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Journal of Agricultural Technology

Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against important
seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus sp.

S. Satish, D.C. Mohana, M. P. Raghavendra and K.A. Raveesha*
Agricultural Microbiology Laboratory, Microbiology Section, Department of Studies in
Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, 570 006, Karnataka, India.
Satish, S., Mohana, D.C., Ranhavendra, M.P. and Raveesha, K.A. (2007). Antifungal activity
of some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus sp. Journal of
Agricultural Technology 3(1): 109-119.
Aqueous extract of fifty-two plants from different families were tested for their antifungal
potential against eight important species of Aspergillus such as A. candidus, A. columnaris, A.
flavipes, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, and A. tamarii which isolated from
sorghum, maize and paddy seed samples. The test fungi were mainly associated with seed
biodeterioration during storage. Among fifty-two plants tested, aqueous extract of Acacia
nilotica, Achras zapota, Datura stramonium, Emblica officinalis, Eucalyptus globules,
Lawsonia inermis, Mimusops elengi, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Polyalthia longifolia,
Prosopis juliflora, Punica granatum and Sygigium cumini have recorded significant antifungal
activity against one or the other Aspergillus species tested. A. flavus recorded high
susceptibility and hence solvent extracts viz., petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol
and ethanol extracts of all the twelve plants were tested for their antifungal activity against it.
Among the solvent extracts tested, methanol gave more effective than ethanol, chloroform,
benzene and petroleum ether, except for Polyalthia longifolia, where petroleum ether extract
recorded highly significant antifungal activity than other solvent extracts.
Key words: Antifungal activity, Aspergillus, Prosopis juliflora, Mimusops elengi

Introduction
Fungi are significant destroyers of foodstuffs and grains during storage,
rendering them unfit for human consumption by retarding their nutritive value
and often by producing mycotoxins (Marin et al., 1999; Janardhana et al.,
1998). A significant portion of the agricultural produce in the country and the
world over become unfit for human consumption due to mycotoxins
contamination of grains, especially those produced by species of Aspergillus
(Janardhana et al., 1999; Chandra and Sarbhoy, 1997; Devi et al., 2001). More
than 25% of the world cereals are contaminated with known mycotoxins and
more than 300 fungal metabolites are reported to be toxic to man and animals
*

Corresponding author: K.A. Raveesha; e-mail: karaveesha@gmail.com
109

Karnataka. nephrotoxicity. Plant metabolites and plantbased pesticides appear to be one of the better alternatives as they are known to have minimal environmental impact and danger to consumers in contrast to the synthetic pesticides (Varma and Dubey.. Mysore. This led the authors to screen in vitro a large number of plants for antifungal activity against important seed borne Aspergillus species with the ultimate aim of developing plant based formulations for plant disease management and safe storage of grains. India (Table 1). A sizeable portion of the world population living below poverty line in the developing and underdeveloped countries of Asia and Africa are suffering from health problems associated with consuming mycotoxin contaminated grains and cereals (Majumder et al. Mohana and Raveesha. reproductive disorders and immunosuppression (Lacey. Okigbo and Ogbonnaya. 110 . there is a need to search for alternative approaches to store grains/cereals for human consumption without toxicity problems that are ecofriendly and not capital intensive.. 2000).. 2001).. Materials and methods Plant material Fresh disease free leaves of Fifty-two plant species were collected from Mysore. 2006. Plant extracts of many higher plants have been reported to exhibit antibacterial. Kiran and Raveesha. Eventhough effective and efficient control of seed borne fungi of seeds can be achieved by the use of synthetic chemical fungicides. 2006. 1999. antifungal and insecticidal properties under laboratory trails (Satish et al.. 2006. 2006. Ergene et al.. genotoxicity. 1991. 1997). Harris et al. 2006). Thus. 2006... 2004). terratogenicity. 2001. the same cannot be applied to grains for reasons of pesticide toxicity (Ferrer and Cabral. Dukic et al.. 1988. 1999). Bouamama et al. University of Mysore.(Galvano et al. hepatotoxicity. A voucher specimen of all plants has been deposited in the herbarium of Department of Studies in Botany. The main toxic effects are carcinogenicity. Desjardins et al. Shariff et al.

