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EnergyUseandEnvironmentalImpactfrom

HotelsontheAdriaticCoastinCroatia
CurrentStatusandFuturePossibilitiesfor
HVACSystems

DoctoralThesis
by

VlastaZankiAlujevi

DepartmentofEnergyTechnology
DivisionofAppliedThermodynamicsandRefrigeration
RoyalInstituteofTechnology
Stockholm,Sweden2006

EnergyUseandEnvironmentalImpactfromHotels
ontheAdriaticCoastinCroatia
CurrentStatusandFuturePossibilitiesforHVACSystems
VlastaZankiAlujevi

TRITAREFRReportNo.06/53
ISSN11020245
ISRNKTH/REFR/R06/53SE
ISBN9171784306

DoctoralThesisbyVlastaZankiAlujevi
DepartmentofEnergyTechnology
DivisionofAppliedThermodynamicsandRefrigeration
RoyalInstituteofTechnology
SE10044Stockholm,Sweden

VlastaZankiAlujevi2006
Contact:vlasta.zanki@fsb.hr

ii

ABSTRACT

Thisthesisanalysesaspecifictypeofenergyusagesystem,energyusageinhotels,
andhowthissystembehaves.Inordertoevaluatethecurrentstateofenergyusein
hotels,anenergyauditquestionnairewasdevelopedandconductedamong31,5%of
hotelsontheAdriaticcoast.Theenergyauditwasusedasatooltosetabenchmark
forenergyconsumptioninhotelsandtoidentifyopportunitiesforincreasedenergy
efficiency measures in HVAC systems. The analysis has shown that the average
energy consumption in hotels on the Adriatic coast is in the range of 159 to 180
kWh/m2and162to225kWh/m2forseasonalandnonseasonalhotelsrespectively.In
ordertoestablisharelationshipbetweendifferentindependentvariablesinthehotels
(total floor area and number of rooms) and dependent variables, such as electricity
and oil consumption, mathematical statistical methods, such as correlation and
regressionanalysis,wereimplemented.

Theobjectiveofthisthesiswasalsotodevelopfromanenergy,environmentaland
economical points of view a methodology for the design and retrofit of HVAC
systems in the hotels on the Adriatic coast. The methodology named HOTECO is
basedonasystemthinkingapproach.Withrespect tothe technologicalaspects,the
firststepwastoanalyseconventionalHVACsystemdesignsandtocompareitwith
the three most promising alternative HVAC systems utilizing renewable energy
sources for a typical hotel. Computer modelling in TRNSYS was used to assess
energyconsumption.TRNSYSsoftwarehasbeenusedforsimulationsforanumber
ofyears,isinternationallyrecognized,andhasbeenvalidatedandverified.

It was concluded that energy and environmental savings in hotels on the Adriatic
coast could be achieved using readily available technologies. The HOTECO
methodology also demonstrated a framework that supports decision making

iii

regarding system selection and operational strategies to limit environmental impact


from HVAC systems in hotels. Four scenarios for energy consumption in hotels on
the Adriatic coast with regards to current state of energy systems and improved
retrofitsolutionsutilizingrenewableenergysourceweregiven.

Keywords: HVAC systems, hotels, energy performance, energy efficiency,


environmentalsavings,energyaudit,systemapproach,sustainableenergysystems

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

FirstofallIwouldliketoexpressmygreatappreciationtomysupervisor,Professor
Per Lundqvist, for his support, guidance, valuable comments, ideas, understanding
andfriendship.Heintroducedmetotheworldofsystemthinking.Iwouldalsolike
tothankmyformersupervisor,Dr.IvoMartinacforstartingupthisprojectandfor
givingmeopportunityofjoininghisresearchteamandtoworkonmythesisjointly
at KTH and FSB. In addition I would like to thank Professor Tonko urko, dean of
the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FSB), University of
Zagreb for his help, support and understanding during the project. Furthermore, I
wouldliketothankDr.AnteRadnifromtheInstituteoftourismforhisgreatenergy
andsupportfromtheveryfirstideaoftheproject.Withouthimitwouldbealmost
impossibletocollectdatafromhotelsontheAdriaticcoast.

IextendmygratitudetoallstaffattheofDepartmentofThermodynamics,Thermal
and Process Engineering and Chair of Ecology and Water Treatment Technology,
FSB, University of Zagreb especially to my friends Marino Grozdek, Vlado Soldo,
AleksandraAniVuiniandDavorLjubasfortheirvaluablehelpandcomments.I
would also like to thank all the staff at Department of Energy Technology, KTH
Stockholm, especially to Professor Bjrn Palm, Professor Eric Granryd, and my
colleaguesPaulina,Branko,Aumnad,DimitraandShota.

Special thanks goes to Lennart Johansson from KTHI and Dr. Zoran Morvaj from
UNDPfortheirsupportandunderstanding.

In addition, I would like to thank Goran for his valuable help for statistic analysis
andPat,SandraandJenniferforhelpingmewiththeEnglishproofreading.

Iwouldalsoliketothankallhotelierswhohavededicatedtheirtimetoparticipatein
energyauditandgavemevaluabledataforthisresearch.

My special thanks goes to my great friends Renata, Lada, Mario, Jody, Edo, Maria,
Marino,DanicaandSahbazforbelievinginme,beingwithmeandsupportingmein
themostdramatictimeofmylife.IwouldalsoliketothankmyfriendsIvoRaji,Igor
SkelinandDanielSchneiderfortheirhelpandsupport.

FinallyIwouldliketothankallmyfamilyfortheirsupportandunderstanding.My
deepgratitudegoestomymother,forherneverendingsupportand lovetowhom
thisthesisisdedicated.

VlastaZanki
Zagreb,August2006

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TABLEOFCONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................1
1.1.

2.

3.

BACKGROUNDOFTHETHESIS .........................................................................................................1

1.1.1.

Energyuseinbuildingsandenvironmentalimpactofbuildings ...............................................1

1.1.2.

Energyuseintertiarybuildings ...............................................................................................23

1.1.3.

Energyconsumptioninhotels...................................................................................................27

1.1.4.

EnergyinCroatia ......................................................................................................................33

1.1.5.

Trendsinnumberoftourismaccommodationcapacitiesandqualityofservices......................38

1.2.

MOTIVATIONOFTHESIS ................................................................................................................42

1.3.

RESEARCHQUESTIONS ..................................................................................................................45

1.4.

THESISOUTLINE.............................................................................................................................47

PREVIOUSWORK.............................................................................................................................51
2.1.

TOBUSANDXENIOSMETHODOLOGY .......................................................................................51

2.2.

HVACSYSTEMSINHOTELS ..........................................................................................................53

2.3.

MODELLINGANDSIMULATIONSINBUILDINGS ............................................................................60

ENERGYAUDITSCHEMEINHOTELS.......................................................................................63
3.1.

THEENERGYAUDITMETHODOLOGY ............................................................................................63

3.2.

THEENERGYAUDITRESULTS ........................................................................................................68

3.2.1.

Buildingandfacilitycharacteristics..........................................................................................70

3.2.2.

Energyconsumptioninhotels...................................................................................................75

3.2.3.

AnalysisofexistingHVACandDHWsystems .......................................................................98

3.2.4.

Analysisofwaterconsumption ...............................................................................................100

3.2.5.

Resultsofenvironmentalawarenessaudit ..............................................................................102

3.3.

THEBENCHMARKFORHOTELSONTHEADRIATICCOAST .........................................................105

3.4.

EXPLANATORYINDICATORS(VARIABLES)FORENERGYANDWATERCONSUMPTION

(INFLUENCINGVARIABLEANALYSIS) ......................................................................................................108
3.4.1.

Regressionanalysisforelectricityconsumption .....................................................................110

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4.

3.4.2.

Regressionanalysisforheatingoilconsumption .................................................................... 125

3.4.3.

CasestudyhotelD1(Dubrovnikregion)regressionanalysis ............................................... 134

THEPROBLEMDEFINITIONANDPROBLEMSOLVINGMETHODOLOGY
SYSTEMTHINKINGINHOTELS............................................................................................. 137
4.1.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 137

4.2.

TRADITIONALMINDSETINHOTELSONTHEADRIATICCOAST .............................................. 141

4.3.

THENEEDFORSYSTEMTHINKINGAPPROACH ........................................................................... 144

4.4.

SYSTEMSDEFINITION .................................................................................................................. 148

4.5.

THEMODELLINGPROCESS ......................................................................................................... 149

5.

HVACSYSTEMSOPTIONSMODELLING ............................................................................. 155


5.1.

CONCEPTUALMODEL................................................................................................................. 155

5.2.

SIMULATIONTOOLTRNSYS.................................................................................................... 159

5.3.

HVAC&DHWSYSTEMSMODELS............................................................................................. 161

6.

5.3.1.

Thehotelbuildingmodel......................................................................................................... 162

5.3.2.

Conventionalsystem(CS) ................................................................................................... 174

5.3.3.

Seawatercoolingsystemsolarheating(SWCSH) ........................................................... 179

5.3.4.

Heatpumpsystem(HPS) ....................................................................................................... 190

5.3.5.

Solarabsorptioncoolingsystemsolarheating(ACSSH) ................................................ 196

ENERGYANDECONOMICALANALYSISOFHVACSYSTEMSOPTIONS .................. 201


6.1.

6.1.1.

Nonseasonalhotels................................................................................................................. 202

6.1.2.

Seasonalhotels ........................................................................................................................ 211

6.2.

7.

ENERGYANALYSIS ...................................................................................................................... 201

ECONOMICALANALYSIS ............................................................................................................. 213

6.2.1.

Costsstructure........................................................................................................................ 214

6.2.2.

Thepaybackanalysis............................................................................................................... 216

ENVIRONMENTALIMPACTANALYSIS ................................................................................ 223


7.1.

INTERNATIONALOBLIGATIONS .................................................................................................. 224

7.2.

EMISSIONSOFPOLLUTANTSFROMTHETOURISMACCOMMODATIONSECTOR .......................... 226

7.2.1.

viii

Greenhousegasesemissions.................................................................................................... 226

7.2.2.
7.3.

THEANALYSISOFTHEHVACSYSTEM .......................................................................................235

7.3.1.
7.4.

EmissionsofSO2,NOx,COandparticles...............................................................................231

TotalEquivalentWarmingImpactTEWI ............................................................................238

SCENARIOSFORFUTUREENVIRONMENTALEMISSIONS ..............................................................242

7.4.1.

Businessasusualscenario.......................................................................................................243

7.4.2.

ScenariowithsolarcollectorsforDHWsystem......................................................................247

7.4.3.

ScenariosforHVACsystems ..................................................................................................248

8.

HOTECOMETHODOLOGY .........................................................................................................251

9.

CONCLUSIONSANDFUTUREWORK .....................................................................................259
9.1.

CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................................................259

9.1.1.

Energyuseinhotelsandenvironmentalemissions.................................................................259

9.1.2.

ModellingandSimulations .....................................................................................................261

9.1.3.

Practicalapplicationofthestudy ............................................................................................263

9.2.

FUTUREWORK .............................................................................................................................265

NOMENCLATURE ...................................................................................................................................267
APPENDIXI:ENERGYAUDITQUESTIONNARIE ........................................................................275
APPENDIXII:BREAKDOWNOFELECTRICITY,OILANDGASCONSUMPTION
BYREGION .....................................................................................................................................281
APPENDIXIII:TRNSYSCOMPONENTSUSEDINTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHE
MODELS ..........................................................................................................................................285
APPENDIXIV:TRNSYSDECKFILES ................................................................................................293
APPENDIXV:FLOWCHARTSSYMBOLISM ...................................................................................365
REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................................367

ix

LISTOFFIGURES
Figure1.1.EnergyusagebreakdowninCroatia(EIHP2005)

Figure1.2.Typicalrefrigerantsandtheirhistoricaluse(IIR2003)

Figure1.3.BreakdownofglobalGreenhousegasEmissionsin1997,(ArthurD.Little2002)

Figure1.4.BreakdownofglobalGreenhousegasEmissionsin2030,estimation(ArthurD.
Little2002)

Figure1.5.Banksbygroupofsubstances(IPCC2005)

Figure1.6.Annualemissions,relatedtotheuseofCFCs,HCFCsandHFCspersector.
(IPCC2005)

Figure1.7.AnnualadditionalbuildingfloorareaconditionedbyCACform1980to2000,
forEU(CENERG2005)

12

Figure1.8.AnnualadditionalbuildingfloorareaconditionedbyCACfrom1980to2000by
countries(CENERG2005)

12

Figure1.9.SectoralreductionpotentialsfordirectemissionsofCFCs,HCFCsandHFCsin
2015ascomparedtotheBAUprojections(IPCC2005)

18

Figure1.10.GlobalWarmingPotential(100yr)ofseveralHFCs,HCFCsandCFCs(IIR
2002)

20

Figure1.11.EnergyconsumptioninthetertiarysectorinEU(EC2001a)

24

Figure1.12.ShareofCACinstalledbytertiarysectorforsixcountries(CENERG2005)

24

Figure1.13.Shareofinstalledequipmentbysector(CENERG2005)

25

Figure1.14.Shareofinstalledequipmentbytype(CENERG2005)

25

Figure1.15.Estimatedgrowthofcooledfloorareabysectorby2020(CENERG2005)

26

Figure1.16.Energyconsumptionbyendusersinahotel(CADDET1997)

31

Figure1.17.Energyconsumptionbyendusersinahotel(REST2005)

31

Figure1.18.SharesintotalprimaryenergysupplyinCroatiafor2003(MGRP2004)

34

Figure1.19.SharesofSectorsinFinalEnergyDemandinCroatiafor2003(MGRP2004)

35

Figure1.20.EnergyformssharesinfinalEnergydemandinothersectorsfor2003(MGRP
2004)

35

Figure1.21.Numberofroomsinhotelsandsimilarestablishmentsin2001(WTO2005a)

40

Figure1.22.Marketshareofroomsinhotelsandsimilarestablishmentsin2001(WTO
2005a)

40

Figure1.23.Perspectiveofthethesis

45

Figure1.24.Thesisoutline

49

Figure2.1.LoadshapeforSwedishhotelscomparedtoUSAhotels(Noren,Pyrko1998)

59

Figure3.1.FivecoastalregionsontheAdriaticcoast

64

Figure3.2.Numberandratioofseasonalandnonseasonalhotelsin5regions

68

Figure3.3.Graphicalinterfaceofhotelsdatabase

69

xi

Figure3.4.Hotelsstockfloorareadistribution

72

Figure3.5.Ageofsurveyedhotelsstock

73

Figure3.6.ElectricityconsumptionforseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastbyhotel
category

76

Figure3.7.ElectricityconsumptionfornonseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastbyhotel
category

77

Figure3.8.Breakdownofelectricityconsumptionbyregion

80

Figure3.9.Breakdownofelectricityconsumptionbyhotelcategory

80

Figure3.10.BreakdownofelectricityconsumptioninGWhbyregionandhotelcategory

81

Figure3.11.BreakdownofelectricityconsumptioninGWhbyregionandhoteloperational
schedule

82

Figure3.12.HeatingoilconsumptionforseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastbyhotel
category

83

Figure3.13.HeatingoilconsumptionfornonseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastbyhotel
category

84

Figure3.14.Breakdownofheatingoilconsumptionbyregion

87

Figure3.15.Breakdownofelectricityconsumptionbyhotelcategory

87

Figure3.16.Breakdownofoilconsumptioninlitresbyregionandhotelcategory

88

Figure3.17.Breakdownofoilconsumptioninlitresbyregionandhoteloperational
schedule

88

Figure3.18.Breakdownofgasconsumptionbyregion

91

Figure3.19.Breakdownofelectricityconsumptionbyhotelcategory

92

Figure3.20.Breakdownofgasconsumptioninkgbyregionandhotelcategory

93

Figure3.21.Breakdownofgasconsumptioninkgbyregionandhoteloperationalschedule

93

Figure3.22.ChangesisfueltyperatiofordifferenthotelscategoriesontheAdriaticcoast

96

Figure3.23.Environmentalareastargeted,%respondents(Bohdanowiczetla2004)

104

Figure3.24.Averageenergyconsumptionfordifferenthotelcategoriesandregionsin
Croatia

107

Figure3.25.TheannualelectricityconsumptionforseasonalhotelsintheRijekaregion
againsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

114

Figure3.26.TheannualelectricityconsumptionforseasonalhotelsintheRijekaregion
againstnumberofrooms

114

Figure3.27.Theannualelectricityconsumptionpersquaremeterforseasonalhotelsinthe
Rijekaregionagainstnumberofrooms

115

Figure3.28.TheannualelectricityconsumptionfornonseasonalhotelsinCroatia(Adriatic
coast)againsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

119

Figure3.29.TheannualelectricityconsumptionfornonseasonalhotelsinCroatia(Adriatic
coast)againstnumberofguestrooms

120

Figure3.30.Theannualelectricityconsumptionpersquaremeterfornonseasonalhotelsin
Croatia(Adriaticcoast)againsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

120

xii

Figure3.31.Theannualheatingoilconsumptionpersquaremeterforseasonal3starhotels
ontheAdriaticcoastagainsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

127

Figure3.32.Theannualheatingoilconsumptionforseasonal3starhotelsontheAdriatic
coastagainstnumberofguestrooms

128

Figure3.33.Theannualoilconsumptionpersquaremeterforseasonal3starhotelsinon
theAdriaticcoastagainsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

128

Figure3.34.TheguestloadprofileforhotelD1inDubrovnikregionforyears2003and2004

134

Figure3.35.Theelectricityconsumptionpersquaremeterandguestforyears2003and2004
(hotelD1)

135

Figure4.1.Schematicviewofenergyproductionandenergyusagesystems

139

Figure4.2.Impactonperformancevscostofdisruption(Jongeling2003)

140

Figure4.3.Thinkingaboutdesirableandfeasiblechange(Checkland2002)

145

Figure4.4. Thesystemanalysisprocedurewithiterationloops(Miser,Quade1985)

151

Figure4.5. Thesystemanalysisprocedureforproblemsolvingappliedinthisresearch

152

Figure4.6. Thecomplexityofmodels(Lundqvist2005)

153

Figure5.1.Flowchartforbuildingenergysimulationprogram(ASHRAE2001)

157

Figure5.2.GeographicalpositionofSplitandsolarirradianceinCroatia(h/year)(Hrastnik,
Frankovi2001)

163

Figure5.3. DHWhistogram

174

Figure5.4. Interrelationshipofconventionalcoolingsystem(CS)componentsmodelledin
TRNSYS

175

Figure5.5. Interrelationshipofconventionalheatingsystem(CS)componentsmodelledin
TRNSYS

176

Figure5.6. InterrelationshipofconventionalDHWsystem(CS)componentsmodelledin
TRNSYS

177

Figure5.7.Schematicviewofconventional(CS)system

178

Figure5.8.ThemapoftheAdriaticanddepthprofile(Zore1999)

181

Figure5.9.Conceptualviewofachilledwaterairconditioningsystem(Esource2001)

183

Figure5.10.Conceptualviewoftheseawatercoolingsystem(Zanki2002)

184

Figure5.11. Interrelationshipoftheseawatercoolingsystem(SWCSH)components
modelledinTRNSYS

186

Figure5.12. Interrelationshipofthesolarheatingsystem(SWCSH)componentsmodelled
inTRNSYS

187

Figure5.13.Schematicviewoftheseawatercoolingandsolarheatingsystems

188

Figure5.14. Interrelationshipofthevapourcompressioncoolingsystem(HPS)components
modelledinTRNSYS

191

Figure5.15. Interrelationshipoftheheatpumpheatingsystem(HPS)componentsmodelled
inTRNSYS

192

Figure5.16. InterrelationshipofthesolarDHWsystem(HPS)componentsmodelledin
TRNSYS

193

xiii

Figure5.17.Schematicviewofthevapourcompressioncoolingandheatingsystem(HPS)

194

Figure5.18. Interrelationshipoftheabsorptioncoolingsystem(ACS)componentsmodelled
inTRNSYS

197

Figure5.19. InterrelationshipofthesolarheatingsystemandDHW(ACS)components
modelledinTRNSYS

198

Figure5.20.Schematicviewofabsorptioncoolingandsolarheating(ACS)system

199

Figure6.1.Monthlyenergyrequirementsandmeanmonthlyambienttemperaturefora
hotelwith150rooms

202

Figure6.2.EnergyconsumptioninHVAC&DHWsystemsfornonseasonalhotels

206

Figure6.3.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninconventionalsystem(CS)

207

Figure6.4.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninseawatercoolingandsolarheatingsystem
(SWCSH)

207

Figure6.5.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninvapourcompressioncoolingandheating
system(HPS)

208

Figure6.6.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninabsorptioncoolingandsolarheating
system(ACS)

208

Figure6.7.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninconventionalsystemafterbuilding
envelopeimprovements

211

Figure6.8.EnergyconsumptionincoolingandDHWsystemsforseasonalhotels

212

Figure6.9.BreakdownofenergyconsumptioninHVACsystems(summerandwinter
operation)

213

Figure7.1:Contributionofhotels,privateaccommodationandcampstototalCO2and
greenhousegasesemissions

230

Figure7.2:Comparisonofemissionsfromhotels,campsandprivateaccommodationwith
emissionsfromservicesector

231

Figure7.3:OverallemissionsofSO2,NOx,COandparticlesproducedinhotels,campsand
privateaccommodations

234

Figure7.4:Comparisonofemissionsfromhotels,campsandprivateaccommodations
sectorwithemissionsfromservicesector

235

Figure7.5:CO2,NOxandSO2emissionsduetoHVACsystemsoperationduringoneyear
forahotelwith150rooms

237

Figure7.6:CO2,NOxandSO2emissionsduetoHVACsystemsoperationduringoneyear
forahotelwith300rooms

237

Figure7.7.TEWIanalysisforCSandHPSsystemduringoneyearoperation(coolingmode)

241

Figure7.8.TheguestnightsincreaseinCroatiaforperiod19902010.(MINT2006)

243

Figure7.9.EstimatedCO2eqemissionsfromtouristaccommodationsectortill2010with
BAU(businessasusual)scenario

244

Figure7.10.EmissionstrendsSO2,NOxandCO2(MGRP2006)

245

Figure7.11.CO2emissionsscenariosforDHWsystemsfortheperiod20022016

248

xiv

Figure7.12.CO2emissionsscenariosforHVACsystemsfortheperiod20022016non
seasonalhotels

249

Figure8.1.PartIHoteldatacollectionandenergyconsumptionanalysis

255

Figure8.2.PartIIHVACsystemsmodelling

256

Figure8.3.PartIIIEconomicalanalysis

257

Figure8.4.PartIVEnvironmentalanalysis

258

xv

LISTOFTABLES
Table1.1.EUEmissionsin2010,BusinessasUsualScenario,Comparisonofdirectand
indirectemissions,refrigerationandairconditioning(MCG1998)

11

Table1.2.Averagenumberofoperatinghoursforairconditioningequipment(CENERG
2005)

26

Table1.3.Energyconsumptioninhotels

28

Table1.4.Typicalparametersregardingenergyconsumptionindifferenttypesofhotels
(IMPIVA1994)

30

Table1.5.AverageyearlyenergyuseintensityforhotelbuildingsinkWh/m2(Bohdanowicz
2003,CHOSE2001)

30

Table1.6.Distributionofenergyconsumptionforeachactivityorservice(IMPIVA1994)

32

Table1.7.Finalenergydemandinothersectorsbysubsectors(MGRP2004)

36

Table1.8.Croatiavs.competitorcountries19902020.(HGK2004,HGK2005)

39

Table3.1.Numberofsurveyedandtotalnumberofhotelsfor5coastalregions

67

Table3.2.Grossfloorareaofthehotelthatbelongstoonehotelroomorbed

70

Table3.3.Minimalfloorareaoftheroom(MINT2004a)

70

Table3.4.AverageelectricityconsumptioninkWhfordifferenthotelcategories

79

Table3.5.ElectricityconsumptioninkWhinfivecostalregions(estimation)

79

Table3.6.Averageoilconsumptioninlitresfordifferenthotelcategories

85

Table3.7.Oilconsumptioninlitresinfivecostalregions(estimation)

86

Table3.8.Averagegasconsumptioninkgfordifferenthotelcategories

89

Table3.9.Gasconsumptioninkginfivecostalregions(estimation)

