestressing force due to tightening the screws.2 Effective Area of bolt or threaded round bar.3 Resistance Calculation in connections per contact 6. p is the tributary width of the screw.Based Text Revision With: π The = d 2 b 4 b 6.1 General The resistance calculation.2. defined as (figure 12): . if any.3. The additional tensile force caused by the leverage effect in the case of standard holes can be given by: T Q= Sd d b 2 d the+ b 2 b- en 2f y 444 ≥0 Where: TSdrequestor is the traction force calculation on the screw without leverage. γ.75 A b. Should be useda = 125 b ). is the sum of the effective widths of each side of the bolt. db is the diameter of the bolts.

Pd the b The and 2 and 1 The TSd+ Q TSd+ Q Q lower among (E2) And (b + d 0. this thickness is insufficient.d h fp 1 + y p 444 T Sd where dh is the diameter of the hole.5 b) p p and 1 t1 Q b the lower among (E1/ 2) and (b + d 0. end screw and the plate edge: the lesser of b If both p-values shown in Figure 12 are different.5. both with a diameter exceeding 12 mm.Q Sd The pulling force of total calculation. Part 1.between d ) . the screw is equal to If the thickness t is less than t mingiven below. 6.and Effective + ) (2andbwidth ( 0 5. mutatis mutandis. according to the model of the hinges plastic.2 Traction The resistance calculation pulled with a round bar and a threaded end Screw pulled. To bolted plates with 6.4 Filling see links. 1995).8 (View Joints in Steel Construction: Moment Connections. adopted by Eurocode 3.5 b) t2 and 2 Pd Figure 12 .Based Text Revision t min = 87 b -( 0 d5 ) b p..3. use the lowest value. SCI / BCSA. requests traction in Screws may be determined alternatively. the connection shall be changed and recalculated the value of Q: Page 87 NBR 8800 .Leveraging In the specific case of links to moment with top plate. T +. is given by γ = 135 and R Where: Rkt = The f be ub R Rkt γ Where / .3.

4 contact pressure in boreholes The resistance of calculating the contact pressure on the wall of a hole.High strength bolts and threaded round bars. The b is the gross floor area.Thef RKV b ub Where: f ub is the tensile strength of the material of the bolt or threaded round bar tensile specified in Annex A.3. when the cutting plane does not passes through the screw R = 0 5.2.Based Text Revision 6.3. 6. enlarged holes.3. In the case of the round bars threaded R bar off the thread by flow resistance f y. defined in 6.l ft ≤ 3 0. based on the diameter of the bolt or threaded round bar.3 and 6.4 and 6. when the cutting plane passes through the thread.2.5): given by R Rkc a) in the case of hole pattern.3 Shear The calculation of shear strength of a bolt or threaded round bar equals γ Where / γ = 135 (Must also be satisfied in the above 6.5): R RKV .f ub is the tensile strength of the material of the bolt or threaded round bar tensile specified in Annex A.3.For high strength bolts and threaded round bars. little holes stretched in any direction and very elongated holes in the direction of the force: .2.When the deformation of the link to service requests is not a design consideration R = 1 5.3.2.3.When the deformation of the link to service requests is a consideration project R =1 2 l ft ≤ 2 4 d ft Rkc c u b u .3. common screws in any situation R = 0 4 Thef RKV b ub .d ft Rkc c u b u b) in the case of many holes elongated in the direction perpendicular to the force: bGiven .3.3. already taking into account the tear strength between two consecutive holes or between one end and the hole edge is γ Where / γ = 135 and (must also be satisfied in the above 6. Rktmust exceed the product of the area of Page 88 88 NBR 8800 .3. d in 6. The beis the effective area. The values of resistors features are related to only one cutting plane.3.3.

3. In bolted at the ends of beams of souls connections. db is the diameter of the screw. Table 11 .150 V Rkt ub b Sd 1) R R Rkt Rkt R Rkt NOTES: 1)Cutting plane passing through the thread.5 Tensile and shear combined When a bolt or threaded round bar is subjected to the simultaneous action of tensile and shear.4 must also be met the requirements of Table 11.3. / γ ≤ 073 f ub The .l ft ≤ 2 0.3. to take into account the possibility of tearing of soul between hole and edge.2.Tensile and shear force combined Binding medium Additional limitation of the resistance value By calculation tensile bolt or bar threaded round R ASTM A307 bolts ASTM A325 bolts ASTM A490 bolts Round bars Threaded general Rkt / γ ≤ 073 f ub The .3.3. 6.3. between the edge of the hole and the edge of the adjacent hole or the edge of the connected part. sized just for effect of shear strength calculation requestor V Sd (Without taking into account the moment due to eccentricity).3 and 6.4).R Where: = 1 0. l c is the free distance in the direction of the force.190 V ub b Sd R / γ ≤ 073 f The . in addition to checking for two isolated efforts as 6.150 V Rkt ub b Sd 1) / γ ≤ 073 f The .Based Text Revision 89 f u is the tensile strength tensile steel. The use of extended holes and little holes or very elongated in the direction of force is restricted to friction connections (see 6. this shear force should be considered not only as to their actual direction also perpendicular to this direction.3.190 V ub b Sd R / γ ≤ 073 f The .190 V b Sd 2) 2) . 6. 2)Cutting plane does not pass the thread.3. t is the thickness of the connected part.3.d ft Rkc c u b u Page 89 NBR 8800 . The total resistance is the sum of the resistances calculated contact pressure for all holes.190 V b Sd / γ ≤ 073 f The .

3.4 Resistance calculation of high-strength bolts in friction connections The project calls for friction with high strength bolts should be done as 6.0. given in Table 16. bGiven VSd is the shear force in the plane of calculation considered the bolt or bar round threaded.3. hot galvanized surfaces with increased manually by wire brush roughness (not allowed use of machines).1 and 6.3.1. Ns is the number of slip planes.4. . 6.Table 11: Page 90 90 NBR 8800 .2.3. laminated surfaces clean and free from oils or greases. ie. 6.3. The minimum area of contact surfaces that must be unpainted is shown schematically in Figure 13. Surfaces classes A and B can also be blasted and painted.1. defined as follows: . The characteristic resistance.1 Resistance calculation of a screw to slip R be equal rke1 and up to the shear force acting in the same calculation. since the Average coefficient of friction is proven by tests according to requirements of the "Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts ".0.1 Checking for shearing force calculation γ Must / 6.50 for class B surfaces.2 and must still meet the 6.0. R Is Rke1 given by: R Rke1 = 113 μ T N b s Where: Tb is the minimum prestressing force per bolt. μ is the mean coefficient of friction.4.Based Text Revision f ub is the tensile strength of the material of the bolt or threaded round bar specified in Annex A.3.2.4. unpainted. . The b is the gross floor area. d in 6. other values of μ can also be established on the basis of such trials.3 and 6. based on the diameter of the bolt or threaded round bar.3. that is. .3. ie sandblasted surfaces unpainted.35 for Class C surfaces.4.33 for class A surfaces.

1. Figure 14 . can be used in friction connections with standard holes.20 for extended or slightly elongated holes.00 for standard holes. γ.1. is equal to: . . keeping the weighting coefficient of resistance equal to 1.Surface contact unpainted The weighting coefficient of resistance. .45 for holes very elongated cross request to stretching the hole.00. Wedges with a maximum thickness of 6 mm.Page 91 NBR 8800 . as shown in figure 14.1.Mounting plates with elongated holes to an edge 91 . still containing elongated holes up to a ledge ("Shims finger").65 for holes with very elongated request toward the hole stretching. .Based Text Revision Area perimeter contact Circular area around hole Areas unpainted db or 25 mm (whichever is greater) dh db or 25 mm (whichever is greater) Area with paint allowed Figure 13 .1.

4. R in 6.Page 92 92 NBR 8800 .3.1.3. R in 6. the v F values v the table are based on Class A surfaces with friction coefficient μ = 033 (For other types of surface. bGiven Table 12 . nb is the number of bolts that support the force N Sd.2 When a frictional connection is subjected to tensile force N SdWhich reduces the force γ Given / prestressing. given in Table 16. based on the diameter of the screw. γ is equal to 1.3. slip resistance.3.4.2.2.Based Text Revision 6.Resistance characteristic shear connections in friction.1 must be multiplied Rke2 by the following factor: 1Where: N Sk 080 T n b b . F (Each cutting plane) Screw type Hole pattern ASTM A325 ASTM A490 117 145 vIn megapascals Very elongated holes Holes and expanded Perpendicular little holes Parallel to to the direction of elongated direction of force force 103 124 83 103 69 90 6. 6.4.1 resistance for calculating a slip the bolt is given by R the weighting coefficient of resistance.4. given in Table 12.3.1.4.00 and the characteristic resistance R R Rke2 Rke2 γ Where / Is: Rke2 = F The v b Where: F is the characteristic shear resistance using friction. b is the gross floor area.2 When a frictional connection is subjected to a pulling force. which reduces the strength of γ Given / prestressing.3.1 should be Rke1 multiplied by the following factor: 1- N Sd 113 T n b b Where: NSdis the design value of the tensile strength that prompts the screw.2 Checking for shearing force characteristic 6.2.4. Tb is the minimum prestressing force per bolt. the value of F v be obtained by trials). slip resistance.2.2.3. The d in 6.

Table 13 . 5 d ( + 1 ).5.Based Text Revision 93 NSkis the characteristic value of the tensile strength that prompts the screw. 6. Larger diameter holes can be used in support pillars plates to take into account tolerances leasing anchors in concrete bases.5 33 ≥ 30 d +8 b d + / 16 3 b A hole size slightly elongated d ( + 1 ) ×5 d ( + ) 6 b b 28 × 5. 35 A hole size very elongated d ( + 1 ). 67 5.d b b b b .5.5.5 Dimensions and use of holes 6.d b b b b 1 / 16 1 × 1 / 16 5 1 / 16 1 ×2 1 2 / Dim p ≥11 8 / d + / 16 1 b d + / 16 5 b d ( + / 16 1 ) × d ( + / 3) 8 d ( + / 16 1 ) × 2 5.×5 2 d5 b b b b d ( + / 16 1 ) × d ( + / 1 ) 4 d ( + / 16 1 ) × 2 5.3.2 In bolted connections between bars should be used standard holes. b d + / 16 1 b 1 1 / 16 1 11 4/ d ( + 1 ). Tb is the minimum prestressing force per bolt.d b b 28 × 5. 6. however.3.3. b d +5 b 27 28.Maximum dimensions of holes for bolts and threaded round bars Bore bolt or bar threaded round db the etr nsões andILIM m Dim in Page 94 Diameter hole standard Bore hole extended ≤ 24 d + 1 5.1 The maximum dimensions of holes shall conform to that indicated in Table 13. nb is the number of bolts that support the force N Sk.×52 5. given in Table 16.Page 93 NBR 8800 .3 In connections with extended or elongated holes connection types should be observed and allowed limits given in Table 14. unless it is responsible for the project approved by the use of extended or elongated holes.3. using washers specially sized for such a situation. 6. of ga and nsões andlthe ≤ 7 8/ d + 1 5.×5 d ( + 9 ).

7 Minimum spacing between holes The distance between centers of standard holes. b is 6. 6. when the length exceeds handle 5 d the required number of screws or round bars b Threaded should be increased by 1 for each additional 1.25 to taking into account the non-uniform distribution of the external force by the screws. The bolts and the request calculation used to verify the contact pressure in boreholes shall be multiplied by 1. on very elongated holes in regardless of the direction of external plates.5 percent mm handle (d diameter of the screw or threaded round bar).6 Handle long and very long bonds Except in cases of high strength bolts. structural steel. Such washers or request bars should have dimensions sufficient to fully cover The elongated holes after installation of bolts. may not be less than rather 3.Based Text Revision Table 14 . 2 7d . extended or elongated. have a length exceeding 1270 mm in the direction of external force. When In only one of the parties is necessary to use washers binding to the same surface 1)).4.3. However. In only one of the parties minimum thickness of 8mm and binding to the same surface hole pattern should be used Contact. the shear force requestor calculation.Limitations on the use of extended or elongated holes Type hole Extended Type link permitted Friction Friction Little bit elongate By contact Friction Very elongate By contact Limitations Hole Position In any or all link plates In any or all connecting plates. More dimension normal to the direction of request Washers 1) Hardened over extended holes plates in external link About slightly elongated holes in External link plates should washers be used. Larger those normal to the direction of the request will be placed on washers plates or bars Continuing Note: 1) When screws are used ASTM A490 greater than 25. Any position regardless of direction of the request In any or all link plates. V Sd. These hardened (see 6. the external link plates. When connections contact. Washers plate or flat bars continuous. hardened washers should be used in accordance with ASTM F436. such washers must be hardened when bolts are high strength. used in amendments tensile bar.7.dwhere d b b screw diameter round bar or screw. fitted with initial prestressing.2 and Contact.3. the minimum thickness of 8 mm instead of the standard washers.94 NBR 8800 . b Page 95 NBR 8800 .Based Text Revision 95 .4 mm diameter holes or elongated in expanded. Any heading.

Extended or elongated holes 6. when the hole is at a point where the request calculation does not exceed 25% of the resistance calculation.3.3. given in Table 15. 6.3. 3)At the ends of ledges connecting beams and end plates for flexible connections. β = 020 for holes slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular to the edge β = 075 holes to very elongated in the direction perpendicular to the edge considered (the length of the elongated hole is much lower than that given in Table 13. in which d b is the screw diameter or round bar threaded. the βd product can be reduced by an amount equal to half the difference between the b length given in the table and the actual length).3.1 Standard Holes The distance from the center of a standard hole to any edge of a connected part can not be less than the value shown in Table 15.75 d b Or rolled edge cut the torch (Mm) 19 22 26 27 29 31 32 38 39 42 46 1.Minimum Distance Diameter d b Inch Millimeter 1/2 5/8 3/4 16 7/8 20 22 24 1 1 1/8 27 30 1 1/4 > 1 1/4 36 > 36 1) the center of a hole pattern to the edge Edge cut with saw or scissors (Mm) 22 29 32 35 38 3) 42 3) 44 50 53 57 64 1.2 The distance from the center of an extended or elongated hole at any edge of a connected party did not may be less than the value specified for standard holes.Beyond this requirement. the distances can be reduced by 3 mm. Table 15 . the clear distance between the edges of two consecutive holes can not be lower ad b. Page 96 96 NBR 8800 .Based Text Revision 6.8.9 Maximum spacing between holes and maximum distance from one hole to the edges 2) . considered. this distance can be equal to 32 mm. plus βd b being db screw diameter and β defined as follows: - β = 0 for holes elongated in the direction parallel to the edge considered.8.4 are met.3.3.8 Minimum distance from one hole to the edges 6. 2)In this column. - β = 012 for enlarged holes.25 d b NOTES: 1)Inferior to the table distances are permitted provided that the equations apply to 6.

10 V and the characteristic resistance Rkis: V= Rk 060 The f w y where Aw is the effective area of the shear pin section. painted or not. equal to 0.4. the spacing may not exceed 24 times the thickness of the thinnest part connected or 300 mm. γ is equal to 1. one should take into account the variation of the contact stresses through the thickness of plates and the bending moments are determined at pin according to this Distribution tensions.2 Resistance of calculating the shear force γ Where / The resistance of calculating the shear pin is given by V the coefficient Rk weighting the resistance. y g.2 Resistance calculation 6.75 A Gross pin ef is the yield strength of the material of the pin.2. unpainted. y is the flow resistance 6.6.2.3.4. 6.Based Text Revision 6.4.1 General The bending moments on a pin must be calculated assuming that the contact stresses between the pin and the connected parts are uniformly distributed throughout the thickness each part. γ is equal to 1. or 180 mm.9.35 and the characteristic resistance R is: 97 . the spacing can not exceed 14 times the thickness of the thinnest connected part.2. 6.4 Pins 6.1 Resistance of calculating flexural γ Where / Resistance calculation pin the bending moment is given by M the coefficient Rk weighting the resistance. If the pin passes through plates with a thickness greater than half the diameter of the pin.4. the distance from the center of the screw (or bar Round Threaded) closest to that edge may not exceed 12 times the thickness of the part considered connected or 150 mm. 6.10 and the characteristic resistance M Rkis: M Rk =12 W f y where W is the elastic modulus of the resilient pin section f Pin material.2 The maximum spacing between bolts connecting one plate to a profile or other plate in continuous contact. γ is equal to 1. Where Ag is area Page 97 NBR 8800 . a) on elements not subject to corrosion.9. shall be determined as follows. b) for elements of atmospheric corrosion resistant steel.3.3 Resistance to crushing calculation γ Where / Resistance calculation pin crushing is given by R the coefficient Rk weighting the resistance.4.1 For any edge of a connected part.

3. may not exceed resistance following calculation: a) for the disposal by normal stresses γ = 110 R Rk =f y b) for the flow of shear stresses γ = 110 R Rk = 0 f6 y Page 98 98 NBR 8800 .1 General Rule All connecting elements (including the affected parts of bars) must be dimensioned γ Corresponding / so that their resistance calculation R to each applicable limit state. Rk is greater than or equal to the respective requests calculation. should be taken into account the time and the shear force due to eccentricity on the link.2 eccentric Links Axes passing through the centers of gravity of the cross sections of axially bars and are applied in a node should preferably intersect at a common point. the stresses acting calculation. determined based on combinations of shares for calculating (or the strength requirements minimum link) and based on the effective resistance regions (net areas can not be taken greater than 85% of the corresponding gross areas). 6.1 General This subsection shall apply to the design of connection elements. 6. Particular attention should be given in the sizing of joints to avoid All possible types of buckling in the connection region.5.R Rk = 1 f5 Rk y where fy is the yield strength of the material of the pin. Otherwise. locally affected by the binding. The request of calculation to be considered is the maximum contact stress calculation for uniform distribution or not. For serviceability limit states disposing of gross section and rupture of the net section. connecting plates. consoles and all parts of the connected parts. 6.3 Elements of calculation 6.5. angles.Based Text Revision c) to damage by normal stresses γ = 135 R Rk =f u d) to disruption by shear stresses .5.5. such as: stiffeners.5 Connection elements 6.