Coleus aromaticus Benth. List of plant species tested for antifungal activity. Don. Juss. Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq. Oxalis corniculata L. Macroslen parasiticus (L. Manilkara zapota L. Lantana camara L. Salvia offinalis L. Jacaranda acutifolia Humb and Bonpl. Samanea saman Prain.) G. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Polyanthia longifolia HK. Cuscuta chinensis Lam. Lawsonia inermis L. Plumbago zeylanica L. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Name of the Plant Acacia nilotica (L. Aegle marmelos Corr. Mimosa pudica L.Journal of Agricultural Technology Table 1. Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC. Eucalyptus globulis Labill. Clerodendron inerme Gaertn. Phyllanthus acidus Linn. Boerhaavia rependa Willd. Sapindus laurifolius Vahl. Mimusops elengi L. Catharanthus roseus (L.) Danser. Calotropis gigantea R. Delonix regia Raf. Morinda tinctoria Roxb. Euphorbia tirucalli L. Phyllanthus amarus L. Datura stramonium L. Hibiscus vitifolius L. Moringa oleifera Lam. Psidium guajuva L. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Argemone mexicana L Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamb. F & T. Leucas aspera L. Punica granatum L. Br. Anacardium occidentale L. Derris indica (Lawk. Family Mimosaceae Rutaceae Liliaceae Anacardiaceae Papaveraceae Moraceae Meliaceae Nyctanginaceae Caesalpinaceae Asclepidaceae Apocyanaceae Verbenaceae Lamiaceae Cuscutaceae Solanaceae Caesalpinaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Euphorbiaceae Myrtaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Malvaceae Bignoniaceae Verbenaceae Lythraceae Lamiaceae Loranthaceae Sapotaceae Mimosaceae Sapotaceae Rubiaceae Moringaceae Rutaceae Oxalidaceae Caesalpinaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Plumbaginaceae Annonaceae Myrtaceae Punicaceae Lamiaceae Mimosaceae Sapindaceae 111 .) Del. Sl. Murraya koenigii (L.) Bennet Dolichos lablab L. Azadirachta indica A.) Willd. Aloe vera Linn. No.) Baker ex Heyne.) Spreng.

Eight species of Aspergillus viz. tamari were isolated.. flavipes. 112 . Solvent extract Thoroughly washed mature leaves of all the test plants were shade dried and then powdered with the help of a blender.Table 1. Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Test fungi Seed samples (sorghum. New Hartford. A. A. All the extracts were subjected to antifungal activity against the test fungi. Continued. A. Tamarindus indica L. The cultures of Aspergillus were maintained on CDA medium. columnaris. ochraceus and A. The macerate was first filtered through double layered muslin cloth and then centrifuged at 4000 g for 30 min. The supernatant was filtered through Whatmann No. Malt extract-Salt-Agar (MESA) and subjected to Standard Blotter Method (SBM) to isolate the frequently occurring important seed-borne phytopathogenic fungi and storage fungi associated with these seeds. blot dried and macerated with 100 ml sterile distilled water in a blender (Waring international. niger. maize and paddy) were plated on Czapeck-DoxAgar (CDA). which served as the test fungi for antifungal activity assay. A. Viscum orientale Willd. Syzygium cumini (L. A. Sl. Family Bignoniaceae Myrtaceae Bignoniaceae Caesalpinaceae Menispermaceae Zygophyllaceae Viscaceae Preparation of extracts Aqueous extract Leaf samples (100 gm) of all plants were thoroughly washed. CT. candidus.. A. 1 filter paper and sterilized at 120 0C for 30 min. flavus. Twenty-five grams of the powder was filled in the thimble and extracted successively with petroleum ether. A. Tribulus terrestris L. methanol and ethanol using a Soxhlet extractor for 48 h.. benzene. which served as the mother extract.. fumigatus. No. All extracts were concentrated using rotary flash evaporator and preserved at 5 0C in airtight brown bottle until further use. chloroform. USA) for 10 min. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Name of the Plant Spathodea campanulata Beaur.) Skeels Tabebuia argentia Britt.