91

Table3.10.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypefortheDubrovnikregion

94

Table3.11.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypeforIstria

94

Table3.12.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypefortheRijekaregion

95

Table3.13.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypefortheSplitregion

95

Table3.14.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypeforCroatia(Adriaticcoast)

95

Table3.15.Averagewaterconsumptioninm3fordifferenthotelcategories

101

Table3.16.BenchmarksforCroatianhotelsontheAdriaticcoast

106

Table3.17.ChadockscaleforR value(Horvat2006)

110

Table3.18.Resultsofmultipleregressionanalysisforelectricityconsumptionforseasonal
hotels

113

Table3.19.RegressionanalysisresultsR valuesforelectricityconsumptionforseasonal
hotels

116

Table3.20.Resultsofmultipleregressionanalysisforelectricityconsumptionfornon
seasonalhotelsonAdriaticcoast

118

xvii

Table3.21.RegressionanalysisresultsR2valuesforelectricityconsumptionfornon
seasonalhotels

121

Table3.22.RegressionanalysisresultsR valuesforelectricityconsumptionfornon
seasonalhotels(LiburniaRivierahotelsRijekaregion)

123

Table3.23.Resultsofmultipleregressionanalysisforoilconsumptionforseasonalhotels

127

Table3.24.RegressionanalysisresultsR valuesforheatingoilconsumptionforseasonal
hotels

129

Table3.25.RegressionanalysisresultsR2valuesforheatingoilconsumptionfornon
seasonalhotels

131

Table3.26.RegressionanalysisresultsR valuesforheatingoilconsumptionfornon
seasonalhotels(LiburniaRivierahotelsRijekaregion)

132

Table5.1.HVACsystemmodellingabstractionlevels(Hansen,Clarke2000)

158

Table5.2.Hotelsbuildingscharacteristics

173

Table5.3.Systemscomponentscapacitiesandprices(CS)

179

Table5.4.Averageannualandseasonalvaluesofseawatertemperatures(oC)forthewhole
Adriatic(Buljan1976)

182

Table5.5.Systemscomponentscapacitiesandprices(SWCSH)

189

Table5.6.Systemcomponentscapacitiesandprices(HPS)

195

Table5.7.Systemscomponentscapacitiesandprices(ACS)

200

Table6.1.Yearlyprimaryenergyconsumptionforconventionalsystem(CS)operation

203

Table6.2.Yearlyprimaryenergyconsumptionforseawatercoolingandsolarheating
system(SWCSH)operation

203

Table6.3.Yearlyprimaryenergyconsumptionforvapourcompressioncoolingandsolar
heatingsystem(HPS)operation

204

Table6.4.Yearlyprimaryenergyconsumptionforabsorptioncoolingandsolarheating
system(ACS)operation

204

Table6.5.Simulatedprimaryenergyconsumptionpersquaremeter(hotelwith150rooms)

209

Table6.6.EnergyusagebreakdownfordifferentcoolingandDHWsystemsinseasonal
hotels

212

Table6.7.ElectricityandfuelpricesinCroatiaforperiod20002006

215

Table6.8.TotalcostsofHVACsystemsin2002

216

Table6.9.ResultsofimprovedpaybackanalysisforHVACsystemswithenergypricesin
2002

218

Table6.10.ResultsofthepaybackanalysisforHVACsystemswithenergypricesin2006

218

Table6.11.TotalcostsofDHWsystemsin2002

219

Table6.12.ResultsofimprovedpaybackanalysisforDHWsystemswithenergypricesin
2002

220

Table6.13.TotalcostsofDHWsystemsin2006

220

Table6.14.ResultsofimprovedpaybackanalysisforDHWsystemswithenergypricesin
2006

221

xviii

Table6.15.Totalcostsofcoolingsystemsin2006

221

Table6.16.TotalcostsofCSsystemwithexistingandimprovedbuilding

222

Table6.17.Resultsofimprovedpaybackanalysisforimprovedbuildingenvelope

222

Table7.1.Relationbetweenparticularpollutantsandtheirmostimportantimpacts

223

Table7.2:Emissions(withoutnatural)inCroatia(1990)andinternationalobligations(Juri
2005)

225

Table7.3:Emissionfactorsofgreenhousegases(Juri2005)

227

Table7.4:Specificgreenhousegasesemissions[g/kWh]for20022004(Juri2005,Maljkovi
2006)

227

Table7.5:Greenhousegasesemissionsduetofossilfuelcombustioninhotelsfor2002

228

Table7.6:Greenhousegasesemissionsduetoelectricityconsumptioninhotels

229

Table7.7:Greenhousegasesemissionsduetoelectricityconsumptionincampsandprivate
accommodations

229

Table7.8:EmissionfactorsforSO2,NOx,COandparticles(Juri2005)

232

Table7.9:SpecificemissionsofSO2,NOx,COandparticles[g/kWh](Juri2005)

232

Table7.10:Emissionsofpollutantsduetofossilfuelcombustioninhotels

233

Table7.11:Emissionsofpollutantsduetoelectricityconsumptioninhotels

233

Table7.12:Emissionsofpollutantsduetoelectricityconsumptionincampsandprivate
accommodation

233

Table7.13:OverallSO2,NOx,COandparticlesemissionsinhotels,campsandprivate
accommodation

234

Table7.14:ElectricityandfossilfuelsconsumptionforanalysedHVACoptions

236

Table7.15:CO2,NOxandSO2emissionsforconventionalsystemandanalysedoptions

236

Table7.16.Costsofenvironmentalsavings,EUR/kgCO2

238

Table7.17.TotalEquivalentWarmingImpactanalysisforCSandHPSsystem

240

Table7.18.Numberofguestnightsthroughouttheperiod19892010

242

xix

Chapter1.Introduction

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Backgroundofthethesis

This subchapter is aimed to explain the relationship between energy consumption and the
tourism sector. Trends in tourism and energy consumption in buildings will be explained.
This should give a clear picture with respect to the environmental impacts of energy
consumption in the hotel sector and what are the current EU standards that the Croatian
governmentwillhavetocomplywith.Thischapterwillalsoindicatethemainendusersand
theinfluencingfactorsofenergyconsumptioninhotels.

1.1.1. Energyuseinbuildingsandenvironmentalimpactofbuildings

Over the last twenty years, there have been significant changes in human attitude
towardsthe environment.Twomajorenvironmentalimpacts thatbecame threats to
the world climate and ecosystems were highlighted, namely: global warming and
ozonedepletion.Withrespecttoglobalwarming,thebuildingsector(residentialand
tertiary)isresponsiblefor40%oftotalCO2emissionsduringitslifecycleintheEU
andworld(Eicker2003).EnergyusagebreakdowninCroatiaisshowninFigure1.1.

Energy usage breakdown

Industry
31%

Buildings
41%

Transport
28%

Figure1.1.EnergyusagebreakdowninCroatia(EIHP2005)

Energyenduseindifferenttypesofbuildingsvarieshowever,thebiggestconsumers
are thermal systems such as: heating, domestic hot water, cooling and ventilation
systems.Energyconsumptionforthermalsystemsvariesdependingonbuilding,and
goes from 65% in the EU service sector (EC 2001a) (Figure 1.11.) to 8085% in
households (EIHP 2005), while in hotel sector, depending of the source (CADDET
1997,REST2005)rangesfrom6170%(Figure1.16.Figure1.17.).Refrigeration,air
conditioningandheatpumpapplicationsrepresentoneofthemostimportantenergy
consumptionsectorsinpresentdaysociety.Itisestimatedthatasanaveragesharein
electricityuseisbetween1020%forthedevelopedcountries(UNEP2003).Forthese
reasons, this thesis focuses on energy consumption in thermal systems (HVAC&R
andDHW1)andtheenvironmentalimpactsoftheseinhotels.

In 2002, households accounted for 31,1% and the service sector 10,5% of Croatias
final energy demand of 232,22 PJ. These sectors were responsible for 14,7% of the
totalCO2emissions,21,4milliontons(UNDP2005).

HVAC&RandDHWHeating,ventilation,airconditioning,refrigerationanddomestichotwater

Chapter1.Introduction

The total energy consumption in old houses is approximately 300 kWh/m2, 180
kWh/m2 for houses built according to standards dating from 1987 and 155 kWh/m2
forhousesthatwillbebuiltaccordingtonew2005standards(thatisinlinewithEU
Directive Energy Performance in Buildings). The average energy consumption for
building heating in Croatia, depends on its efficiency; 230 kWh/m2 for poorly
insulatedbuildings,120kWh/m2foraveragenewhousingand20kWh/m2forzero
energy houses. The area of highest potential for energy savings is with heating
systems(EIHP2005).

Duetothethreatofglobalwarming,theworldcommunitycommitteditselftoreduce
green house gasses under Kyoto Protocol, adopted on December 10, 1997 (Billiard,
2005).AsaconsequenceofthiscommitmenttheEUadoptedanumberofregulations
anddirectives,amongwhich,EUDirective2002/91/EContheenergyperformanceof
buildings. This directive deals with energy efficiency and environmental impact
causedbyenergyconsumptioninbuildings.

In accordance with EU Directive 2002/91/EC, which Member States need to


incorporate into their national legislation, energy performance standards will apply
to all new buildings built from January 2006. Particularly for larger buildings (over
1000 m2), a full feasibility assessment of alternative heating and energy supply
systemsmustbemadebeforeconstructionbegins.ThegoalisthisEUcommitments
totheKyotoprotocolistoreducegreenhousegasemissionsto8%below1990levels
by20082012.Furtheron,existingbuildingslargerthan1000m2willalsobesubjectto
energy performance improvements when they undergo major refurbishment or
renovation(EC2002).

The first part of the Directive 91/2002 deals with building physics and was
incorporatedintobylawbytheCroatiangovernmentin2005.Itisnowinforceasof
July1st2006.AdoptionoffullDirectivetextisexpectedbytheendof2006.

The second important environmental impact, ozone depletion, is caused by


refrigerant (CFCs2 and HCFCs3) emissions from airconditioning and refrigeration
equipment. These units provide the basic needs of cooling or heating within
buildingsandforfoodpreservation.Thesetworefrigerantfamiliesalsoexertglobal
warming effects. HFCs were developed in order to replace CFCs and HCFCs since
they have no ozonedepleting potential. However, they do have direct global
warmingeffects.

The main regulations addressing ozone depleting substances (ODS) is the Montreal
Protocoladopted in 1987 andthe EUresponsetoProtocol;EuropeanRegulation on
OzoneDepleting Substances No. 2037/2000 of June 29th, 2000. (Billiard, 2005). It
comprisesofthefollowingkeymeasures:

CFCs,atotalbanonuseformaintenanceandservicingofequipmentasof
January1st,2001;

HCFCs,atotalbanonproductionasofJanuary1st,2025;abanonuseof
virginHCFCsinmaintenanceandservicingofequipmentasofJanuary1st,
2010; a ban on the use of HCFCs for the production of new equipment
from January 1st, 1996 to January 1st, 2004 depending on application (EC
2000).

AccordingtothenewCroatianbylawonOzonedepletingsubstances,importofCFCs
isbannedfromJanuary1st,2006,whileservicingwithrecycledandreclaimedCFCsis
allowed till 2010. HCFCs were banned for new installation from 20 October 2005,
whileservicingwillbeallowedtillendof2015(MZOPU2005a).

CFCsChlorofluorocarbons

HCFCsHydrochlorofluorocarbons

Chapter1.Introduction

Atmospheric emissions from refrigerant gases arise in several ways: poor plant
sealing or operation, incorrect or negligent refrigerant handling, insufficient plant
maintenance, etc. In industrialized countries, actions aimed to reduce energy
consumption and emissions have led to measures that cover all phases in the life
cycleofrefrigerationequipment(IIR2002):

during the design phase, features enabling refrigerating systems and


component performance to be enhanced. Focus should be also on
optimisingplantcontainmentandreducingtherefrigerantcharge;

during installation and commissioning, application of stringent plant


acceptance procedures, taking into account measurements of the energy
consumptionfortheplant;

during maintenance and servicing, application of stringent operating


procedures

duringdisposalofequipment,recoveryoftherefrigerant,andrecyclingor
reclaimingwheneverpossible

Veryfewsubstanceshavepropertiesappropriateforarefrigerant.Figure1.2.shows
someofthesubstancesthathavebeenusedasrefrigerantsandhowtheirapplication
hasvariedovertime.Thereisnoidealrefrigerant,however.Selectionofarefrigerant
isacompromisebetweenmanyfactorsincludingeaseofmanufacture,cost,toxicity,
flammability,environmentalimpact,corrosivenessandthermodynamicpropertiesas
well as energy efficiency. A key characteristic is the pressure/temperature
relationship. In general, for energy efficiency it is desirable that the refrigerants
critical point (temperature above which the refrigerant cannot condense) is high
comparedtotheheatextractionandrejectiontemperatures.


Figure1.2.Typicalrefrigerantsandtheirhistoricaluse(IIR2003)

Although HFCs4 are nonozone depleting substances and are the most viable
alternativefor CFCsandHCFCs,they arestillgreenhousegases,alongwithcarbon
dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, PFCs5 and SF66. The breakdown of the warming
impactofGHG7emissionsonaglobalscaleisshowninFigure1.3.andFigure1.4.In
1997,carbondioxideemissionswere89%ofthetotalwhilePFCs,SF6andHFCswere
only1%,onlyhalfofwhichareHFCsforrefrigerants,foamblowingapplications,etc.
Theprojectedsharein2030ofHFCenduseemissionsonthewarmingimpactriseto
approximately2%,astheprocessofsubstitutionofHFCsforODS8iscompleted.

HFCsHydrofluorocarbons

PFCsPerfluorocarbons

SF6SulphurHexafluoride

GHGGreenhousegases

ODSOzonedepletingsubstances

Chapter1.Introduction

Breakdown of Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions - 1997

Methane
7.0%

Nitrous Oxide
3.0%

PFCs, SF6,
HFC-23
0.6%
HFCs
0.4%

CO2
89.0%

Figure1.3.BreakdownofglobalGreenhousegasEmissionsin1997,(ArthurD.Little2002)

Breakdown of Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions - 2030

Methane
5.5%

Nitrous Oxide
3.0%

PFCs, SF6,
HFC-23
0.6%
HFCs
1.8%

CO2
89.1%

Figure1.4.BreakdownofglobalGreenhousegasEmissionsin2030,estimation(ArthurD.
Little2002)

Studies have shown that in the seven years between 1990 and 1997, when the CFC
phaseout took effect in the developed countries, the warming impact of ODS
emissions fell by more than 50%. By 2030, ODS releases to the atmosphere globally
should be down to negligible proportions. The warming impact of projected HFC
emissions in 2030 is only 12% of the warming impact of CFC emissions in 1990
(ArthurD.Little2002).

Thereisasignificantamountofsubstancescontainedinexistingequipment,chemical
stockpiles,foamsandotherproductsnotyetreleasedtotheatmospherecalledbanks.
Observations of atmospheric concentrations, combined with production and use
patterndata,canindicatethesignificanceofthesebanks,butnottheirexactsizes.The
most accurate estimates of emissions from CFC11 and CFC12 are derived from
observations of atmospheric concentrations. These emissions are larger than
estimatedreleasesbasedoncurrentproduction,indicatingthatasubstantialfraction
oftheseemissionscomefrombanksbuiltupthroughpastproduction.Observations
ofatmosphericconcentrationsshowthatglobalemissionsofHFC134aarepresently
smaller than reported production, implying that this bank is growing. The total
globalamountofHFC134acurrentlyintheatmosphereisbelievedtobenearlyequal
totheamountinbanks(IPCC2005).

It is estimated that 2221 x 106 kW of cooling capacity for aircooled air conditioners
and heat pumps is installed worldwide. Refrigerant charge quantities vary
proportionally to the capacity. Assuming an average charge of 0.25 kg per kW of
capacity,those2221millionkWofinstalledcoolingcapacityrepresentandinstalled
bankofapproximately548.000metrictonesofHCFC22intheworld(UNEP2003).

BanksofCFCs,HCFCs,HFCsandPFCswereestimatedatabout21GtCO2eqin2002.
In a BusinessAsUsual (BAU) scenario, banks are projected to decline to about 18
GtCO2eqin2015.In2002,CFC,HCFCandHFCbankswereabout16,4and1GtCO2
eq (direct GWP weighted), respectively (see Figure 1.5.). In 2015, the banks will be
about8,5and5GtCO2eq,respectively,intheBAUscenario(IPCC2005).

Chapter1.Introduction

Banks by group of substances

25

Banks(GtCO2-eq)

20
HFC

15

HCFC
10

CFC

5
0
2002

BAU-2015

Figure1.5.Banksbygroupofsubstances(IPCC2005)

Figure1.6.Annualemissions,relatedtotheuseofCFCs,HCFCsandHFCspersector.
(IPCC2005)

CFC banks associated with refrigeration, stationary airconditioning (SAC) and


mobileairconditioning(MAC)equipmentareprojectedtodecreasefromabout6to1
GtCO2eq over the period of 2002 to 2015, mainly due to atmospheric release and
partlyduetoendofliferecoveryanddestruction(IPCC2005).

HFCbankshavestartedtobuildupandareprojectedtoreachabout5GtCO2eqin
2015.Ofthese,HFCsbankedinfoamsrepresentonly0.6GtCO2eq.Figure1.6.shows
the relative contribution of each sectors to global direct greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions that are related to the use of ODSs and their substitutes. Refrigeration
applications, together with SAC and MAC, contribute to the bulk of global direct
GHG emissions in line with the higher emission rates associated with refrigerant
banks(IPCC2005).

In refrigeration applications, direct GHG emissions can be reduced by 10% to 30%.


For the refrigeration sector as a whole, the Mitigation Scenario shows an overall
direct emission reduction of about 490 MtCO2eq per year by 2015, with about 400
MtCO2eq per year predicted for commercial refrigeration. Specific costs are in the
range of 10 to 300 US$/tCO2eq. Improved system energy efficiency can also
significantlyreduceindirectGHGemissions(IPCC2005).

Table1.1.providesanestimateofthedirectandindirectCO2emissionslinkedwith
each of the market subsegments. The data shows that indirect CO2 emissions
represent a much larger global warming impact than the direct HFC emissions.
UndertheBusinessasusualScenariotheindirectCO2contributionis84%ofthetotal
equivalent warming impact (TEWI) for refrigeration and airconditioning. Air
conditioningandchillersrepresent6%ofdirectemissions(MCG1998).

10

Chapter1.Introduction

Table1.1.EUEmissionsin2010,BusinessasUsualScenario,Comparisonofdirectand
indirectemissions,refrigerationandairconditioning(MCG1998)

MarketSegment
SupermarketRefrigeration
Mobileairconditioning
IndustrialRefrigeration
Airconditioning,DX
systems
SmallCommercial
Distributed
DomesticRefrigeration
TransportRefrigeration
Airconditioning,chillers
OtherSmallHermetic
TOTALEMISSIONS

GlobalWarmingEmission,MtonnesCO2
DirectHFC
IndirectCO2 TotalGlobal
Emissions
Emissions
Warming
Impact
9
23
32
8,9
14
22,9
3,4
25
28,4
2,6
10
12,6

%ofGW
impactrelated
toenergyuse

1,8

12

13,8

87%

0,8
0,7
0,7
0,3
28,2

30
6
12
12
144

30,8
6,7
12,7
12,3
172,2

97%
90%
94%
98%
84%

72%
61%
88%
79%

Although the intention of the EU is to decrease the need for heating and cooling of
buildings by using passive technologies, improved insulation and energy efficiency
technologies, the airconditioner world market is still expanding and the sales have
beenestimatedatabout39.7millionsofunitsin2000,amongwhich29,9millionsare
room air conditioners (RAC) and 9,8 millions are Central air conditioners (CAC)
(CENERG2005).

Europeisresponsibleforonly6%ofinstalledairconditioningequipmentworldwide.
However,theairconditioningmarketinEuropeisexpandingquicklyinrecentyears
(Figure 1.7. and Figure 1.8.), and room air conditioners are more widespread in the
tertiarysector.Marketresearchshowsthatonly27%oftheEuropeantertiarysector
and5%oftheresidentialsectorareequippedwithroomairconditioners.(CENERG
2005).Therefore,itcanbeconcludedthatthemarketisfarawayfromsaturated.

11


Figure1.7.AnnualadditionalbuildingfloorareaconditionedbyCACform1980to2000,
forEU(CENERG2005)

Figure1.8.AnnualadditionalbuildingfloorareaconditionedbyCACfrom1980to2000by
countries(CENERG2005)

OnecanseefromtheFigure1.8.thatSpainandItaly,beingMediterraneancountries,
representmorethan50%oftheEUmarket.

Mostspecialistsareoftheopinionthatvapourcompressionsystemsarelikelytobe
the dominating trend over the next 20 years (IIR 2002). The challenge remains to

12

Chapter1.Introduction

develop vapourcompression systems that are environmentally friendly, energy


efficient, robust and sustainable, costeffective and safe for users. Bearing in mind
these challenges, some of the objectives that the International Institute of
Refrigerationsetforthenext20years,with2000asabaselineare:

toreduceenergyconsumptionby30%to50%

tohalverefrigerantleakage

toimproveLCCP(LifeCycleClimatePerformance)by30%to50%

toreducetherefrigerantchargeby30%to50%(IIR2002)

However, defining quantitative objectives is useful only if reliable benchmarks are


defined and validated. In this research, benchmarks for existing hotels were
established.Bydoingso,validatingproposedadvancedtechnologieswaspossible.

Technologies using vapourcompression systems that can meet the objectives stated
aboveandproposedbyIIRare:
-

sustainablebuildingthatcanbeachievedonlyifenergyefficiencyistaken
intoaccountrightfromthebeginningofthedesignprocess.

heatpumps(IIR2002).

Presentlyabout130millionheatpumpswithathermaloutputof1300TWh/yrarein
operation worldwide, reducing CO2 emissions by about 0,13 Gt/yr (Halozan, 2004).
Heat pump technology is considered to be one of the key players for energy
conservation and CO2 reduction. Considering a 30% market penetration of the
buildingsectorinthecomingyears,usingcurrentlyavailabletechnologies,potential
savings in worldwide CO2 emissions are estimated at 6%. This 6% is among the
largest contributions to CO2 reduction a single currently available technology can
offer.

13

One of the technologies that can also contribute to CO2 emission savings on the
Adriatic coast in the heating season is assumed to be heat pump technology. The
same system will be used in the cooling season which will additionally decrease
investmentcosts.

Improvingtheenergyefficiencyofrefrigerationsystemsisnotdifficultandshouldbe
encouraged because of its environmental benefits (IIR 2003). Therefore, all
components in vapour compression systems (compressor, condenser, expansion
device,evaporator,andinterconnectingpiping)shouldbeoptimizedandefficient.
In order to combat global warming, the main strategies are; reduction of energy
consumption,reduction of refrigerantemissions,research anddevelopmenton new
refrigerantsandnotinkind(NIK)technologies,newdevelopmentsinthecoldchain
andnewdevelopmentsinairconditioningandheatingsystems(IIR2002).

Promising technologies that will play important roles in ensuring sustainable


developmentusingnonvapourcompressionsystemsare:

Absorption and adsorption cooling systems, which quite often are fuel
fired.Lowenergyefficiencyisstillthemajordrawbackofthistechnology

Solarrefrigerationandcoolingshouldbegivenpriority

Trigeneration (combined cooling, heat and power) has considerable


benefits from and energy standpoint. The development of high
performanceabsorptionplantswillenhancethebenefitssuchsystem(IIR
2002).