99 . being aa effective throat of the weld fillet.The + f The ] ≤ 0 [ f6.35 and R Rk is the resistance characteristic is given by: f The ≥ 0 f6 The u nt u nv a) when R Rk f The < 0 f6 The u nt u nv b) when R = 0 [ f6. The nv is the net area subject to shear. the outflow of gross shear section is used in perpendicular segment and vice versa.2 Breakdown by tearing Collapse by tearing out is a state in which the resistance is determined by the sum of resistance to shear on a fault line and tensile strength in a segment perpendicular. In checking rupture of flange plates must be used effective net area when applicable. the superposition of high values of normal and shear the base metal adjacent to the weld stresses in the plates A and B. multiplying the stresses resulting from the calculation in welding per second (For / t plate A) and 2a/2t The B (For sheet B). tension calculation in the binding elements in the zone adjacent to the weld.3. In situations like those shown in Figures 15 and e-15-f. The gt is the gross area subjected to tension. The nt is the net area subject to tension.2.Based Text Revision respectively. Page 99 NBR 8800 . alternatively.γ = 135 R Rk = 0 f6u where fy is the yield strength f u the tensile strength of the material tensile strength. considering the tensions thus obtained as shear. necessitates the application of a criterion for determining the resistance equivalent voltages. however. In welded joints. regardless of its direction. The resistance of calculating the collapse is given by tearing by R Rk/ Γ.The + f The ] y gv u nt u nv u nt Rk = [ 0 f6 The + f The ] ≤ [ 0 f6 The + f The ] u nv y gt u nv u nt Where: The gv is the gross area subject to shear.5. 6. where γ is the weighting coefficient of resistance equal to 1. provided that such tensions be contained in the elements through thickness thereof. such as tensile bars and gussets (Figure 15). Should be checked with the connections at ends of beams with table cropped to fit and in similar situations. can be determined by inverse proportion to the thickness of the base metal and (s) throat (s) Effective (s) of the weld. one can determine the tension in the calculation regions of base metal adjacent to the weld. When the tensile breaking strength of the net section is used to determine the resistance of a segment. as stated in 5.

Welds that connecting the connection plate to the plate filler should be sufficient to impart the strength of calculation that acts on the connecting plate and be of sufficient length so that it is not calculating overcome the resistance of the plate filler along the edge of the weld. any filler plate thickness equal to or greater than 6 mm must extend beyond the edges of the connecting plate and be welded to the part where it should be fixed. enough to transmit the force acting on the calculation sheet solder connection.1 In the welded connections. eccentric load applied to the surface of the filler plate (Figure 16).Examples of collapse by tearing 6.5. the edges must coincide with the edges of the connecting plate and the size of the leg of the weld bead should be equal to sum of the size of the leg needed to transmit the force acting on the calculation sheet connection with the thickness of the filling (Figure 17).Based Text Revision 3 2 1 3 May be used 2 1 .5.4.The t The v The t The t The v The v (B) (A) The v The The t (C) t ⇒ t The The B (D) (E) (TThe etBare thicknesses of) t B (F) Figure 15 . When the thickness of the filler is less than 6 mm.4 Filling Plates 6. Page 100 100 NBR 8800 .

6)] .Filling the plates should extend beyond the bonding material. the resistance calculation of shear bolts (And crush) on contact connections shall be multiplied by the factor 1 -[ 00157 t ( . must meet s one of the following requirements: . Where ts taken in millimeters. s . and Such plates have a sum T s thickness not exceeding 6 mm. the resistance calculation shear bolts may be used without reduction.transverse welds along edges indicated Figure 16 . uniformly over the section of this combined support element and filling (see Figure 18).filler plate with a thickness of 6 mm 6. Screws required if there was no filler Screws F1 force F1 F F1 F .Filling with thickness exceeding 6 mm plate t < 6 mm 2 1 2 1 May be used transverse welds along edges indicated t Effective dimension Real size Figure 17 . Page 101 NBR 8800 . and that extension must have enough screws to distribute the total force that acts on the number support element.Instead of the extension.2 When filling plates with standard holes are used in bolted connections.4.5. a number of screws equivalent to that provided in b) (see Figure 18 in which the forces in groups screws correspond to the resulting contact forces applied on the screws plates). may be added in the link. If t exceeds 6 mm.Based Text Revision 101 .When t s is equal to or less than 19 mm.

5.2 and 6.2 to 6. equal to 1.F t1(Thickness of the filler) F1 F2 t2 (Thickness of the support element) Alternative lengthening of binder material F F + F = And F1 = 1 2 t 1 F2 t 2 Figure 18 .1 Resistance to contact pressure The resistance calculation. 6. including the case of ends for fitting with stiffeners contact with the table and the case pin through mandrilados or drilled holes.6 contact pressure 6.2 Machined Surfaces In machined surfaces.6.σ ) l dd .Is R d ≤ 635 mm 1 2 f ( . R Rk.6. equal to 1. To determine the resistance of calculation see 6.6. Page 102 102 NBR 8800 . f y is the lowest flow resistance of the parts in contact.35 and a crush strength characteristic of the cylinder. R Rk/ Γ.Is = d> 635 mm 6 0. f ( . one takes the weighting coefficient of resistance.5.35 and the characteristic resistance crushing. γ. the pressure transmission to be done by weldment. Equal to: . γ.6. 6.4 Apparatus massive cylindrical support on flat surfaces machined The resistance of calculating the contact pressure apparatus cylindrical solid support on Machined flat surfaces to be obtained using the weighting coefficient of resistance.S. U.σ) l d y Rk 20 . Equal to: Rk R Rk = 1 8 Thef y Where: A is the contact area (projected area where pins). .6.3 not machined surfaces In non-machined surfaces.6.Plate filling in bolted 6. the surfaces in contact depends on the various forms and conditions such areas as indicated in 6.Based Text Revision 6.

5 Contact pressure on concrete supports The resistance of calculating the contact pressure in the area 1 the area under the load bearing plates. σ = 90 MPa (With proper conversion when another unit).6. Assuming that. Page 103 NBR 8800 . 2 The The The 1 .R Rk = y 20 aux Where: d is the diameter of the cylinder. the area A shall be calculated as shown in Figure 19.Based Text Revision 103 The the concrete. the R value Rk can be determined by above expression. The 1 is loaded under the bearing plate area.65 (the request calculation shall be expressed in terms of compressive stress). γ equal to 1. on the face opposite to that of the concrete in contact with the backplate. is determined using the weighting coefficient of resistance. l is the length of the cylinder. 2 is the surface area of b) when the contours are not homothetic. however. R Rk. d aux = 25 4 mm (With proper conversion when another unit). is given by (Figure 19) a) when the concrete surface extends beyond the support plate and its outline is homothetic with respect to the charged region: R Rk = 085 f Where: The 2 ≤ 170 f ck The ck 1 f ckis the characteristic compressive strength of concrete. The characteristic resistance. 6. f y is the lowest flow resistance of the parts in contact. the pressure is distributed across the face area and such that the distance between opposite sides is the largest of the three main dimensions of concrete block.

assembly and inspection of connections with high strength bolts 6.1.6 for heavy structural bolts. nuts and washers 6.2 The dimensions of the screws shall be in accordance with the current specifications ASME B18. heat-treated. its end coincides with or exceeds the face outer nut. so compensate for the tolerances of the bolt and the implementation structure.7.2 Bolts. 6.7. Page 104 104 NBR 8800 .7. ASTM A490 bolts can not be galvanized.7.1 The bolts shall be in accordance with the current specifications of ASTM A325 "Standard specification for structural bolts. The connections in which slip is highly harmful and those that are subject to repetitive forces with sign reversal should be friction.3 The dimensions of the nuts shall be in accordance with the current specifications of ASME B18. The responsibility for the project must specify the type of screws to be used.2 Connections to reassign forces parallel to the contact surface of the parties can be connected frictionally or.7. For requirements relating to the use of ASTM A325 galvanized bolts. 150 ksi minimum tensile strength. hex head. 120/105 ksi minimum tensile strength ".1.Pressure contact on concrete supports 6. " The ASTM A325 specification provides for three types of high strength bolts.2. see ASTM A325.Based Text Revision 6. The length of bolt should be such that.6 for heavy hex nuts. or ASTM A490" Standard specification for heat-treated steel structural Bolts. alternatively.1 General 6.2. steel. . 6. one with atmospheric corrosion resistance comparable to ASTM A588 steel.7 Design.2.7.1 This subsection refers to the design. after installation.2. by contact.Area charged Homothetic Outline relative to the 1 Plant Load The loaded area 1 ≥2 1 The 2 Section AA Figure 19 .2.7. This is necessary to provide a clearance in the calculation of length. 6. assembly and inspection of connections made with high strength bolts ASTM A325 and ASTM A490.

3 for a bolt and nut same nominal dimensions. that meet the requirements of mechanical properties of these same specifications.7.4.5 The circular washers and square beveled washers shall be accordance with the latest specifications of ASTM F436 "Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Washers.2 and 6. The installation methods and inspection may differ from the indicated respectively in 6. 6.4. 6.2. " The dimensions of the washers are specified in ASME B18. 6.7. including adjacent to the head screws. 6.1.7. shall be free from lamination scales (except those firmly adhered to the material).1.7. and must be fully contact when assembled.7.7.7.3. The grip should be applied by the rotation of the nut.2. dirt or other foreign matter that prevent perfect contact between the parties. the calibrated wrench.4.2.4. or its equivalent.1 hardened beveled washers shall be used to compensate for the lack of parallelism.Based Text Revision 105 6. when one of the outer surfaces of bolted parts have more than 1:20 slope in relative to the normal to the axis of the screw plane. given in 6.3.6. The holes can be punched.3 The contact surfaces in friction connections shall meet the above in 6. subject to the approval of the engineer responsible for Project. burrs.4.6. The bolt parts of the structure can not be separated by any materials other than structural steel. except in situations referred 6.3 Bolted Parts 6.5). of not less values corresponding to the requirements of 6.5.7. 6.2.4 Install the screws 6.4. in this case.2.3.7.3. provided they meet the requirements for material.3.4 and 6.Minimum Force in prestressing bolts ASTM Diameter d b Inch 1/2 5/8 Tb (KN) Millimeter 16 3/4 ASTM A325 ASTM A490 53 85 91 125 66 106 114 156 . or direct indicator traction method (see 6.2 When assembled. with evidence for full-scale testing.7.1 Strength minimum prestressing tightening The high-strength bolts must be tightened so as to obtain a minimum strength prestressing (Tb) Appropriate to each type and diameter of screw used independently of the link be friction or contact.7.2. This prestressing force is provided in Table 16 for the screws and ASTM equivalent to approximately 70% of characteristic tensile strength of the bolt. subpuncionados and extended.4. Table 16 . or drilled.7. Page 105 NBR 8800 .4. 6. all the connection surfaces. manufacturing process and constant chemical composition of ASTM ASTM A325 or A490. 6. nuts and washers.7.3.7.4. and also having stem diameter and the contact areas under the head and nut.3. such methods should be documented by detailed specification.4 other types of fasteners may be used.3.3.7.7.7.5 and 6.

screws should be placed in the remaining holes and screws also led to such pre-torque condition. When impact wrenches are used.4. where A490 screws tightened by rotating the nut and method in the case of screws A325 A490 calibrated or tightened with the key (that is. 6. b) in which the element does not rotate during tightening. the opposite side to that which applies in the rotation can not rotate.4 Key Grip with calibrated When calibrated keys are used. in the case of A490 bolts.2 Washers In addition to the requirements 6. the grip can be given by turning the bolt head and preventing the nut from rotating. hardened washers must be used in the following situations: a) under the turning element (nut or screw head) during fastening. All connecting bolts should then get a grip Further.7. they must be adjusted to provide a prestressing at least 5% higher than the minimum prestressing given in Table 16.1 and table 14.3 Tightening by the rotation of the nut method When using the method of tightening by turning the nut to apply the prestressing force specified in Table 16. which must begin operation in the most rigid part of the connection and proceed toward the free edges. when the element is based on a structural steel with lower resistance to flow 280 MPa . torque control). Page 106 106 NBR 8800 . through the rotation of the nut applies. During this operation.7. 6. After this operation initial. depending on the conditions of access to the screw and the clearances for handling tool.20 22 7/8 24 1 27 1 1/8 30 1 1/4 36 1 1/2 142 176 173 205 227 267 250 326 317 475 460 179 221 216 257 283 334 357 408 453 595 659 If necessary. .Based Text Revision 6. to ensure that the parties are in full contact. there must be sufficient minimum number of screws provided pre-torque. nuts and washers.7.4. keys must be calibrated at least once per working day for each bolt diameter to install.7. They should be recalibrated when significant changes are made to the equipment or when noticed a significant difference in the surface of bolts.4. The condition of pre-torque is defined as the tightness obtained after a few impacts applied by an impact wrench. as indicated in Table 17. or the maximum force applied by a worker using a normal key. their capacity should be adequate and its supply Air should be sufficient to obtain the desired tightening of each bolt approximately 10 seconds. Calibration should be done by tightening three typical bolts of each diameter. For calibration must be certified that during the installation of bolts in the structure.3. removed Lot of bolts to be installed in a device capable of indicating the real draw in screw.

the required rotation should be determined by tests on a suitable device that measures strength.calibration doesgreater not produce a rotation of in theTable nut or17. Therefore. screw installed with 2/3 turn and more.Based Text Revision 107 Table 17. those already tight previously should be tested with the key and tightened if they "loose" during the handshake subsequent bolts. when torque is reached the nuts should be tightening move. tolerance in the rotation is more 30 or less. including Over 8 diameters no later than 12 diameters 2) Both sides normal to the axis of screw One of ordinary faces the axis of the screw and another inclined face not more than 1:20 (No beveled washer) Third back Half back Half back 2/3 back 2/3 back 5/6 back Both sides inclined to the plane normal to the no screw shaft more than 1:20 (without beveled washers) 2/3 back 5/6 back 1 back NOTES: 1)The rotation of the nut is considered in relation to the screw. To install with 1/2 turn or less screws. bolt head from the are used to position of chosen pre-torque. without regard to the element being rotated (nut or bolt). Rotation of the nut from the pre-torque position Provision of the outer surfaces of bolted parts Length Screw (measured from bottom of the Head to the end) Less than or equal to 4 diameters Over 4 diameters up to a maximum of 8 diameter. than that indicated manuals If keys torque wrench. Page 107 NBR 8800 . simulating the actual conditions. until all bolts reach the desired tightness. the tolerance on the rotation is more or less 45th. During the installation of several screws on the wire. . 2)No research has been done to establish the procedure to be used for tightening the rotation of the method nut to wavelengths greater than diameters screws 12.

the next inspection arbitration shall be used unless another procedure has been specified: a) the inspector must use a key inspection with a torque wrench.6 Reuse of bolts The A490 bolts and galvanized A325 bolts can not be reused.5. The tightening screw is tightened and that previously loosen during tightening screws neighbors is not considered as reuse.7.Based Text Revision 6. or.4.1 The inspector shall ensure that.7. Bolts tightened by rotating the nut method can achieve protentions substantially higher than those recommended in Table 16. that is.7.7. Tightening given after the initial condition may not result in rotation greater than that permitted in Table 17 nut. the requirements of 6.7. must be tightened in the calibration device by any convenient method to reach an initial condition with approximately 15% of the amount of prestressing required for the bolt in the table 16 and then up to the value of that prestressing. after tightening. c) each bolt specified in b). 6.7.5 Inspection 6.5. there must be a washer under part turning if washers are used in the structure.7. Page 108 108 NBR 8800 . A key inspection should then be applied to the screw was tightened and should be given the necessary torque to rotating the nut or head 5 degrees in the direction of tightening. for all the work.5.4. 6.4 When there are differences of opinion as to the results of the inspection force obtained by the method of prestressing rotation of the nut or calibrated key.6. The other A325 bolts may be reused once. 6.4.7. 6. 6.7. if these are not used.4.5.3 and 6. The inspector shall have free access to monitor the calibration switches as prescribed in 6.2 The inspector shall observe the installation of bolts to determine if the procedure clamping was chosen being followed properly and should verify that all screws are tight.3 When using the method of direct indicator of drift. the inspector should observe the installation of bolts to determine whether the tightening procedure that is approved being used properly and should verify that the correct tensioning was achieved according to the table 16. The under surface of the part to be rotated during tightening of each screw must be equal to the corresponding surface of the structure. the screw was subjected to the force minimum prestressing given in Table 16. but are reason for rejection. b) three screws of the same type.2 are met. The average torque obtained from the trials of three screws should be taken as torque inspection of the work to be used in the . if an engineer's approval responsible. diameter (whose length is representative Screws used in the structure) and conditions of those under inspection shall be placed individually in a calibration device capable of indicating the tension in screw.7. since it can be demonstrated for an accurate method of direct measurement.4. the material adjacent to the part that spins must be of the same specification of the corresponding material in structure.5 Tightening by using a direct indicator of traction It allowed tighten screws by using a direct indicator of drift.7.