Dithane M-45 (Mancozeb) and Thiram (Tetramethyl thiuramidisulphide) were also tested at their recommended dosage (2gm l-1) for antifungal activity by poisoned food technique. Synthetic fungicides. Mimusops elengi. ochraceus and A. dt = Average increase in mycelial growth in treatment (Singh and Tripathi. 500 µl of each of the solvent extract was amended with 15 ml of CDA medium before solidification of the medium. Emblica officinalis. Five mm disc of 7-day-old culture of the test fungi were placed at the center of the petriplates and incubated at 25±2 ºC for seven days. Polyanthia longifolia and Eucalyptus globules against A. 1999).. A clear 113 . flavus was inoculated and percent inhibition of the mycelial growth was determined as described earlier. Blitox (copper oxychloride). viz. The fungitoxicity of the extracts in terms of percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was calculated by using the formula % inhibition = dc – dt/dc x 100 Where dc = Average increase in mycelial growth in control. Peltophorum pterocarpum. Eucalyptus globules. About 15 ml of the medium was poured into each petriplate and allowed to solidify. Prosopis juliflora. After incubation the colony diameter was measured in millimeter.Journal of Agricultural Technology Antifungal activity assay Aqueous extract CDA medium with 25% concentration of the aqueous extracts of the test plants were prepared. A. Punica granatum and Sygigium cumini (Table 2) have recorded significant antifungal activity against one or the other Aspergillus species tested. For each treatment four replicates were maintained. Achras zapota. CDA medium without the aqueous extract served as control. Lawsonia inermis. Results Aqueous extract Among the fifty two plants screened. The percent of inhibition of aqueous extract of the twelve plants were more than 50% against all the test fungi except Manilkara zapota. Solvent extracts One gram of each of the dried evaporated solvent extract of all the test plants was dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. Polyalthia longifolia. aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica. Captan (Phthalimide). tamarii. The medium amended only with 500 µl of methanol served as a control. Datura stramonium.

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Journal of Agricultural Technology 115 .

elengi. officinalis. M. M. L.difference in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of other plants against all the eight test fungi was observed. nilotica. Discussion Pre and post harvest bio-deterioration and spoilage of grains. elengi and P. Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini and A. flavipes for aqueous extracts of Acacia nilotica. Emblica officinalis. E. pterocarpum. Among eight species of Aspergillus tested A. Comparative efficacy of the aqueous extracts of yhe twelve plants with four synthetic fungicides such as Blitox. niger for aqueous extract of D. fumigatus was found resistant to A. A. It is observed in case of Polyalthia logifolia that petroleum ether extracts is highly effective than other solvent extract and the activity is highly pronounced compared to aqueous extract. granatum. The percentage of inhibition was more than 90% in methanol extract of A. M. niger had recorded high susceptibility to aqueous extract of A. The resistance is also observed in all the test fungi against aqueous extracts of M. juliflora and P. niger was observed in aqueous extracts of A. nilotica. juliflora compared to Blitox and Dithane M-45. M. nilotica. Lawsonia inermis. completer inhibition of mycelial growth of all the test fungi were observed only in Thiram. Aspergillus flavus. candidus being more susceptible next to A. inermis. globulis. Capton. excepted for Polyalthia longifolia extracts. vegetables. The susceptibility of it was the highest compared to other species of Aspergillus. fruits and agricultural produce due to infestation by insects and microorganisms may cause losses of up to 100%. flavipes. zapota and Polyalthia longifolia and in A. Association of variety of 116 . Highly significant inhibition of mycelial growth of A. Dithane M-45 and Thiram revealed that. tamarii against Eucalyptus globulus. The most resistant was being found in A. stramonium and Pelto. Solvent extracts. elengi and P. Dithane M-45 recorded least activity compared to test plants extracts and other chemical fungicides. methanol was being more effective followed by ethanol. Prosopis juliflora. P. zapota. ochraceus and A. chloroform benzene and petroleum ether (Table 3). juliflora. Eu. which recorded more susceptibility to aqueous extracts of test plants also recorded high susceptibility to methanol and ethanol extracts of all tested plants.