However, the vapour compression cycle is thought to remain the most important
technology.Forthelongterm,thereremainsonlyfiveimportantrefrigerantoptions
for the vapour compression cycle for the refrigeration and A/C sectors, listed
alphabetically(UNEP2003):

14

Chapter1.Introduction

ammonia(R717)

carbondioxide(R744)

hydrocarbonsandblends(HCs,e.g.HC290,HC600,Hc600aetc.)

hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs,HFCblends)

water(R718)

General solution strategies for airconditioning and sustainable buildings according


toASHRAE/IESNA(IIR2002)are:

considerenergyefficiencyfromtheoutsetofthebuildingdesignprocess;

seektheactiveparticipationfrommembersofthedesignteamsincluding
architects,engineersandbuilders;

consider building attributes such as function, form, orientation,


window/wallratioandHVACsystemtypesearlyinthedesignprocess;

minimiseheatingandcoolingloadsbyanalysingtheexternalandinternal
loadsforbothpeakandpartialloadconditions;

considerhowtoreclaim,redistributeandstoreenergyforlateruse;

transportingenergyfromproductionandavailabilitysourcestolocations
ofdemandshouldbeconsideredinsteadofpurchasingadditionalenergy;

never reject waste energy at temperatures usable for space conditioning


withoutcalculatingthebenefitsofenergyrecoveryorereuse;

make use of heat pumps to upgrade waste heat to the temperature level
requiredforfurtheruse;

maintaininggoodindoorairquality(IAQ)byintroducingtheoutsideair
flow recommended by standards. The energy cost for greater quantities
canbedisproportionate;

apply new concepts such as lowtemperature heating and high


temperaturecooling;

usedesignsolutionsthatareeasilyunderstoodbybuildingoccupants.

15

PrinciplesofdesignforbuildingenvelopeaccordingtoASHRAE/IESNAare:

thebuildingdesignshouldattempttooffsetgainsandlossesofheat,light
and moisture between the interior and exterior of the building, among
interiorspacesandovertime;

in energy design, the desired goal should be to produce a controlled


membrane that allows or prevents heat, light and moisture flow so as to
achieveabalancebetweeninternalandexternalloads.Thustheenvelope
becomes an integral part of the buildings environmental conditioning
system;

traditional building components must be used insulation, caulking,


weatherstrippingandsolarshadingdevices;

thermal conductivity should be controlled through the use of insulation,


thermalmassand/orphasechangethermalstorageatlevelsthatminimise
netheatingandcooling.

PrinciplesofdesignforairconditioningsystemsaccordingtoASHRAE/IESNA:

Major heatgenerating equipment (computer centres, kitchen areas, etc.)


should,whenpractical,belocatedwhereitcanoffsetheatlosses;

The supply of zone cooling and heating should be sequenced to prevent


the simultaneous operation of heating and cooling systems for the same
space;

Controls should be provided to allow systems to operate in an occupied


andunoccupiedmode(IIR2002).

Ammonia and the hydrocarbons (HCs) used as halocarbon substitutes have


atmospheric lifetimes ranging from days to months, and the direct and indirect
radiativeforcingassociatedwiththeiruseisverylikelytohaveanegligibleeffecton
global climate. Changes in energyrelated emissions associated with their use may
also need to be considered (IPCC 2005). Although ammonia, hydrocarbons and
16

Chapter1.Introduction

natural working fluids are suggested for future application, they cannot be used
safely in all applications and circumstances. The risks to be managed generally
increasewithincreasingchargeandproximitytopeople.Thecostofsafetymeasures
required for highly flammable or toxic refrigerants, which may involve system
redesign, might be more effectively invested in improved HFC systems (Arthur D.
Little2002).

Observations and model calculations suggest that the global average amount of
ozonedepletionhasnowapproximatelystabilized.Althoughconsiderablevariability
in ozone is expected from year to year, including polar regions where depletion is
more significant, the ozone layer is expected to begin recovering in the coming
decades due to declining ODS concentrations, assuming full compliance with the
MontrealProtocol(IPCC2005).

Figure1.9.showssectoralreductionpotentialsfordirectemissionsofCFCs,HCFCs
and HFCs in 2015 as compared to the BAU (business as usual) projections. The
overall reduction potential is about half (1,2 GtCO2eq per year) of the BAU direct
GHG emissions. Direct GHG emissions of residential and commercial air
conditioning and heating equipment (SAC) can be reduced by about 200 MtCO2eq
peryearby2015relativetotheBAUscenario.Specificcostsrangefrom3to170US$/
tCO2eq. When combined with improvements in system energy efficiencies, which
reduceindirectGHGemissions,inmanycases,netfinancialbenefitsaccrue.

17

Sectoral Emissions Reduction Potentials 2015

HFC-23 Byproduct
25%

Medical Aerosols
1%

Dom estic
Refrigeration
3%
Com m ercial
Refrigeration
34%

Foam s
1%

Mobile Air
Conditioning
15%

Stationary Air
Conditioning
17%

Transport
Refrigeration
1%
Industrial
Refrigeration
3%

Figure1.9.SectoralreductionpotentialsfordirectemissionsofCFCs,HCFCsandHFCsin
2015ascomparedtotheBAUprojections(IPCC2005)

Opportunities elaborated in International Panel for Climate Change report (IPCC


2005)toreducedirectGHG(i.e.,refrigerant)emissionscanbefoundin:

more efficient recovery of refrigerant at endoflife (in the Mitigation


Scenario assumed to be 50% and 80% for developing and developed
countries,respectively);

refrigerantchargereduction(upto20%);

bettercontainmentand

the use of refrigerants with reduced or negligible GWPs9 in suitable


applications.

Improvingtheintegrityofthebuildingenvelope(reducedheatgainorloss)canhave
a significant impact on indirect emissions. HFC mixtures and hydrocarbons (HCs)
(forsmallsystems)areusedasalternativesforHCFC22indevelopedcountries.For

GWPGlobalwarmingpotential

18

Chapter1.Introduction

those applications where HCs can be safely applied, the energy efficiency is
comparabletofluorocarbonrefrigerants.Futuretechnicaldevelopmentscouldreduce
refrigerantcharge,expandingtheapplicabilityofHCs.

DuetotheactionsundertakenworldwideasacommitmenttotheMontrealProtocol,
changesinHVAC&Rsectorsoverthelastfewyearsareimpressiveandabroadrange
of options enabling the use of nonozonedepleting substances in now available.
Refrigerationequipmentandrefrigerantsneededinbuildingsforthetourismsector
are rapidly evolving in order to comply with regulations on ozonedepleting
substances (ODS) and regulations or draft regulations on climate change. Although
HCFCsareforbiddeninnewinstallationsfrom19962004,dependingonapplications,
andwillbebannedforservicingfrom2010.Ontheglobalscale8590%ofaircooled
airconditionersproducedin2000werestillusingHCFC22asarefrigerant(EC2000,
IIR 2002). A significant shift to nonODS alternatives has been observed in Europe
and Japan. A shift of approximately 5% has been seen in the US (UNEP 2003).
Unfortunately, in recent years the majority of installed refrigeration equipment in
Croatia uses HCFC refrigerants. The questionnaire which was conducted for the
purposesofthisresearchhasshownthat90%ofrefrigerationequipmentinhotelsare
charged with HCFC22 (see details in Chapter 3). However, HCFCs are banned for
newinstallationinCroatiawithanewbylawfromOctober20th,2005,whileservicing
willbealloweduntil2015(MZOPU2005a).

GWP,TEWI,LCCPandCOP

GlobalWarmingPotential(GWP)isthemeasureofhowgreenhousegasesimpacton
globalwarming.Itisdefinedasbeingradiativeforcingcausedbyasubstanceovera
specificperiod.GWPisexpressedwithrespecttotheradiativeforcingexertedbythe
same quantity of CO2, used as reference gas. This definition enables comparison of
various gases with variable atmospheric lifetimes. GWPs are calculated for specific

19

time horizons (20,100 or 500 years). The 100year time horizon is the most widely
used.Figure1.10.showstheGWPofthemostcommonlyusedrefrigerants(IIR2002).

Figure1.10.GlobalWarmingPotential(100yr)ofseveralHFCs,HCFCsandCFCs(IIR2002)

However, the use of GWP measurements has its limitations; GWP measurements
provide information on the properties of a gas, but do not make it possible to
quantifytheoverallgreenhouseeffectofarefrigeratingplantusingtherefrigerantin
question(IIR2002).

TheatmosphericlifetimesrangefromaboutayeartotwodecadesformostHFCsand
HCFCs;decadestocenturiesforsomeHFCsandmosthalonsandCFCs,and1000to
50,000yearsforPFCs.DirectGWPforhalocarbonsrangefrom5toover10,000years
(IPCC2005).

Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is a concept introduced in 1989. It takes


into account, not only direct, but also indirect emissions of greenhouse gases
attributed to refrigerating plant. The mean values concerning direct and indirect
emissionshavebeenestimatedasfollows:

20

Chapter1.Introduction

direct emissions (leaks) of refrigerants contained in refrigerating


installations account for about 20% of the overall impact of the
refrigerationsectoronglobalwarming.

Indirect CO2 emissions generated by the production of (essentially


electrical)energyrequiredtooperaterefrigerationequipmentaccountsfor
about 80% of the overall impact of the refrigeration sector on global
warming(IIR2002).

The TEWI calculation of a refrigeration system is based on the following relation


(Arias2005):

TEWI = (M losses N + M ref (1 )) GWPref + RC E N

(1.1)

Where Mlosses is the refrigerant leakage, N is the lifetime of the refrigeration system,
Mrefistherefrigerantcharge,istherecyclingfactor,GWPrefistheGlobalWarming
Potential of the refrigerant, RC is the Regional Conversion Factor, which is the
emission of CO2 per unit of energy delivered, and E is the annual energy
consumptionoftheequipment.

Thefirstpartofequation(1.1)isthedirectimpact,whichtakesintoconsiderationthe
refrigerantleakageduringthelifetimeofthesystemandrefrigerantlossesattheend
of the systems life. The second part of the equation is the indirect impact, which
takesintoaccounttheenergyusedduringthelifetimeoftherefrigerationsystemand
the CO2 emissions from the production of electricity. The CO2 emission from
electricity generation is calculated with a Regional Conversion Factor RC, which is
theemissionofCO2perunitofenergydeliveredinkgCO2/kWh(Arias2005).

Theregionalconversionfactorvariesfromcountrytocountryduetotheefficiencyof
powerplantsandtheregionalfuelmix.TheaverageofCO2emissionsfromacarbon
21

power plant is about 1.11 [kgCO2/kWh], from and oil power plant is about 0.77
[kgCO2/kWh], from a gas power plant is about 0.55 [kgCO2/kWh] andfrom nuclear
and hydroelectric power plants is 0.00 [kgCO2/kWh] (Arias 2005). The regional
conversionfactorforCroatiain2002wasquitelow,0,302[kgCO2/kWh]duetohigh
ratioofhydropowerintotalelectricpowerproduction.

LifeCycleClimatePerformance(LCCP)isaconceptthatemergedmorerecentlyand
enablesamorecomprehensiveevaluation.Itcoversallemissionsthroughoutthelife
cycle of the installation, including emissions occurring during the manufacturing of
various chemical installation components, as well as emissions occurring during
scrappingorrecyclingofitscomponents(IIR2002).

Theenergyefficiencyofrefrigerationandairconditioningplantsismeasuredusing
the coefficient of performance (COP). This COP describes the relationship between
the refrigeration capacity provided by the plan and the energy consumed by the
compressor. The COP of a typical commercial vapourcompression refrigeration
plant, operating with a temperature lift of about 40 K between condenser and
evaporator, is roughly three. The COP of a refrigeration plant using absorption
technology for a conventional systems is often about 0.7. However it is possible to
reach a COP equal to 1.5 with new advanced multieffect systems (IIR 2002).
Comparing theoretical COP values, the COP of R410A (HFC) is approximately 6%
lessthanthatofHCFC22.(ArthurD.Little2002).

Todayschilleruses,onaverage,35%lesselectricitythanchillersproducedjusttwo
decades ago and the best chiller today use half the electricity of the average 1976
chiller. Building owners can typically expect a three to five year payback on
investmentbyreplacinganoldCFCchillerforanylocationthatcoolformorethan3
monthsayear(UNEP2004).

22

Chapter1.Introduction

Ifoneconsidersarefrigerationplantrunningonelectricity,itisimportanttobearin
mindthattheefficiencyofmostelectricpowerplantsusingfossilfuelssuchascoal,
oil and natural gas is, at best, 40%. However new combined gasvapour plants can
reachupto60%(IIR2002).

The refrigeration and airconditioning sectors consume about 15% of all electricity
consumed worldwide. Therefore the importance of achieving optimal energy
efficiency for refrigerating and airconditioning plants is significant. Beyond the
positiveimpactontheearthsenergyresources,byimprovingtheenergyefficiencyof
installationspositiveeffectsareachievedontheindirectemissionsofCO2,whichisa
severebyproductoftherefrigerationsectoronthegreenhouseandglobalwarming
effects(IIR2002).

1.1.2. Energyuseintertiarybuildings

Since1/3oftheenergyusedinnonindustrialbuildingsisusedintertiarybuildings
(schools, hospitals, offices, hotels, restaurants, shops), which accounts for 1/4 of the
nonindustrial buildings. It is then obvious that hotels and other tourist facilities
accountsforabigpartoftheoverallenergyconsumption(ECBCS2002).

Forthetertiarysector,Figure1.11.,theimportanceofspaceheatingisobvioussinceit
accounts for 52% of the total consumption. This is somewhat lower than in
households (57%), while energy consumption for lighting and other equipment is
14%and16%respectively(EC2001a).

23

Energy consumption by end use in EU tertiary buildings

Water heating
9%

Cooking
5%

Lighting
14%
Cooling
4%

Space heating
52%

Other
16%

Figure1.11.EnergyconsumptioninthetertiarysectorinEU(EC2001a)

The share of central air conditioning equipment within the tertiary sector is
illustrated in Figure 1.12. where the office sector is dominating but hotels still
representapproximately8to22%,dependingonthecountry.

Figure1.12.ShareofCACinstalledbytertiarysectorforsixcountries(CENERG2005)

Depending ofthetypeofairconditioningequipment,divided in5groups as;room


air conditioning (RAC), chillers, split units, roof top units and variable volume
24

Chapter1.Introduction

systems,researchhasshownthat90%ofhotelsintheEUareequippedwithroomair
conditioningunitsandchillers.(Figure1.13.andFigure1.14)

Figure1.13.Shareofinstalledequipmentbysector(CENERG2005)

Figure1.14.Shareofinstalledequipmentbytype(CENERG2005)

Marketandsectorresearchhasshownthatcooledfloorspacewillcontinuetogrow.
FromtheFigure1.15.onecanseethatpredictedgrowthrateforthehotelsectorinthe
next15yearsisapproximately40%.

25


Figure1.15.Estimatedgrowthofcooledfloorareabysectorby2020(CENERG2005)

Estimated average number of equivalent operating hours for air conditioning


equipmentatfullload,byclimaticzoneisgiveninTable1.2.

Table 1.2. Average number of operating hours for air conditioning equipment (CENERG
2005)
Country City
Trades
Offices Hotels Residences
Austria
Salzburg
177
193
235
74
Austria
Vienna
134
147
176
55
France
Carpentras 1414
1307
595
547
France
Limoges
790
726
314
212
France
Trappes
752
625
262
156
Germany Middle
431
383
236
168
Germany North
199
187
115
87
Greece
Athens
984
729
1530
741
Greece
Theso
859
891
1175
480
Italy
Cagliari
1265
993
898
822
Italy
Milano
1017
727
726
615
Italy
Napoli
1366
966
1097
833
Portugal Lisbon
1226
931
413
611
Spain
Murcia
2157
1402
1870
1049
Spain
Oviedo
678
300
382
143
UK
London
230
276
331
94
Average
1019
803
768
519

26

Chapter1.Introduction

Inmuchofthedevelopedworld,airconditioninghasbecomealmostanecessity.In
the U.S. more than 90% of newly constructed housing units are centrally air
conditioned.TwothirdsofalldwellingunitsintheU.S.havecentralairconditioning
and another onethird have one or more room air conditioners. Virtually all
commercialbuildingspaceintheU.S.isairconditioned(ArthurD.Little2002).

1.1.3. Energyconsumptioninhotels

The world Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg 2002,


acknowledgedtourismasoneofthemajorenergyconsumingsectorsandrequested
statestointegrateenergyefficiencyintotourismrelatedpolices.Othersectionsinthe
WSSD plans for implementation are dedicated to sustainable tourism, energy
conservation and emission control, and the special need for effective conservation
and management of natural resources in Small Island Developing States (UNEP
2003).

Thetourismindustryhasgrownrapidlytobecomeoneofthelargestbusinesssectors
intheworldeconomy,employinginexcessof200millionpeopleworldwidein2002.
The industrys rapid growth, however, has placed a heavy burden on local
economies, cultures and environments. With current energy sources, carbon
emissions are quite high. According to the European Environmental Agency (EEA)
tourismisresponsiblefor57%oftotalemissionsinEurope.Itisestimatedthat90%
oftheenergyconsumptionintourismtodayisspentontransportation(UNEP2003).

Overthelastdecadethegrowthofelectricityconsumptioninmanyhotelshasbeenin
the range of 2530%. This increase may be attributes to the growing number of
facilities, more demanding standards of accommodation (TVsets, minibars and air
conditioningunitsinallrooms),aswellasdevelopmentoftheoperatingequipment

27

(electric heating and cooking, cold rooms, elevators and escalators, accounting,
computing and control equipment). On the other hand, the shift to more efficient
equipmentandlightinghasrecentlybeenobservedinmanyworldregions.Inspiteof
this, it is estimated that the energy demand may further increase by 1025% in the
comingyears(Bohdanowicz2003).

Europeanhotelsconsumeapproximately39TWh/year(CHOSE2001).Dependingon
the source of energy (hydro, wind, nuclear, oil, or coal based) hotels can be
responsible for the annual generation of up to 160 kg of carbon dioxide per square
meter of area, which is equivalent to 10 tons of CO2 per bedroom (Bohdanowicz,
Martinac 2003). Energy consumption in hotels compared with total energy
consumptioninthecountryisgiveninTable1.3.Ifonecompareenergyconsumption
inthehotelsectorinCroatia(seeChapter3fordetails)andtotalenergyconsumption
of the country, it can be seen that this sector has a share of 1,14% of the total
electricityconsumptioninthecountryand0,43%ofthetotalenergyconsumption.It
has been expected that due to tourism growth energy consumption in 7 coastal
countiescouldgrowby7.5%peryear(Hrastnik,Frankovi2001),whichmeansthat
energydemandintheregionwillbedoubledby2010.
Table1.3.Energyconsumptioninhotels

Numberof
hotels

USAin2000
EUin2000
Swedenin
2001
Croatiain
2002

28

197000
(Bohdanowicz2003)
1976

393(coastal
region90%of
totalnumberof
hotels)

Energyconsumption
inhotels

55,6TWh
(Bohdanowicz2003)
39TWh
(CHOSE2001)
3,2TWh(forheating
andcooling)
(Bohdanowicz2003)
180,23GWh
(electricity)
445,1GWh(total
energy)

Totalenergy
consumptionin
thecountry
28413TWh
(Bohdanowicz2003)
16406TWh
(Bohdanowicz2003)
398TWh
(Bohdanowicz2003)
15,81TWh
electricity
104,5TWhtotal
en(MGRP2004)

Ratioofenergy
consumptionin
hotelsovertotal
energy
consumption
0,19%
0,23%

1,14%

0,43%

Chapter1.Introduction

Energyconsumptioninhotelsaccountsforbetween3%and6%ofthetotalrunning
costs (IMPIVA 1994). The magnitude of energy costs are second only to that of the
staff (CHOSE 2001). An interesting parallel with another energy intensive area is
supermarkets,whereenergyconsumptionaccountsfor1%ofthetotalturnover.Since
theprofitis3%oftheturnover,a50%reductionofenergyconsumptiongivesa15%
increase in profit. Electricity consumption in large supermarkets in the US and in
Franceis estimatedto be4%,whilein Sweden its3%ofthenationalelectricity use
(Arias2005).

Analysis of energy costs in 49 hotels on the Adriatic coast in 1997, has shown that
electricity,heatingoilandwatercostscontributeeachwithapproximately32%,while
gascostsareapproximately3%(Kurek2002).

Astudyconductedamongst20hotelsintheregionofRijekacity,ownedbyLiburnija
Riviera Hotels (LRH) showed that the ratio of energy costs over total costs was
changingfrom1982to2001intherangeof2,94%(1989)to6,51%(2001).Intheyears
from19982001therewasacontinuousincreaseinenergycosts.Withregardtowater
cost there is also an increase from 0,85% of the total cost in 1989 to 2,79% in 2001
(Holjevac2003).Energycostsperguestnightsweintherangeof1,62,3EUR/guest
night(1217KN/guestnight)(Holjevac2002).

Construction costs for HVAC and electrical systems for one guest room are in the
rangeof1012%and1113%respectively,whileforpublicareasareintherangefrom
1618%and810%(Bohdanowicz2003).

29

Table 1.4. Typical parameters regarding energy consumption in different types of hotels
(IMPIVA1994)
Efficiencyrating
Good
Fair
Poor
V.Poor
A)Largehotels(morethan150rooms)withairconditioning,laundry&indoorswimmingpool

Electricity(kWh/m2year)
Fuel(kWh/m2year)
Total(kWh/m2year)
Water(kWh/m2year)

<165
<200
<365
<220

165200
200240
365440
230280

200250
240300
440550
280320

>250
>300
>550
>320

B)Mediumsizedhotels(50150rooms)withoutlaundry,withheating&airconditioninginsomeareas

Electricity(kWh/m2year)
Fuel(kWh/m2year)
Total(kWh/m2year)
Water(kWh/m2year)

<70
<190
<260
<160

7090
190230
260320
160185

90120
230260
320380
185220

>120
>260
>380
>220

C)Smallhotels(450rooms)withoutlaundry,withheating&airconditioninginsomeareas

Electricity(kWh/m2year)
Fuel(kWh/m2year)
Total(kWh/m2year)
Water(kWh/m2year)

<60
<180
<240
<120

6080
180210
240290
120140

80100
210240
290340
140160

>100
>240
>340
>160

There are a number of factors that influence the energy consumption in hotels, and
someofthemare:hotelsize,category,servicesoffered,occupancy,operationalhours,
shapeandlocationofthebuilding,climate,ageofthebuilding,energyefficiencyof
energysystems,aswellasofenergymanagementofthehotel.Thereforeitisdifficult
to make standard classifications of energy consumption in hotels. However, it is
possibletoestablishatypicalmodelindicatingthemainareasofenergyconsumption
as it is shown in Table 1.4. Typical values of energy consumption in Mediterranean
countryhotels,whereCroatiabelongs,arepresentedinTable1.5.

Table1.5.AverageyearlyenergyuseintensityforhotelbuildingsinkWh/m2(Bohdanowicz
2003,CHOSE2001)

Energyconsumptionin
kWh/m2
Averageenergy
consumptioninkWh/m2

30

Greece

Cyprus

Portugal

Italy

72519

103370

99444.6

249436

289,9

272,6

296,4

364,4

Chapter1.Introduction

Therearenumerousresearcheswhichhaveshownthatthesourceofapproximately
50% of the energy consumption in hotels is due to thermal comfort. Figure 1.16.
illustrates the main energy enduses within a hotel and their share in total energy
consumption.Howeverthisdatacanvarydependingonhotelcategoryandseasonal
operation.

Lighting
7%
Heating & air
conditioning
48%

Others
7%
DHW
13%

Catering
25%

Figure1.16.Energyconsumptionbyendusersinahotel(CADDET1997)

The European research project REST (Renewable energy and sustainable tourism)
gaveamoredetailedenergyenduserbreakdownwhichisshowninFigure1.17.
Energy end-users

Laundry
4.4%
Kitchen
10.9%

Office
0.3%

Lighting, TV &
radio
3.7%

Ventilation
1.1%

Other
unidentified
10.6%

Room heating
and hot water
63.1%

Air conditioning
5.9%

Figure1.17.Energyconsumptionbyendusersinahotel(REST2005)

31

Table 1.6. illustrates the estimated distribution of energy consumption for each
activityorservice.Thetypeofhotelanalysedisa3starestablishmentlocatedinthe
climaticzoneofSouthernEuropewith,120rooms,atotalareaof5000m2,openyear
round,with50000guestsperyearandwiththreeelevatorsinthebuilding.Inorder
to compare the different energy consumption ratios, hotels with and without
restaurantandairconditioningareconsidered(IMPIVA1994).