but not less than two randomly chosen on each link.2 The dimensions of the steel-concrete composite beams must be done in accordance with the requirements of Annex Q. If any nut or head screw by turning torque application inspection.2. the switch inspection and its corresponding torque inspection of the work. this torque should be applied to all bolts connection and all bolts whose nut or head spin by applied torque inspection of the work should be tightened and reinspected or alternatively.1 General In addition to the requirements of sections 5. and have been tight structure.2 Fatigue 9. 8 Specific conditions for the design of composite joints The design of mixed steel-concrete connections must be made according to the requirements of Annex T. other aspects of resistance must be considered under certain conditions. 6. puddling. among which are: fatigue.Based Text Revision 7. 7. 7. your choice. 7 Specific conditions for the design of steel-composite elements concrete 7. If no nut or bolt head spin by applying torque inspection work. d) screws as represented by the sample obtained in b). brittle fracture and elevated temperatures.manner specified in paragraph d) below. Page 109 NBR 8800 . 9 Additional Considerations resistance 9.3 Sizing of steel-concrete composite columns must be done in accordance with the requirements of Annex A. must be inspected by applying. 9. the connection should be accepted as properly tightened. resubmetendo it to the specified inspection. the manufacturer or assembler.2 Rarely bars or links in non-industrial buildings need to be scaled to fatigue. This should be done at 10% bolts. 7 and 8. since the variations in the structures of action of these buildings occur only one small number of times during the useful life or produce only small voltage fluctuations. 109 . columns and slabs. 9.1 The mixed steel-concrete structural elements provided by this standard are beams.1 Bars and connections subject to the effects of fatigue should be sized according to the requirements of Annex M.2. in the tightening direction.4 The dimensions of the steel-concrete composite slabs must be made according to the requirements of Annex S. you can tighten all screws on the link.

residual stresses excessive and excessively thick welded materials.2 Contraflechas 10. protection corrosion of steel components and durability. needed for compatibility deformations of the structure with the elements finish the work. Generally.3.1 The steel components of the structure shall be designed to tolerate corrosion or must be protected against corrosion that can affect your strength or your performance of the structure. earthquake.2.2. 9.4 brittle fracture In some situations the links and details are subject to triple states traction caused by notches. 9. especially at low temperatures. further checks must be made to ensure that no occur structural collapse caused by the dead weight of accumulated water by virtue of the arrows of closure and structural components (see 11.3 The and occurrence peak effects in buildings.2 The beams and trusses that are detailed without indication contraflecha should be constructed so that small deformations resulting from the manufacture or rolling.1 General Should be included in the design considerations regarding contraflechas.1 The contraflechas as necessary should be indicated in the design drawings. In this Page 110 110 NBR 8800 . or However. To avoid this type of boundary condition. 10. contraflechas should be applied approximately equal to the arrow resulting from direct permanent characteristic actions. for example. is of littlebrackets cranes frequency does notofdeserve considerations of wind fatigue.. 10.3 Corrosion on steel components 10. generally should be given equal contraflecha the arrow resulting from direct permanent features 50% more shares of stock variables characteristics.9. etc. shall be determined the specific cases treated. . scaled to the effects high operating temperatures or accidental origin (such as fires). the sizing should be done in case of fire according to NBR 14323. For beams bearing go less than 20 m. If the application of contraflecha require the structure element is mounted under strain imposed by external means. it is necessary that the design be used intrinsically ductile details. Abrupt transitions should be avoided. fracture may occur fragile. 9. the trusses span less than 24 m.2.Based Text Revision latter case.6) materials. face up after assembly.5 High temperatures The structures of steel and must be mixed. 10. it should be shown on the assembly drawings.3 puddling When the slope of a roof or floor of a building subject to receipt of water rain is less than 3%. if necessary. 10 Additional conditions of project 10. structures and machines are often subject to fatigue conditions. Any other contraflechas. residual stresses.

4 If the protection specified for structures exposed to weather corrosion. or other effective means.3. and when used as recommended in design.3 The localized corrosion is likely to occur when there is retention of water condensation excessive.4. thus protected. including the members of the joint structures should be adequately protected against corrosion (see 10.4 Guidelines for durability 10.3). an adequate for corrosion can be used for expected life for the building and the aggressiveness of the medium.4).4. stability and fitness in service during the period corresponding to its life. as well as implementing the necessary repairs resulting from environmental damage. Pieces of concrete and your equipment.3.3. this protection should be given. the steel elements. since it met the requirements of use and prescribed maintenance by the designer and the builder.3 The concept of life applies to the structure as a whole or its parts. either alone or in combination. 10. 10.5 Depending on the size of the building and the aggressiveness of the environment and in possession of project information.3. 10. Corrosion resistant steels should also be protected when it is not guaranteed to training the protective film or when the thickness loss expected during the useful life is not tolerable. 10. Alternatively. certain parts of the structure may deserve special consideration with lifetime value all different. materials and products used and the execution of the work should be produced by a qualified professional user information.6 Protection against corrosion on the internal surfaces of parts whose interior is permanently sealed against the penetration of external oxygen is considered unnecessary. Where necessary. inspection and maintenance. Page 111 NBR 8800 . when this is necessary.2 Protection against corrosion in non-resistant steels to atmospheric corrosion can be obtained by protective layers.2 For the design life means the time period during which keep the characteristics of the structures. conditioned for human comfort can be generally considered as non-corrosive. and that such protection must undergo an inspection process periodic. Thus. 10. However.3.4. or other environments where corrosion can occur gradually. or caused by other factors. This manual should specify clearly and objectively the basic requirements for use and .1 The steel and composite structures must be designed and constructed so that under the environmental conditions at the time of the project.5 The internal environment of buildings. should be minimized by design and detailing appropriate.4.4 To ensure that the structure maintains its characteristics during life project. 10. if necessary. efficient water drainage should be provided.Based Text Revision 111 10. 10. requiring maintenance or renewal during the life of the structure (see 10.10.4. wedges plates and filling). members of the joint structures should obey related to the durability requirements of ISO 6118. 10. the need for protection against corrosion should be evaluated in each case and. and any other factors of aggressiveness. the steel should have a Minimum thickness of 5 mm (excluding steel formwork of steel-concrete composite slabs. retain the security.

7. subsection B. nor exceed the limit values laid down in Annex C.3) can not cause collision with adjacent buildings. etc.3 Shifts 11. 11. the possibility of maintenance. 11. transient vibrations due to which people may be walking unacceptable should be dimensioned taking into consideration this type of vibration.4 Vibrations 11.7. due to temperature variations and other effects do not affect the use of structure. including fatigue (see Annex B.1 General The occurrence of a limit state can impair the appearance.1 The limits to be imposed on the behavior of the structure values. functionality and comfort of the occupants of a building. may not exceed the values limits set out in Annex C.Based Text Revision 11.2 Mechanical equipment that may produce undesirable continuous vibration should be insulated to reduce or eliminate the transmission of such vibrations to the structure. Page 112 112 NBR 8800 . Vibrations of this kind should be taken into account also the verification of the ultimate limit states. and ensuring their Full use should be chosen taking into account the functions assigned to the structure and materials related to it.3) associated with the type of response studied.2. 11.3. due to combinations of actions to use (see 4. including floors.1 Beams restraints floors of large areas that do not have partition walls or other forms of damping. Vibrations of this type should be taken into account also in the verification of limit states past. partitions. 11.5 Dimensional Changes Measures should be taken so that the dimensional variations of a structure and its elements. as Annex W..4.6 puddling of water on roofs and floors .4.4 and Annex M). including fatigue. durability. 11.2 The lateral displacements of the structure and the horizontal relative movements between floors. 11. exterior walls. 11.2 Basis for Project 11.2 Each limit state should be checked using combinations of actions of use (see 4. see Annex X. Other sources of continuous vibration are vehicles and activities human such as dance.1 The structure of the displacement bar and sets of structural elements. roofs.2.4.3 For vibrations due to wind.3.preventive maintenance necessary to ensure the expected service life for the structure.. as well as it can cause damage to equipment and finishing materials linked to the building. See Appendix W for limit states and Annex M to fatigue. 11 limit states 11. 11.

1. 113 .1.1. 12.6.2 The temperature of the heated area. during the stages of manufacture or assembly of the structure shall be made only with the permission of the head of the project.2.1 General 12.6.2.7.7.7 Cracking of concrete 11.2. 11. should be checked to ensure that water will not be accumulate in puddles. 11. 12 Manufacturing.2 Manufacture of structure and paint factory 12. Page 113 NBR 8800 . 12.1. subject to the limitations of this standard. less than 5% slope.1. are in Annex U.1 desempeño material 12.1.1. tensile stresses in the concrete slab can cause cracks that undermine the protection of armor for corrosion or adversely affect the appearance or the use of the building.1 Manufacture 12. Relevant technical documents should be corrected consistently with those modifications. This finding should be taken into account possible inaccuracies constructive and settlements of foundation. arrows of closing materials and components Structural including the effects of contraflecha.3 Changes in project The changes that are necessary in the project. assembly and quality control 12.2.1 All roofs and floors of buildings subject to the receipt of rain water. Heating and mechanical means are also Allowed to obtain the desired pre-deformation. it is allowed to perform corrective work by the use of controlled heating and / or straightening mechanics.1 In composite beams.11. as well as the placement of exit points of water in adequate number and positions.1.2 The related control requirements of the cracks that may occur in conditions cited in 11. 12.7.1 Prior to its use in manufacturing. measured by approved methods should not be exceeding 650 ° C for steels permitted use by this standard.1 Documents Project All project documents must meet the minimum requirements of section 4.2 standardized symbols and nomenclature Indicative welding symbols used in the drawings and inspection requirements of the structure must comply with the AWS Standards.2 Contraflechas beams can contribute significantly to prevent puddling.1.Based Text Revision 11. If these tolerances are not being met. laminated materials must be straightened within the tolerances of supply. 12.

1. Moreover.4. these edges should be smooth finish.1. unless otherwise indicated on drawings or preparing specifications edges.1.2. which shall be free of depressions deeper than 5 mm and slots.7.14. The burrs should be removed to allow adjustment of parts to be bolted or welded or when they represent risk during construction or after its completion.1.4.6 Finish surfaces which transmit compressive forces by contact The connections which transmit compressive forces by contact should have their surfaces . When applicable. extend them.1.16 AWS D1. 12. Insufficient coincidence holes should be of rejection of parts.Based Text Revision welded with a thickness exceeding 50 mm materials should be given a pre-heating temperature at least 66 ° C before cutting. pins or screws should be placed provisional to maintaining the relative position of the structural parts prior to their final fixation.2. 12.1: 2002. The assembly and inspection of connections with high strength bolts must be made in accordance with 6.2.2 During bolting. For larger thicknesses. Clippings beam table for connections and access openings for welding must meet the geometric requirements given in 6.1. appearance and quality of welds. The matrix for all subpuncionados holes or drill for all sub-drilled holes shall be at least 3. and as the methods used in the correction of defects shall be in accordance with AWS D 1. The use of scissors to cut edges should be avoided in places subject to the formation of plastic hinges. In places subject to the formation of bearings plastic. or distort the material. except the clippings beam table for connections and openings access for welding must comply with the requirements of paragraph 5.2. the holes should be drilled to its final diameter and can also be subpuncionados or subdrilled with smaller diameter and subsequently machined to final diameter. Espinas can only be used to ensure the positioning of the component parts during the sets assembly is not allowed to use. 12.5 mm less than the final diameter of the hole. Depressions greater than 5 mm and notches shall be removed by grinding or repaired by welding.5 welded construction The technique to be used in welding. the holes should be tensioned areas subpuncionados and machined to the diameter end or drilled with the final diameter.2. If other requirement is specified.1 When the thickness of the material is less than or equal to the maximum diameter of plus 3 mm.1.4 of AWS D1. execution.1. 12. obtained by grinding.1: 2002. screw holes can be punched.2 Cut by thermal means The edges cut by thermal means shall meet the requirements of paragraph 5.2.2.1. if used.3 Planing edges No need to flatten or finishing the edges of plates or profiles cut with a saw. The reentrant corners.4 Bolted Construction 12. gouge or planer. it must be contained in the contract documents. when these cut-outs or openings are executed profiles of Groups 4 and 5 of ASTM A6/A6M or profiles Page 114 114 NBR 8800 .12.15. scissors or torch. The use of a torch for drilling holes is not allowed. 12. by deformation force of the coincidence holes. this requirement should be included in the drawings of the structure. with the exception of the free edges that are subject to static tensile stress.

2.8 Finish bases of pillars and base plates The bases of the columns and the base plates must be finished according to the following requirements: Page 115 NBR 8800 . 12.Based Text Revision a) base plates rolled.1. can be used without machining. except as indicated in paragraphs b) and c) below. 12.2. should receive a corrosion-inhibiting layer of a type which can be easily removed before assembly. including cases of friction bolted connections and surfaces which transmit compressive forces by contact.2 inaccessible surfaces Except for contact surfaces. which are grouted to ensure full contact with the concrete foundation. 12. saw cutting or other suitable means. shall be cleaned as Annex P. at least one layer of "primer".3) in all structure should be applied in the factory.7 Dimensional tolerances The dimensional tolerances shall meet the requirements specified in P. or planed on all contact surfaces.4 (Annex P).2 Paints Factory 12. except in this case and in cases where the painting is unnecessary (see 10. in order to gain support satisfactory by contact.1.2. b) the lower face of the base plates.2. 12.2. 12. or of a type that need not be removed.2.1. the contact is occur during manufacturing. of a thickness not exceeding 50 mm. using machining.1 General requirements The factory paint and surface preparation shall conform to the requirements of Annex P.6.1. c) the upper face of the base plates need not planing if welds are used full penetration between these plates and the pillar.2. 115 .3. does not require planing. plates Laminated above 100 mm base thickness as well as pillars and other base types of base plates shall be planed on all contact surfaces except as indicated in b) and c) below.2.3 contact surfaces There are no limitations as to the painting of surfaces in the case of connections with screws working by contact. Parts of steel parts that transmit efforts by adhering to the concrete can not be painted. if contact is occur only in assembling such surfaces should be cleaned according to the specifications of the project and. except in special cases as mentioned in 6. if they are machined.2.Contact prepared to provide perfect nesting. Other contact surfaces.4. prior to such fact occur. noting. surfaces that will become inaccessible after fabrication should be cleaned and painted in accordance with the painting specifications of the project. laminated base plates with a thickness exceeding 50 mm but less than 100 mm can be desempenadas by pressure. provided it is obtained satisfactory support for contact. without being painted. however.

wind and shares mounting.2. where required. the surfaces to be welded in the field.3. 12.3. measures must be taken to ensure that requests are absorbed corresponding. Page 116 116 NBR 8800 . security during assembly should be guaranteed to all time.Based Text Revision 12.2.1 The structure shall be mounted flush.3. If the gap is greater than 1. so that can absorb any permanent action.2 Care at Mount 12.2.3. in a range of 50 mm on each side of the weld must be free of materials that prevent welding suitable or producing toxic gases during the welding operation. and the final painting of the structure as a whole. as long as is necessary for the safety of the structure.4 Adjustment of compressed connections pillars Openings no greater can be accepted 1. All parts of the structure received in the work shall be stored and handled in a manner which is not subject to excessive stresses or suffer damage.5 mm in transmitting amendments pillars efforts compression by contact. including the resulting wind and equipment. in accordance with Annex E should be used.3. level and plumb within the tolerances specified in Annex Q.3 Mounting 12.2. equipment or other natures forces on the structure during the assembly.3 Alignment Welded or bolted permanent connections should only be completed after the party the structure. and if verified that there is not enough contact area.1 Alignment of bases of pillars The bases of pillars should be leveled and positioned at the correct elevation. 12.5 mm but less than 6 mm. These shims may be made of carbon steel even if the steel is of the structure other. being in full contact with the support surface. 12. leveled and plumbed.2 In assembly. The bracing must remain mounted. 12.3. Temporary bracing. without being damaged. the structure must be bolted or welded securely. However.4 surfaces adjacent to field welds Unless otherwise specified. which will become rigid after the execution of such connections are properly aligned. The final painting must meet the requirements of Annex P.2. to absorb all forces to which the structure may be subjected during construction.provisions in 12. 12.3. After welding such surfaces should receive the same cleaning and protection provided for the entire structure. the gap will be filled with steel shims parallel faces.2. 12. must be specified in the contract. regardless of the amendment used (bolted or welded with partial penetration). .5 Final Painting Responsibility for touch-up paint (including paint prior to cleaning) during and after assembling. Whenever there accumulation of material.4.