with special reference to the management of plant diseases (Varma and Dubey.. Their chemical or biologically active constituent which is potential to be used as new sources of commercially valuable pesticides remain to be discovered (Balandrin et al.000 are secondary metabolites whose major role in plant is defensive in nature. plant based secondary metabolites. Punica 117 . there is an urgent need to search for alternative method for prevention of biodeterioration of grains during storage without any toxicity to the consumer. would be a more realistic and ecologically sound method for plant protection and will have a prominent role in the development of future commercial pesticides for crop protection strategies. Thus. 2002). in the present investigation fifty-two plants were screened in vitro for antifungal activity against important seed borne phytopathogenic Aspergillus species. Among the plants Mimuspos elengi. pharmaceuticals and pesticides. which have defensive role may be exploited for the management of storage pest. 2001) even though they are exploited for improving seed quality. Biologically active plant derived pesticides are expected to play an increasingly significant role in crop protection strategies. This is mainly due to the lack of information on the screening/evaluation of diverse plants for their antifungal potential. Exploitation of naturally available chemicals from plants. Hamburger and Hostettmann (1991) reported that the total number of plant chemicals may exceed 400. Generally. 1997).. the most species of higher plants have never been described surveyed. However. which retards the reproduction of undesirable microorganisms. which are known to cause pollution problem (Barnard et al. Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds. Excessive usage of pesticides in agriculture to over come the pre-harvest and post-harvest problem was resulted in many toxic epidemics. Gottlieb et al. Considering these as a first step. These plants were selected based on traditional medicine knowledge and random choosing from the local flora. 1985).Journal of Agricultural Technology fungi including species of Aspergillus causing significant loss in seed quality and nutritional quality of grains have been reported (Koirala et al. 2005).000 and out of it more than 10. The screening revealed that only eight plants were effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of test fungi by poisoned food technique at 25% concentration. Some of the developing countries are still using these pesticides despite their harmful effects. toxic synthetic fungicides are not exploited to prevent biodeterioration of grains during storage (Harris et al. 1999.. Thus.. The finding of the present investigation is an important step towards crop protection strategies for antifungal activity against important seed borne species of Aspergillus. World Health Organization (WHO) banned many agriculturally important pesticides due to wide range of toxicity against non-target organisms including humans..

S. International Pest Control 39:161-164. N. K. D. Natural plant chemicals: Sources of Industrial and Medicinal materials. (1997). G.K. Noel. A.P. Bouamama. Klocke. and Duran.. It is important observation that all the biomolecules are polar in nature with their solubility more to water. R. Bozin. R. Manandhar.. D. Toxic epidemics caused by alimentary exposure to pesticides: a review. A. Taxonomist. Shivamurthy. (2001). D. A. Mysore for the identification of plant species. Lawsonia inermis. M. The present investigation is an important step in developing plant based pesticides which are ecofriendly for the management of the seed borne fungi and development of commercial formulation of botanicals. Villard. N.M. and Sarbhoy. University of Mysore. and McCormick. Sokovic. Mirici. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A inblack pepper.granatum..E. Food Additives Contamination 18: 830 – 835. Emmanuel. Plattner... Ergene. and Uri.E. M.V.. Mayo. G. W.A. (2004). E.M. J. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104: 104-107. (1985)..(Lamiaceae) essential oil. coriander. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Department of Studies in Botany for providing facilities and the University of Mysore for financial assistance.. Dukic. M. Shrestha. Y... N. artvinense. Wurtele. Larondelle. Food Additives Contamin 8: 755 – 776.H. Datura stramonium and Emblica officinalis would probably be an important candidate plants for prevention of biodeterioration of grains during storage. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Melissa officinalis L. S. M. Ferrer.. M. K. (2006) Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Heracleum sphondylium subsp.D. Guler. Tan.F. K. The authors are also thankful to Prof. C. methanol and ethanol.. Chandra... Reddy. A. in Botany. S.. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 52: 2485 – 2489.A. Hamzaoglu.. Simin. C. ginger and turmeric in India. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48: 1377-1383.S. African Journal of Biotechnology 5: 1087-1089. A. Prosopis juliflora. Further investigation will be done for developing commercial formulation based on field trail and toxicological experiment. and Cabral. and Bollinger. G.O. Desjardins. and Reddy. B. (2006) Antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of two Moroccan Cistus L. and Jana.. R. (1991). P. Indian Phytopathology 50: 458-68.. (1997) Production of Aflatoxins and Zearalenone by the toxigenic fungal isolates obtained from stored food grains of commercial crops. S. Benharref. Maragos. Barnard. Pesticide use and its measurement. J. A. 118 . Padgitt.. Devi. species. (2000) Occurrence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in Nepalese Maize and Wheat and the effect traditional processing method on mycotoxin levels.R.R. H.T. Science 228: 1154-1160. E. T. References Balandrin...