Table1.6.Distributionofenergyconsumptionforeachactivityorservice(IMPIVA1994)

Withair
conditioning
throughout
WithRestaurant

Withair
conditioning
throughout

Without
Restaurant
Concept
40000servings/yr
Heating
12%
13%
Airconditioning 10.6%
12%
Lighting
11.8%
13.3%
DHW
34.3%
38.7%
Equipment
19.5%
22%
Kitchen
12.5%

Total
(171kWh/m2)
(150kWh/m2)

Withair
conditioningonlyin
commonareas
WithRestaurant
40000servings/yr
13.7%
8.6%
10.6%
38.7%
14%
14.1%
(150kWh/m2)

Withair
conditioningonly
incommonareas
Without
Restaurant

16%
10%
12.4%
45%
16.3%

(128kWh/m2)

Thisresearchwillgiveanswerstowhatistheaverageenergyconsumptioninhotels
on the Adriatic coast, depending on hotel category and seasonal/whole year
operation.

AlthoughTourismstrategytill2010(documentadoptedbyCroatiagovernmentin
November2003)statedthatthetourismsectorshouldcontributetothepreservation
of natural resources and operate according to ecological standards and principles
(MINT2003a).Therewere noactions followingthesestatementsinlast 3yearsthat
couldbeanexampleofgoodpracticeamongthehotelindustryinCroatia.According
to national strategy, the unfavourable structure of commercial accommodation

32

Chapter1.Introduction

capacity should be changed while guest occupancy from the current 35% should
increasetoatleast5055%inshorttermand60%inthelongterm.

Recent years have seen a rise in the number of airconditioning systems on the
Adriatic coast and especially in hotels which are undergoing the process of new
categorization;anevidentincreaseinqualityoftouristproducts.Asaconsequenceto
increaseofnumberofinstalledcoolingsystems,theenergyconsumptionwillfurther
grow.

1.1.4. EnergyinCroatia

Achieved gross electricity consumption in 2003 amounted to 15,5618 TWh. Total


primaryenergysupplyin2003increasedby5,2%comparedtothesupplyrealisedin
thepreviousyearwithatotalof395,94PJ(110TWh)(MGRP2004).

Figure 1.18. shows the individual energy share in the total consumption. In 2003,
liquid fuels accounted for the largest share. It is estimated that the share of liquid
fuels will gradually decrease till 2030. The next largest share in 2003, was that of
naturalgas,slightlyabove25%.However,increaseisestimatedforthefuture.Dueto
hydrologicalconditions,hydropowersharehasdecreased,andthistrendisexpected
tocontinueaswell.Importedelectricityparticipatedwith3,5%.Futuredevelopment
of the power system in the Republic of Croatia is expected to meet the domestic
demandwithdomesticproduction.

33

Shares in total Primary Energy Supply for 2003

Hydro Power
11.7%

Electricity
3.5%

Coal and Coke


6.6%
Fuel Wood
4.0%

Natural Gas
25.4%

Liquid Fuels
48.7%

Figure1.18.SharesintotalprimaryenergysupplyinCroatiafor2003(MGRP2004)

In2003,domesticprimaryenergyproductionmet46,4%ofdomesticenergyneeds.
Thedecreasingtrendinselfsupplyisrecordedandexpectedtocontinueinthefuture
sothatby2030itmightjustexceed20percent.

In 2003 the total energy supply per capita amounted to 2129 kg of oil equivalent.
ComparedtothematchingcategoryintheEuropeanUnionitwas46,6%lower,while
electricity demand per capita in Croatia is 51,8% lower compared to the European
average(EU15)(MGRP2004).

In the last six years gross electricity consumption and net electricity consumption
increasedbyanaverageannualrateof3%and3,3%respectively.Ontheotherhand,
primaryenergyproductionin2003continuedalongadecreasingtrend.Finalenergy
demand structure for 2003 is shown in the Figure 1.19. Other sectors (including
households, services, agriculture and building construction) participated with the
largest share with 48,5%, which increased compared to the previous year by 8%.
Demand for all forms of energy show an increase, except electricity demand which
remainedatthesamelevel.
34

Chapter1.Introduction

Shares of sectors in final energy demand in 2003

Industry
21.2%
Other sectors
48.5%

Transport
30.3%

Figure1.19.SharesofSectorsinFinalEnergyDemandinCroatiafor2003(MGRP2004)

Figure1.20.presentsdataonfinalenergydemandinsubsectorsforthe2003.In2003
all subsectors have recorded a increase in energy demand. The construction sector
saw the largest increase of 28,9%, while important increases were also recorded in
householdandservicesectors8,2and6,6%respectively(Table1.7.).
Energy Forms Shares in Final Energy Demand in Other
Sectors

Agriculture
8.9%

Construction
4.4%

Services
21.5%

Households
65.2%

Figure1.20.EnergyformssharesinfinalEnergydemandinothersectorsfor2003(MGRP
2004)

35

Table1.7.Finalenergydemandinothersectorsbysubsectors(MGRP2004)
1998. 1999. 2000. 2001. 2002. 2003. 2003./02. 1998.

03.
PJ
%
Households
66,14 71,05 69,63 69,70 72,32 78,27 8,2
3,4
Services
19,44 19,95 19,73 22,71 24,28 25,88 6,6
5,9
Agriculture
11,90 11,80 12,09 11,36 10,54 10,67 1,2
2,2
Construction
4,72
4,36
4,08
4,19
4,11
5,29
28,9
2,3
Totalothersectors 102,20 107,16 105,53 107,96 111,25 120,11 8,0
3,3

Statistics for the service sector, to which to hotels belong, show that electricity, gas
and extra light fuel oil consumption in 2003 increased by 7,3%, 4,7% and 2,2%
respectivelycomparedto2002.(MGRP2004).

Although Croatia has signed the Kyoto Protocol, it has still not been ratified by
Parliament.AsacandidatecountryfortheEU,ratificationmightoccursoon.Onceit
comesintoforce,Croatiawillbeobligedtoreducegreenhousegasemissionsby5%in
theperiodfrom2008to2012,comparedto1990levels,thereferenceyear.Observing
greenhouse gas CO2 separately from the other gasses, and accordingly distributing
proportional Kyoto obligations, CO2 emissions in 2003 have already exceeded the
Kyotolimit.TheforeseendifficultiesinmeetingtheKyotoProtocolareaconsequence
ofaverylowCO2emissioninthereferenceyearwhencomparedtoothermembersof
the appendix and UNFCCC Convention. A low emission rate is the result of a
considerable share of hydro power and natural gas in the electricity generation
network,largeimportsofelectricity(fromtheneighbouringcountrieswhereCroatia
investedinpowerproductionaspartofthepreviousstate),generationofelectricity
and thermal energy in cogeneration facilities, small number of energy intensive
industryfacilitiesandlowenergyconsumptionpercapita(MGRP2004).

Croatia as a South European, Mediterranean country has a high potential for solar
energy,butunfortunatelyinenergysummarybalancefor2003,theratioofsolarand
wind energy was 0%. Biomass, with 381,1 thousand toe (3,363 TWh) and hydro

36

Chapter1.Introduction

energyinamountof424,4thousandtoe(4,936TWh),contribute9,6%an10,7%inthe
totalprimaryenergyproductionandwith4,2%and4,7%oftotalenergyconsumption
in Croatia. In February 2005, the first wind power station with a capacity of 5 MW
was connected to the grid, but increases in solar energy utilization are still slow
(MGRP2004).

AccordingtotheEUsRenewablesDirective2001/77/ECofSeptember27th2001onthe
promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal
electricity market, the EU should double the share of overall renewable energy
production from 6% to 12% by 2010. It also aims to increase the share of electricity
producedfromrenewableenergysources(RES)intheEUto22,1%by2010(upfrom
15.2%in2001),(EC2001b).

Another EU directive that is aimed to decrease the environmental impact of energy


consumption is Directive 2006/32/EC on energy enduse efficiency and energy
services.Thisdirectivehasforobjectivetoincreaseenduseenergyefficiency.Oneof
these measures is to develop the market for energy services, thus making energy
efficiencyanintegralpartoftheinternalmarketforenergy.Thedirectivecoversretail
supply and distribution of extensive netbound energy carriers, such as electricity
andnaturalgas,togetherwithotherimportantenergytypes,suchasdistrictheating,
heatingfuel,coalandlignite,forestryandagriculturalenergyproductsandtransport
fuels.Thedirectiveincludesatargetof1%cumulativesavingsatMemberStatelevel
as a means of measuring energy efficiency improvements and reaching sufficient
marketdemandforenergyservices(EC2006).

In a few years to come Croatia will have to set targets that will comply with these
directives. One of the areas that might contribute to fulfilling these targets will be
servicesectorwherethehotelindustrybelongs.

37

1.1.5. Trendsinnumberoftourismaccommodationcapacitiesand
qualityofservices

Touristarrivalsgrowth
International tourism is one of the most expanding fields of the world economy.
Europe,andparticularlytheMediterranean,stillremainsthemostimportanttourist
destinationandmajortouristmarket(HGK2004).

WorldsandEuropeanaverageannualgrowthrateininternationaltouristarrivalsfor
theperiodof19952002is3,6%and3,1%respectively(WTO2005a).However,Croatia
isrankedamong30countriesthatgrewataratedoubletothatoftheworldaverage
inthesameperiod.Croatiahadanetincreaseof5.459.000touristarrivalsinyear2002
comparedto1995thatrepresentsanannualgrowthof24,7%.Therehavebeen6,944
million international tourist arrivals in 2002 which represents 1% and 1,73% of the
worlds and Europes international tourist arrivals. Regarding the subregional
distribution of tourist arrivals in Europe; Western Europe leads with 35% market
share,followedbySouthernEuropewith33%(WTO2005a).

Southern Europe had the lowest increase in tourist arrivals and managed to rise by
1,5% (WTO 2005a) in 2002 compared to 2001, while Croatia increased by 6% in the
same period (HGK 2003). The World Tourism Organization predicts a 3% annual
growth rate for the Mediterranean region by 2020, where Croatia is emphasized as
one of the countries with the highest growth rates in terms of international tourist
arrivals (8.4%) (HGK 2004). In Table 1.8. one can see real and estimated annual
growth rates by 2020 in international arrivals among other countries with a
developedtouristindustryintheMediterraneanregion.

38

Chapter1.Introduction

Table1.8.Croatiavs.competitorcountries19902020.(HGK2004,HGK2005)
Internationalarrivalsinmillions

Estimated
Country
1990.
1995. 2000.
2002.
2004.
2020.
annualgrowth
ratesin%
Spain
34,1
38,8
48,0
51,7
53,6
73,9
2,6
Italy
26,7
31,1
41,2
39,8
39,5
52,5
2,1
Greece
8,9
10,1
12,5
14,2
14,1
17,1
2,1
Turkey
4,8
7,1
9,6
12,8
17,5
27,0
5,5
Croatia
7,0
1,3
5,8
6,9
9,4
10,0
8,4

Theyear2003recorded7%moretouristsand4%moreovernightstaysincomparison
with the previous years (HGK 2004). While in the year 2004 tourist arrival growth
was 6% with a total 9,4 million tourists, which confirmed estimated trends (HGK
2005).

The Croatian National Banks preliminary figures for 2003 show that international
tourism generated 22.5% of Croatian GDP. International tourism accounted for a
42.8% share of total exports of goods and services, and for 74.0% of total exported
services.Thepercapitaincomefromtourismin2003amountedtoUSD1,436(HGK
2004).

Accommodationfacilities
Worldwidecapacityofhotelsandsimilarestablishmentsreached17,4millionrooms
in2001,thatisalmost5millionmorethanin1990(37%more).Thebiggestshare,38%
oftheworldtotal,canbefoundinEuropewithabout6,6millionrooms(Figure1.21.
andFigure1.22.),ofwhich2,4millionwereinSouthernEurope.Hotelcapacityinthe
world grew on average by 3,1 % a year between 1990 and 2000, except for Europe
whereaveragegrowthwas2%(WTO2005a).

39

Number of rooms in H&S, 2001

6.6

Europe
6.1

Am ericas
3.9

Asia and the Pacific


0.5

Africa

0.4

Middle East
0

m illion

Figure1.21.Numberofroomsinhotelsandsimilarestablishmentsin2001(WTO2005a)

Rooms in H&S Market Share, 2001


Middle East
2%

Africa
3%

Europe
38%

Asia and the


Pacific
22%

Am ericas
35%

Figure1.22.Marketshareofroomsinhotelsandsimilarestablishmentsin2001(WTO
2005a)

InCroatia,touristsprevailinglystayathotels.Around34%and35%ofthemstayedat
hotelsin2003and2004respectively,accountingfor28%ofovernightstays.Secondto
hotelsarecamps,with21%oftotaltouristsand27%ofovernightstays,followedby
private accommodation (19% and 24% respectively) and marinas (8% and 2%
respectively). In 2003. Croatia had 782,651 beds, 96,607 (12.3%) of which were in
hotels, 195,514 (25.0%) in camps, 317,850 (40.6%) in private accommodation and
40

Chapter1.Introduction

55,057(7.0%)inmarinas(HGK2004).In2004,therewasagrowthof3%inthetotal
numberofbedsamongstwhichare3473newbedsinhotels(HGK2005).

Accommodation quality shows an improving trend. Currently, the majority of


facilitieshavethreestars(43%in2003and53%in2004),and8%(year2003)and13%
(year2004)arefourorfivestarhotels.Mostbedsareinsmall,familyrunhotelsand
B&Bs,whichensurepersonalisedservicesandaretailoredtoguestsneeds.Boutique
hotels are an increasing trend hotels with personalised quality services. Trends in
thehotelindustryaretowardsspecialisedservicesinareassuchassports,wellness,
conferences, and also amenities for gourmets, singles, naturists etc. Hotels and
restaurants employ 85,000 people (HGK 2005), and it is estimated that the whole
tourism sector directly employs 140,000 people and an additional 175,000 indirectly
(HGK2004).

However,theCroatiantourismindustriesmainproblemiswithregardstoalowtotal
occupancy rate of 15% or approximately 54 days per year. The hotels, are the
prominentpartoftheaccommodationsectorandachievedanoccupancyrateof28%
or103daysperyear,whileallotherstypes(camps,marines,privateaccommodation)
hadanoccupancyrateof12%oraverage43dayperyear(Blaievi2002).

41

1.2. MotivationofThesis

Since 1995, when the tourism industry in Croatia started to recover and tourist
arrivals started to grow, numerous hotels have undergone major renovations and
energysystemretrofits.Unfortunately,duringrenovations,emphasiswasontourism
competitiveness (fulfilments of conditions for hotel category) and not on
sustainabilityandenergyefficiency.Itwasimportanttorevivethetouristindustry
at minimal costs since many people in the coastal regions were living off tourism
before the 90s. There was no awareness amongst decision makers about future
energyconsumption,environmentalimpactsofenergyconsumptionandthecostof
energy during operational periods. Renewable energy sources played a negligible
role within the potential energy system retrofits. At that time there were no
government subsidies or funds available that could support the installation of
renewableenergysources,especiallysolarcollectorsfordomestichotwater(DHW).
There was even one case recorded in the Dubrovnik region, that during renovation
solarcollectorswerereplacedwithoilboiler.Ownersandhotelmanagementdidnot
recognizepossibilitiesforenergysavingsandfurthermore,therewerenoregulations
or bylaws that could force them to think about sustainability and energy efficient
systems.However,inrecentyearsCroatiaexperiencedseveralelectricityblackoutsin
August on the Adriatic coast (Vodice, Dubrovnik, island Murter,) due to too high
electricityconsumptionforairconditioningsystemsonthehottestdays.

AsurveydoneamongCroatianhotelsonthecoast,whichwillbeexplainedinmore
detailinChapter3,hasshownthat88,2%ofinstalledchillerswithapproximately12
MW of capacity operate with HCFC refrigerants (these are the results for 51 hotels
outof75withcoolingsystemsthatgaveinformationaboutthetypeofrefrigerants).
The share of equipment installed between 19921999 is 51,8%, while 35,2% of
equipment was installed during 20002003. The remaining 13% was installed before
1990. In total 88% of HCFCequipment was installed from 19962003 when HCFCs
42

Chapter1.Introduction

werebannedintheEUfornewinstallations.ButnotinCroatiawherethesechillers
werecheaperthanchillerswithenvironmentallyacceptableHFCrefrigerants.HCFCs
arebannedfornewinstallationsinCroatiawithanewbylawfromOctober21st2005,
whileservicingwillbeallowedtill2015(MZOPU2005a).Innext10yearshotelswill
be forced either to replace their chillers or to retrofit the refrigerant from HCFC to
HFC. There are also a number of hotels that have not been privatized and
modernizedyet(approximately12%byAugust2006)(HFP2006),buttheywillbein
the coming years and will consequently lead to their renovation. These are the two
opportunitiesthatmightdirectthehotelindustrytosearchotheroptionsforenergy
efficienttechnologies,renewableenergysourcesandenvironmentalsavingsneeded,
in order to comply with the Kyoto protocol and EU directives. During this next
period HVAC system retrofits should be done the right way e.g. following
sustainable principles, designing energy efficient HVAC systems with higher
portionsofrenewableenergysources.Datacollectedandanalysedinthisresearchas
wellasthedevelopedmethodologycouldbeofgratehelptodesignersanddecision
makersinhotelmanagement.

AcademicresearchinCroatiaonHVACsystemretrofitting,optimizationandenergy
efficiency has never been a priority and little research has been conducted. Most of
todaysresearchisfocusedonsystemsforelectricitysupplyonislandswheretourism
is the most important industry and biggest energy consumer during the summer
months. There is no exact data about energy consumption, or status of heating and
cooling systems and utilization of renewable energy sources. Energy utilization for
HVAC systems in the hotel industry and energy, environmental and economical
optimization of retrofitting options is hardly investigated. It is therefore the main
purposeofthisthesistoevaluatethecurrentstateofenergyconsumptioninhotelson
the Adriatic coast and to develop a methodology for HVAC system design with
regards to energy consumption, environmental impact and cost of installation and
operation.ThemethodologyisnamedHOTECO.

43

Fromtheverybeginning,itwasclearthatthisprojecthadtobeinterdisciplinary.The
projectwasthereforedesignedwithenergyengineeringaswellasenvironmentaland
economic perspective in mind. Hence the focus of the thesis was shifted from an energy
auditschemethatwasconductedamong31,5%ofhotelsontheAdriaticcoast(currentstateof
energy consumption and systems) towards HVAC system options that were proposed,
modelledandanalyzedasenergyefficientoptionsforthehotelsectorinCroatia.

This thesis can be considered as a contribution to an overall theory about energy


efficientsolutionsandsimulationmethodologyforHVACsystemretrofittingoptions
optimization in the building sector especially in the highly energy intensive hotel
area. Survey among hotels will be a valuable data base for further research in
buildingandservicesectorsaswellasforenergyplanningandpolicymakingatthe
governmentallevel.

Thehotelenergysystemcanbeviewedandanalysedfromfivedifferentperspectives
(Figure1.23.):

The energy perspective is concerned with realtime behaviour of the


equipment according to the needs influenced by hourly weather data.
The mathematicalengineering perspective uses mathematical models
to represent the physical behaviour within the building envelope and
the response from the HVAC systems in order to provide required
thermalcomfort.

The environmental perspective which analyzes the environmental


impact(locallevel)oftheenergyutilizationinhotels.

ThepolicyperspectivewhichisconcentratedonCroatiasfulfilmentof
the Kyoto Protocol, Montreal Protocol, and EU directives (EU SAVE
directive 93/76/EEC, Directives 2037/2000, 2002/91/EC, 2006/32/EC),
CroatianenergystrategyandCroatiantourismstrategy(environmental
perspectiveonstatelevel).

44

Chapter1.Introduction

The economic perspective focuses on the economical savings through


theoperationalperiodofinstalledenergyefficientsystems.

The tourism perspective which analyses growing trends in tourist


arrivals and growing needs for quality accommodation facilities that
willputapressureonenergysystemaswellastheenvironment.

MATHEMATICAL
ENGINEERING

ENVIRONMENTAL

PRESPECTIVE

PERSPECTIVE

Building
GHGs emissions,

envelope
HVAC systems

pressures on natural
resources

THESIS

Energy and

Sustainability

environmental
costs savings

ECONOMIC
PRESPECTIVE

Guest nights,
hotel stock and

POLICY PERSPECTIVE
(Kyoto and Montreal
Protocol, EU directives)

standard increase

TOURISM
PERSPECTIVE

Figure1.23.Perspectiveofthethesis

1.3.

Researchquestions

As pointed out before, this thesis is focused on an engineering perspective, but it also
takesintoaccountenvironmental,economical,tourismandpolicyaspects.
Themainresearchquestioncanbeformulatedasfollows:

45

What would be the methodology for the design and retrofit of


HVAC systems in the hotel industry on the Adriatic coast that
would be in line with world and EU energy and environmental
policies and that would result with minimal energy use, minimal
environmental

impact,

reasonable

costs

and

sustainable

developmentandgrowthofthetourismindustryinCroatia?

The broader research questions that were used for the information gathering and
analysisarethefollowing:

1. EnergyconsumptionintheCroatianhotelindustry
a. WhatistheaverageenergyconsumptioninCroatianhotels?
b. Whatistheenergyefficiencystatusofthehotelsector?
c. Whatistheshareofenergysourcesinthetotalenergyconsumption?
d. What is the current state of renewable energy sources utilization in
hotels?
e. Why is it important to study energy usage in hotels independently
fromenergyusageinbuildings?
2. HVACsystemsinhotels
a. WhatisthepresentstateofHVACsystemsinhotels?
b. Whataretheimportantissuesrelevanttoenergyutilization?
c. Whatproblemsareconnectedwithretrofittingexistingsystems?
3. Technicalstandards
a. What impacts do EU standards have on the development of
sustainableHVACsystemsinhotels?
b. What kind of actions should the Croatian government introduce in
order remove barriers for energy efficiency in hotels on the Adriatic
coast?

46

Chapter1.Introduction

4. HVACdesign
a. What would be the options for sustainable HVAC systems for hotels
ontheAdriaticcoast?
b. Whatarethefactorsthatinfluenceenergyutilizationinhotels?
c. Howbuildingenvelopescandecreaseenergyconsumption?
5. Futureperspective
a. Whatcouldbefutureenvironmentalemissionsinthehotelsectorwith
currentstateofenergysourcesutilization?
b. What could be future environmental emissions with introduction of
solar energy for DHW and heating and energy efficient HVAC
systems?
6. Environmentalimpacts
a. What environmental impact does the energy consumption in hotels
yield?

1.4.

Thesisoutline

The thesis is divided into three main parts, plus conclusions and appendices. Four
mainpartscompriseof9chapters,seealsoFigure1.24.

PartI:IntroductionandPreviouswork
Part I provides the relevant background for the thesis. In some areas, it even may
provide more background information than might be considered necessary.
However,duetotheinterdisciplinarynatureofthethesis,thisadditionalinformation
isconsideredtobeessential.Chapter2reviewspastandcurrentdevelopmentsinthe
area of the hotel auditing scheme and HVAC systems in hotel. Modelling and
simulationapproachwithregardtoenergyperformanceinbuildingsispresented.

47

PartII:Energyauditschemeinhotels
This part defines the necessity for energy audit research among hotels in Croatia.
Energy audits were conducted among 31,5% of hotels, which after analysis, gave
relevantdataforfutureworkanddevelopmentofoptimizationretrofitmethodology
that is elaborated in Part III. Benchmarks for hotels on the Adriatic coast are also
established.Regressionanalysisasastatisticalmethodwasusedtodefineinfluencing
parametersforelectricityandheatingoilconsumptioninhotels.

PartIII:HVACsystemanalysis
This Part comprises 3 chapters. Chapter 4 discuses system thinking approach with
regards to building (hotel) and HVAC systems as a part of that system. In this
chapter, the research question is explained. Chapter 5 gives models for four HVAC
systems and energy simulation results obtained with dynamic simulations in the
TRNSYS programme using hourly data for temperature and solar radiation for two
hotels in the Split region. Chapter 6 analyzes the simulation results from an energy
andeconomicalpointofview.