stable should be stated in the bidding documents structure.12. 12.2 Cooperation All inspection by representatives of the purchaser as far as possible should be made factory or place where work is being performed.4. 12.Based Text Revision 117 service shall be permanently subject to inspection by qualified inspectors representatives of the buyer. the material and the quality of Page 117 NBR 8800 . The manufacturer shall receive copies of all inspection reports provided to the purchaser for the supervision. When nondestructive testing is required.4.4 Inspection of welds The inspection of the welds must be done in accordance with the requirements of the AWS D1. In addition to the procedures of quality control of the manufacturer. 12. if required. allowing access to all locations where the service is running. c) Reports of tests needed to meet special requirements. The inspector the buyer must establish its inspection schedule so that they are the minimum interruptions of the manufacturer. b) number of the race of steel. the extent.5 Identification of Steel The manufacturer must be able to demonstrate by written procedure and practice a method of application and material identification. .4. If such inspection is requested by representatives of the purchaser. By the method of identification should be possible to verify the correct application of the material as: a) designation of the specification. and technical standards are acceptance should be clearly defined in the bidding documents and project.4. visible at least during the operations of union Component elements of a set to be transported in full. The manufacturer shall cooperate with the Inspector.4.1.4 Quality Control 12. The inspection look that is required should be specified in the bidding documents and project. the process.3 Rejection The material or service that does not meet the requirements of this standard may be rejected at any time during the execution of the service. 12.1 General The manufacturer shall establish methods of quality control within the rigor that judge necessary to ensure that all work is performed in accordance with this standard.

u) For steels . B . consult SSPC-Vis1 or standard SIS 05 59 00.2.Based Text Revision Annex A (normative) Structural steel and metal bonding materials A. presenting a number varioliform considerable pores with the naked eye. A.2 for some structural steels frequent use specified by ASTM. A. showing little or no signs of corrosion. C .3 Mechanical Properties Are given in table A. A. also showing few visible pores varioliform the eye naked.1 The structural steel to be used in the structure must be new.1.1 the flow resistances (f y) And rupture (f Structural specified by Brazilian standards and Table A. C or D: A . A.Surface entirely covered with scales lamination adhered to the surface. B. D .Areas which have lost all scale lamination or have scales easily removable.2 Tests of impact and resistance to brittle fracture must be requested when service conditions of the structure require.1 General A.1.2.1 The recommendations in this Annex apply to structural steel and metal materials link normally used in steel structures and composite steel-concrete.Surfaces that have lost all rolling scale.Page 118 118 NBR 8800 .2 The replacement of any material taken during the manufacturing or assembly should compulsorily have the approval of the responsible for the project.2 Structural Steels A.Surfaces that present early corrosion and loss of scales lamination. For more detailed specifications for appearance and surface finish. the buyer must specify the acceptable level of corrosion to the steel surface.2. A.

low alloy. Profile tubular carbon steel. steel. 2 and 2A 19 <t ≤ 40 315 460 G-35 345 450 F-35/Q-35 340 450 435 40 <t ≤ 100 290 NBR 5920/5921 NBR NBR 8261 Thin sheets and coils. for structural use .Page 119 NBR 8800 . cold-formed. for use stitching. circular or rectangular section for structural uses structural (cold / hot) Circular section Rectangular fy fu Class / grade Class / grade fy fu fy fu (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) Cold rolled / 310 450 B 290 400 317 400 hot rolled coils Hot rolled 340 480 C (Not included in coils) NOTES: 1)Limitations thickness: see corresponding standard 2)Cold Rolled 3)Hot rolled 317 427 345 427 .1 .requirements f fu fy fu Class / Range fy fu Class / grade y Class / grade (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) degree thickness (MPa) (MPa) t ≤ 19 345 480 G-30 300 415 F-32/Q-32 310 410 1. with and without resistant to atmospheric corrosion.Based Text Revision 119 Table A.ABNT steels for structural purposes NBR 7007 NBR 6648 Carbon and micro-alloyed steels Thick carbon steel plates structural and general use for structural use fy fu fy fu Class / grade Class / grade (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) MR-250 250 400 CG-24 235 380 AR-290 290 415 CG-26 255 410 AR-345 345 450 AR-PINK 345 485 345-A or B NBR 5000 1) NBR 6649/6650 NBR Thin sheets of carbon steel structural use (cold / hot) fy fu Class / grade (MPa) (MPa) CF-24 240 370 CF-26 260 4002) 4103) NBR 5004 NBR 5008 Thick plates and thick coils of steel Thick steel plates with low Thin sheets of low-alloy steel alloy and high strength and high mechanical strength Low resistant to atmospheric corrosion.

Page 120 120 NBR 8800 . 2)The thickness t corresponds to the smaller size or the diameter of the cross section of the bar. .3 steel castings and forgings The structural elements made of cast or forged steel shall conform to one of following specifications: a) for cast carbon steel for general use parts: NBR 6313.Group 3: tubular profiles. 4)The relationship f f / can not be less than 1. c) for carbon steel forgings and alloy steel for general industrial use: ASTM A668.Based Text Revision Table A. 3)Round bars. 422O-AF and AF-types 4524. .Group 1: I and U profiles in general and angles with thickness up to 19 mm.2 ASTM steels for structural purposes Rating Carbon Steels Group1) 2) Product Name A36 Profiles Plates Bars 3) 1 and 2 t ≤ 200mm t ≤ 100mm A500 Profiles 3 A570 Plates - Profiles Low alloy steels and high resistance mechanics A572 A9924) Low alloy steels and high resistance mechanics resistant corrosion Atmospheric Plates and bars3) Profiles Profiles A242 A588 Plates and bars3) Profiles Plates and bars3) Degree 1 and 2 t ≤ 150mm t ≤ 100mm 1 and 2 1 2 t ≤ 19 mm 19< t ≤ 38mm 38< t ≤100mm 1 and 2 t ≤ 100mm The B 40 45 50 55 42 50 42 50 55 fy (MPa) 250 - 230 290 275 310 345 380 290 345 290 345 380 345 the 450 345 315 345 315 290 345 50 60 65 345 345 415 450 - Low alloy steel and self-tempered A913 Profiles 1 and 2 tempering NOTES: 1)Grouping of laminated profiles for the purpose of mechanical properties: . fu (MPa) 400 the 550 310 400 380 415 450 480 415 450 415 450 485 450 480 460 480 460 435 485 485 450 520 550 . AF-type 5534. u y A.18. square and flat. b) for cast of high strength steel for structural purposes parts: NBR 7242.Group 2: Angles larger than 19 mm thick.

4 Screws The specifications given in Table A.2.9 900 1000 12 ≤ d ≤ 36 mm b ASTM A307 NOTES: 1)Available also with atmospheric corrosion resistance comparable the steels AR-COR-345 Degrees A and B or ASTM A588 steels.4 .Based Text Revision 121 A.4.Page 121 NBR 8800 . with those made of hardened steel or welded must not be heated to facilitate assembly.Minimum tensile strength of the weld metal Weld metal fw (MPa) All electrodes with class Resistance 6 or 60 415 All electrodes with class Resistance 7 or 70 485 All electrodes with class resistance 8 or 80 550 .6 235 390 ASTM A325 1) 635 560 825 725 ASTM A325M 1) 635 560 825 725 12 ≤ d ≤ 36 mm b 1 "2≤ d ≤ "1 b "1< d ≤ 1 1 "2 b 16 ≤ d ≤ 24 mm b 24 < d b ≤ 36 mm ISO 898 Class 8.8 640 800 12 ≤ d b ≤ 36 mm ASTM A490 895 1035 1 "2≤ d b ≤ 1 1 "2 ASTM A490M 895 1035 16 ≤ d ≤ 36 mm b ISO 898 Class 10.5 Weld Metals The minimum tensile strength of weld metals listed in Table 7 are 6. Table A.Materials used in screws Specification Resistance flow fyb (MPa) Resistance break fub (MPa) Diameter d b (Inches or mm) - 415 1 "2≤ d ≤ "4 b ISO 898 Class 4. A. Table A.4 given in Table A.3 .3 apply to screws.

having yield strength of 345 MPa and resistance rupture of 415 MPa.1 The shear connectors with pin-type head.Page 122 122 NBR 8800 .6. A. / ANNEX B . used in composite construction steel Specifically.2 The structural steel usually used for connectors with pin head diameter up 22. must have dimensions in accordance with AWS D1.6 Shear Connectors with pin-type head A.6.Based Text Revision A.2 mm is ASTM A108.1 and be welded to the steel profiles Also in accordance with AWS A 1.1.

finishes etc.3. etc.. bridges etc. central air conditioning.. B.. d) any other actions of virtually permanent basis throughout the life of structure. c) weights facilities. such as floors. objects and materials stocked. shrinkage of materials and prestressing. B. stormwater. supplemented by the following information and other information. stairs.2 building materials Weight For purposes of design. permanent fixtures and fittings such as pipes water. NBR NBR 7188 and 8681. fixed walls. Are also variable shares the thrusts of land. manufacturers' specifications equipment. the values used shall be those indicated in NBR 6120. temperature variations.Page 123 NBR 8800 .3. in the absence of information more precise. stocks of equipment such as elevators.. gas pipelines and electric cables.1 and customer specifications. overloads on roofs. B.3 Shares variables B. NBR 6123. b) weights of all construction elements permanently supported by the frame.2. due to own weight. etc. coatings. Indirect permanent actions are due to support settlement.2 Permanent Shares According to NBR 8681.1 Definition Shares variables are those that result from the use and occupancy of the building or structure. which are subject to the minimum requirements of the standards NBR 6120. Actions Direct permanent consist of: a) self-weight of structural members. such as test results.2 Characteristic values The characteristic values of the shares must be obtained from the standards listed in B. the permanent actions are divided into direct and indirect.Based Text Revision 123 Annex B (normative) Share B. machinery industrial cranes and hoists. sewer. ceilings. when determining the direct permanent actions should be taken the the actual construction weight materials to be used. such as distributed on floors overloads due to the weight of people. the pressure of the wind. and. weight removable walls. hydrostatic pressures.Based Text Revision .. B.1 Scope The recommendations in this annex are applicable to the design of structures steel and composite structures for buildings. roofs. Page 124 124 NBR 8800 . weather reports.

4 Partial Load It must be regarded as the maximum value of the variable action.3 Overhead Cranes B... for the following cases.. also dynamic effects and / or impacts caused by lifts...5.2 Equipment To account for the impact.3.1..1 Variables actions. to account for the impact.....3..B. b) transverse to the runway force being applied at the top rail of each side (see B. in some cases.5 Impact B. should be considered.......)..... applied to a portion of structure or bar. the increases indicated may be used if there is no specification contrario: a) light equipment whose operation is characterized primarily by rotating movements..3. obeying the provisions of B. his supporters should be designed within the deformation limits allowed by specific regulations...5... the effect produced is most unfavorable than that resulting from application of all the structure or structural component of an action of the same value..5. B. However.. beyond the static values of the shares....3. and considering horizontal forces. groups B..5..5. unless specified otherwise. B..5....1.... roofs. in addition to variable shares mentioned in B..3..1...3 Actions concentrated In floors.3...3...5...1 structures that support cranes must be designed. and other similar situations.3.3...1.. for the purpose of calculation of the shares.. as follows. etc........... already include the normal effects of impact. the weight of equipment and moving loads shall be increased.1 Lifts All actions of elevators should be increased by 100%...3.. if there is not otherwise specified: a) the increase of the vertical loads of the wheels will be 25% for cranes commanded a cabin and 10% for cranes controlled by control pendant or remote control..Based Text Revision 125 .20%........... b) equipment whose operation is fundamentally characterized by movements alternate. equipment.. talhas...1. should be considered in the design. intensity compatible use as the building (eg action of a monkey to vehicle weight of a or two people on Tuesdays coverage or stairs. B.....1.3...3. increased for take into account the impact vertical if it is unfavorable. if it is unfavorable. B. a concentrated force applied in the most unfavorable position.....2) is to be taken as: Page 125 NBR 8800 .. cranes etc.

c) a longitudinal force to the runway.100% of the load hoisted oven-well bridge. variables shares (including overhead) on floors and branches supported by hangers should be increased by 33% to account for the impact.1. using the double the previous percentages as the total lateral force shall be distributed.Based Text Revision . 20% of the hoisted load.4. B. except in the following situations: .3.25 kN / m2In horizontal projection. . B.3. b.5% of the sum of the load hoisted to the total weight of bridge and trolley including lifting devices. .1) in buildings not intended for steel. B.1.3.6.2 Special Cases In special cases the overhead in coverage shall be determined in accordance with the purpose thereof.5.b.6. must be equal 20% of the sum of the maximum loads of the motor and / or wheels equipped with brakes. each integrally hand.10% of the sum of the load lifted by the weight of the trolley and devices lifting.3.15% of the hoisted load.1 common Hedges Public coverage. .100% of the weight of the mold and the ingot to Ripper bridge. and in the absence of otherwise specified.3.1 General NBR 8800 . stop.3.6 Overload gravels B. when not determined more accurately.3.50% of the load hoisted bridge with hopper and electromagnet and bridge patio slabs and billets.5. .1. Page 126 126 B.2) in buildings for steel. where the horizontal stiffness the cross-sectional structure of one side of the roll path differs from the opposite side. B. not subject to any material accumulations.4 hangers If there is no specified otherwise. shall be provided an overload characteristic minimum of 0.4 Wind B.2 With respect to point b) of B.1.5. which should also specify and if possible. the distribution of the transverse forces to be proportional to the stiffness of each side.3. d) the force due to the shock of the crane with the stop should be informed by manufacturer. to be applied on top of the rail. the greater of: .

4. In any situation. B. consider busiest bridge with vertical load without impact and transverse forces and maximum longitudinal. Page 127 NBR 8800 .2.2 In the structures whose height does not exceed 5 times the horizontal dimension less or 50 m can assume that the wind is a static action.5. B. in which to consider the busiest bridge with impact vertical).1 If only operates an overhead crane.Based Text Revision B. should be considered with the vertical load and impact the maximum transverse and longitudinal forces. complying with the provisions in B. make a joint analysis of only two ships. consider only an overhead crane with vertical impact and 50% of horizontal transverse strength of the bridges. B. or because the conditions so require. you should: a) Consider the action of only one bridge as B. B. consider the vertical load without impact and 50% of the maximum transverse and longitudinal forces. must be taken into account the dynamic effects of the wind. or unusual location.2 Having an overhead crane on a ship and another on the ship adjacent to consider load vertical with maximum impact and shear forces of the bridge causing the biggest requests and the other bridge loaded without vertical impact and without transverse force. in the position that causes the greater efforts (this assumption is justified by the work of two or more bridges be done very slowly).2 To determine the loading and response of structures irregular geometry. in the most unfavorable position.2.5.1.5 Combinations crane beams to calculate bearing and media structures B. B. In other cases and in cases of doubt.2 In the case of two or more bridges that run on the same runway and eventually will work together or nearby. except in some cases where the conditions Operation warrant a more rigorous treatment.2 and B. b) if the bridges will work together to hoisted a higher load capacity than the one of them.2 buildings of two or more ships B. on the whole the most unfavorable position (this assumption is justified by probability of occurrence is very remote. and other bridges with vertical load without impact forces without horizontal. as B.5.1 Building a ship B. for individual elements of the structure and the closures.5.1.1.5.2.5.1.1. 127 .5. To check to fatigue. if the worst-looking requests. flexible.4.1. such as patio plates steel mills. c) if the bridges with equal or different capacities can act very close. one should not fail to see the effects of a bridge on each ship.5.5.B.1.3. tests shall be made in wind tunnels.1.4.1 In the case of buildings of two or more ships.5. The longitudinal force should be calculated for both.1 The wind action should be determined according to NBR 6123 for the system Main resistant to the action of the wind.2.

2.3 Having one or two bridges on a ship and one two adjacent bridges in nature. consider: the maximum vertical load impact and transverse horizontal forces and longitudinal bridge causing the biggest requests and other bridges loaded without vertical and lateral force without impact.5.1 General C. / ANNEX C Page 128 128 NBR 8800 .1 This annex lists the maximum displacements recommended for situations usual frequent in buildings. These movements should be understood as values . The longitudinal force shall be calculated for bridges causing the major requests.B.1.Based Text Revision Annex C (normative) Recommended maximum displacements C. one for each vessel.

taken as C. the characteristics of finishing materials or to ensure proper functioning of equipment.2. C.practical be used for verification of limit state displacements Excessivetostructure.1.2 Requirements C.3 The offsets should be calculated using the rare combinations of use given in 4. depending on assessment of responsibility for the project may have to be also considered.3. C.7.1.2.3.3.1.4 For composite beams. it can be assumed less stringent limits. tighter limits may have to be adopted.Sleepers closing general 6) ..2.Sleepers supporting closures subject to cracking and / or components sensitive to excessive displacements 4) 5) .1 The structures should be sized so that the maximum recommended values for vertical and horizontal displacements data C. C. as in constructions interim. C.2. C.3 recommended maximum values are empirical.2 When using the table C. taking into account the second order effects and the possible occurrence of plastic deformations in the limit state.2 Some values recommended maximum displacements.2.1 The maximum recommended values for the vertical displacements (arrows) and horizontal are given in Table C.Tuesdays supporting closures subject to cracking and / or δ 1) 1 δ 1) 2 L/180 - L/120 Examples of Combinations 2) 3) FG+ FQ2 FQ1 - L/180 FQ1 L/180 - FG+ FQ20. is provided elsewhere in this Standard and should be considered.Tuesdays in general .2 Data in C. C. On the other hand. They serve to comparison with the results of structural analysis.3 + F .2 + FQ1 F 0.2.Sleepers closing general . In some cases. In the case of vertical displacements. considering the use of edifying.3 Maximum values recommended C. other than those specified in this Annex.Based Text Revision 129 Table C.1. etc. C. certain situations. The effect of the rotation stiffness of the connections.1 .3 are not exceeded except when specific limits are established for each use between the client and the responsible for the structural design.recommended maximum displacements Description 4) 5) .1 in the calculation of maximum vertical displacement (δ max) To be compared to δ The contraflecha the beam can be deducted up to the limit of the value of the arrow 1 from the permanent actions. such values are referenced a beam simply supported.3. Page 129 NBR 8800 . the procedure for calculating the vertical displacements and the values maximum recommended for these shifts are given in Q.