and Hostettmann. U. Raveesha.K.) rot. and Brito. K. N. Umesha.A.. P.R. (2005) Occurrence of Aflatoxin in some of the food and feed in Nepal.N. (Received 21 April 2007. A. G. M.J. D. Piva. G. (2006).. K. (2006). and Shetty. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 35:1233 – 1236. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pathovars. Phytochemistry 60: 145-152..J. Journal of Stored Product Research 24: 39-50. N. O. Sanchis. M.A.. Phytochemistry 30: 3864-3874.R. A. Kumar. B. (2006) Antifungal effects of two tropical plant leaf extracts (Ocimum gratissimum and Aframomum melegueta) on post harvest yam (Dioscorea spp. Current Science 76: 172-179. D. Harris. Koirala. Food Chemical Toxicology 37: 863 – 868.R. N. and Janardhana. K..R.. Mohana. Sudarshana. N. G. S.A. African Journal of Biotechnology 5: 727-731. Homedes. (1999). Journal of Agricultural Technology 2: 317-327.. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 59: 331-336. N. (1988) The microbiology of cereal grains from areas of Iran with a high incidence of oesophageal cancer. M. (1999). V.N. Majumder. and Raveesha. Renfrew.. and Ogbonnaya. R. (1997). (1999). and Dubey. C.. Kiran. (2001). and Magan. against plant pathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars: an eco-friendly approach. Raveesha. K. Modified atmosphere storage to prevent mould-induced nutritional loss in maize. F. African Journal of Biotechnology 5: 946-950.S. (1999). U. Food additives and Contamination 18: 1124-1129.A. M. (2006) Antimicrobial activity of Rauvolfia tetraphylla and Physalis minima leaf and callus extracts. H. Assessing the risk of pesticide residues to consumers: recent and future developments. accepted 25 May 2007) 119 . B. Janardhana. and Premarajan. (2001). Mycotoxin contamination of maize grains grown in Karnataka (India). J.R.O. Raveesha.. A.C. Janardhana. Ramos. H. Singh. Journal of Stored Product Research 35: 15 – 26. K. and Mukhopadhyay. (1999). and Shetty. Marin.. Satish. Yadar. Borin. Shariff. Hamburger. Inhibition of storage fungi of blackgram (Vigna mungo) by some essential oils. V. P. S. Effect of mycotoxins isolated from Penicillium nigricans on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.K. Impact of Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum colonisation of maize on calorific losses and fumonisin production under different environmental conditions. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture 76: 573 – 578. K.W. Journal of Food Protection 64: 120 – 131. Antifungal activity of seed extract of Psoralea corylifolia L.. Letter in Applied Microbiology 28: 145–147. M. Verma. (1991) Bioactivity in plants: The link between phytochemistry and medicine. (2002) Integration of ethnobotany and phytochemistry: dream or reality?. S. Gottlieb.. S.. and Woolridge..) Willd. and Raveesha.A. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 14: 1-4.Journal of Agricultural Technology Galvano.A. and Hariprasad.S. J.. Ritieni. S. and Galvano. K. G. Okigbo.K. Lacey. Plant Disease Research 20: 213-215. Gupta.K. (1998). Dietary strategies to counteract the effect of mycotoxins: a review. Anti-bacterial activity of Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq. Prospecdtives of botanical and microbial products as pesticides of tomorrow.C. J and Tripathi.R. M.