PartIV:Environmentalanalysis,HOTECOmethodologyandconclusions
Chapter 7 gives environmental analysis of energy consumption in hotels and
discussesfour scenariosofenergyconsumptionin hotels ontheAdriaticcoast with
regard to current state of the systems and energy efficient retrofit solutions with
different sharesof renewable energysources.These scenarios willgive contribution
to energy planning in the coastal regions. In Chapter 8 HOTECO methodology for
sustainableHVACdesignispresented.Chapter9containsthegeneralmethodology
conclusions for the design of energy efficient retrofit solutions in hotels, as well as
conclusions in energy consumption predictions relevant for the Croatian energy
authorities. The chapter also contains conclusions about possible improvements for
thesustainabledevelopmentofthehotelindustryrelevantfortourismauthorities.

48

Chapter1.Introduction

Chapter 1: Introduction
Part I: Background
Chapter 2: Previous work

Part II:
Energy audit

Chapter 3: Energy audit scheme

Chapter 4: System thinking

Result: Hypothesis

Part III: HVAC system


analysis

Chapter 5: HVAC systems


modelling options

Chapter 6: E&E analysis

Chapter 7: Environmental
analysis + scenarios
Part IV: Scenarios and
conclusions

Chapter 8: HOTECO
methodology

Chapter 9:Conclusions

Figure1.24.Thesisoutline
49

Chapter2.PreviousWork

2.

PREVIOUSWORK

This chapter presents a brief overview of the most relevant publications. The first section
discussestheimportantbackgroundliteraturethatisdirectlyrelatedtothetopicofthisthesis,
i.e. literature that discusses methods of retrofit for HVAC systems in hotel buildings. The
secondsectiondiscussestherelevantliteratureintheareaofenergyconsumptionanalysisand
HVACsystemsinhotels,whilethethirdpartdiscusesHVACsystemsmodellinginbuildings.

2.1. TOBUSandXENIOSmethodology

Thereis verylittle researchconductedthatcombined energyconsumption inhotels


and methodology for optimization of HVAC systems that utilize renewable energy
sources. Energy consumption with regards to HVAC systems is very much
dependant on climatic conditions and location of hotel. Croatian institutes and
Universitieshavenotdoneanydetailedresearchinthisfield.

AteamofEuropeanresearchersfromGreece,Italy,FranceandSpainunderauspices
of the European research program ALTENER, developed a methodology named
XENIOS, for assessing refurbishment scenarios and the potential application of
renewable energy sources (RES) and rational use of energy (RUE) in hotels. The
XENOIS methodology is addressed to hoteliers, technical managers, engineers and
architects interested in renovating and refurbishing a hotel. The tool supports the
user during decisionmaking process to set priorities, while deciding on a retrofit
strategy through a technical and economical assessment of selected interventions.

51

XENOIS methodology is based on existing European methodologies for apartment


(EPIQR)andofficebuildings(TOBUS)(Dascalaki,Balaras2004).

The main objective of the TOBUS project was to develop an evaluation tool for the
assessment of retrofitting needs in office buildings for European countries and to
estimate the cost of meeting these needs in compliance with improved energy
performance and indoor environment. The tool encompasses an integral approach,
where all problems are treated globally but also taking into account their
interdependence(Caccavelli,Gugerli2002).

TOBUS assists the user with two main tasks 1) Diagnosis: Evaluation of the general
state of the office building with respect to deterioration, functional obsolescence,
energyconsumptionandindoorenvironmentalquality(IEQ),2)Actions:Definitionof
retrofitting actions and their corresponding costs to improve the office building
condition;thebuildingsenergyperformanceandIEQ.

TheTOBUSmethodologyaimsatofferingthesurveyoratooltoselectofficebuilding
upgrade solutions with respect to multiple criteria (Wittchen, Brandt 2002),. One of
thekeyelementsforreachingthisgoalisthebuildingsurvey,whichisnecessaryin
ordertoassessanddeterminethe:

physicalconditionofthebuilding

necessaryworkneededtobringthebuildingbacktoitsinitialstate

extentofthedifferenttypesofwork

budgetfortheworks.

The overall approach of TOBUS regarding energy is a first estimate of a buildings


loads(heating,coolingandlighting),energyconsumptionandassessmentofenergy
savings resulting from different interventions for space heating and cooling, hot
water production, lighting, equipment and elevators, and for water conservation.
52

Chapter2.PreviousWork

TOBUS and afterwards XENIOS are not designed to be either a simulation tool or
detailedenergyaudittool.

The XENIOS methodology and software permits the user to perform a preliminary
hotel audit and make a first assessment of costeffective energy efficient renovation
practices,technologiesandsystems.

ThehypothesisonwhichTOBUSandafterwardsXENIOSdevelopmentsarebasedis
that the interaction between the expert and his environment is the main engine of
awareness and of the evolution of the experts cognitive operational tools toward a
better equilibrium. This also assumes that the evolution of the initial knowledge
structure,whichresultsfromthisinteraction,goestowardsabetterstructure,which
allows the expert to better explain processes or events, and improves his reasoning
andactionpotential(Flourentzou,Roulet2002).

2.2.

HVACsystemsinhotels

Althoughsignificantamountsofresearchhavebeenconductedintheareaof;various
HVAC system components, HVAC system behaviour in buildings, and
implementationofrenewableenergysourcesinthebuildings,therewerefewstudies
found during the literature survey for HVAC systems in hotels. With regards to
hotelsandtourismaccommodationfacilities,authorsaremostlydealingwithenergy
consumptionpatternsandidentificationofmainenergyconsumers.

The project that aimed at the systematic implementation of conditions for future
massive application of renewable energy sources (RES) in the tourism industry is
named HOTRES (Karagiorgas, 2003). Under the work plan of the project, five

53

renewableenergytechnologiesarepromoted(solarthermal,solarpassive,solarPV,
biomass and geothermal energy). The market reaction has been friendly to three of
the five RETs with the following shares: 66% for solar thermal, 10% geothermal
(geothermal heat pumps) and 24% for PV units. The study has shown the shortest
payback period to be solar thermal and it varies from 1,7 years in Greece up to 19
yearsinFrance,whileforthesolarPVitvariesfrom6yearinSpainupto43yearsin
Greece.Itisobviousthatcountryconditions,governmentsubsidies,electricityprice
and energy source variety influence payback periods in different Mediterranean
countries.Nopreferencesweregiventobiomassandbioclimaticsystemsinallhotels
surveyed by this study. At the end, one of the conclusions was that hoteliers are
business oriented and need commercialized solutions, therefore dont accept easily
newtechnologyproject,oftenoftheR&Dtype.

TherearesmallnumbersofresearchesfordifferentHVACsystemsoptionsforhotels.
Oneofthemisastudyofthelifecycleenergycostanalysisofheatpumpapplication
for hotel swimming pools in the subtropical climate of Hong Kong. The authors
(Lam, Chan 2001) were investigating possibilities for heat pump installations for
swimmingpoolheatingsystemsthatwouldallowthemtooperateyearround.Heat
pump energy consumption over a life of ten years was compared with electric
condensingandnoncondensingboilers.Itwasconcludedthatfinancialsavingswith
heatpumpinstallationmightbeashighas75%.

The other study from the authors (Yu, Chan, 2005) deals with HVAC system
components in hotels and presents the operating efficiency of aircooled chillers in
three existing hotels and investigates the extend to which the annual electricity
consumption can decrease by improving their efficiency. Authors investigated how
chillerefficiencycanbeenhancedbyrestoringchillersequencingandusingafloating
condensingtemperaturecontrol.

54

Chapter2.PreviousWork

The papers from (Khemiri, Hasairi 2005) present results and analysis from the data
collected during the energy audits of a hotel located in the centre of the
Mediterranean country Tunis during the years 1987, 1996 and 2002. Two energy
conservation measures were carried out to investigate the energy savings after two
energy audits. The objective of the work was to obtain aquantified energy savings,
utilizingproposedenergyefficienttechnologies.

Therearenumberof case studiesin theMediterraneancountries thatdemonstrated


cost benefits for energy efficient technologies described in a research report done
undertheEUTHERMIEProgrammeAction(IMPIVA1994).

Casestudy1.TheRitzHotel,Piccadilly,London,UK.Energyefficientspaceheating
and hot water system, with four gas fired low pressure hot water boilers were
installed instead of three inefficient steam boilers. Thermal efficiency was greatly
improved due to better boiler performance and lower heat losses from piping and
heatexchangers,whilehighmaintenancecostshavebeenreduced.Theexecutionof
theprojecthashadimmediatebenefitsintermofareductioningasconsumptionof
40%aswellasimprovedreliabilityandmaintenance(IMPIVA1994).

Case study 2. Hotel Belroy Palace, Benidorm, Alicate, Spain. The main goal of the
project was to install a solar collector system for space cooling, heating and for
sanitaryhotwaterforthehotelbuilding.Thenewsolarsystemconsistsof328m2of
highefficientsolarcollectorsandaheatstoragevolumeof36m3.Duringthesummer
time hot water is supplied to the LiBrH2O absorption chiller and after used for
sanitary hot water. In winter time heat is used for space heating and sanitary hot
water. After three years of system operation energy savings are 90% of the energy
required for hot sanitary water, 80% of energy required for space heating in winter
and 60% of cooling energy during the summer time. This savings represents a

55

reductioninfuelconsumptionof61tonsperyearandareductionofelectricityused
inthecompressorsof110MWhperyear(IMPIVA1994).

There are number of demonstration projects in hotels worldwide, described in


CADDET publications (CADDET 1997), where it was shown that implementing
energy efficient technologies and renewable energy sources can save energy and
improve energy performance of the hotel. Heat recovery and prefilter coils were
installedinKalastajatorppahotelinHelsinkiwhereheatwasrecoveredfromexhaust
air.Theaverageamountofrecoveredheatwas1,272MWhperyearwhilethesimple
paybackperiodwas3.1years.

Next example is an integrated piping system used in a motel HVAC design in the
USA.ThesystemissimilartofourpipefancoilsystemthatarewidespreadinEurope
butnotintheUSA,thatgavea2,9yearsimplepaybackperiod(CADDET1997).

Further on, a cogeneration system that combines fuel cells with gas engines was
installedinMeguroGajoEnhotel(totalfloorarea40.411m2)inJapan.Thewasteheat
fromthecogenerationsystemconsistedoftwo200kWgasenginegeneratorsanda50
kWphosphoricacidfuelcellwasusedtopoweranabsorptionrefrigerationunitand
for the hot water supply. The emphasis of this project was to demonstrate the
technicalaspectsofthesystem,thusneglectingtheeconomic(CADDET1997).

The status of solar collector installations in Greece is presented by author


Karagiorgas. There are over 100 hotels utilizing central solar thermal systems in
Greece. The total surface area of these systems is 28,820 m2 and the total volume of
thestoragetanksis1172760lit.Averagesystemsizeis257m2perhotelwhile41,4%
isinstalledonCrete(Karagiorgas,2003).

56

Chapter2.PreviousWork

Solar technology is already widely used in the hospitality business requiring a


constantsupplyofhotwater.Waterheatingforsuchbusinessaccounts,onaverage,
for approximately 12% of the total energy costs (20% of energy use), hence, solar
waterheaterscanlowerfuelandelectricitybills(UNEPTIE2003)

Since hotel are large energy consumers, individual energy planning becomes
increasingly important due to several supply options competing and (or
complementing each other and the high uncertainty associated with growing fuel
prices. Mavrotas et al (2003) present a linear programming model for energy
planninginhotelsunderuncertaintyinfuelcostsonthecasestudyofhotelinGreece.

A group of authors from Hong Kong (Deng, Burnett, 2000, 2002a) report in several
journals about their study of energy use in 16 hotels during the mid 90s. The
overview indicates that the energy use situation in Hong Kong is very much
diversified. The total energy use in a hotel is dominated by electricity, with the
greatest portion for air conditioning because of subtropical climate. With detailed
multiple variable regression analysis it was concluded that a number of hotel
operatingparameters,aswellasclimaticconditions,canaffectelectricity,dieseland
gas use in a hotel building. Regression analysis has indicated that outdoor air
temperatureandthenumberofguestsaresignificantfactorsaffectingelectricityuse
in the hotel, while outdoor air temperature and number of meals are significant
factors affecting diesel use. In order to achieve both operating cost savings and
environmentalprotectionitisrecommendedthatanenergymanagementprogramme
beestablishedandenergyconservationmeasuresimplemented.

Author(Deng2003)continueswithastudyofenergyconsumptionpatternsforhotels
in Hong Kong with a survey of energy and water use in 36 quality hotels. He
indicatesthatnoclearconsumptionpatternsandobviousunderlyingfactorsthatmay
be used to explain energy and water use can be easily identified. However, the

57

regressionanalysisalsoindicatesthat,whilesomecorrelationsareweak,afewstrong
energyandwateruseperformanceexplanatoryindicatorsdoexist.

The same authors (Deng, Burnett, 2002b) investigated water use for hotels in Hong
Kong.Astudyin17leadinghotelsshowedadiversifiedwateruse.Afteradetailed
regression analysis, it was indicated that monthly laundry load, number of guests
andthenumberoffoodcoversmaycollectivelyinfluencethemonthlytotalwateruse
inahotel.

Authors(Noren,Pyrko1998)presentedatypicalelectricityloadshapesforhotelsin
Sweden(Figure2.1.).Theloadshapesarepresentedasanondimensionalnormalised
load, where the typical load shapes give a reasonable approximation compared to
measuredones.Simplelinearregressionwithdailymeanloadasmainvariable,and
outdoordrybulbtemperatureasindependentvariable,wasapplied.R2valueswere
generally poor, that brought to conclusion that there was no general rule to predict
how electricity consumption depends on outdoor temperature for Swedish hotels.
ElectricityloadinSwedishhotelsisinfluencedbyheatingsystem,sincesomehotels
douseelectricityfordirectheatingorheatpumps.Nonetheless,atypicaldailyload
shape can be developed for hotels with reasonable accuracy, and typical daytime
standarddeviationsareapproximately810%ofthemeanvalues.Authorshavealso
concluded that knowledge of electricity patterns and electricity consumption
indicators are necessary for development of new tools for energy auditors and for
identificationofoperationalandmaintenanceproblems.

58

Chapter2.PreviousWork

Figure2.1.LoadshapeforSwedishhotelscomparedtoUSAhotels(Noren,Pyrko1998)

Amultipleregressionanalysiswasalsousedinthisresearchinordertoanalysedata
collected with questionnaires and to establish a relationship between electricity and
heatingoilconsumptionandvariousparametersforhotelsontheAdriaticcoast.The
regressionanalysisresultsarepresentedinChapter3.

A comprehensive research about energy audit scheme in hotels is done by


Phdungsilp (2002). The questionnaire consists of eleven parts: general information
about hotel, envelope, lighting, cooling plant, heating plant, service hot water,
ductwork,pipework,energysourcesconsumption,environmentalauditandthermal
comfort and indoor climate data sheet. The environmental awareness among
European hoteliers was studied by author Bohdanowicz (2003). A survey
questionnaire was developed comprising of twentytwo multiplechoice questions.
The same survey was conducted among hotels in Dubrovnik region in Croatia
(Bohdanowicz, Zanki Alujevi, Martinac 2004). The results were compared with
SwedishandPolishhotelsandhavebeenpresentedinChapter3.

59

2.3.

Modellingandsimulationsinbuildings

Itisgenerallybelievedthatcomputersimulationsareapowerfulandflexibleenergy
analysistoolforbuildings.Therearenumberofresearchpaperspublishedinjournals
suchasEnergy&BuildingsandBuilding&Environmentdealingwithsimulationsin
buildings. Some of the researchers use existing software such as TRNSYS, DOE2,
BLASTorothers,ordeveloptheirownmethodologiesandsoftwaretools.Itisfound
thatintegrationofenergyperformanceanalysisintothebuildingdesignprocessisa
key development area nowadays (Hui, 1996). Ideally, energy analysis should be
carried out at the design stage, during construction, and throughout the life of a
buildingsothattheperformancecanbemonitoredandimprovementscanbemade,
ifrequired.Furthermore,practiceshouldswitchfromstudyingisolatedcomponents
and optimisation of subsystem and focus on building with all installations as a
system.

An example that demonstrate systematic methods of modelling and analysis of


integrateddomestic,HVACapplicationsistheworkbySakellari(2005).Inthiswork
the reference system boundaries enclose the building as a construction and as a
dynamic function, a comfortproviding system based on a heat pump, a low
temperature hydronic heat distribution system and controls in a residential
application. Several models have been developed in the computational tool of
TRNSYS and EES. These tools have been employed because they allow cosolving;
hencetheintegratedsystemaswellastheinteractionbetweenthedifferentpartsof
thesystemcouldbestudied.

Anotherrecentstudyinresidentialbuildingsisaboutenergyefficiencyindwellings
inRiga,Latvia,donebyauthorBlumbergaA.(2001).Theobjectiveofthestudywas
to develop evaluation method for technical, economical and environmental
evaluationofenergyefficiencyintypicalresidentialbuilding.Differentsoftwaretools
60

Chapter2.PreviousWork

developed outside Latvia could not be used since they do not contain data with
specific conditions for the country. Therefore, a quasistatic one zone optimization
computer model named Maja was developed. The evaluation criteria were
reductionofCO2emissionsandthecostsofthesereductions.

Agroupofauthors(Tang,Kim2004;Clark,Tang2004;Born,Clark,Johnstone2004)
at University of Strathclyde under guidance of Professor Clark have published a
number of papers in the area of integrated building performance simulation.
Simulations in ESPr system environment are proposed in order to support
sustainable design of buildings. ESPr system has been the subject of sustained
development since 1974. The aim has bee to permit an emulation of building
performance in a manner that a) corresponds to the reality, b) supports early
throughdetailed design stage application and c) enables integrated performance
assessments in which no single issue is unduly prominent (Hensen, Clarke 2000,
Clarke2002).

Most studies have been done in the field of energy system modelling in residential
buildings.However,buildingswithintheservicesectorsuchashotels,supermarkets,
commercial buildings, schools and hospitals are specific with regard to energy
consumption and therefore should be studied separately. These buildings require
systematicstudiesandmodellingoftypicalheating,ventilation,airconditioningand
refrigerationsystems.

A special type of energy system, namely energy use in supermarkets has been
investigated by author Arias (Arias 2005) through modelling, simulation and field
studies. A userfriendly computer program, CyberMart, which calculates the total
energy performance of a supermarket, is presented. CyberMart opens up
perspectives for designers and engineers in the field by providing innovative

61

opportunities for assessment and testing of new energy efficient measures but also
forevaluationofdifferentalreadyinstalledsystemdesignsandcomponents.

The XENIOS methodology for costeffective energy efficient retrofit in hotels,


mentioned before, considers building as a group of several discreet macroelements
corresponding to discreet building elements or spaces with different uses and
operation schedules, such as hotel rooms, restaurants, lobby and bars, swimming
pool, kitchen, technical premises and systems. Each macroelement consists of
variouselementswhichmayvaryaccordingtothespaceuse.HOTECOmethodology
that is developed in this thesis recognizes the building as a one element without
zoning,sinceemphasiseisontheHVACsystemsupplyratherthanenergyutilization
inrooms.FourHVACsystems,existingandproposed,weremodelled,simulatedand
optimized for the same building using TRNSYS software tool. Simulations in the
HOTECOmethodologyweremadeforatypicalmeteorologicalyear;thereforehourly
values of temperature and solar radiation are taken into account for yearly energy
consumptionestimationandsystemcomparisons.

Itwouldbeimpossibletocheckthishypothesisthroughfullycontrolledexperiments
sinceahotelisdynamicbuildingwithmanyinflowsandoutflowsthataredependant
of guest occupancy, behaviour of tourists and climate conditions. However, data
obtained through the simulation process were validated using measured and
collecteddataforenergyconsumptionofsimulatedhotel.

62

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

3.

ENERGYAUDITSCHEMEINHOTELS

Thischapterwillpresentthemethodologyusedandresultsobtainedfromwalkthroughaudits
conductedamongsthotelsontheAdriaticcoast.Theresults,presentedinkWh/m2,willgivea
base to help establish an energy benchmark for hotels on the Adriatic coast in Croatia. The
regression analysis was implemented using a number of parameters that can predict the
energy consumption. At the end, the regression equations that foresee the energy and oil
consumptionpatternsaregiven.

3.1. Theenergyauditmethodology

AdetailedsurveywasdevelopedandconductedamonghotelsontheAdriaticcoast
aiming to assess the energy consumption and establish a benchmark for different
typesof hotelsin5coastalregions.Thesurveyalso aimedtogetinformationabout
the utilization of renewable energy sources, types of cooling, heating and domestic
hotwatersystems,refrigerantsusedasworkingfluidsandconsequentlytoassessthe
environmentalimpactofenergyconsumptioninhotels.

In 2003 there were 97329 registered hotel beds in Croatia. 89,3% of these beds and
90%ofthehotelsareplacedin7coastalcounties(MINT2003b).Thesecountiesare:
DubrovnikNeretva,SplitDalmatia,ibenikKnin,Zadar,Primorskogoranska,Lika
Senj, and Istria. Since there were only 8 registered hotels in the LikaSenj county,
amongwhich3wereinthecoastalregionontheislandPag,thesehotelswereadded
tothe groupofPrimorskogoranska. Similarly,11 hotelsinthe ibenikKnin county
wereaddedtotheZadarcounty.Finally,thecoastalareawasdividedinto5regions
namely: Dubrovnik (DubrovnikNeretva county), Istria, Rijeka (Primorskogoranska

63

andLikaSenjcounties),Split(SplitDalmatiacounty)andZadar(Zadarandibenik
Knincounties).AccordingtoofficialstatisticsfromtheMinistryofTourism,atotalof
393hotelswereregisteredinthecoastalregionin2002andweredistributedassuch;
65hotels(17%)inDubrovnikregion,122(31%)inIstria,87(22%)intheRijekaregion,
84(21%)intheSplitregionand35(9%)intheZadarregion(Figure3.1.).

Rijeka
Istria

REGIONS:
Rijeka 87 hotels; 22%
Istria 122 hotels; 31%
Zadar 35 hotels; 9%
Split 84 hotels; 21%
Dubrovnik 65 hotels; 17%

Zadar

ibenik
Split

Dubrovnik

Figure3.1.FivecoastalregionsontheAdriaticcoast

Hotel buildings are specific, compared to others in the service sector. They have
differentoperatingschedules(seasonal,nonseasonal),variouslevelsofservicethat
influence the hotels category, diverse facilities within the building (as restaurants,
swimming pools, conference halls, laundry, etc.) with specific technical facilities,
variability of occupancy levels throughout the year or season and inconsistency in
guestsperceptionofthermalcomfortandindoorclimate.Fromtheotherside,there
64

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

aresomefactorssuchasclimaticconditions;locationofhotelandyearofconstruction
that additionally influence the energy consumption regardless of previously
mentioned parameters. Year of construction determines the building standards that
were in force during design and construction and consequently, quality of thermal
insulation,ifusedatall.Forthepurposeofenergyauditsinthisresearch,hotelswere
dividedaccordingtothefollowingparameters

place

location(mainland,islands)

category

operatingschedule

numberofbeds

numberofrooms

heatingfacilities

coolingfacilities

restaurants

swimmingpools

An energy and environmental audit questionnaire was developed (based on a


comprehensive literature review) (Phdungsilp 2002, Bohdanowicz 2003) comprising
of6partswithapproximately140multiplechoicequestions.(AppendixI).Sixmain
partsofthequestionnaireareasfollows:
1. Generalinformationabouthotelbuilding

hotelinfo

category

location

building characteristics (number of floors, area, fenestration area,


numberofrooms,numberofbeds,roof)

restaurants(area,numberofmeals)

additionalfacilities(fitness,sauna,shops)

65

swimmingpool(area,sea/freshwater)

laundry

elevators

2. Energyconsumption

electricityconsumption(monthlydata)

fossilfuelsconsumption(monthlydata)

waterconsumption(monthlydata)

3. Coolingsystem

aircooling

watercooling

4. Heatingsystem
5. Domestichotwatersystem(DHW)
6. Environmentalawareness

The questionnaires were conducted on site with the people responsible for the
technical systems in the hotels. Hotels were questioned in MayJune 2003 and in
March2004.Sincetheaimofthisthesisistoestablishabenchmarkfordifferenthotel
categories, with emphasize on hotels with a higher level of technical services
(heating,coolingsystems,restaurants,swimmingpools),50%of3,4,and5starswere
targeted. Time for the energy audit, financial obstacles, as well as low levels of
support from hotel management were the main reasons why not all targeted hotels
with 3, 4 and 5 stars were visited. However, in the end, 124 hotels answered the
energy and environmental audit questionnaire which represents 31,5% of the total
numberof hotels(393)inthe5coastalregions with aresponse rateof85%.Among
theauditedhotels,95(76,6%)arewith3,4or5stars,thisrepresents43%ofthetotal
numberofhotelswithinthesecategoriesincoastalregions.Numbersandpercentages
ofauditedhotelsindifferentregionsarepresentedinTable3.1.Hotelswith2and1
starsare mainly2starhotels, sincethereare notmany1 star hotels,also they were
notinterestingfromenergypointofview.
66

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Table3.1.Numberofsurveyedandtotalnumberofhotelsfor5coastalregions
Numberofsurveyedhotels(A)/totalnumberofhotels(total)/

percentageofsurveyedhotels
5*and4*
3*
2*and1*
5*,4*,3*,2*,1*
category
A total %
A total %
A total %
A
total %
REGION
1 Dubrovnik 3 8
37,5% 16 28
57,14% 5 29
17,24% 24 65
36,92%
2 Istria
5 7
71,43% 20 70
28,57% 0 45
0%
25 122 20,49%
3 Rijeka
5 5
100%
18 34
52,94% 9 48
18,75% 32 87
36,78%
4 Split
0 3
0%
20 45
44,44% 9 36
25%
29 84
34,52%
5 Zadar
2 2
100%
6 19
31,58% 6 14
42,86% 14 35
40,00%
15 25
60%
80 196 40,82% 29 172 16,86% 124 393 31,55%
Total

It can be seen from Table 3.1 that 50% of hotels in the 5 coastal regions are 3 stars,
44%are2and1starhotels,whileonly6%arehighqualityhotelswith4and5*stars.
AccordingtotheMinistryoftourism,oneoftheaimswithinthedocumentTourism
strategytillyear2010(MINT2003a),istoimprovequalityofexistinghotelstockand
increase the number hotels with 5 and 4 stars. The ratio of 5 and 4 star hotels goes
from 3,57% in the Split region to 12,31% in the Dubrovnik region, while ratio of 3*
hotels differ from 39,08% in the Rijeka region to 57,38% in Istria (MINT 2003b).
Increasedratioofhighqualityhotelwillleadtoanincreaseinenergyconsumptionin
thecoastalregion.