4 FQ3 FG+ FQ3 + Ψ1FQ27) FQ2 +0. 1 8)Value not increased by the coefficient of impact. 4)Displacements between lines of rods in the same plane. etc.2)δ2and displacement is related to the combination of variables shares.Horizontal offset from the top to the base H/300 FQ30.3 + FQ20. 7)ψ is the utilization factor regarding the value of frequent overloading. top to bottom).Trusses and roof trusses in general 5) 5) - L/250 L/250 - - L/180 L/300 - - L/350 L/350 - - L/400 L/400 - - L/500 .4 FQ3 FG+ FQ3 + Ψ1FQ27) FQ2 +0. 5)On roofs with little slope. according to table 2. 6) In the case of masonry walls. H is the total height of the pillar (distance δ is the floors).Horizontal scrolling on between two consecutive floors H/300 FQ1+ Ψ1FQ27) NOTES: 1)L is the gap between theoretical support (for beams with restriction of rotation in flexion in the support plane.2 + FQ10.2 + FQ1 Q2 FG+ FQ2 +0.4 FQ3 FG+ FQ3 + Ψ1FQ27) FQ2 +0.1). L is the distance between Sections of zero moment) or twice the theoretical length of the swing.Vertical offset for overhead cranes L/600 FQ38) lower characteristic 200KN L/800 FQ38) . h is the height of the floor (distance between centers of the beams of two consecutive offset 1 referring to the combination of all actions (see C.4 FQ3 FQ3 + Ψ1FQ27) FG+ FQ2 +0.) And frames .4 FQ3 FQ3 + Ψ1FQ27) Beams bearing: .Horizontal offset from the top to the base H/400 FQ1+ Ψ1FQ27) . F is the action of the wind.4 FQ3 +0. Page 130 130 NBR 8800 . 2)F are the permanent actions. displacement limit should also be adopted in order to avoid occurrence of puddling.2 FQ1 FG+ FQ3 +0.4 + FQ3 6) .Based Text Revision displacement to be limited Wall as rigid panel .2 FQ1 FQ1 FG+ FQ2 +0.Beams supporting floor finishes subject to cracking (Masonry.0 mm.3.Vertical offset for overhead cranes equal or superior characteristic to 200KN FQ3 .Floor Beams supporting pillars FQ2 Q10. hardboard. limiting the horizontal displacement (perpendicular to the wall) so that the opening of the crack that might occur in the base of the wall does not exceed 2.Horizontal displacement due to the bridge transverse actions L/600 Sheds and buildings in general a floor: FQ10..Floor beams generally .isFthe overhead roof or floor and F G Q1 Q2 Q3are actions from lifting and transport equipment. as understood wall panel disk (Figure C.3 + FQ2 Buildings of two or more floors: 6) .4 FQ3 FQ3 + Ψ1FQ27) FG+ FQ2 +0.components sensitive to excessive displacements .3 FQ2 +0. 3)Favorable variable actions should not be considered in combination.

base

wall

<2mm

Figure C.1 - as rigid wall panel

/ ANNEX D

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131

Annex D (normative)

Characteristic bending moment resistant non-slender beams

D.1 General

D.1.1 This appendix provides procedures for determining the bending moment resistant

characteristic of non-slender beams subjected to bending normal single.

D.1.2 not slender beams are those consisting of sections I, H, U, casket and tubular

Rectangular whose souls when bending axis perpendicular to have a slenderness λ parameter

less than or equal to λ r (Λ and rλ defined in table D.1 for the limit state FLA), by sections

tubes with circular relationship between diameter and wall thickness not exceeding

by circular or rectangular solid sections with any dimensions.

045 E f and

y

**D.1.3 To facilitate the use of this Annex, the symbology used is detailed at the end.
**

D.2 resistant characteristic bending moment

D.2.1 For the types of section and bending axes indicated in Table D.1, for the limit state FLT,

the characteristic resistant bending moment is given by:

a) M

b) M

Rk

Rk

=M

To

lp

=C

M

b

pl

λ≤λ

- (M

λ- λ

p ≤ M , for λ < λ ≤ λ

- M )

pl

r λ - λ

pl

p

r

r

p

λ >λ

c) M = M To

Rk

cr

p

r

**D.2.2 For the types of section and bending axes indicated in Table D.1, for the limit states
**

FLM and FLA, the characteristic resistant bending moment is given by:

a) M

b) M

c) M

Rk

Rk

Rk

=M

=M

λ≤λ

To

lp

- (M

pl

= M To

cr

p

λ- λ

p ≤ M , for

- M )

pl

r λ - λ

pl

r

p

λ

p

<λ ≤ λ

r

**λ > λ (Not applicable to FLA)
**

r

**D.2.3 For solid circular and rectangular sections flexed relative to the minor axis
**

inertia:

M

Rk

=M

lp

**D.2.4 For the circular tubular sections, to limit state FLP, the only one to be considered,
**

with D / t not exceeding

045 E f , We have:

y

a) M

Rk

=M

To

lp

λ≤λ

p

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132

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

b) M

c) M

Rk

Rk

0021 E

=

D t

033 E

=

D t

λ

p

D

t

=

0071 E

f

y

y

W , for λ

W , for λ > λ

with

λ=

+f

r

p

<λ ≤λ

r

λ =

r

031 E

f

y

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NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

133

**Table D.1 - Parameters for the characteristic resistance to bending moment
**

United

Mr

Mcr

λ

limit

applicable

FLT

L

I sections with f y( - f r ) W C β

β

b

1 1+ 2

two shafts

See note 6) b

r

λ2

symmetry and the following λ

y

U sections

f (- f ) W

y r c

Sections I and H with two

or

or axes of symmetry

FLT

f

W

L

with a shaft

I sections with

See note 2)

y t

b

(Whichever is follow

r

symmetry in the planean axis of

yc

lower)

medium of the soul, and

symmetry

See note 6)

U sections not subject to

the following

twist, flexed in

about the axis of greatest

f (- f ) W

moment of inertia

y r c See footnote 7) the b

FLM

See note 6)

follow

t

**Type section and shaft
**

flexion

λ

λ

r

p

176

E

f

y

See note 1)

follow

176

E

fy

See note 2)

follow

038

E

f

**See footnote 7) the
**

follow

FLA See note 4) follow the following f W y FLM f W See note 5) y Sections I and H with two follow axis of symmetry and U sections flexed in about the axis of lower FLA moment of inertia See footnote 8) tof yWf follow Solid sections rectangular flexed in about the axis of greatest moment of inertia Sections coffin and rectangular tubular doubly symmetric flexed around a axis of symmetry f W y FLT - See footnote 7) the b follow tw W2 f f W y See note 3) follow 200CbE ITThe λ f y( .f r ) W FLT 200CbE See Note 9) theSee note 6) ITThe λ follow the following f yWf FLM W2 f f W y See note 3) the followingSee note 3) follow f W y FLA - Page 134 134 NBR 8800 .1 are as follows: 1) λ = r 0707 β 4β 1 1+ 1+ 2 M2 β2 r M r 1 Where: β = π GE I The 1 T π EC β = w 2 GI r T y 2 with I d -( t )2 f .Based Text Revision Notes relating to the table D. for sections I C = y w 4 w h tw h tw y h E 376 hp fy 038 E f y 112 E f y 570 E f y See footnote 7) the follow 140 E f y L b r y 013E I The T M pl 200E I The T M r L b r y 013E I The T M pl 200E I The T M r b tw 112 E f y 140 E f y h tw 376 E f y 570 E f y .

Based Text Revision b f = 191 t • when b <t / b f E 038 E 1f ( / B) T f y y 140 E f / y =b .I I I I (h L )2 2 yc y yc T b C = 100 if I I < 010 or I I > 090 b yc y yc y 3) W f is the section modulus (elastic least on the bending axis. for sections U C = f f w 12 6 b ( .For the other sections • when b b ≥t / f • when b = 191 t b <t / f =b 149 E f / y E 034 E 1f ( / B) T f y y 149 E f / y 135 . to a section has a compressed table (or in the case of compressed soul bent U profile about the axis lower inertia) in width ab f Given by: .0 t5 t) + 2 d -( t t) w f f w f f w .For rectangular tubular section of uniform thickness • when b t /≥ 140 E f / y Page 135 NBR 8800 .t b ( .0 t5 )3 d -( t ) 2 3 b ( .0 t5 t) + d -( t t) f w f f w 2) M cr = 2 EC L b b I I B (+ 1 + B + B 2 ) ≤ M y T 1 2 1 lp 2E λ = I I ( B + 1+ B + B2 ) r M r y T 1 2 1 r yc Where: [ ( ) ] B = 225 2 I I .1 (h L ) I I 1 yc y b y T ( )( ) B = 25 1 .

with lateral torsional buckling FLP . Page 136 136 NBR 8800 .The constant warping of the cross section w D .modulus of transverse elasticity of the steel . 7) To laminate profiles For welded M M cr = cr = 069 E W .75 and 1.local buckling of the soul FLM . λ = 095 c r λ2 E f( . c is between 5) In this case the state limit FLM applies only to the U section soul. For this Annex adopted the following symbols: FLA .50.2. = t andb = h .In soul compressed bent U section relative to the axis of smallest inertia. when compressed by bending moment.Outside diameter of circular section tubular E . 6) The residual stress f r is equal to 70 MPa in rolled sections and welded manufactured by deposition of weld metal with a torch cut plates and 115 MPa in the other profiles soldiers. λ = 083 c r λ2 090 E k c W . when compressed by time bending.modulus of elasticity of the steel G .4.f ) y r E f( f ) k / y r c Where: k = c 4 h t w and 035 ≤ k ≤ 0763 c 8) The limit state FLA applies only to the soul of the U section.cross-sectional area Cb .local buckling of the compressed table FLT .4.Based Text Revision 9) The limit state FLT is only applicable when the bending axis is the highest point in inertia.5 and 5.Modification factor for non-uniform bending moment diagram (see 5.6) C . b = h t.local buckling of the tube wall A . w f f 4) The formulation presented applies only to sections where the ratio h / h 0.2.

taken equal to the distance between the inner faces of the tables in the profiles soldiers and equal to this value minus the two rays of agreement between the table and the soul laminates and equal to the length of the flat part profiles in rectangular tubular sections hc . b / t refers to the compressed table (for sections of tables I and H.ratio of width and thickness applicable to the listing table.Bending moment corresponding to the onset of yield (including residual stresses in some cases) W .height of the soul.external height of the section perpendicular to the axis of bending measure f r .Distance between two sections contained the lateral torsional buckling with (length unlocked) M .width Page 137 NBR 8800 .Moment of inertia of uniform twist I y .Twice the distance of the center of gravity of the cross section to the inner face of compressed table in welded and this value less the fillet radius between table and soul with rolled profiles (doubly symmetric profiles h =)h c hp .Bending moment of elastic buckling cr M p . B is half of the total width U sections tables for the full width for tubular sections rectangular.Yield strength of steel h .Residual compressive stress on the tables f y .Twice the distance from the plastic neutral axis (due to bending moment) of section transverse to the inner face of the welded compressed table and this value less fillet radius between desk and soul with rolled profiles (in doubly profiles .Based Text Revision 137 b / t . in the case of sections I and H with an axis of symmetry. the free distance between souls) bf .Elastic resistance of the module side pulled the section on the axis of flexion t b .Elastic modulus of resistance of the tablet next to the section on the axis of flexion W . the length of the flat part and coffin profiles.Moment of inertia of the compressed table to the axis passing through the plane Average soul (if unlocked in length there positive or negative moments make the table smaller moment of inertia about the axis mentioned) Lb .Moment of inertia of the section about the axis passing through the plane of the soul I yc .I T .Bending moment plasticizing section l M r .Overall width of the table d .elastic modulus of resistance (minimum) of the section on the axis of flexion W c .

3 bars subjected to the normal compressive force to which the component elements cross section have relationships b / t values greater than λ r E.2 Elements tablets AL . The sections cross these bars are classified as compact as 5.1.2 bars subjected to the normal compressive force in which all the elements components of the cross section width and thickness have relationships (relationships b t )/ Not outweigh the values of λ r data in Table E.1. E.parameter slenderness λ .2.1.2.Thickness of table t w. respectively.1. E.4.1.Web thickness λ .1.Radius of gyration of the T-section formed by the compressed table and that part of the soul attached compressed in the elastic range with respect to the axis passing through the plane of the soul (if there are positive and negative moments in the length unlocked. E.2. Lower value may not be taken ah r .1 data in the table have Q coefficient given by: Q=Q Q s the where Qs and the Qare coefficients that take into account local buckling of AL and AA elements.2 and E.thickness t f . whose values are to be determined as shown in E. E. have the Q factor equal to 1. h p = h ). take the section T a smaller radius of gyration with respect to said axis) t .Slenderness parameter corresponding to the onset of yield r / ANNEX E Page 138 138 NBR 8800 .1.1.00.Based Text Revision Annex E (normative) Local buckling in compressed bars E.Radius of gyration of the section relative to the principal axis of inertia perpendicular to the axis y bending r yc .1.1 The elements that are part of the usual cross sections. The sections cross these bars are classified as slender as 5.1.3. are classified as AA (two longitudinal edges linked) and AL (only a linked longitudinal edge) as 5.1.1. except the tubular sections circular for the purpose of local buckling.2.symmetrical.Slenderness parameter corresponding to the lamination p λ .1.4 tubular sections are circular having a Q coefficient determined in accordance with E.1 General E.

Elements of group 5 of table E.Elements of group 4 of Table E.1: b f E b E E f ( k /) y c . for b 2 E b E < ≤ 091 f t f y y 0.1 belonging to laminated profiles: f b Q = 1415 . for k E c 090 E k c . welded belonging to: b Q = 1415 .Element of group 3 of table E.763 .065 s t Q = s f y .076 s t Q = s f y .The value of Q sto be used are as follows: . for .45 b E > 091 t f y y t . for b 2 f y t b > 117 t 0. for E 0.56 E b E < ≤ 103 f t f y y Page 139 NBR 8800 .Based Text Revision Q = s 069 E b 2 f y t 139 b> E 103 t f y .Elements of group 4 of Table E. for E 053 E .1.1: f b Q = 1340 .074 s t y .64 E (F k / ) y c < b ≤ 117 t E f( k /) y c With the coefficient k c given by: • For profiles I: k= c 4 h t Being w 035 ≤ k ≤ 0763 c • For other sections: k c = 0.

f y is the yield strength of steel. t wis the thickness of the soul. h is the height of the soul.Values of λ Values of λ tos en po in l Gru E Description elements r Some examples indicating bet b .Tabs ledge double fitted sheet t b t b b t 045 E f y .1). respectively (see Table E. Page 140 140 NBR 8800 . bet are the width and thickness of the element.1 . H.Coverslips and plates diaphragms between lines screws or welding b 140 E f y 149 E f y t (uniform) b1 AA b2 .122 t Q = s f Ey . for b 2 0.75 f y < t ≤ 103 f y b> E 103 t f y y t Where: E is the modulus of elasticity of steel.Tabs ledge simple .Tables or sections of souls rectangular tubular 1 r t λ r b . coffin t1 t2 t b 2 . for 069 E .Based Text Revision Table E.Plates Continuing reinforcement tables of t b t b tAverage table tAverage table b 3 .Q s = 1908 . I.Souls of sections U.

Tables of sections U.Tabs ledge continuously connected b b b 056 b . one effective width b should be determined f for this element as follows: a) souls at tables or rectangular hollow sections: b f = 191 t E 038 E 1σ b t/ σ ≤b b) in other AA members (excluding succession of plates with openings for access): b f = 191 t E 034 E 1σ b t/ σ ≤b Where: σ is the stress calculation in AA element in megapascals. obtained by approximations successive dividing the normal force calculation of the effective area A f (See E. t is the thickness of AA element.Souls of sections T b t E f y In profiles soldiers 1) E 064 f ( k /) y c b 075 E f y 1) The coefficient kc is given in E.1 When the width / thickness ratio of a compression member AA exceeds the values indicated in Table E.1. Page 141 NBR 8800 .3. I.2 Certain the effective widths of all elements of the AA section.2).3.of travejamento b b .1 table in the same T unit.Stiffeners soul In profiles laminates t t t b t t t b 5 . b is the actual width of a tablet AA element as E. f E.3.2. H and T AL 4 t . b is the effective width in the same unit of t.Based Text Revision 141 E.3 Elements tablets AA E. the Q value defined as the ratio between the effective area Af The gross floor area and entire section of the bar: g the Q the = The f it is the .