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00±0.00±1.11 70.63 36.25±0.25±1.25±1.91 66.43 15 Dithane M-45 48.64 53.50±1.00±1.64 70.20 14 Captan 100±0.11 66.08 67.16±0.00±1.58 82.29 84.29 80.32±0.75±0.85 86.00±1.04 76.91 3 Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) Skeels 68. 44.29 70.29 88.50±0.13 87.75±1.29 55.11 69.55 85.74±0. 40.75±0.75±1.25±0.75±0.00±1.11 71.25 91.85 73.85 45.08 62.44 42.19 91.67±0.61±0.25±1.25±0.32 96.85 75.70 8 Peltophorum pterocarpum (D) Baker ex Heyne 9 Polyalthia longifolia HK.29 91.00±1.25±0.88 4 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. 76.71 74.85 60.75±0.04 57.35 12.00±1.00 100±0.00±0.75±1.00 100±0.75±1.40 25.19 64.75±1. No.25±1.87±0.75±0.51 82.75±4.31 89.41 38.50±1.50±0.75±1.47 11 Punica granatum L 77.25±1.75±1.75±0.00±1.49 78.f & T.75 22.Journal of Agricultural Technology Table 2.50±1.65 72.25 69.75±0.13 53.85 35.03±0.25±1.25±0. Antifungal activity of different plant extracts at 25% (v/v) concentration against Aspergillus sp.48 44.75±1.37 80.81±0.25±0.75±1.00±0. 62.) Del.50 40.00±1.11 89. Plant species Pathogen Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus columnaris Aspergillus flavipes Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus tamarii 1 Acacia nilotica (L.85 72.50±1.25±1.29 59.73±0.16±0.50±0.50±1.85 31.50±0.18±0.00±1. 87.00±1.79 2 Datura stramonium L.71 25.2 94.25±1.85 76.75±0.19 10 Prosopis juliflora Swartz. 78.11 7 Mimusops elengi 85.32±0.10 79.27 91.75±0.82 64.29 68.67 87.64 32.00±1.3 16 Thiram 100±0.31 82.25±1.75±1.65±0.00 100±0.00±1.00 92.62±0.25±1.64 13 Blitox 100±0.67±0.19 77.50±1.25±1.31 69.86±0.75±0.72 41.53±0.11 60.29 85.85 75.85 81. Sl.29 79.29 80.15 23. 75.85 62.00±1.00 Data given are mean of four replicates ± Standard error 1 .25±0.85 62.25±1.00±1.14 86.49 86.50±064 86.78 6 Manilkara zapota L.16 84.50±1.55 5 Lawsonia inermis L.00±1.11 45.75±1.11 70.37 80.00±0.00±1.85 70.71±0.49 80.00 100±0.91 93.37 87.75±0.87±0.25±0.41 34.32 86.37 75.22 92.75±0.37 88.50±1.29 68.00 100±0.11 80.85 57.11 12 Syzygium cumini (L.85 48.00±2.50±2.00 92.98±0.25±1.25±1.25±1.3 87.75±1.00 100±0.20 78.25±1.00±1.11 75.25±1.00±0.11 41.28±0.50±1.21 65.50±1.75±1.14 88.85 48.96±0.25±0.11 80. 67.64 36.75 55.85 74.25±1.75±1.50±0.00±1.04 71.00 100±0.

62 43.74±1.14 8 Peltophorum pterocarpum (D) Baker ex Heyne 9 Polyalthia longifolia HK.38±1.08 83.83 7 Mimusops elengi L.94±1.78±1.42±1.14±1.15 88.37±1.45 12 Syzygium cumini (L.47 67.31 66.71±0.74±0. Sl.32 72.76 72.06±4.22±1.13 89.23 2 Datura stramonium L.82 47.64±5.19 10 Prosopis juliflora Swartz.79±1.76±3.10 58.21 78.22±2.41±0. 35.99±1.) Del.47 55.34±1.86 3 Emblica officinalis Gaertn 24.40±1.85 56.58±1.05±8.79 46.98 11 Punica granatum L 43.Table 3.12 87.) Skeels 35.35±1. 34.32±1.f & T.09±1. 35.42±2.35 66.32±1.67±1.99 89.72 83.60±0.17±0.81 73.97 78.02 72.95±1.No.30±1. Plant species Petroleum ether Benzene Chloroform Methanol Ethanol 1 Acacia nilotica (L.12±2.80 83.91 93.75±0.16±2.38±1.10 2 .22±1.60 38. 31.02 88.83 82.08±1.37±1.45±1.79±1.32±2.76 65.70 78.26 67.27±1.78 60.67 55.14 6 Manilkara zapota L.48±1.08 Data given are mean of four replicates ± Standard error 57.16±1.58 67. Antifungal activity of different solvent extracts against Aspergillus flavus.38±3.23 80.28±0.06±0.97±0. 95. 33.64 93.37 58.07±1.82 55.48±0.04 74.61±3.05±1.51 74.14±4.18 70.25±1.49 50.47 44.24±0.17±0.20±1.45 38.29±0.61±0.01 76.10 4 Eucalyptus globulus Labill.62 50. 32.68 97. 35.07 40.40 35.12 65.66 5 Lawsonia inermis L.52±0.