According to the operation schedule, hotels in Croatia can be divided into 2 main
groups: seasonal and non seasonal. Seasonal hotels differ regarding the operation
schedule,sincesomeofthehotelsstarttheiroperationinMarch,someinApril,and
othersinMay, andstay open eithertilltheendofSeptember orOctober.However,
themajorityofseasonalhotelsoperatefor6months,fromApriltillendofSeptember.
Fornonseasonalhoteloperationsweconsideryearroundfunctioning(12months).

Seasonal hotels in coastal regions are represented by 64,63% (254 hotels) while non
seasonal represent 35,37% (139 hotels). Distribution of hotels depends on operating
schedulein5regionsisgiveninFigure3.2.,where,forexample,itcanbeseenthatin
Istriaonly12,3%ofhotelsoperatesallyeararound.RijekaandDubrovnikareregions

67

with the highest number of hotels with year round operation, with ratios of 58,62%
and44,62%respectively.
Ratio of seasonal and non seasonal hotels

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

15

9
35

29

139

51
Non seasonal
Seasonal

107

26
49

36

254

36

Dubrovnik

Istria

Rijeka

Split

Zadar

Total

Figure3.2.Numberandratioofseasonalandnonseasonalhotelsin5regions

Bearing in mind regional distribution (5 regions), hotel category (3 groups) and


operating schedule, hotels in this study were divided into 30 groups, what was
necessaryfordetailedanalysisoftheenergyconsumptionandbreakdownofenergy
endusersinhotels.

3.2. Theenergyauditresults

Tobeabletoanalyzeallcollecteddataeffectively,aswellastoeasilyaccessdifferent
groupsofdata,adatabaseinMicrosoftAccesswasdesigned(seeFigure3.3.).

68

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Figure3.3.Graphicalinterfaceofhotelsdatabase

69

3.2.1. Buildingandfacilitycharacteristics

3.2.1.1.

Floorareaofthehotels

Firstpartofquestionnairegavedataaboutfloorarea(FA)ofhotelswhichisvaluable
informationfortotalhotelstockfloorareaestimationthatisusedlaterontoestimate
the total energy consumption in hotels. According to the number of rooms and
typicalfloorspacefortheroomofdifferentcategoriesanaverageareaoffacilitiesin
hotels(restaurants,conferencehalls,reception,halls,sportfacilities,servicearea,etc)
wasestimated.Analysisshowedthatin4*and5*hotelsforeachroombelongsahotel
floorareaof63,72m2,in3*and2*hotelsbelongingfloorareais55,93m2and44,54m2
respectively (Table 3.2.). These are reasonable results, since according to official
standardsforhotels,increasedroomfloorareacorrespondstohigherhotelstandard.
If one excludes room floor space from total floor area of the hotel, estimated floor
spaceforadditionalfacilitieswouldbe8554,32m2for5and4starshotels,6534,59m2
and3065,32m2for3*and2*hotelsrespectively.
Table3.2.Grossfloorareaofthehotelthatbelongstoonehotelroomorbed
Hotel
category
5*and4*
3*
2*

m2/room

m2/bed

63,72
55,93
44,54

36,53
28,46
22,55

additionalfloorareaif
roomsareexcluded,m2
8554,32
6534,59
3065,32

Accordingtohotelscategorizationstandard,minimalfloorareaofroomforexisting
andnewhotelsisgiveninTable3.3.
Table3.3.Minimalfloorareaoftheroom(MINT2004a)
Hotel
Existinghotels
Newhotels
category
m2/room
m2/room
5*
24
32
4*
21,5
26
3*
17,5
21
2*
15

70

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

124hotelsthat weresurveyedinthisstudyarepresented byapproximately 900.000


m2.AveragefloorareainDubrovnikregionwas7770m2(147rooms),inIstriaregion
was10727m2(220rooms),whileinRijekaandSplitregionsaveragefloorareaofthe
hotelwas8837m2(147rooms)and8090m2(161rooms)respectively.

Accordingtodataobtainfromthehotelsurvey(Table3.2.andTable3.3.),totalfloor
areaofhotelstockin5coastalregionswasestimatedtoapproximately3.000.000m2,
where 840.000 m2 (28%) belongs to non seasonal hotels, while 2.160.000 m2 (72%)
belongstoseasonalhotels.

Croatia is a country with more than a thousand islands, where more than 60 are
inhabited. These islands are very popular tourist resorts, where the hotel and
accommodationsectorrepresentsoneofthemostimportantindustries.Accordingto
resultspresentedinTable3.2.Table3.3.,itisestimatedthat79%oftotalhotelfloor
areaisplacedonthemainland,whiletheremainder,21%,isplacedonislands.With
regardstooperationscheduleofthesehotels,analysisshowedthat80%ofhotelfloor
area on the mainland operated in seasonal regime while 20% operates during the
wholeyear.Situationontheislandsisdifferent,43%ofhotelfloorareaisoperatedin
seasonalregime,while57%operatesduringthewholeyear.(Figure3.4.)

71

Hotel's stock floor area distribution

12%
9%

16%

63%

Mainland seasonal

Mainland non seasonal

Island seasonal

Island non seasonal

Figure3.4.Hotelsstockfloorareadistribution

3.2.1.2.

Ageofthehotels

To be able to analyse the potential for energy consumption savings for heating and
coolingsystemsbyimprovingbuildingenvelope,itisimportanttocollectdataabout
theyearofconstruction.Datafromsurveyedhotelshasshownthat50%ofbuildings
werebuiltduringa20yearsperiod,from19611980,whentourismindustryrecorded
itshighestgrowthrateintheMediterranean.Furtheron,16%ofthebuildingswere
built before 1930, which is proof of a long tourism tradition on the Adriatic coast.
During the periodof19311950and19511960 only12%of thehotelbuildings were
built, while 16% growth is recorded from 19811990 and only 6% in the period of
19912002,seeFigure3.5.

72

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Age of hotels

6%
16%

16%
6%

6%
18%
32%

-1930

1931-1950

1981-1990

1991-2002

1951-1960

1961-1970

1971-1980

Figure3.5.Ageofsurveyedhotelsstock

The majority of hotels are built without thermal insulation, implying that the
potentialforenergysavingsduringtheheatingandcoolingseasonaresignificant.

3.2.1.3.

Restaurants

Althoughonemightthinkthatarestaurantisanecessaryfacilityofallhotels,there
are still 4% of hotels (out of 393 registered hotels in 2003) that do not have one.
However, the majority of hotels do have restaurants either as a facility within the
building or as a facility in another hotel building within the same tourist complex.
Restaurantsarehighenergydensityenduserswithanapproximateconsumptionof
10,6%to25%ofthetotalenergyconsumptioninahotel(seeFigure1.16.andFigure
1.17.).EnergyauditsinhotelsontheAdriaticcoasthasshownthatelectricityandgas
are the main energy sources for food preparation, while hot water needed for dish
washingisdistributedfromacentralsystemfordomestichotwater,mostlypowered
by heating oil. Furthermore, food preparation demands high intensity of water
consumption(bothcoldandhot).Eventhoughthemajorityofhotelswith3starsdo
nothaveairconditioningintherooms,someofthemdeclaredtohavecoolinginthe
restaurant,whilekitchensareequippedwithatleastanexhaustventilationsystem.
73

Worldexperiencehasshownthatenergyconsumptionforonemealisintherangeof
12kWh,whiletheaveragewaterconsumptionof60oCis4,5litres.Additionalenergy
consumptionfordishwashingandfoodpreservationis0,20,3kWhand0,10,3kWh
permeal,respectively(Bohdanowicz2003).

3.2.1.4.

Swimmingpools

According to new regulation for a hotel categorisation, all hotels with 4 and 5 stars
shouldhaveaswimmingpoolbutanalysisofexistinghotelstockshowedthatonly
64% (16) of these hotels in the 5 coastal regions have swimming pools. However,
there are some hotels with 3 or 2 stars that do have a swimming pool within their
facilities. There is a total of 92 swimming pools registered within 393 hotels in the
coastalregion.Waterusedforswimmingpoolscanbeeithertapwaterorseawater,
anddependingontimeofpoolandhoteloperation,watercanbeheatedornot.

3.2.1.5.

Additionalfacilities

Insomeregions,suchasDubrovnikandOpatija(regionofRijeka),thereisaspecific
type of tourism conference tourism that is developed throughout the year.
Typically hotels with 4 and 5 stars are the ones that have conference halls and
therefore conferences are held within their premises. These conference halls are
mostly airconditioned, as to offer thermal comfort and indoor climate for a large
numberofpeopleduringthewholeyear.

Survey has shown that 50% of hotels do have laundry facilities, which are a big
consumers of electricity (washing, drying, ironing) and hot water (6080oC). World
experienceshowsthatenergyconsumptionper1kgofclothesis23kWh.

74

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

3.2.2. Energyconsumptioninhotels

Themainpurposeforenergyandenvironmentalauditsinhotelswastocollectdata
aboutenergyconsumptionandtoidentifyenergyresourcediversity.Inthisresearch,
energy performance of hotels is evaluated in terms of Energy Use Intensity (EUI),
(Deng, Burnett, 2002a) which is defined as the site energy consumption per unit of
gross floor area. Units chosen in this study are kWh/m2. Descriptive statistics was
usedtodeterminemeanvaluesforelectricityandoilconsumption.Therefore,energy
resources were analysed separately, and at the end of this paragraph, analysis was
madeforthetotalenergyconsumptioninhotelsdependingonoperationalschedule,
category and region. Energy resources widely used in hotels on Adriatic coast are:
electricity,heatingoilandgas.

3.2.2.1.

Analysisofelectricityconsumption

It is expected that electricity consumption in hotels depends on hotels category


whichbasicallygivesapictureaboutservicesofferedinthehotel.Electricityisused
topowerallbuildingservicesystemssuchaslighting,TV,elevators,cookingdevices,
electrical appliances, laundry and HVAC systems (mostly ventilation, cooling and
hotwaterpumps,rarelyheatingsystems).

Energybillinginformationofmonthlyelectricityconsumptionwasobtainedfrom86
hotels out of 124 which give a 70% response rate. Hotels that did not provide
electricity consumption data do not have an established energy management
programme or energy monitoring programme. In these cases billing information
stays in the administration sector, while technical staff is not interested in their
evaluation and are not aware of the importance of monitoring the behaviour of the
technicalsystems.

75

Collecteddatawasanalysedwithregardtoelectricityconsumption(kWh)persquare
meter,perroomandperbedfor24categoriesdependingonthelocation(4regions:
Dubrovnik, Istria, Rijeka, Split), operating schedule (seasonal and non seasonal
hotels)andnumberofstars(5*4*,3*and2*).SurveyedhotelsfromtheZadarregion
didnotprovidedadequatedata;thereforethisregionisexcludedfromthisanalysis.
However, climate conditions are similar to region of Split which leads to the
conclusionthatresultsmightbesimilar.
Seasonal hotels on Adriatic Coast

Electricity consumption, kWh/m2

180.00
160.00
140.00
120.00
100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
0

hotel category

Figure3.6.ElectricityconsumptionforseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastbyhotel
category

OnFigure3.6.andFigure3.7.dataforelectricityconsumptionispresentedbyhotel
categoryforall surveyed hotels.It can be seen thatelectricityconsumptionvaries a
lotfor thesame hotel category,it goes from15,42 163,6 kWh/m2 andfrom 29,15
148,88kWh/m2forseasonalandnonseasonal3starshotelsrespectively.

76

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Electricity consumption,
kWh/m2

Non seasonal hotels on Adriatic coast


200.00
180.00
160.00
140.00
120.00
100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
0

hotel category

Figure3.7.ElectricityconsumptionfornonseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastbyhotel
category

In Table 3.4. the average electricity consumption is given for different hotel
categories,togetherwiththenumberofsurveyedhotelsforeachcategory.Sincethere
arenotmanyhotelswith,forexample5stars,onlyoneortwohotelsweresurveyed
inaspecificgroup.However,attheendofthetable,averageelectricityconsumption
for all hotels with the corresponding number of hotel samples is given. Data
presented in Table 3.4. is within expected ranges of electricity consumption for
different hotel categories, and therefore it is proof that hotels in a higher category
consume more electricity, while seasonal hotels consume less electricity than non
seasonal.Althoughoperatingtimeforseasonalhotelsisonly6months,comparedto
wholeyearoperation(12months),electricityconsumptionisonly17%lowerthan5
and4starshotels,25%lowerfor3starshotelsand6%lowerfor2starshotels.Reason
for this is in low occupancy rate during the period of OctoberMarch. According to
officialstatisticsfromtheMinistryoftourism(MINT2004b),only14,04%and14,78%
ofovernightsareregisteredinhotelsintheperiodfromJanuaryMarch(4,58%and
4,73%) and October December (9,47% and 10,05%) in years 2002 and 2003
respectively. This data is taking into account the total number of overnight stays in

77

hotelsinCroatia,butbearinginmindthat95%ofovernightsoccurincoastalregions,
percentagesstatedabovepresentrealisticdataforcoastalhotelsaswell.

OneexceptionispresentedinTable3.4.forhigherelectricityconsumptioninseasonal
hotels (127,51 kWh/m2) compared to non seasonal are 5 and 4 stars hotels (90,99
kWh/m2)inIstria.Thereasonforthisisabiggerfloorareareportedforonesurveyed
non seasonal hotel compared to seasonal hotels. If one compares electricity
consumption per room, it can be seen that fornon seasonal hotels consumption are
higher(7285,12kWh/room),comparedtoseasonalhotels(6317,38kWh/room).

According to data for electricity consumption per one hotels room in kWh/room
(Table3.4.),estimatesfortotalelectricityconsumptionweremadeforallhotelsinfive
coastal regions (Table 3.5.). Estimated total electricity consumption is 180,23 GWh,
thisrepresents5,5%oftotalelectricityconsumptionintheservicesectorin2002.

78

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Table3.4.AverageelectricityconsumptioninkWhfordifferenthotelcategories

Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Surveyed/
response
Istria
Istria
Istria
Surveyed/
response
Rijeka
Rijeka
Rijeka
Surveyed/
response
Split
Split
Split
Surveyed/
response

Croatia
Croatia
Croatia
Surveyed/
response

Seasonalhotels
No
No
hotels hotels kWh/m2 kWh/room

Nonseasonalhotels
No
kWh/bed hotels kWh/m2 kWh/room

kWh/bed

5*4* 3
3*
15
2*
3

1
11
3

77,45
74,96
50,62

5045,18 2522,59 2
3055,66 1544,28 4
2351,76 1175,88 0

125,44 10453,83 5226,91


113,27 5082,70 2343,49

24
5*4*
3*
2*

21
3
10
0

15
2
10
0

127,51
60,19

6317,38
2980,78

3320,60
1539,57

6
1
0
0

90,99

7285,12 3917,78

25
5*4*
3*
2*

13
4
18
8

12
1
5
3

61,34
61,10
41,22

3627,81 1813,90
2704,44 1359,20
1863,53 875,47

1
3
13
5

102,78
54,18
50,47

7198,21 3819,64
3858,27 2031,40
2674,30 1352,75

32
5*4*
3*
2*

30
0
15
7

9
0
12
6

65,01
44,11

3859,68
1898,56

1943,87
950,10

21
0
3
1

96,64
45,88

6732,16 3166,82
1101,20 550,60

29

22

18

No
No
hotels hotels kWh/m2 kWh/room

No
kWh/bed hotels kWh/m2 kWh/room

5*4* 10
3*
58
2*
18

4
38
12

88,77
65,31
45,31

4996,79 2552,36 6
3150,14 1596,73 20
2037,95 1000,49 6

106,40 8312,39
88,03 5224,38
48,18 1887,75

4321,44
2513,90
951,67

124

54

86

32

kWh/bed

Table3.5.ElectricityconsumptioninkWhinfivecostalregions(estimation)
kWh
Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
Zadar
Total,kWh

5*and4*
11.027.775
9.928.824
4.444.155
1.413.638
1.941.694
28.756.086

3*
13.690.090
38.510.189
18.890.740
23.023.649
14.036.498
108.151.166

2*and1*
4.959.166
17.142.913
10.819.267
7.577.031
2.837.839
43.336.216

Total
29.677.032
65.581.926
34.154.162
32.014.318
18.816.031
180.243.469

The breakdown of electricity consumption (Figure 3.8.) in the hotel sector is as


follows: 16% in Dubrovnik region, 37% in Istria, 19% in Rijeka region, 18% in Split

79

region and 10% in Zadar region. These data corresponds to the ratio of hotels in
differentregions(17%D,31%I,22%R,21%S,9%Z,Figure3.1.).

Breakdown of electricity consumption by region

10%

16%
Dubrovnik

18%

Istria
Rijeka
Split

37%

19%

Zadar

Figure3.8.Breakdownofelectricityconsumptionbyregion

Althoughhighqualityhotelswith5and4starsrepresentonly6%oftotalhotelstock
they consume 16% of the electricity (Figure 3.9.). Hotels with 3 and 2 stars, which
represent 50% and 44% of total hotel stock, consume 60% and 24% of electricity
respectively. This data is reasonable since hotels with 5 and 4 stars consume more
thandoubleoftheelectricityconsumedinhotelswith2stars(Table3.4.)
Breakdown of electricity consumption by hotel category

5* and 4*
16%

2* and 1*
24%

3*
60%

Figure3.9.Breakdownofelectricityconsumptionbyhotelcategory

80

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

In Figure 3.10. and Figure 3.11. the breakdown of electricity consumption in GWh
based on the data from Table 3.5. by hotel category and operational schedule for
differentregionsisgiven.ItcanbeseenthatseasonalhotelsinIstriaconsumes60.78
GWh,thisisalmostthesameamountofenergyasallseasonalhotelsintheother 4
regions. Rijeka and Dubrovnik regions have a long tourist tradition all year round
(with the help of congress tourism), that is the reason why non seasonal hotels in
these regions consume more energy than seasonal ones. Analysis of electricity
consumption has shown that seasonal hotels utilize 64% of the total electricity
consumption in 5 coastal regions while non seasonal ones consume 36%. This is
estimated data based on the electricity consumption in hotels in 2002, but ratio of
energyconsumptioninseasonalandnonseasonalhotelsmightbechangedinyears
to come, since the strategy for Croatian tourism is aimed at extending the tourist
seasonandtoimprovetouristservicesinexistinghotels.Thebreakdownofelectricity
consumptionbyhotelscategoryinfiveregionsisgiveninAppendixII.

Breakdow n of electricity consum ption in GWh by region and


hotel category
70

GWh

60
50

2* and 1*

40

3*

30

5* and 4*

20
10
0
Dubrovnik

Istria

Rijeka

Split

Zadar

Figure3.10.BreakdownofelectricityconsumptioninGWhbyregionandhotelcategory

81

Breakdow n of electricity consum ption in GWh by region and


hotel operation
Non seasonal
Seasonal

70
4.80

60

GWh

50
40
60.78

30
20
10

23.00

15.73

10.74
3.91
21.27

13.94

11.15

14.91

0
Dubrovnik

Istria

Rijeka

Split

Zadar

Figure3.11.BreakdownofelectricityconsumptioninGWhbyregionandhoteloperational
schedule

Analysis has also shown that hotels on the mainland are responsible for 81% (146
GWh) of total electricity consumption, while 19% (34,2 GWh) belongs to hotels on
islands. Althoughthe ratioofhotelfacilitieson islands is 21%,the reasonfor lower
electricity consumption is due to a lower level of offered services (only one 4 stars
hotelwasregisteredontheislandRab,whiletherestofthehotelstockisin3and2
starshotels).

3.2.2.2.

Analysisofheatingoilconsumption

Heating oil is used in hotels for domestic hot water heating and for space heating.
Energyconsumptionfordomestichotwaterdepends,tosomeextent,onthehotels
category due to the different water consumptions. On the other hand, energy
consumption for space heating should be the same, expressed in kWh/m2, since
heatingdemanddependsoftheclimate.Therearethreemajorfactorsthatinfluence
energy consumption for different hotel categories: building envelope conditions,
energyefficiencyofheatingsystemandwaterconsumption.

Billing information for yearly oil consumption was obtained from 74 hotels out of
124,whichisa60%responserate.Duringthesurveyitwasrealisedthatduetoweak

82

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

energy management and quarterly oil purchases, only 25% of hotels did have
recorded monthly oil consumption. The other 35% could provide only yearly oil
consumption. Combined heating systems such as heat pumps and solar collectors
were found in 14 hotels. That is why results of only 60 hotels (out of 74 who gave
informationaboutheatingoilconsumption)werepresentedinTable3.6.

Collected data was analysed with regard to oil consumption in litres per square
meter, per room and per bed for 24 categories depending of location (4 regions:
Dubrovnik,Istria,Rijeka,Split),operationschedule(seasonalandnonseasonalhotel)
andnumberofstars(5*4*,3*and2*).SurveyedhotelsfromtheZadarregiondidnot
provideadequatedata;thereforethisregionisexcludedfromthisanalysis.However,
climateconditionsaresimilartotheSplitregionwhichleadstoconcludethatresults
mightbesimilar.

On Figure 3.12. and Figure 3.13. data for heating oil consumption is presented by
hotel category for all surveyed hotels. It can be seen that heating oil consumption
varies a lot for the same hotel category and it goes from 1,24 26,69 l/m2 and from
0,8152,94l/m2forseasonalandnonseasonal3starshotelsrespectively.