1 In the circular tube sections.Σ (b . the local buckling coefficient of the wall is given by: .2 Not circular tubular sections to be used with same as above resistance decreases rapidly. D t / exceeding the limit 045 E f . t is the wall thickness.Based Text Revision Q = 100 . E. E.The g Where: = The .b ) t The f g f with the summation extending to all AA elements.4 Walls of circular tubular sections E.4.Is D ≤ E 011 t f y Page 142 142 NBR 8800 . y / ANNEX F .Is 011 Q= E D E < ≤ 045 f t f y y 0038 E 2 + D t f 3 y Where: D is the external diameter of the tubular circular section.4.

can not exceed 260 or value: λ = Max 048 E f f( + f ) y y r E ( fe in megapascal ) y unless the spacing between transverse stiffeners.1 This Annex applies to the design of slender beams. defined in F. the largest normal stress in the soul. In this equation.1 The sturdy characteristic bending moment. are such that ()theh ≤ 1 5.The slenderness parameter w tables et w is the thickness of the soul. F.2 resistant characteristic bending moment F. a. The smallest value is obtained according to the . traction should be. y F. due to the time bending. M states limits the flow table and pulled buckling: a) for transporting the pulled table: M =W f Rk. f residual stress equal to 70 MPa in welded manufactured by depositing weld metal plates cut with a torch and 115 MPa in other welded. where E is the modulus of elasticity f overcome this limit y y the yield strength of the steel.1.In which case λ 11 7 E f Maxmay be taken equal to before.Based Text Revision 143 Annex F (normative) Moment resistant characteristic bending of slender beams F. λ = h t / Where h is the distance between the inner faces of . 's slender beams are those with height / thickness of the web ( r is h t / ) Greater than w 570 E f .1. loaded in this plan.1 General F. meeting the following requirements: .2.Page 143 NBR 8800 .1.2. with section Welded I or H with two axes of symmetry or an axis of symmetry in the plane of the soul.2.If monossimétricas sections. E is the modulus of elasticity f y the yield strength of the steel.

2.3 Values of λ.Limit state: lateral torsional buckling with (FLT) λ= λ L b r T = 176 E cr) .Rk b) for buckling: M Rk xt y =W k σ xc pg cr Where: W xc is the elastic modulus of resistance in relation to the bending axis of the tablet side the cross section.λ p λ .2. λ.2 The buckling stress σ buckling: λ ≤λ a) for σ cr λ b) for σ cr p =f p y <λ ≤λ =f y λ >λ c) to σ cr = cr is calculated as follows for each limit state r 1 .2.0 5. σ is the tension buckling as F. Page 144 144 NBR 8800 . w f F.570 ≤ 1 0. + σ 1200 300 The The t w f w cr where A area of the soul and theis the area of the compressed table. cr k pg = 1- The The h E w f .λ r p r C pg λ2 F. the tensioned side of the cross section.Based Text Revision W xt is the elastic modulus of resistance in relation to the bending axis. λ p and rλand the coefficient Cpg are determined for each limit state buckling. as follows (in sizing should be used the lower value of σ .2.

2.4.Based Text Revision 145 Lb is the distance between two sections contained laterally. .4. / ANNEX G .2. defined in 5.Limit State: Local buckling of the compressed table (FLM) b f t2 f λ= λ p = 038 E f y E λ = 135 r f y C pg = 088 E k c Where: k = c 4 h t w and 035 ≤ k ≤ 0763 c bf et f are the total width and thickness. r T is the radius of gyration on the minor axis moment of inertia of the section formed by the compressed table plus 1/3 of the compressed soul. as applicable. Cb is the modification factor for non-uniform bending moment diagram.4 The limit state of local buckling of the soul is not applicable.5 and 5. of compressed table F.p fy λ = 444 r C pg C E b f y = π2C E b Where: Page 145 NBR 8800 . respectively.2.6.

1 The shear resistant feature souls of sections I and H.Page 146 146 NBR 8800 .3) λ≤λ a) for V Rkt =V λ>λ b) for V Rkt p lp p = [C + η (1 .2. defined in l 5.1. flexed in relative to the perpendicular to the central axis (s) core (s) inertia.3) .4.1.3. prismatic. given in G.Based Text Revision Annex G (normative) Shear resistant characteristics including the effect of field drift G. VRktis determined as follows (see G.2 The shear coefficient C a) for λ ≤ h t/ ≤λ p w r C= v b) for h t/ >λ w r C= v Where: 110 k E f v y h t w 151 k E v (h t ) 2 f w y v is determined as follows (see G.1.C )] V v v lp Where: Vp is the shear force corresponding to yielding of the soul shear.1 shear force resistant feature G. including the field effect traction.1.1.2. Cv is the coefficient of shear force. 1 η= 115 1 + the 2 h G.2.

2. w G. And aeh dimensions are defined in 5.3 The effect of the drift field does not apply to end panels of the soul.4. 1. given by: The = α st r 015 D s ( ) VSd th 1 . G.1.4. b).3 The parameters λ.2.1.8 for stiffeners consisting of a bracket and to the stiffeners consist of 2. G.4 The effect of the drift field does not apply to different requests of the normal bending simple.2.2. For the meanings of other terms see 5.0 or [ 260 / h ( t / )] 2. for example.3. VRd is resistant to shear force calculation. r Ds is a coefficient equal to 1.3. as 5.2.1.1.4.0 s the h / exceed 3.3.2. Page 147 NBR 8800 . as well as meet the requirements given in 5. and should be verified interaction between the shear force and bending moment.2.Based Text Revision 147 kv is the buckling coefficient of the Soul by shear force. not including the effect of field strength.0 nor the relationship h t/ .3.2. given by: 5 k = 5 + () v theh 2 should be taken equal to 5.E is the modulus of elasticity of steel.4.4.2.C 18 t 2 w v V w Rd Where: VSd is the shear force requester calculating the cross section of the beam is located where the stiffener. must also have a minimum cross-sectional area (in a plane parallel to tables listing). in the case of beams subjected to forces .3. points a). G. α is the relationship between the flow resistances of steels of soul and stiffener.4 one plate. λ pAnd λr.1 The relationshiph the / can not exceed 3. c) and e).0 for stiffeners placed in pairs. f y is the yield strength of steel. the panels openings nor the latter adjacent panels.5 The effect of the drift field also does not apply to beams with souls subject to forces concentrated without stiffeners into sections. according to 5.2 Requirements and limitations for use of the field tensile G.4. G.1 and G. w [ 260 / h ( t / )] 2Regardless of w G.2 The transverse stiffeners.3.

furniture. Table H.2 In Table H. H.1 2. free translation Rotation and translation free . or can be determined from an analysis of elastic buckling of the truss considered.1 buckling bending H. the recommended values should be used submitted.1.1.2 table.3 k values for the bars belonging to the trusses can be obtained H. translation prevented Hindered rotation.0 2.7 1.1.80 1.1. If not we can ensure the completeness of the collet.0 1.1 The slenderness ratio of compressed element is defined as the ratio between buckling length and the radius of gyration as applicable.1 .2 1.0 Recommended Values 0. can vary from 0. / ANNEX H Page 148 148 NBR 8800 .5 0. the cross-section and whose resistance buckling are equal to the actual bar.5 to infinity.Based Text Revision Annex H (normative) Length buckling by bending and twisting of compressed bars H.1 theoretical values of K are given for six ideal cases. The length of buckling KL equal to the actual length L of the bar not braced multiplied by a factor K.0 2.0 Dashed line indicates the line elastic buckling Hindered rotation and translation Code to condition support Free rotation. called buckling coefficient can be interpreted as being equal to the length a compressed bar with labeled edges.0 2. theoretically. H. in which the rotation and translation of the ends are totally free or totally prevented.Buckling Coefficient K for insulated bars (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Theoretical values of K 0.4 values for K pillars of continuous structures are presented in Annex J.65 0. The buckling coefficient K of a bar compressed depends on your boundary conditions and. H.

75 0 + 025 2 F 1 The T lan p ra fo m ge 7 amba lF 8 9 Amount or diagonal 1.0 2 Extreme diagonal 1.2 .0 3 Amount or diagonal 1.0 F ..0 4 Diagonal compressed linked the center to a diagonal pulled the same section 0.Buckling Coefficient K for truss bars Case the iç el r Element considered K 1 Rope 1.5 The T an lp on m ge amba l F 5 the çi el r 6 Rope with all nodes contained outside the plane of truss Continuous strings where A and B are only contained out of plane F1(> F2) 1.Based Text Revision 149 Table H. connected to the center1 0.075 pulled one diagonal same section Continuous amount of lattice K F (> F ) 1 2 F t ≥ 0 5.0 Strut continuous. F c F .Page 149 NBR 8800 .75 0 + 025 2 F 1 .

Based Text Revision H. L. / ANNEX J . b) 0. where both ends of the rotation and warping bar having prevented. K. d) 2.70 where one of the ends of the bar have hindered rotation and warping free and the other rotation and warping prevented. related to the rotation and warping. c) 0.50. whose theoretical values are equal to: a) 1.00.Page 150 150 NBR 8800 . and free warping.2 torsional buckling The torsional buckling length is equal to the actual length of the bar.00 where one end of the bar has free rotation and warping and another rotation and warping prevented. where the two bar ends having hindered rotation. multiplied for buckling coefficient. depending on the boundary conditions.

The equations which are based on an abacus are listed below: . where K is a coefficient and L is the buckling length of the pillar measured wheelbase beams. given by the product KL. can be taken equal to 10 in practical cases.1 The length of flexural buckling of pillars of continuous structures. located in the plan that is being considered buckling the pillar.Not braced structures π 2 π . I and R are calculated in relation to v p v perpendicular to the buckling being considered plane axes. Having determined G and B Gfor a segment of the pillar. braced and is not braced. Values may be used below 1. G can be taken equal to 1. but. G is theoretically equal to ∞. the value of K can be found The drawing a straight line between the appropriate points of the scales L Theand G B.2. where G is defined as: Σ Ip L p G= I Σ v L v where Σ indicates the sum of the relations length and moment of inertia (I / L) of all bar rigidly connected to the node. respectively. J. If the end of the pillar are rigidly connected to a base sized appropriately.Based Text Revision Annex J (normative) Length of bending buckling of pillars of continuous structures J.36 G G The B K = K π (6 G +G ) The B tg K π K +2 π tg K tg π 2K = 1 π K 151 . To end supported in the pillar base.0 if justified by analysis. where L is defined in J.2 K values can be obtained from the figures abacus and J. unless you run a real kneecap. I v is the time of inertia and L the span of a beam rigidly connected to the node.0. The length of flexural buckling is sought KL. I p is the moment of inertia and L p the length of an abutment between A and B.Braced structures G G π 2 G +G TheB + The B 1 4 K 2 . in which the indices A and B refer to the nodes the two ends of the length L of the pillar analyzed.Page 151 NBR 8800 .1 J. for braced and not braced structures. but not rigidly connected to such bases.1.

d) all the links are rigid.Page 152 152 NBR 8800 .Based Text Revision J. b) elastic behavior. c) each bar structure has constant cross section.Braced structures K= 064 + 1 (4G + G ) + 3 G G The B The B 128 + (2G + G ) + 3 G G The B The B . f) does not occur in normal force significant compression in the rafters.3 Alternatively to the use of the abacus and J. Page 153 .Not braced structures K= 7 5.2 figure.+ (4 G + G ) +1 6 G G The B The B 7 5. the K values can be obtained the following approximate expressions: .+ G + G The B J.1 J. e) all pillars flambam simultaneously.4 The procedure described in this annex is based on the following assumptions: a) all the pillars are continuous.

1 .2 .Based Text Revision 153 Figure J.Values of K for braced structures Figure J.NBR 8800 .Based Text Revision Annex K (normative) .Values of K for structures not braced / ANNEX K Page 154 154 NBR 8800 .

G is the modulus of transverse elasticity of steel. 155 . N . KzLz is the length of torsional buckling. Cw is the constant warping of the cross section. E is the modulus of elasticity of steel. relative to the centroid of the section. KyLy is the length of buckling due to bending in relation to the y axis. r is the polar radius of gyration of the gross section relative to the shear center.Normal force of elastic buckling Sections double symmetry with K1 and symmetrical about a point The normal force of elastic buckling. the given by: r = the r 2( + r 2 + x 2 + y 2) x y the the Page 155 NBR 8800 . A double bar with cross section and symmetrical or symmetrical about a point is given by: a) to buckling bending relative to the central axis x of inertia of the cross section: N ex = π 2E I x (K L ) 2 x x b) to buckling bending relative to the central axis of inertia y cross section: N ey = π 2E I y (K L )2 y y c) for torsional buckling in relation to the longitudinal axis z: N ez = 1 π 2EC w + GI T r 2 (K L ) 2 the z z Where: KxLx is the length of buckling by bending with respect to the x axis. I T is the moment of inertia of uniform twist. I y is the moment of inertia of the cross section relative to the y axis.Based Text Revision xtheey the are the coordinates of the center of shear. respectively. I x is the moment of inertia of the cross section with respect to the x axis. in the direction of the principal axes x and y.

N N .N 2 ( N . N . N ezX the Y the er the are defined as K1.Based Text Revision Annex G (normative) Openings souls of beams L. A bar with asymmetric cross section (without and no axis of symmetry) is given by the smaller of the cubic root of the following equation: ( )( ( ) x 2 y 2 )( ) the .N .Sections K.3 asymmetric Sections The normal force of elastic buckling. A bar with monossimétrica cross section.2 monossimétricas The normal force of elastic buckling.N2 N . is given by: a) to elastic buckling by bending relative to the central axis of inertia of the section x Cross: N ex = π 2E I x (K L ) 2 x x b) for elastic buckling for flexion-torsion: N eyz = +N ey ez 12 1 -[ y ( r / ) 2 ] the the N 4N 1- N 1 -[ y ( r / ) 2 ] ey ez the the (N + N ) 2 ey ez where N ey and Nez are the normal forces of elastic buckling as K. just replace x by y in a) and y by x and y by x the b). Ney. the K.N ) the = 0 N .N N .1 This Annex applies to the design of steel beams and composite beams with section . If the x axis is the axis of symmetry. / ANNEX L Page 156 156 NBR 8800 . and whose y-axis is the axis of symmetry.N and ex and ey and ez and and ey r and and ex r the the Where: Nex.1-b) and K1-c) respectively. N .

6. biapoiadas.Based Text Revision b f ≤ 3000 mm Where: b is the total width of the compressed table. the following requirements are met: a) the yield strength of the steel must be less than or equal to 350 MPa. 157 . b) the profile must have total height less than or equal to 1000 mm. L. fc t is the thickness of the compressed table. subject to a maximum load evenly distributed as possible.5 and L. continuous or semicontinuous with one or more openings in the soul.h t > The f2 w thew 1f f) composite beams must satisfy simultaneously the following relations: t + h ≤ 160 mm c F Page 157 NBR 8800 .20. L.cross I or H. including the placement of reinforcements when necessary should be used specialized literature or foreign specification or standard.Cross-loading shall lie exclusively in the median plane of the soul. d) the pair bending moment-shear force corresponding to the center of the opening section should be less than or equal to this couple in the same position.3 openings can be made without reinforcement in beams whose souls have compared h t / of the w maximum 376 E f / and whose relationship has compressed table b (/ t2 ) the maximum y fc fc 038 E f / When the openings are located within the neutral zone. except for the situations provided in L.4 and y Further to the provisions L. whichever is applicable. c) the profile should possess relationship between total height and width of largest table d ( b / ) equal to or f greater than 1. defined in L. .3. not assuming the role of normal force. e) monossimétricos profiles must satisfy simultaneously the following relations: 100 ≤ The The ≤ 1f f 2 200 048 ≤ The The ≤ 131 f2 w 070 ≤ The The ≤ 261 1f w The + The .2 When sizing for verification of ultimate limit states considering the influence openings in the souls of the beams.The cross section must be at least symmetrical relative to the axis passing through the median plane of the soul. In addition: . a beam biapoiada same vain.

2 l.Based Text Revision VRd is resistant to shear force calculation. determined in accordance with 5. M is resistant bending moment calculation.4 and Annex Q.1): . The relationship between the the request calculation (S d) And calculating the resistance (R d) To query the abacus must be greater of the following values in the region of positive or negative moment: M M Sd Rd V V Sd Rd Where: M Sdis the bending moment calculation requestor. VSdis the shear force calculation requestor.1). s. determined in accordance with 5.5 In the case of beams with more than one opening. h is the rib height of the embedded steel formwork. Page 158 158 NBR 8800 . the minimum spacing between edges adjacent openings. in which an opening with certain characteristics does not significantly affect the resistance to shear force and bending moment for certain boundary conditions.4. w is the area of h is the height of the soul.For rectangular openings: . t c is the thickness of the slab (in the case of slabs shaped embedded steel strip is concrete above the ridge of the pan). Abaci of figures L. The neutral zone should be considered always centered compared to half the height of the profile.4 is defined as neutral zone region of the soul that originates in the center of the span and extends toward the support of the beam (Figure L. Rd whichever is applicable. L. must meet the following criteria (Figure L. The the soul. L. f1 The f2 is the smallest area among areas of the upper and lower tables. whichever is applicable. F bf is the effective width of the concrete slab.1). t wis the thickness of the soul.fc The is the largest area among the areas of the upper and lower tables. hthe is the height of the openings.10 to delimit the neutral zone for beams with circular and rectangular openings a = 2 h (Figure L.3 or Annex Q.

2. Whichever is greater.Circular apertures: 1 5.V Sd 1.3. L.6 rectangular openings shall have rounded edges with a minimum radius of 16 mm 2 or t w. the theis the length of the openings.h the s ≥ the the V V Sd pl .V Sd 110 Where: D is the diameter of the openings. Page 159 NBR 8800 .4. D s ≥ D the V the V Sd pl . l determined according to 5. the Vp is the shear force corresponding to the shear yielding of the soul.2.7 To check the serviceability limit states should be taken into account properly The influence of the openings.10 .Based Text Revision 159 hthe x the the the L neutral zone . L.

d d / d 2/3 S kL kL L/2 L/2 Figure L.Based Text Revision 00:50 00:45 00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 10 00:20 12:15 0. 0.Neutral zone Page 160 160 NBR 8800 .1 .90 80 12:10 12:05 12:00 S R d d 0.70 ≤d/3 A circular openingthe ≤d/3 square opening h the ≤d/3 rectangular opening (2:1)the /to2 = h the .