Oil consumption, l/m2

Seasonal hotels on Adriatic coast


30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00
0

hotel category

Figure3.12.HeatingoilconsumptionforseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastbyhotel
category

83

Oil consumption, l/m2

Non seasonal hotels on Adriatic coast

60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
1

hotel category

Figure3.13.HeatingoilconsumptionfornonseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastbyhotel
category

In Table 3.6. the average heating oil consumption is given for different hotel
categories,togetherwiththenumberofsurveyedhotelsforeachcategory.Sincethere
arenotmanyhotelswith5stars,insomecasesonlyoneortwo,theyweresurveyed
in a specific group. However, at the end of the table an average heating oil
consumptionforallhotelswithcorrespondingnumberofhotelsamplesisgiven.One
canseethatoilconsumptionforhotelswithyearroundoperationinlitresperroomis
highest for hotels with 5 and 4 stars (Croatia average 928,85 l/room and year), then
somethinglowerisforhotelswith3stars(819,08l/roomandyear)whilethelowestis
for2starshotels(782,44l/roomandyear).Reasonsforthisdistributionisthathotels
with higher standards have a higher hot water consumption (due to guests water
consumption,mealpreparationandhigherfloorareaforcleaning),biggerfloorarea
perroomandbiggerareaofcommonfacilitiesthatareheatedspaces.Thesearethe
average values for all hotels. However as it was expected due to different climatic
conditions and highest heating demand, the north Adriatic coast (region of Rijeka)
hasthehighestoilconsumptionperroomintherangeof10611188l/roomperyear
for all hotels. On the other hand hotels in the southern part of the Adriatic coast
(region of Split and Dubrovnik), where heating demand is lower, consume less
heatingoilperroomanddiffersfrom503709l/roomperyear.
84

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Itcanbeseenthatoilconsumptionpersquaremeterofhotelislowerforthe5and4
starnonseasonalhotelswithanamountof11,54l/m2comparedtotheconsumption
in 3 and 2 stars in the order of 13,44 l/m2 and 22,55 l/m2 respectively. One of the
reasonsforhigheroilconsumptionfor2starshotelsisduetothelackofindividual
regulationofindoortemperaturefortheroom.Asecondreasonmightbeduetothe
factthatlowerqualityhotelshavehigherratiosofheatedareascomparedtothetotal
floorareaofthehotel.Asitwaselaboratedinsubchapter3.2.1.1.(Table3.2.andTable
3.3.). as hotel category increases, floor area of additional (not heated) facilities also
increases.
Table3.6.Averageoilconsumptioninlitresfordifferenthotelcategories

Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Surveyed/
response
Istria
Istria
Istria
Surveyed/
response
Rijeka
Rijeka
Rijeka
Surveyed/
response
Split
Split
Split
Surveyed/
response

Croatia
Croatia
Croatia
Surveyed/
response

Seasonalhotels(heating+DHW)
No
No
hotels hotels l/m2
l/room
l/bed

5*4* 2
3*
9
2*
3

Nonseasonalhotels(heating+DHW)
No
hotels l/m2
l/room
l/bed

6,07

395,25

197,62

5,42

709,37

354,68

6,93

263,47

134,15

15,04

637,36

305,89

11,79

535,76

267,88

11,85

721,78

366,81

24
5*4*
3*
2*

14

11

25
5*4*
3*
2*

6,89

407,78

203,89

17,66

1148,33

592,18

15

7,56

334,97

168,27

10

16,37

1188,81

623,83

20,00

1061,50

533,76

32
5*4*
3*
2*

23

17

10

4,95

283,94

136,64

8,90

631,08

291,46

8,30

309,59

157,93

25,10

503,37

254,58

29

19

13

l/room

l/bed

0
0

No
No
hotels hotels l/m2

5*4* 7
3*
46
2*
21
124

60

l/room

l/bed

No
hotels l/m2

6,48

401,51

200,76

11,54

928,85

473,43

22

7,82

401,04

201,47

16

13,44

819,08

407,06

10

10,04

422,67

212,90

22,55

782,44

394,17

34

26

85

Withrespecttooilconsumptioninseasonalhotels,itcanbeseenfromtheTable3.6.
that consumption per room is similar in all types of hotels (app. 400l/room), but it
differs as a consumption per square meter (from 6,48 l/m2 for 5 star hotels to 10,04
l/m2for2starhotels).Thesedifferencesmightbeexplainedwiththesamearguments
asfornonseasonalhotels.

According to average oil consumption per one hotels room in l/room (Table 3.6.),
estimationfortotaloilconsumptionwasmadeforallhotelsinthefivecoastalregions
(Table3.7.).Estimatedtotaloilconsumptionis22,23x106litres,thatrepresents229,5
GWhofenergywith0,22%intotalenergyconsumptioninservicesector.

Table3.7.Oilconsumptioninlitresinfivecostalregions(estimation)
litres
Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
Zadar
Total,litres

5*and4*
884.769
1.418.738
555.072
119.211
158.800
3.136.591

3*
1.371.682
4.291.983
3.707.092
1.588.190
689.382
11.648.329

2*and1*
1.114.342
203.6321
2.856.718
1.083.380
356.672
7.447.433

Total
3.370.793
7.747.042
7.118.882
2.790.782
1.204.854
22.232.353

Breakdownofoilconsumption(Figure3.14.)inthehotelsectorisasfollows:15%in
theDubrovnikregion,35%inIstria,32%intheRijekaregion,13%intheSplitregion
and5%intheZadarregion.Thisdatadoesnotcompletelycorrespondtotheratioof
hotelsindifferentregions(17%D,31%I,22%R,21%S,9%Z,Figure3.1.).The
reasonforthatisahighernumberofnonseasonalhotelsintheRijekaregionwhere
thereisahigherneedforspaceheatingcomparedtotheregionsofDubrovnik,Split
andZadarwhereloweroilconsumptioncomparedtotheratioofhotelsisestimated.

86

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Breakdown of oil consumption by region


5%

13%

15%
Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
35%

32%

Zadar

Figure3.14.Breakdownofheatingoilconsumptionbyregion

Althoughhighqualityhotelswith5and4starsrepresentonly6%oftotalhotelsstock
theyconsume14%oftheoil(Figure3.15.).Hotelswith3and2stars,whichrepresent
50%and44%oftotalhotelstock,consume53%and33%ofoilrespectively.

Breakdown of oil consumption by hotel category

2* and 1*
33%

5* and 4*
14%

3*
53%

Figure3.15.Breakdownofelectricityconsumptionbyhotelcategory

InFigure3.16.andFigure3.17.thebreakdownofoilconsumptioninlitresbyhotels
categoryandoperationalschedulefordifferentregionsbasedonthedatafromTable
3.7.isgiven.ItcanbeseenthatseasonalhotelsinIstriaandRijekaconsume67%of
thetotaloilconsumption.Furthermore,itcanbeseenthatnonseasonalhotelsinthe
Rijeka region consume 53% of the total oil consumption in non seasonal hotels.
87

Analysis of oil consumption has shown that seasonal hotels utilize 55% of total oil
consumption in the 5 coastal regions, while non seasonal consumes 45%. This is
estimateddatabasedonheatingoilconsumptioninhotelsin2002.Howevertheratio
ofoilconsumptioninseasonalandnonseasonalhotelsmightbechangedinyearsto
come.

litres

Breakdown of oil consumption in litres by region and hotel


category
9000000
8000000
7000000
6000000
5000000
4000000
3000000
2000000
1000000
0

2* and 1*
3*
5* and 4*

Dubrovnik

Istria

Rijeka

Split

Zadar

Figure3.16.Breakdownofoilconsumptioninlitresbyregionandhotelcategory

litres

Breakdown of oil consumption in litres by region and hotel


operation

9000000
8000000
7000000
6000000
5000000
4000000
3000000
2000000
1000000
0

Non seasonal
Seasonal

Dubrovnik

Istria

Rijeka

Split

Zadar

Figure3.17.Breakdownofoilconsumptioninlitresbyregionandhoteloperational
schedule

88

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Thebreakdownofoilconsumptionbyhotelscategoryinfiveregionsisalsogivenin
AppendixII.

3.2.2.3.

Analysisofgasconsumption

Theuseofgasintheformofapropanebutanemixtureisusuallyforcooking,while
onlyafewhotelsdohaveaheatinganddomestichotwaterpoweredbyLPG.These
hotelsareexcludedwhencalculatingtheaverageconsumptionofgas,giveninTable
3.8.
Table3.8.Averagegasconsumptioninkgfordifferenthotelcategories

Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Surveyed/
response
Istria
Istria
Istria
Surveyed/
response
Rijeka
Rijeka
Rijeka
Surveyed/
response
Split
Split
Split
Surveyed/
response

Croatia
Croatia
Croatia
Surveyed/
response

Seasonalhotels
No
No
hotels hotels kg/m2

5*4* 2
3*
10
2*
2

0,11

kg/room

Nonseasonalhotels
No
kg/bed hotels kg/m2
kg/room

kg/bed

7,39

3,70

0,33

43,35

21,68

0,45

20,74

9,52

0,56

22,32

11,80

0,47

22,35

11,18

24
5*4*
3*
2*

13

10

0,25

22,49

11,35

0,14

11,34

6,10

1,05

59,50

31,16

1,24

64,54

34,77

25
5*4*
3*
2*

12

0,59

35,01

17,51

0,60

40,04

21,61

17

0,39

17,70

8,37

13

0,60

28,08

13,77

1,51

134,62

67,31

0,42

20,51

10,36

32
5*4*
3*
2*

25

19

29

0,33

19,21

9,63

0
1,35

98,00

43,37

0,36

2,67

0,83

0,81

16,20

8,19

12

kg/room

No
kg/bed hotels

kg/m2

kg/room

kg/bed

No
No
hotels hotels kg/m2

5*4* 8
3*
44
2*
10
124

62

0,32

21,63

10,85

0,36

31,58

16,46

25

0,58

29,68

15,24

19

0,91

52,84

25,36

0,78

53,21

26,44

0,62

18,35

9,28

33

29

89

Billing information for yearly gas consumption was obtained from 62 hotels out of
124,a50%responserate.Duringthesurveyitwasrealisedthatduetoweakenergy
management and quarterly gas purchase, only 20% of hotels do have recorded
monthly gas consumption, although these are not believed to be real amounts of
consumed gas per month. The other 30% could only give yearly total gas
consumption.

Collecteddatawereanalysedwithregardtogasconsumptioninkgpersquaremeter,
perroomandperbedfor24categoriesdependingonlocation(4regions:Dubrovnik,
Istria, Rijeka, Split), operating schedule (seasonal and non seasonal hotel) and
numberofstars(5*4*,3*and2*).SurveyedhotelsfromZadarregiondidnotprovide
adequatedata;thereforethisregionisexcludedfromthisanalysis.

FromTable3.8.itcanbeseenthatthereisnoobviouspatternforgasconsumptionin
differentcategories.Gasconsumptionperroomvariesfrom11,34kgto98kgfornon
seasonal hotels and form 7,39 to 134,62 kg/room for seasonal hotels. However,
averagedataforCroatiashowsthathighestconsumptionisinthe3star,nonseasonal
hotels. This might be explained by the number of prepared meals in these types of
hotelsthatprovidesfullservicefortheirguests.Guestsat5and4starhotelspreferto
haveatleastonemealinalacartrestaurant,outsideofthehotel,whatmightbea
reason why 5 and 4 stars seasonal hotels consumes the lowest amount of gas per
room (21,63 kg/room). Basically gas consumption depends on number of cooking
devices that are powered by gas and number of prepared meals. According to data
forgasconsumptionperonehotelsroominkg/room(Table3.8.),estimationfortotal
gas consumption was made for all hotels in the five coastal regions (Table 3.9.).
Estimatedtotalgasconsumptionis2714,5tones,thatrepresents35,36GWhofenergy
with0,03%oftotalenergyconsumptionintheservicesector.

90

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Table3.9.Gasconsumptioninkginfivecostalregions(estimation)
kg
Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
Zadar

5*and4* 3*
41.318
30.576
23.476
4.018
8.353

Total,kg

107.741

2*and1*
Total
441.346
83.483
566.148
479.911
629.490
1.139.977
169.356
195.290
388.122
206.550
164.157
374.725
139.820
97.344
245.515
1.436.983

1.169.764

2.714.488

Breakdownofgasconsumption(Figure3.18.)inthehotelsectorisasfollows:21%in
theDubrovnikregion,42%inIstria,14%intheRijekaregion,14%intheSplitregion
and9%intheZadarregion.Thisdatadoesnotcompletelycorrespondstotheratioof
hotelsindifferentregion(17%D,31%I,22%R,21%S,9%Z,Figure3.1.).The
reason for that should be investigated, taking into account number of guests,
occupancyrate,numberofmealspreparedandcookingdevicediversity,whichwas
not available in this study. However, the reason for higher gas consumption in the
Istriaregionisduetoabetteraccesstotheregionalgaspipeline.
Breakdow n of gas consum ption in kg by region

9%

21%

14%

Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split

14%

Zadar

42%

Figure3.18.Breakdownofgasconsumptionbyregion

Althoughhighqualityhotelswith5and4starsrepresentonly6%oftotalhotelsstock
they consume 4% of the gas (Figure 3.19.). Hotels with 3 and 2 stars that represent
50%and44%oftotalhotelstockconsume53%and43%ofgasrespectively.

91

Breakdown of gas consumption by hotel category

5* and 4*
4%
2* and 1*
43%
3*
53%

Figure3.19.Breakdownofelectricityconsumptionbyhotelcategory

InFigure3.20.andFigure3.21.thebreakdownofgasconsumptioninkilos,basedon
the date from Table 3.9. by hotel category and operational schedule for different
regions is given. It can be seen that seasonal hotels on the Adriatic coast consumes
83% of the total gas consumption. Since gas consumption is strongly dependant on
the number of guests and meals prepared, seasonal hotels that operates during the
summermonthswhenthehotelsoccupancygoesfrom20to100%havereasonably
higher gas consumption. Furthermore it can be seen that hotels in the Istria region
consume 42% of total gas consumption. This is estimated data based on gas
consumption in hotels in 2002. However ratio of gas consumption in seasonal and
nonseasonalhotelsmightbechangedinyearstocome,duetothefactthataregional
pipelinewillbeextendedtotheregionsofRijeka,ZadarandSplit.

Thebreakdownofgasconsumptionbyhotelscategoryinfiveregionsisalsogivenin
AppendixII.

92

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Breakdown of gas consumption by region and hotel's


category
1200000
1000000
2* and 1*

kg

800000

3*

600000

5* and 4*

400000
200000
0
Dubrovnik

Istria

Rijeka

Split

Zadar

Figure3.20.Breakdownofgasconsumptioninkgbyregionandhotelcategory

Breakdown of gas consumption by region and operational time

1200000
1000000

kg

800000
600000

Non seasonal
Seasonal

400000
200000
0
Dubrovnik

Istria

Rijeka

Split

Zadar

Figure3.21.Breakdownofgasconsumptioninkgbyregionandhoteloperationalschedule

3.2.2.4.

Analysisoftotalenergyconsumption

Dataforelectricity,oilandgasconsumptioncollectedduringauditsandanalysedin
subchapters 3.2.2.13. were integrated and presented as a breakdown of energy
resources for different hotel categories, operational schedules and regions in Tables
3.103.13. Net calorific value for conversion are as follows: for light heating oil
Hd=42710 kJ/kg (MGRP 2004), while density was taken as 0,87 kg/dm3 (Recknagel

93

2002),thatgivesHd=37158kJ/l,andgasusedinhotelsisapropanebutanemixture
withcalorificvalueHd=46890kJ/kg(MGRP2004).

FromTables3.10.3.13.itcanbeseenthatelectricityconsumptioninseasonalhotels
correspond to ratios from 30,74 54,83% depending of region and hotel category.
Generally speaking, hotels with a higher quality have higher ratio of electricity
consumptioninthetotalbreakdownofenergyconsumption(Figure3.22.).Theratio
of electricity consumption in non seasonal hotels goes from 21,57% to 54.22%.
Heatingoilconsumptionforseasonalandnonseasonalhotelsvariesintherangeof
37,81% 60,68% and 43,31% 74,79% respectively, while higher ratios correspond to
hotels in lower categories. With regards to gas consumption, it is in the range of
1,41%8,6%forseasonaland0,82%8,28%fornonseasonalhotels.

Table3.10.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypefortheDubrovnikregion
Dubrovnik
Hotel
category

5*and4*

3*

2*and1*

Allhotels

Operation
schedule

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

%kWh,elec.
%kWh,oil
%kWh,gas
KWh/m2year

53.84%
43.03%
3.13%
147.07

54.22%
43.31%
2.47%
210.99

52.02%
42.42%
5.56%
156.03

38.44%
55.31%
6.25%
219.54

45.99%
46.78%
7.23%
169.40

21.57%
74.79%
3.63%
217.64

50.61%
44.08%
5.31%
157.50

38.08%
57.80%
4.12%
216.06

Table3.11.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypeforIstria
Istria
Hotel
category

5*and4*

3*

2*and1*

Allhotels

Operation
schedule

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

%kWh,elec.
%kWh,oil
%kWh,gas
KWh/m2year

39.37%
58.79%
1.84%
327.02

38.81%
60.37%
0.82%
234.47

36.45%
55.73%
7.82%
195.29

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

37.91%
57.26%
4.83%
261.15

38.81%
60.37%
0.82%
234.47

94

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Table3.12.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypefortheRijekaregion
Rijeka
Hotel
category

5*and4*

3*

2*and1*

Allhotels

Operation
schedule

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

%kWh,elec.
%kWh,oil
%kWh,gas
KWh/m2year

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

39.56%
56.95%
3.48%
231.20

38.22%
57.82%
3.96%
167.26

33.76%
62.51%
3.73%
159.84

30.74%
60.68%
8.58%
146.98

30.24%
66.47%
3.29%
173.13

34.48%
59.25%
6.27%
157.12

34.52%
61.98%
3.50%
188.06

Table3.13.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypefortheSplitregion
Split
Hotel
category

5*and4*

3*

2*and1*

Allhotels

Operation
schedule

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

%kWh,elec.
%kWh,oil
%kWh,gas
KWh/m2year

54.83%
43.76%
1.41%
67.83

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

53.79%
37.81%
8.40%
124.27

33.14%
58.97%
7.90%
172.58

40.84%
50.56%
8.60%
195.52

41.48%
50.24%
8.28%
96.87

49.82%
44.04%
6.14%
129.21

37.31%
54.60%
8.09%
134.73

Table3.14.BreakdownofenergyconsumptionbyfueltypeforCroatia(Adriaticcoast)
Croatia
Hotel
category

5*and4*

3*

2*and1*

Allhotels

Operation
schedule

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

%kWh,elec.
%kWh,oil
%kWh,gas
KWh/m2year

49.35%
48.53%
2.13%
180.64

44.20%
53.54%
2.26%
225.56

45.12%
48.44%
6.44%
160.71

46.22%
47.17%
6.62%
215.23

38.10%
52.44%
9.46%
159.68

31.10%
63.83%
5.07%
162.55

44.19%
49.80%
6.01%
166

40.50%
54.85%
4.65%
203

Data presented in Table 3.10. Table 3.14. is the result from analysis of surveyed
hotels, that is the reason why some groups of data are missing. As it was said in
subchapter 3.1., (see Table 3.1.) not all hotel categories in different regions were
surveyedandnotallsurveyedhotelsgavesufficientdata.However,forfuturework
and utilization of presented data, approximations can be made with regards to
similarclimaticconditions.FortheregionofSplit,datafromtheregionofDubrovnik

95

can be taken, while for the region of Istria, data from the region of Rijeka will be a
goodapproximation.

From Figure 3.22. it can be seen that hotels in a higher category utilize more
electricity to provide services to their guests than hotels with lower standard. All
hotels should provide a minimum amount of domestic hot water and all hotels
shouldprovidesufficientheating.Fromtheotherside,theratioofgasconsumption
to total consumption is growing as the hotels category lowers. Furthermore, the
DubrovnikandSplitregionshaveahigherratioofelectricityconsumptioncompared
to the other energy sources (heating oil and gas) than the Rijeka and Istria regions.
This might be explained with the higher heating demand due to lower average
temperaturesandlowerintensityofsolarradiation.

Fuel type ratio change


70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
% kWh, el.ene.

40.00%

% kWh, oil

30.00%

% kWh, gas

20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
5* and 4 *
seasonal

5* and 4 *
non
seasonal

3*
seasonal

3*
non
seasonal

2* and 1 *
seasonal

2* and 1 *
non
seasonal

Figure3.22.ChangesisfueltyperatiofordifferenthotelscategoriesontheAdriaticcoast

3.2.2.5.

Analysisofexistingenergymanagementinhotels

Oneoftheobservationsfromthesurveywasthatenergymanagementpracticeisona
lowlevelordoesnotexistinmanyhotels.Energymanagementisconsideredtobea
number of actions taken by the hotels management at an energy resource and
96

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

systemsplanninglevelwithactionsbythefacilitymanagementondailymaintenance
frequency. It was observed that personnel who take care of maintenance for the
technicalsystemsarenoteducatedenoughabouttheoperationalandfinancialeffects
ofenergyconsumptioninhotels.Onlyafewhotelscollectenergydatafortheirown
analysis. The equipment performance, optimization of operating practices, regular
adjustment of equipment, and replacement or modification of inefficient equipment
and systems was not one duty and definitely not a priority for hotel management.
Collection and analysis of energy data would help to identify areas for possible
energysavings.

One of the main reasons for energy and water data collection and monitoring is to
introduce energy management through data analysis and consequently the
implementationofenergysavingmeasures.Worldexperiencewithrespecttoenergy
andwatercontributionsinhotelstotalcostsshowsratiosbetween3and6%(Zanki
2002). Therefore energy saving actions and implementation of energy efficient
measures can contribute to profit increase which is one of the best motivators for
hotelowners.

Astudyconductedamong20hotelsintheregionofRijekacityownedbyLiburnija
Riviera Hotels (LRH), showed that the ratio of energy costs in total costs were
changingfrom1982to2001intherangeof2,94%(1989)to6,51%(2001).Intheyears
19982001 there was a continuous increase in energy costs. With regards to water
coststhereisalsoincreasefrom0,85%oftotalcostsin1989to2,79%in2001(Holjevac
2003).

If one observes that energy costs are estimated as one fourth of total profit, the
reasonstoimplementenergysavingmeasureswillbeevenmoreattractive.

97

3.2.3. AnalysisofexistingHVACandDHWsystems

3.2.3.1.

Domestichotwatersystems(DHW)

Domestic hot water installation is a precondition in hotel operations. Hot water


should be available at any time and in required amounts. The energy audit has
shown that 90% of hotels have combined systems for DHW and heating. In 90% of
installations, fuel is light heating oil, while the other 10% utilizes electricity, solar
collectorsorLPG.Itwasrecordedthatonly6outof124hotelsdohavesolarthermal
installations,thatisnegligibleifoneconsiderthesunpotentialontheAdriaticcoast
with more than 2000 sunshine hours throughout the year. Only 24% of hotels
confirmedthattheyrecordwaterconsumption,althoughtherearenomeasurements
forhotwater.

3.2.3.2.

Heatingsystems

98% of all surveyed hotel heating systems consist of a boiler, oil burner, hot water
storagetank,hotwaterdistributionlinesandheatingdevices(radiators).Inthecase
wherecoolingsystemsexist,fancoilsareusedforheatingpurposesaswell.Inonly2
hotels,outof 124were solarcollectorsused for heatingsystems aswell, whileback
upsystemisanoilboiler.Combinedheatingsystemssuchasheatpumps,collectors
andoilboilersarerecordedin10%ofhotels.

Theageofinstalledequipmentcanalsogiveinformationtowardspossiblepointsfor
energyefficiencyimprovements.24,3%ofboilersareolderthan2535years,installed
between 19701980 and 25,7% of boilers older than 1525 years, installed between
19801990.Theremaining48,6%oftheboilerswereinstalledwithinthelast13years.

3.2.3.3.

Coolingsystems

According to the official price list of hotels in 2003, 35% of hotels declared to have
cooling systems. However it was not clearly stated which areas were cooled. As it

98

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

wasexpectedallhotelswith5and4starswereinthisgroup,buttherestwerehotels
with3starsandsomewith2stars.Coolingsystemarerequiredforhotelswith5and
4 stars in rooms and common facilities, while for existing 3 star hotels cooling is
neededincommonfacilitiesonly,butfornew3starhotels,roomsshouldbecooled
aswell.

Energyauditinghasshownthatthesystemsapproachdoesnotexist.Inmanycases,
hotel management implemented partial solutions, which makes cooling systems
decentralizedandhencelessenergyefficient.