Based Text Revision 00:50 00:45 00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 00:20 12:15 0.90 0.Neutral zone in non-composite beams with openings for Height laminates 00:50 00:45 00:40 S R h / t ≤ 3. k 00:25 90 0.60 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d 00:50 00:45 00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 00:20 12:15 S R d d rectangular opening (2:1) ≤d/3 the /2=h the the 0.76 w Ef y ≤d/3 A circular openingthe ≤d/3 square opening h the d d 12:35 12:30 0.60 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d .70 12:10 0.76 E f w y ≤ d / 3 in profiles Page 161 NBR 8800 .95 0.2 .Neutral zone in composite beams with openings for Height laminates h / t ≤ 3. 12:10 70 S R 161 ≤d/2 A circular openingthe d d 10 0 12:05 0.10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 L20/ d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 ≤ d / 3 in profiles Figure L.60 12:10 0.80 00:20 12:15 0.80 0.70 0.85 0.3 .80 0.50 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d Figure L.

4 .70 0.76 E f w y in profiles Page 162 162 NBR 8800 .80 0. 85 12:35 d 12:30 0.90 d d 12:10 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d Figure L.70 0.90 ≤d/2 square opening h the d d 10 0 12:10 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d 00:50 00:45 00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 00:20 12:15 rectangular opening (2:1) ≤d/2 the /2=h the the S 0.50 0.50 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d 00:50 00:45 S d square opening h ≤d/2 .Based Text Revision 00:50 00:45 00:40 S R ≤d/2 A circular openingthe d 0.00:50 00:45 00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 00:20 12:15 S R 0.70 12:15 12:10 0.60 0.80 R 100 0.60 0.Neutral zone in non-composite beams for openings with height d / 2 ≤ laminates h / t ≤ 3.80 k 00:25 00:20 0.

00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 00:20 12:15 Rd the 0.50 12:10 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d 00:50 00:45 00:40 0.70 12:35 0.7 12:15 0.Neutral zone in non-composite beams for openings with height d / 3 ≤ soldiers with h / t ≤ 3.60 12:30 0.76 E f w y 00:50 in profiles .90 00:20 0.60 0 12:10 0.76 E f w y in profiles Page 163 NBR 8800 .70 0.Based Text Revision 00:50 00:45 00:40 S d 163 ≤d/3 A circular openingthe ≤d/3 square opening h the rectangular opening (2:1)the h≤ d / 3 R 12:35 d 1 12:30 00 k 00:25 0.80 0.75 0.Neutral zone in composite beams for openings with height d / 2 ≤ laminates h / t ≤ 3.50 k 00:25 S 00:20 d R 12:15 d 12:10 rectangular opening (2:1)the h≤ d / 2 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d Figure L.60 0.6 .5 .75 0.50 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d Figure L.

80 0.8 .90 0.80 00:20 0.60 12:10 0.95 0.50 12:10 h≤ d / 2 12:05 rectangular opening (2:1)the 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d Figure L.90 k 00:25 0.50 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d 00:50 00:45 00:40 S R d d 12:35 12:30 0.80 12:10 0.70 0.Based Text Revision 00:50 00:45 00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 00:20 12:15 S R ≤d/3 A circular openingthe ≤d/3 square opening h the d d 0.90 0.A circular openingthe ≤d/2 00:45 ≤d/2 square opening h the 00:40 12:35 12:30 S d k 00:25 R 1 d 00 00:20 0.Neutral zone in non-composite beams for openings with height d / 2 ≤ soldiers with h / t ≤ 3.70 12:05 0.95 0.44 w Ef y ≤d/3 A circular openingthe .60 12:15 0.76 E f w y in profiles Page 164 164 NBR 8800 .70 12:15 0.7 .Neutral zone for openings in composite beams with high d / 3 ≤ in profiles soldiers with 00:50 00:45 S d h / t ≤ 2.65 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d Figure L.

Neutral zone for openings in composite beams with high d / 3 ≤ in profiles soldiers with h / t ≤ 3.70 00:20 12:15 0.00:40 Rd square opening h the ≤d/3 12:35 0.50 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d 00:50 00:45 00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 ≤d/2 square opening h the 0.9 .90 12:30 0.90 12:30 0.85 0.50 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d Figure L.70 0.80 0.76 E f w y Page 165 NBR 8800 .80 0.50 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d 00:50 S 00:45 rectangular opening (2:1) d ≤d/3 R the /2=h 00:40 the the d 12:35 0.70 12:15 0.60 12:10 0.Based Text Revision 00:50 00:45 00:40 12:35 12:30 k 00:25 00:20 12:15 S R 165 ≤d/2 A circular openingthe d d 0.80 k 00:25 0.80 k 00:25 00:20 0.60 12:10 0.60 12:10 0.70 .

G.6 may not apply in part or in whole the Welded connections involving one or more tubular profiles.60 0.2 The requirements given in the M.00:20 12:15 0. JA. Wardenier..2. the use of AWS D1. Weynand.70 12:35 0.50 k 00:25 00:20 S d 12:15 R d 12:10 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d Figure l.1. J. Sedlacek.1. van Wingerde AM & Yeomans.1 M. M.2 M. Where yf is the yield strength of the steel. Design guide for circular and rectangular hollow section welded joints under fatigue loading.75 0. K.-L. Puthli. y .. making the necessary changes to keep the level of acceptability predicted by this standard.50 12:10 12:05 12:00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L/d 00:50 00:45 rectangular opening (2:1)the h≤ d / 2 00:40 0. International Committee pour le Developpement et l'Etude de la Construction tubulaire (CIDECT)..60 12:30 0.2 General M. TÜV Verlay Rheinland. S. Packer. X. ranging from tensions in the elastic regime whose frequency and magnitude are sufficient to initiate cracks and progressive collapse (fatigue). RS. Herion.1 The requirements of this Annex apply to calculated stresses based on charges not weighted whose maximum value is equal to 066 f .Based Text Revision Annex M (normative) Fatigue Applicability M.Neutral zone in composite beams for openings with height d / 2 ≤ in profiles soldiers with h / t ≤ 3. It is recommended to check these leads to fatigue. M. NF (2000).1 This Annex applies to structural steel elements and metallic bonds subject to actions with large numbers of cycles.10 ... Germany.Zhao.1 and the following Publication: .76 E f w y / ANNEX M Page 166 166 NBR 8800 .

C.3 In case of combined axial force with bending moment.5 No checking fatigue resistance is required if the number of cycles application of the load is less than 20.12.M. if any.5 For angles subject to normal force.4 permissible variation range of voltages The range of voltages must not exceed the values given below: a) for categories of detail A. M.2. M. M. If the center of severity of welds lies outside this zone. E and E'. M.1 The calculation of stresses should be based on elastic analysis. the variation range of voltages should be determined by the difference Algebraic the maximum and minimum voltage values considered at this point.2.2 of AWS D1. bolts and welds should be symmetrically about the axis of the bar or strains used in the calculation of range of voltages must include the effects of eccentricity.3 In the case of butt joint welding with full penetration groove. B. M. is determined by: SR 167 . .With adequate corrosion protection or subject only slightly corrosive atmospheres such as normal atmospheric conditions.3.2 and 6. where the center of gravity of the connecting welds lies between the lines passing through the center of gravity of the cross section of the bracket and connected by the center tab. B '.3. the total stresses.1: 2002.2.2. Tensions should not be amplified by stress concentration factors due to geometrical discontinuities.4 For beams with symmetric cross sections.13. M.000.1. the permissible range of variation of stresses.2. the calculated stresses should include the leverage effect.6 The resistance to cyclic loads determined by the requirements of this Annex shall apply only structures: .3. the maximum stresses. M.3 Calculation of maximum voltage and the maximum variation range of voltages M. including those due to eccentricity should be included in the calculation of range of voltages.2 For screws and threaded round bars subjected to tension. of each type. M. should be determined by appropriate combinations of actions applied.2 The range of voltages is defined as the magnitude of the voltage change due the application or removal of variables unweighted actions. σ In megapascals.3. the permissible limit for the range of variation of stresses (σ SR) Applies only to welds with internal quality meeting the requirements of sections 6. D. In the case of the signal inversion voltage at any point.Based Text Revision M. the effects of eccentricity can be ignored. M.4 No check for fatigue resistance is required if the variation range of voltages is less than the threshold σTHgiven in Table M.3.Subject to temperatures below 150 ° C. Page 167 NBR 8800 .

the allowable range for stresses in the cross section of the plate pulled at the transition line between the base metal and the Soldering must be determined as follows: .Based Text Revision Earlier. b) to detail the category of F.1 for the corresponding category.Based on initiation of cracks from the root of the weld in the case of welding slot partial penetration or fillet welds without reinforcing or contouring to detail category C '.059 R PJP = 2 the t + 072 p 0 t 167 p w t p ≤ 1 0. .Based on early cracking from the transition line between the base metal and the weld detail category for C. σ is the permissible limit of range of voltages. disposed transversely to the direction of the stresses.1. Cf is the constant given in Table M. by the following equation: σ SR = 172 R 14 4 × 10 11 PJP N 0333 Where: RPJPis the reduction factor for welds notch partial penetration. given in Table M. for an infinite number of TH cycles request. with or without = 1 0. in megapascals.Use category detail C) given by: fillet reinforcement (if R PJP 065 .σ SR = 327 C f N 0333≥ σ TH Where: FSRis the allowable range of variation of stresses in megapascals. by the following equation: σ SR = 0333 14 4 × 10 11 ≥ 68 9 MPa N . σ given by: σ SR = × 10 4 C 11 f N 0167 ≥σ SR. N is the number of cycles of variation of tension during the useful life of the structure. Must be TH c) for elements of traction plate attached by welds at the end of slot full penetration welds slot partial penetration fillet welds or combinations Page 168 168 NBR 8800 . the allowable variation range of stresses.

should TH . common bolts and threaded round bars with laminated. The effective area shall be determined as 6. . where C given in section 2 of Table M. cut or machined thread.5 screws and threaded round bars The range of voltages must not exceed the permissible range calculated as follows: a) bolted subject to the court on the screws. if any. Cross.3.2. Use category detail is C R FIL Page 169 NBR 8800 .. from normal force and bending moment including leverage.2. toward the tensioned plate thickness. M.9 x10 8 (For category E '). must not exceed the allowable range given by the following equation: σ SR = 327 C N f 0333 ≥σ TH The C factorshould be taken equal to 3. in millimeters.1: σ SR = 327 C N f 0333 ≥σ F are f andTH TH b) for high strength bolts. w is the size of the leg of the fillet or contour enhancement. t p is the thickness of the sheet pulled in millimeter.2a is the length of the face unwelded root in the direction of plate thickness pulled in mm. the range of variation of tensile stresses in the net area the bolt or threaded round bar. the permissible range of variation stress in the material of the element bound is given by the following equation.Based on initiation of cracks from the roots of a pair of solder fillets cross on opposite sides of the plate pulled to category C'' detail by the following equation: σ SR = 172 R 14 4 × 10 11 FIL N 0333 Where: RFILis the reduction factor for joints up only a couple of fillet weld = 1 0.Based Text Revision 006 + 072 R FIL = t 0167 p 169 w t p ≤ 1 0. The limit σ f is taken equal to 48 MPa (as for D).

1.6 For transverse joints soldered slot full penetration in regions of tension high traction extenders should be used to ensure that the end of the weld occurs out of the finished board. Alternatively.4 The surface roughness of the torch cut edges. To this must be done a sub-hole or broqueado subpuncionado with smaller radius.6. wait. pretensioned according to the requirements of the table 16 allows an analysis of the relative rigidity of the parts connected and bolts to determine the range of variation of tensile stresses in pretensionados screws due to the normal force and the bending moment including effect lever. cut-outs and openings for access Welding must not form a radius smaller than 10 mm. . Limiters at the ends of the gasket not should be used.5 reentrant corners in areas of cuts. M. the radius can be obtained by flame cutting.6. in which case. Page 170 170 NBR 8800 . M.6.6 special requirements of fabrication and assembly M. M. such amendments shall be made with solder slot full penetration and excess solder should be abraded prior to positioning along the bar in the joint. must be continuous.7 See section 6.For joints in which the material within the handle is not limited to steel or joints which not are pre-tensioned according to the requirements of Table 16. M.1 is allowed to plates of longitudinal expected to be left in place and. permanent and variable.6. if used. to grind the cut surface to the state of shiny metal. The extenders should be removed and the end of the weld should be facemills polished up with the edge of the connected parts.2.6.3 In T joints or corner. If amendments are required to the plates of waiting in long joints. machined subsequently to the end beam. should be removed and you need root extraction and counter the weld joint. subject to variations of tracks significant stresses shall not exceed 25 microns using as the reference standard ASME B46. For joints in which the material within the handle is limited to steel. the variation range of tension in the bolt can be considered equal to 20% of net area stress due to axial force and bending moment from all actions.2 In transverse joints subject to tensile. M. plates.6.6.6 for requirements on returns on certain fillet welds subject to cyclic loadings. Alternatively. the normal force and the moment including leverage (if any) should be regarded as passed exclusively by threaded screws or round bars.Based Text Revision M.6. if used. made with solder slot full penetration. M.2. a trickle of reinforcement not less than 6 mm should be added in the reentrant corners.

Pieces with holes C 44x108 69 drilled or extended containing screws connecting light bracings. with short application. or not subject to surface cleaning.6.Parameters of fatigue Description Category voltage Constant C f Σ limit Potential point of beginning TH (MPa) cleft Section 1 .6. .14 and M.1 . Parts with reentrant corners clippings or other B 120x108 110 geometrical discontinuities meeting the requirements of M.Based Text Revision 171 Table M.2 Metal sturdy steel base atmospheric corrosion not painted with surfaces laminated. 1. except for openings Access welding. The 250x108 165 Cut edges torched with surface roughness not greater than 25 microns but not reentrant corners. 1.base material away from any welding 1. Edges B 120x108 110 cut with a torch surface roughness does not greater than 25 microns but not reentrant corners. In any outer edge or perimeter of opening.4 Sections transverse laminated with openings for access of welding meeting the requirements of 6.1 Base metal except steel resistant to corrosion Atmospheric not painted with Laminated surfaces subject or not the cleaning surface.Page 171 NBR 8800 . Section 2 .3 Parts with holes drilled or widened. In reentrant corners openings for access welding or any hole small (may contain screws for connections unimportant).1 of the base metal Away from any welding or structural bond. Away from any welding or structural bond. 1.Materials connected bolted Gross Section 2.1.

**joints overlap with
**

high strength bolts

satisfying all requirements

apply friction connections.

2.2 Base metal at net section

together with screws in high

Resistance calculated based

in contact resistance,

however, with manufacturing and

installation serving all

requirements for connections

by friction.

2.3 Base metal at net section

other bolted

except lugs and plates

connected by pin.

**Through the gross section
**

next to the hole.

B

120x108

110

B

120x108

110

**In net section with
**

origin on the edge of the hole.

D

22x108

48

**In net section with
**

origin on the edge of the hole.

Page 172

172

**NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision
**

Table M.1 - Fatigue Parameters (continued)

Description

Category

voltage

Constant C f

Σ limit

TH

(MPa)

**2.4 Base metal at net section
**

eyelets and plates connected by

pin.

E

11x108

31

Starting point

potential crack

In net section with

origin at the edge of

hole.

**Section 3 - Connections welded components of bars composed of sheets or profiles
**

3.1 Base metal and weld metal

bars without fittings,

From the surface

Composite sheets or profiles

or

discontinuities

connected by longitudinal welds

B

120x108

110

internal weld in

continuous slot of

spaced points

full penetration, with extraction

end of the weld.

root and counter-welding or

continuous fillet welds.

3.2 Base metal and weld metal

bars without fittings,

From the surface

Composite sheets or profiles

or discontinuities

connected by longitudinal welds

internal weld,

B'

61x108

83

continuous slot of

including solder

full penetration, with plates

the connection plate

expected not removed, or

hold.

continuous fillet welds.

3.3 Base metal and weld metal

welding the ends

Longitudinal openings

access for welding rods

composed.

3.4

Metal

base

at the

ends of segments

longitudinal

of

welds

Intermittent fillet.

3.5

Metal

base

at the

ends

of

lamellae

welded

of length

partial, narrower than the

table

having ends

esquadrejadas or reduction

gradually in width, with or without

welds

transverse

at the

D

22x108

48

**From the end
**

Weld, penetrating the

soul or desk.

E

11x108

31

**In the bound material in
**

local start and end

deposition welding.

**On the table at the foot of
**

transverse weld

end, the table

by the end of

wider or

ends,

than

more

the lamellae

table with welds

the transverse ends.

also

longitudinal

the edgeweld,

of theortable

with wider lamella.

Table 20 ≤ Thickness mm

E

11x108

31

Table thickness> 20 mm

3.6

Metal

base

at the

ends

of

lamellae

welded

of length

partial wider than the table

without transverse welds in

ends.

E'

8

3.9 x10

18

E'

8

3.9 x10

18

**At the edge of the table by
**

the end of the weld

the lamella.

Page 173

NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision

173

**Table M.1 - Fatigue Parameters (continued)
**

Description

Category

voltage

Constant C f

Σ limit TH

(MPa)

**Section 4 - Connects end with longitudinal fillet welds
**

4.1 Base metal at junction of

bars requested axially

with end connections

welded longitudinally. The

welds should be on each side

the bar axis, so that

balance the stresses in the weld.

t ≤ 13 mm

E

11x108

Starting point

potential crack

Starting from

any end

welding, extending the

base metal.

31

8

E'

3.9 x10

18

Section 5 - Connects welded transverse to the direction of stress

5.1 Base metal and weld metal

in

amendmentsof profiles

rolled or welded section

From

similar cross-sectional made

discontinuities

penetration groove welds

B

120x108

110

the internal metal

Overall, these welds must

welding

or along the

be flush with the metal

face melting.

base

by

middle of

grinding toward the

applied voltages.

5.2 Base metal and weld metal

in seams with solder

cutout full penetration,

Transitions having a width

From

or thick with slope

discontinuities

between 8 and 20%; welds must

the internal metal

be flush with the base metal

welding or along the

by grinding in

face melting or

direction of the applied voltages.

beginning of the transition

when f ≥ 620MPa.

y

f < 620MPa

B

120x108

110

y

t> 13 mm

B'

f ≥ 620MPa

y

5.3

Metal base

with

f ≥ 620MPa and weld metal

y

in seams with solder

cutout full penetration,

going transition width

taken with radius equal to or greater

61x108

83

From

discontinuities

600

mm,towith

the point

tangent

the edge

of the

weld penetration; welds

should be flush with the

metal base by

grinding toward the

applied voltages.

B

120x108

110

the internal

metalthe

welding

or along

face melting.

Page 174

174

**NBR 8800 - Based Text Revision
**

Table M.1 - Fatigue Parameters (continued)

Description

Category

voltage

**5.4 Base metal and weld metal
**

in seams, joints or T

corner joints with welds

cutout full penetration,

transition thickness having

C

with inclination between 8 and 20%

without transition or thickness,

when the excess solder does not

is removed.

5.5 Base metal and weld metal

in crosslinked

top or T or corner, in

ends of element

traction plate made with

penetration groove welds

partial, supplemented with

fillet weld reinforcement or

contour; F SRshould be as small

of the following two values:

Home cleft from the

C

transition between the weld metal and

basis.

Early crack at the root of

solder.

5.6 Base metal and weld metal

crosslinks in the

ends of element

traction plate made with

two solder fillets on sides

opposite the plate; FSRmust be

the smaller of two values

following:

C'

**Home cleft from the
**

transition between the weld metal andC

basis.

Early crack at the root of

solder.

5.7 Metal Based on elements

traction plate and base metal

souls in beams or tables in

C''

C

Constant C f

44x108

44x108

Σ limit

TH

(MPa)

69

69

Starting point

potential crack

From

discontinuities

the superficial

transition between the weld and

the base metal

extending the metal

base, or along the

face melting.

From

discontinuities

the geometric

transition between the weld and

the base metal

extending the metal

base, or from the root

weld subjected to tensile

extending through

the weld.

0333

σSR= 172RPJP144×1011

Not anticipated.

N

44x108

69

From

discontinuities

the geometric

transition between the weld and

the base metal

extending the metal

base, or from the root

weld subjected to tensile

extending through

the weld.

0333

σSR= 172RFIL144×1011

N

Not anticipated.

44x108

69

From

discontinuities

geometries in the foot

1 . . face melting.Metal based on crosslinked welded bars 6. extending fillet weld the metal basis.Fatigue Parameters (continued) Description Category voltage Constant C f Σ limit TH (MPa) Section 6 . or without longitudinal request detail when the transition the fitting is done with a radius R and polished weld the terminal points for agreement: E 11x108 31 B 120x108 110 C 44x108 69 D 22x108 48 E 11x108 31 C 120x108 110 Starting point potential crack Near the point of tangency on end of accessory. When excess solder is removed: R ≥ 600mm 600 mm > R ≥ 150mm 150 mm > R ≥ 50mm 50 mm > R When excess solder not is removed: R ≥ 600mm Near the point of tangency on end of accessory. Page 175 NBR 8800 . the main element or accessory.Based Text Revision 175 Table M. or the welding. subject to longitudinal request when detail of the transition accessory is made with a radius R and polished weld in Terminations for agreement: R ≥ 600mm B 120x108 110 600 mm > R ≥ 150mm C 44x108 69 150 mm > R ≥ 50mm D 22x108 48 50 mm > R 6.1 Base metal in connection an accessory made with solder longitudinal slot full penetration.2 Base metal in connection an enhancement of coplanar same thickness made from longitudinal weld groove subject to full penetration cross-demand.transverse foot fillet weld stiffeners adjacent soldiers.

600 mm > R ≥ 150mm C 44x108 69 150 mm > R ≥ 50mm D 22x108 48 50 mm > R E 11x108 31 In the transition the and welding the between base metal can be at the edge the main part or in accessory. connected by longitudinal welds fillet or groove partial penetration when detail of transition accessory is made with a radius R and polished weld in Terminations for agreement: E R> 50 mm D 22x108 48 R ≤ 50 mm E 11x108 31 11x108 31 In the transition between the and welding the base metal in edge of the material thinner.4 Base metal subject to tensions along the longitudinal links transverse bars. In the transition between the and welding the base metal in edge of the material thinner.Based Text Revision Table M. or withouttensions transverse.Fatigue Parameters (continued) Description Category voltage Constant C f Σ limit TH (MPa) Starting point potential crack 6.3 Base metal in connection an enhancement of coplanar made with different thickness longitudinal weld groove subject to full penetration cross-demand.1 . . or without longitudinal request detail when the transition the fitting is done with a radius R and polished weld the terminal points for agreement: When excess solder is removed: R> 50 mm R ≤ 50 mm D 22x108 48 E 11x108 31 When excess solder not is removed: Any ray 6. At the end of welding or from transition between the weld and the base metal extending the metal base or accessory. From the end the weld. Page 176 176 NBR 8800 .

Page 177 NBR 8800 .Fatigue Parameters (continued) Description Category voltage Constant C f Σ limit TH (MPa) Section 7 .2 Base metal subject to tensions along the longitudinal accessories with or without tensions cross-linked by welds longitudinal fillet or Slot partial penetration.2 Shear on throat fillets transverse welds or longitudinal continuous or intermittent.1 Base metal subject to longitudinal request.1 .3 Base metal at the welds At the end of extending the welding base metal. C 44x108 69 50 mm ≤ 12b or 100mm D 22x108 48 a> 12 b or 100mm when b ≤ 25 mm E 11x108 31 a> 12 b or 100mm when b> 25mm 7. 8.1 Base metal at the type shear connectors connected by pin with head fillet weld or electro-fusion.Based Text Revision 177 Table M. detail when the transition the fitting is done with a radius R and polished weld the terminal points for agreement: E' 8 3. 150x1010 F 0167 × 4 σ = 11 10 Cf ≥σ SR TH N 55 E 11x108 31 At the end of . along with accessories connected by welds longitudinal slot of full penetration when detail of transition accessory is made with a radius R less than 50 mm. Throat of the weld. C 44x108 69 In the transition between the and welding the base metal. 8.Base metal fittings along the short 7. length of the accessory longitudinal direction equal aae normal to the surface height same bar ab: the < 50 mm Starting point potential crack In the base metal near the end of the weld.9 x10 18 R> 50 mm D 22x108 48 R ≤ 50 mm E 11x108 Section 8 .Miscellaneous 31 8.

weld in the base metal. . E' Range of variation of stress Traction calculated based in net area.Fatigue Parameters (continued) Description Category voltage Constant C f Σ limit TH (MPa) 150x1010 8. Common bolts and bars round threaded with thread laminated.4 Shear in welds buffer holes or tears. cut or machined.buffer holes or tears.5 High-strength bolts Total installed without prestressing.1 . including effect lever when applicable.Based Text Revision Table M. F 8. 0167 × 4 σ = 11 10 Cf ≥σ SR TH N 55 8 3. Page 178 178 NBR 8800 . At the root of the thread extending the net section.9 x10 48 Starting point potential crack In the flat transition between the solder and the metal basis.

1 Vista sheet removed overlapping 2.Parameters of fatigue .4 Section 3 .Details (continued) Section 1 .Page 179 NBR 8800 .Connections welded components of bars composed of sheets or profiles 3.Materials connected bolted 2.1 or * * Weld penetration groove or 179 .3 2.3 1.1 .4 Section 2 .base material away from any welding 1.2 Vista sheet removed overlapping 2.2 1.1 and 1.Based Text Revision Table M.

2 * * Weld slot full penetration 3.Parameters of fatigue .Connects end with longitudinal fillet welds 4.2 Weld full penetration groove .soldered connections of the components of bars composed of sheets or profiles (continued) 3.1 t = thickness t = thickness Section 5 .Details (continued) Section 3 .3 3.5 3.6 No soldering Typical Section 4 .Page 180 180 NBR 8800 .Based Text Revision Table M.grinding fy≥ 620 MPa Cat B Weld full penetration groove .1 .grinding Weld full penetration groove .Connects welded transverse to the direction of stress 5.grinding .4 50-150 3.1 5.

Connects welded transverse to the direction of tension (continued) 5.Based Text Revision 181 Table M.1 .3 R ≥ 600 mm Weld Notch full penetration .Metal based on crosslinked welded bars 6.4 fy≥ 620 MPa Cat B Potential start site cracking due to stresses traction in flexion Weld Notch full penetration 5.5 Start Location potential cracking due Weld Notch Weld Notch the voltage partial penetration partial penetration traction in flexion 5.7 Section 6 .Grinding 5.6 Fissure potential due to traction deriving bending 5.Page 181 NBR 8800 .Parameters of fatigue .Details (continued) Section 5 .1 Page 182 Weld Notch penetration total Weld Notch penetration total .

2 G = grinding up facemills * * * Weld slot full penetration 6.Based Text Revision Table M.Base metal fittings along the short 7.Parameters of fatigue .3 * G = grinding up facemills * * Weld slot full penetration 6.4 or * * * Weld Notch partial penetration Section 7 .Details (continued) Section 6 .Based Text Revision 183 .Metal based on crosslinked welded bars (continued) 6.182 NBR 8800 .1 (Average) Page 183 NBR 8800 .1 .

Details (conclusion) Section 7 .1 .Based Text Revision Annex C (normative) Specific requirements for bars of varying section .Miscellaneous 8.Table M.1 8.3 8.4 8.Metal base with a short accessories (continued) 7.Parameters of fatigue .5 Locations fissure Locations fissure Locations fissure / ANNEX N Page 184 184 NBR 8800 .2 8.2 or * * Weld Notch partial penetration Section 8 .

can not be less than the bending moment requestor calculation of the section where most compressive stress occurs at the tables. Or rationale for using bibliography specialized or.The cross sections should be I.2 In determining the parameters of slenderness λ. H or coffin.1 The resistant bending moment calculation for the limit state of lateral buckling with twist between sections contained laterally. For this limit state apply the requirements of subsection 5.3 Normal force resistant compression calculation The normal force resistant compression calculation shall be determined in accordance with the requirements of subsection 5. except in The following cases. λ any limit state are p andrFor / ANNEX P Page 185 NBR 8800 .2 The calculation and design of bars of variable section that meets the requirements listed in N.1. the coefficients of buckling by bending around the axis perpendicular to the spirit and torque must be determined by rational analysis or using specialized bibliography (the coefficient of buckling by bending around the axis perpendicular to the tables can be determined as for prismatic bars).4.1. N. by taking this coefficient equal to 1.2. taking the gross cross-sectional area of lower height and net area of the section subject to breakage.Tables must have constant section between sections contained against instability.1.4.4 resistant bending moment calculation for non-slender beams and slender N. N. taking the dimensions and geometric properties of the section lower height.0. in which some adaptations are required.The height (s) soul (s) should vary linearly between sections contained against instability.1 General Provisions 185 .Based Text Revision Annex P (normative) Best practices for implementing structures P. λ be adopted geometric properties of greater height section. the determination of elastic buckling stresses.1 must be made in accordance with the requirements contained in section 5 of this document.2 Normal Force sturdy traction calculation The normal force resistant traction calculation shall be determined in accordance with the requirements of subsection 5. Furthermore. N. optionally. but determining the modification factor for bending moment diagram is not uniform C b.4. . . N.N. N.1 This Annex applies to the bars of variable section that meet the following requirements: . with two axes of symmetry.1 Applicability N.3.

3.7 Laminated Materials Rolled Steel acquired specifically to meet the requirements of a particular project. drawings and specifications.1.1.1 Engineer / Architect Designated by the owner as his representative authority with overall responsibility for project and the integrity of the structure.2.1. These practices should be extended to joint structures whenever possible.2 contract document Documents that define the responsibilities of the parties involved in the bidding. Page 186 186 NBR 8800 .1.1.2. P.2. P.2.1 Scope In this Annex best practices for running steel structures are established buildings. P.2.2 Settings P. . business practices here contained will serve as a rule for the manufacture and assembly of the structure.1 Design drawings Design drawings executed by the party responsible for structure design P.3 Detalhador Entity that produces manufacturing drawings and assembly.3 Drawings P. and the responsibility of the manufacturer or fitter for execution of work.2.P.2.3. in the absence of other instructions in the contract documents.Based Text Revision P.1.5 Manufacturer The responsible for the manufacture of steel structure part. P.2.1.1.2. P. P.1.1. In addition that.2.2 Drawings manufacturing and assembly Manufacturing drawings and assembly field. fabrication and erection of the structure.4 Assembler The structure responsible for assembling the part. Such documents usually consist of a contract.1.3. P. purchasing.1.6 General Contractor A contractor hired by the owner with full responsibility for building structure.

6 Security Mount P. drawings and specifications or assume any responsibility for the correctness." responsible for the publication of "Steel Structures Painting Manual ".9 SSPC "Steel Structures Painting Council. Page 187 NBR 8800 .6.1 When the owner to provide design. the manufacturer and the assembler are not responsible for the correctness.1. manufacturer and assembler assume that all patent rights necessary have been acquired by the owner.3 Design criteria for buildings and similar structures The clauses of this standard governing the design of steel and composite structures for buildings. should clearly state your requirements in the contractual documents. for the functions described in P. P.1.1.1.6. when used in defining the scope of work in the documents contract only consists of the following items: . unless there are other requirements in the contract documents. however.5 patented devices Except where the contractual documents require the project to be provided by the manufacturer or assembler.1.2.2 The manufacturer is not responsible for practicality or safety of assembly If this structure is performed by a third party.Anchor bolts for steel structure.2 The engineer shall be responsible for the adequacy of the structure in the project.1.1.8 release for construction Release owner.1. P.1 The assembler must be responsible for the security and methods of assembly structure. P. allowing manufacturing to be initiated under the conditions contract.4.1. suitability or legality of the project.1. not responsible. and that the manufacturer or assembler will fully protected and free to use designs. volume 2 (" Systems and Specifications ").2.Based Text Revision P.6.3 If the owner wishes that the manufacturer or assembler run the project.2. 187 . P.1. P. patented devices or parts required by contractual documents.4 Responsibility Project P.1.2 Classification of materials P.1 Structural Steel The term "Structural Steel".P. P.4. P. including the ordering of raw materials and the preparation of fabrication drawings.1. P. drawings and specifications. suitability.4. or legality of the project.

Laminated beams.Shear connectors. cleats and other fasteners essential to steel structure.Crane rails.Basis of structural steel.Monorail beams.Expansion joints connected to the steel.Pillars.Based Text Revision .Frames of doors or gates that are part of the steel structure. . related to the structure and indicated the drawings of the structure. . angles..Structural steel canopies. . . when attached to the structure. when connected to the steel.Structural steel hangers. . .Base plates for steel structure. . Page 188 188 NBR 8800 .Spacers. . . .Connections. structural profiles. . bumpers.Welded structural steel beams . . tees. .Tapamentos sleepers. . .Foundations for machines made of laminated and / or plates profiles.Floor plates (chess or smooth) connected to the steel.Means of connection of the steel structure: screws of factory for links screws Used screws of field for fix permanent s parts for thetransport and of structure for links permanent s . batten seams.Tuesdays.Stated or listed spars in the project. .Bracings. . .Leveling plates.Permanent pins. . . .Grids of structural steel beams. bolts and nuts.

Handrails.Bars and wire forms. iron or other metal not specifically listed under P. . steel types and positions of all parts.Supports made of steel profiles. contraflechas and them consisting sufficient size to accurately report the amount and type of steel parts 189 .Supports false ceilings made of steel profiles with a height equal to or greater section of the 75 mm.2. . .Steel cables that are a permanent part of the steel structure.1 Steel structures P. Other items p.1.. but are not limited to: .3.Struts. even if such items have been indicated on the drawings as part of the structure or connected to it.Rods and hangers. storage tanks and pressure vessels.3. indicating dimensions.Various metals. levels of floors.1.Required for the assembly of materials provided by third parties other than items manufacturers or assemblers of steel structure. forming part of the steel structure.Based Text Revision work to be performed. center lines and removal of pillars. main or auxiliary. . sections. conveyors and similar structures. .1 To ensure that proposals are appropriate and complete documents contract should include drawings of the steel structure project clearly showing Page 189 NBR 8800 .3 Drawings and Specifications P.2 steel or metal The classification "structural steel" does not include items of steel. .Trusses.2. . These items include. pipes. .Hoods.Metal ornaments. P. . . .Chimneys.

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