Coefficient of performance (COP) for a cooling system depends on the temperature


differencebetweencondensingandevaporatingtemperatures,thereforeforthesame
evaporationtemperaturesystemswithalowercondensingtemperaturewillachieve
better energy efficiency. That was the motivation behind asking about the type of
condenser (air cooled, water cooled or seawater cooled condenser) in the energy
audit questionnaire. Analysis has shown that 42 out of 124 hotels confirmed
installation of centralized cooling systems, where 69% of condensers are cooled by
air. 19% are chillers with water cooled condensers, while the rest, 12%, are chillers
with seawater cooledcondensers whicharethe mostefficient.Therewere 33out of
124hotelswhoconfirmedinstallationofdecentralizedcoolingsystems(mostlysplit
unitsinstalledinrestaurantsandothercommonfacilities)

Onlyonehotelconfirmedtheinstallationofanabsorptioncoolingchillerpoweredby
gas.Anicestoragesystemthatcontributestoenergyconservationwasconfirmedby
5hotels.Fromtheseresultsitisobviousthatpotentialforenergysavingsincooling
systemsexists.

99

3.2.4. Analysisofwaterconsumption
Waterconsumptioninthehoteldirectlyinfluenceenergyconsumption,firstlydueto
the electricity consumed in pumping systems, and secondly due to the energy
consumptionforwaterheating.Waterconsumptioninthehoteldependsonnumber
ofguests,floorareaandthenumberoffacilitiesthatutilizewater(swimmingpools,
wellness centre, number of public showers on the beach and number of meals
prepared in restaurant). Average water consumption obtained by questionnaire
analysisfordifferenthotelcategoriesandregionsisgiveninTable3.15.Totalnumber
of hotels who provided data about water consumption was 80, that gives a 64,5%
response rate. Yearly water consumption differs greatly from 0.18 m3/m2 (14,485
m3/room) to 12,14 m3/m2 (355 m3/room), however average water consumption is in
the range of 13 m3/m2 (app. 70 170 m3/room). It can be seen from the table that
waterconsumptiondoesnotfollowanypatterndependingonhotelcategorysincein
theregionofRijekawaterconsumptioninhotelsinthelowercategoryishigherthan
forhighercategoryhotelswhileintheregionsofSplitandIstria(seasonalhotels)the
situationisreversed.Itwasrealisedthatwaterconsumptiondependsonthepresence
ofaswimmingpoolinthehotelwhichwasalsoanalysedandpresentedinTable3.15.

Insomeplacesonthecoast,especiallyontheislands,thereisalackofpotablewater.
Noneoftheislandspossesswaterspringsandthereforewateristransportedfromthe
mainlandthroughunderwaterpipelinesorbyship.However,thepipelinecapacities
arelimitedandsometimes,inhightouristseason,donotsatisfytheneeds,whileship
transportis verycostlyandlimited.Thereisa bigissuewithwatermanagementin
the tourism industry since water consumption is a heavy burden on natural
resources. With respect to water consumption in hotels of the world, it is estimated
that depending on the hotel standard guests typically use between 90 and 150
litres of water per night. However, a recent report published by one hotel chain
provides an average figure of 440 l/guestnight, while another chain reports an
averagefigureof224l/guestnight(Bohdanowicz,Martinac2003).

100

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Table3.15.Averagewaterconsumptioninm3fordifferenthotelcategories

Seasonalhotels
No
No
hotels hotels m3/m2

Dubrovnik 5*and4* 2
Dubrovnik 3*
16
Dubrovnik 2*
3
Dubrovnik Withpool
Dubrovnik Nopool
Surv/resp. 24
21
Istria
Istria
Istria

5*and4* 3
3*
10
2*
0

1.73

112.58

56.29

0.99

129.60

64.80

12

2.53

102.87

51.83

2.70

121.77

56.67

2.45

106.30

53.15

2.73

97.15

49.43

0.99

129.60

64.80

2.25

109.54

54.63

2.70

121.77

56.67

16

2.46

104.12

52.36

2.36

123.34

58.29

m3/bed

2.03

181.10

91.33

4.09

327.53

176.14

10

1.82

85.68

44.37

1.29

80.53

40.71

1.84

88.36

46.70

12

1.86

92.05

48.34

4.09

327.53

176.14

1.71

111.54

58.22

2.69

97.83

48.55

3.02

171.00

97.40

2.89

126.57

68.54

2.40

150.10

75.05

Withpool
Nopool

1.86

117.40

62.81

2.50

148.20

81.35

32
5*and4*
3*
2*

2.77

110.15

57.12

10

2.43

145.12

79.49

Istria
Withpool
Istria
Nopool
Surv/resp. 25
13
Rijeka
5*and4* 4
Rijeka
3*
9
Rijeka
2*
4
Rijeka
Rijeka
Surveyed/
response
Split
Split
Split

m3/room

Nonseasonalhotels
No
m3/bed hotels m3/m2
m3/room

17
0

13

10

5.32

212.68

101.31 3

0.87

68.57

33.87

38.17

9.75

233.90

116.95

1.74

76.22

Withpool
Nopool

4.66

196.35

98.15

5.91

185.13

91.93

2.10

94.97

47.59

1.75

126.81

57.18

29
5*and4*
3*
2*

20

16

3.98

161.51

77.63

3.83

155.97

74.56

4.40

110.96

43.98

1.76

91.88

46.03

9.74

146.47

79.51

2.02

59.15

29.74

Zadar
Withpool
Zadar
Nopool
Surveyed/
response 29
9

3.58

83.02

39.52

1.76

91.88

46.03

m3/room

No
m3/bed hotels

m3/m2

m3/room

m3/bed

Split
Split
Surveyed/
response
Zadar
Zadar
Zadar

Croatia
Croatia
Croatia
Croatia
Croatia
Surveyed/
response

No
No
hotels hotels m3/m2

5*and4* 12
3*
49
2*
19
Withpool
Nopool
124

80

2.72

134.88

63.87

2.14

165.14

86.30

37

4.42

129.11

65.12

12

2.20

120.45

62.64

17

2.28

92.06

47.40

6.07

192.00

96.00

2.89

124.68

62.77

2.92

144.04

73.18

2.06

97.62

49.64

2.32

132.26

65.06

59

21

101

Data about guest nights in hotels on the Adriatic coast were not available for all
hotels,butresultsbasedontheanalysisof15hotelsfromtheregionofRijekafor2002
show that, water consumption per guest and night vary based on hotel occupancy
and it goes from 287 l/guest night (100% occupancy rate) to 800 l/guest night (13%
occupancyrate).

Thequestionnairehasshownthatwaterpricesvarydependingonregionfrom4,47
KN/m3(0,60,9EUR/m3)intheregionofSplit,910KN/m3(1,231,37EUR/m3)in
theregionofDubrovnik,719KN/m3(0,92,6EUR/m3)intheregionofRijekato11
17KN/m3(1,52,3EUR/m3)intheregionofIstria.

It has been shown (on the study conducted among 20 hotels in Rijeka region for
period19982003)thattheratioofwatercostsintotalcostsofenergyresourcesvaries
form32,439,3%while24,732,2%goestoelectricity,28,740,2%toheatingoiland1,8
3,4%togascosts(Elteh2003).Highwatercostisagoodenoughincentivetopromote
watersavingsmeasuresandintroduceawatermanagementsystem.

3.2.5. Resultsofenvironmentalawarenessaudit

The last part of the energy audit was an environmental awareness set of questions
thatgaveanoverviewaboutenvironmentalandenergysavingmeasuresappliedin
hotelsattheAdriaticcoast.Ithasbeenshownthat40%ofhotelsdonotthinkabout
energy consumption and they have not implemented any energy savings measures
(notevenenergyconsumptionmonitoring).Theremaining60%ofthehotelstriedto
implement energy saving measures, but they are mainly related to energy efficient
lighting.Theexceptionsaresixhotelswhohaveinstalledsolarcollectors.

102

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

At the same time as the energy audit was made, environmental awareness
questionnairesweredistributestothehotelsmanagementintheDubrovnikregion.
The same questionnaire was distributed among hotels in Sweden and Poland and
compared(Bohdanowicz,ZankiAlujevi,Martinac2004).Traditionally,andtosome
degreeunderstandablyfromabusinessperspectiveandinfearofnegativepublicity
the hotel industry has been reluctant to assume responsibility for any significant
negative environmental impacts occurring during various stages (including
construction, operation, maintenance, retrofitting, demolition) in the lifecycle of
hotel facilities.Studies haveshown thatrecently,however, attitudeshavestarted to
change. The environmental awareness survey among hoteliers in three countries,
namelySweden,PolandandCroatiashowedthat81,5%inPoland,82,7%inSweden
and100%inCroatiaofrespondentsbelievedenvironmentalprotectiontobeessential
for the performance and further development of the tourism industry. Recognizing
theproblemisanecessaryfirststeptowardschangeandtheimplementationofmore
responsiblepracticesandbehaviours.Themajorityofrespondents83,3%inCroatia
believedthatenvironmentalimpactscausedbyhotelsaremoderatetosignificant.On
thecontraryonly26%ofrespondentsinCroatiadeclaredbeinginvolvedwithenergy
andwatersavingmeasuresandsomesortofwastemanagement(sorting,recycling)
(SeeFigure3.23.)Amongenergysavingoptions,energyefficientlightingreceivedthe
mostattention(76%inSweden,70.2%inPolandbutonly23.3inCroatia).

Manypeopleinsistthatefficientequipmentisprohibitivelyexpensive;howeverthey
are often unaware of the fact that the running costs of inefficient apparatuses are
frequently much higher than the initial cost of more efficient equipment. It is
thereforeimportanttoevaluatethecostofequipmentnotonlybasedoninitialcost,
buttakingtheentirelifecycleintoconsideration.Thisattitudewillgraduallybecome
more common in the future and current figures related to the incorporation of
energyefficientequipmentintothehotelmarket(20%forCroatia,41.9%forPoland,

103

and 58.2% for Sweden) will undoubtedly increase (Bohdanowicz, Zanki Alujevi,

% of respondents

Martinac2004).
100
80
60
40
20
0

87.6 83.9

85.3

26.7

Energy conservation

Sweden, N=225

89.9

79
26.7

Water conservation

Poland, N=124

77.4
36.7

Responsible waste
management

Croatia, N=30

Figure3.23.Environmentalareastargeted,%respondents(Bohdanowiczetla2004)

Asaconclusiononecansay,Croatianhoteliersgenerallyseemtohaveahighlevelof
environmental knowledge and concern for these issues. However, among the three
countriesinvestigated,concreteproecologicalinitiativeswerefoundtobeleastlikely
implemented in Croatia. This may in part be due to the very recent revival of the
Croatian tourism industry, following regional political and economic difficulties in
the1990s.ItisreasonabletoexpectthesituationinCroatiatoimproveastheindustry
continuestoregainmomentum(Bohdanowicz,ZankiAlujevi,Martinac2004).

Thequestionnairealsoshowedthat:

100% of respondents believe that environmental protection is


conditionalfortourismdevelopment

83,3% of respondents believe that the environmental impact of hotel


sectorissignificant

63,3%ofemployeesarefamiliarwithenvironmentalactions

50% of respondents are involved in some of the actions that might


contributetoenvironmentalprotection

26% of respondents are involved in actions for energy and water


savings

104

23%ofrespondentsarefamiliarwithenergysavinglightingmeasures

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

20% of respondents are familiar with the fact that energy efficient
equipment, although with higher investments costs, brings savings
afterashortpaybackperiod

6,6%ofrespondentsencouragetheirgueststosaveenergyandwater

30%ofrespondentssortwaste

Asaconclusionoftheenvironmentalawarenessaudit,itcanbesaidthatalthoughit
seems Croatian hoteliers are familiar with most of the environmental protection
measures,theyneglecttheirimplementation.Therefore,itcanbeconcludedthatthe
potentialforenvironmentalandenergysavingmeasuresaresignificant.

3.3. ThebenchmarkforhotelsontheAdriaticcoast

Benchmarkingiscreatingastandardbywhichsomethingcanbemeasuredorjudged.
It is a quantitative process that can help to compare a hotels current performance
against itself over a period of time and with other competitors standards and to
determine which improvements are needed (IBLF 2005). Benchmarks for hotels
established in this study are: electricity consumption, heating oil consumption,
energy and water consumption per square metre and per room. Results collected
from the energy audit and analysed separately in chapters 3.2.2. and 3.2.4. are
summarised and presented in Table 3.16. Benchmarks are given for different hotel
categories (5&4 , 3 and 2&1 stars), for different operational schedules (seasonal and
non seasonal hotels) and for four regions (Dubrovnik, Istria, Rijeka and Split) with
the average for the whole Adriatic coast. The region of Zadar did not have good
response rate, so it was omitted in this table, but benchmark for the region of Split
couldbeused.

105

Table3.16.BenchmarksforCroatianhotelsontheAdriaticcoast

Hotelcategory

5*and4*

Operationschedule

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Seasonal

Non
seasonal

Electricity,kWh/m2

79,18
67,82
147
1,73
128,74
198,26
327
2,03

114,4
96,6
211
0,99
90,81
143,19
234
4,09

81,15
74,85
156
2,53
71,08
123,92
195
2,83

84,39
135,61
220
2,7
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

77,9
91,1
169
2,45
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

47,02
170,98
218
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

79,45
77,55
157

98,94
162,06
261

82,27
133,73
216

90,81
143,19
234

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
89,32
91,68
181
2,72

91,38
139,62
231
1,71
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
99,89
126,11
226
2,14

63,83
103,17
167
2,69
66,7
57,3
124
5,32
72,64
88,36
161
4,42

54,02
105,98
160
3,02
57,33
115,67
173
0,87
99,37
115,63
215
2,20

45,19
101,81
147
2,89
80,07
115,93
196
1,74
60,96
99,04
160
2,28

52,31
120,69
173
2,40
40,18
56,82
97
9,75
50,69
112,31
163
6,07

54,13
102,87
157

64,27
64,73
129

73,35
92,65
166

64,9
123,1
188

50,37
84,63
135

82,21
120,79
203

Dubrovnik

Otherenergy
Total,kWh/m2
Water,m3/m2
Electricity,kWh/m2

Istria

Otherenergy
Total,kWh/m2
Water,m3/m2
Electricity,kWh/m2
Rijeka

Otherenergy
Total,kWh/m2
Water,m3/m2
Electricity,kWh/m2

Split

Otherenergy
Total,kWh/m2
Water,m3/m2

Croatia

Electricity,kWh/m2
Otherenergy
Total,kWh/m2
Water,m3/m2

3*

2*and1*

Allhotels

The energy consumption pattern for hotel buildings on the Adriatic coast do not
differ from other hotels in the Mediterranean region (See Table 1.5.) and it varies
between 41594 kWh/m2. However, average energy and water consumption in
generalisloweras itcanbe seenfromTable3.16.,wheretotal energyconsumption
varies between 124327 kWh/m2 for seasonal hotels and 97234 kWh/m2 for non
seasonal hotels. Lower values for energy consumption compared to other
Mediterranean countries can be explained by specific climate conditions, lower
occupancy rate (yearly average 28%) and lower ratio of airconditioned rooms and
hotelfacilities.GraphicalpresentationofbenchmarkresultsaregiveninFigure3.24.

106

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Average energy consumption for different hotel's categories and regions in


kWh/m2 year

350

kWh/m2 year

300
250

Dubrovnik

200

Istria
Rijeka

150

Split
100

Zadar

50

Croatia

0
5* and 4 *
non seasonal

5* and 4 *
seasonal

3*
non seasonal

3*
seasonal

2* and 1 *
non seasonal

2* and 1 *
seasonal

Figure3.24.Averageenergyconsumptionfordifferenthotelcategoriesandregionsin
Croatia

Ingeneral,theuseofbenchmarksisgoodforthefollowingreasons(IBLF2005):

Contributestolowerpollutionandsavingofwater,waste,energyand
nonrenewableresources

Helpsmanagerstobemorestrategicintheirplanningandoperations
throughproductdifferentiationandcostsavings

Lowers utility costs by assessing the costsaving techniques and


technologiesthatwillhelptoimproveperformance

Keepsaheadofimpendinglegislationandotherregulatorypenalties

Improvesstaffawareness

Reducesmanpowerandoperatingcosts

Helps control costs and manage risk through the identification of


liabilitiesandweakness.

This is a first standard for hotels in Croatia based on data for energy and water
consumption in year 2002 and it is expected that it will be of grate use for experts
whointendtoimplementenergyefficiencymeasuresinthefuture.

107

3.4. Explanatoryindicators(variables)forenergyand
waterconsumption(Influencingvariableanalysis)

Toanalysethedatacollectedwiththeenergyauditandtoinvestigatehowdifferent
variables (total floor area, number of rooms, size of the room, region) influence
electricity, heating oil and water consumption, regression and correlation analysis
wasused.

Regressionanalysisisastatisticaltoolfortheinvestigationofrelationshipsbetween
variables. The goal of regression analysis is to determine the values of the
parameters that minimize the sum of the squared residual values for the set of
observations.Thisisknownasaleastsquaresregressionfit.(Suryanarayana,Arici
2003)

Inthisresearch,linearregressionwithoneindependentandonedependantvariable
andmultipleregressionanalysiswithseveral(maximumfive)independentvariables
(predictors) was used. A line in a two dimensional or twovariable space is defined
bytheequation:

y = a +bx

(3.1.)

y variable can be expressed in terms of a constant (a) and a slope (b) times the x
variable. The constant is also referred to as the intercept, and the slope as the
regressioncoefficient,orBcoefficient.

In the multivariate case, when there is more than one independent variable, the
regression line cannot be visualized in the two dimensional space. In general then,
multipleregressionprocedureswillestimatealinearequationoftheform:

108

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

y = a + b1 x1 + b2 x 2 + ... + bn x n

(3.2.)

Theregressioncoefficient(orBcoefficient)representstheindependentcontributions
ofeachindependentvariabletothepredictionofthedependentvariable.

Theregressionlineexpressesthebestpredictionofthedependentvariable(y),given
the independent variables (x). Usually there is substantial variation of the observed
points around the fitted regression line. The deviation of a particular point from
regressionlineiscalledtheresidualvalue(Statsoft2005).

Ifthereisnorelationshipbetweenthexandyvariables,thentheratiooftheresidual
variability of the y variable to the original variance is equal to 1. If x and y are
perfectlyrelatedthenthereisnoresidualvarianceandtheratioofvariancewouldbe
0.1minusthisratioisreferredtoasRsquareorthecoefficientofdetermination.
n

R2 =

( y
i =1
n

(y
i =1

y)
y)

0 R 2 1

(3.3.)

Where variance by regression model (SSR) is given by equation (3.4.) and total
variation(SSyy)ispresentedbyequation(3.5.).
n

2
SSR = ( y i y )

(3.4.)

(3.5.)

i =1

SS yy = ( y i y )
2

i =1

The Rsquare value is an indicator of how well the model fits the data (e.g. an R
squarecloseto1.0indicatedthatwehaveaccountedforalmostallofthevariability
withthevariablesspecifiedinthemodel)(Statsoft2005).

In multiple regression, R can assume values between 0 and 1. To interpret the


directionoftherelationshipbetweenvariables,onelooksatthesigns(plusorminus)
oftheregressionorbcoefficients.Ifabcoefficientispositive,thentherelationshipof
109

thisvariablewiththedependentvariableispositive;ifthecoefficientisnegativethen
the relationship is negative (e.g. the lower the occupancy rate the higher is energy
consumption per guest night). If the b coefficient is equal to 0 then there is no
relationshipbetweenthevariables(Statsoft2005).

According to Chadock scale there is a very strong correlation between variables if


0,64<R2<1(SeeTable3.17)

Table3.17.ChadockscaleforR2value(Horvat2006)
R2
0
0,000,25
0,250,64
0,641
1

|r|
0
0,000,50
0,500,80
0,801
1

Explanation
Thereisnorelationship
Poorrelationship
Mediarelationship
Strongrelationship
Fullrelationship

3.4.1. Regressionanalysisforelectricityconsumption

Asitwaselaboratedinsubchapter3.2.2.1.theelectricityinhotelsisusedtopowerall
building service systems as lighting, TV, elevators, cooling devices, electrical
appliances, cooking devices, laundry and HVAC systems (mostly ventilation and
cooling,rarelyheatpumpinheatingseasonandhotwaterpumpingsystem).

However, the electricity consumption in some of these services and systems are
influenced by several factors that might be explanatory factors (predictors). For
example, installed lighting power is in direct relation with total floor area, the
numberofTVsaredependantofthenumberofrooms,thenumberandfrequencyof
elevatorusageisdependantofsizeofthehotel(numberoffloors)andthenumberof
rooms.Theelectricityusedforcoolingsystemsisrelatedtothesystemcapacityand
thefloorareathatiscooled.Theelectricityusedinrestaurantsandlaundrydepends
of the number of guests. The energy that is used to power a ventilation systems
110

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

dependsofthefloorareathatisventilated,whiletheenergyforahotwaterpumps
dependsonthedomestichotwaterconsumption,whichisinfluencedbythenumber
ofguests(showers),thenumberofrooms,thefloorarea(forcleaningpurposes)and
thenumberofmeals(afoodpreparationanddishwashing).Oneoftheinfluencing
factorsfortheelectricityconsumptionisanenergyefficiencyoftheinstalleddevices
and systems, which is dependent of systems year of installation and maintenance
practice.

As a conclusion it can be said that there are several explanatory factors that might
describetheelectricityconsumptioninhotels.Theseare:

totalfloorareaFA

numberofroomsNR

floorareaperroomFAR

guestnightsGN

occupancyrateOR

numberofmeals

coolingdegreedays

percentageofthegrossfloorareathatismechanicallycooled

hotelcategoryadditionalservicesofferedinhotel

The energy audit conducted in hotels on the Adriatic coast could not go into all
equipmentdetailsthatmightadditionallyexplainelectricityconsumptionbehaviour.
Furthermore, information about guest nights, occupancy and meals prepared, was
notavailableforthisstudy.

ThestatisticalPackageforSocialSciencesSPSS(ver.11.5,SPSSInc.,Chicago,IL)and
Microsoft Excel was uses for the statistical analysis. Entery regression analysis was
usedtodeterminecorrelationbetweensetofpredictors(FAhotelfloorareaandNR

111

numberofrooms)anddependentvariablesas:electricityconsumption(kWh)and
oilconsumption(litres). Regression analysis wasmade for differenthotelcategories
andregionsandattheenditwassummarizedforallhotels,separatingseasonaland
nonseasonalhotels.

The Pearson productmoment correlation was used to determine the relationship


betweenselectedvariables(FAandNR).Analysishasshownthatpredictors(FAand
NR)areinstrongcorrelation(r=0,75;p<0,01)

Descriptivestatisticalanalysisinsubchapter3.2.hasshownthatthereisadifference
in electricity consumption with regards to regional location of hotel. Therefore, in
order to explain electricity consumption as a dependent variable better, regression
analysiswasdonefordifferentregionsseparately.Hotelsamplesizeforsomeofthe
regions and groups of hotels is lower than 15, which might not be statistically
significant; however it is the only data available. Even in the case where
questionnaires included all hotels in the regions and that response rate was 100%,
hotelsamplesinsomecaseswouldnotbegreaterthan15.

3.4.1.1.

Theregressionanalysisforelectricityconsumptionforseasonalhotels

Regressionanalysishasshownthattwopredictors:floorareaandnumberofrooms
are statistically significant (p<0,01) for seasonal hotels on the Adriatic coast, while
29%(R2=0,29)ofdependentvariableelectricityconsumptionisexplainedbythese
two predictors . Table 3.18. presents results of multiple regressions for these two
predictors, while the electricity consumption might be explained with the equation
(3.6.).

112

(EFANR)CROS=0,271xFA+2891,81xNR+113583,62

[kWh]

R2=0,29;p<0,01

(3.6.)

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Table3.18.Resultsofmultipleregressionanalysisforelectricityconsumptionforseasonal
hotels
R2=0,29

UnstandardizedCoefficients

B
Std.Error
Constant
113583,627
141402,622
Floorarea
0,271
21,460
Numberof
2891,810
1120,314
rooms
DependentVariable:Electricityconsumption
*p<0,05
**p<0,01

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta

0,003
0,542*

Figure 3.25. Figure 3.27. present surveyed results for the region of Rijeka and
seasonalhotels.RegressionfitlinewithR2valuesforrelationshipbetweenelectricity
consumption, total floor area, and number of rooms was given with 95% mean
predictioninterval.ItcanbeseenthatR2valuesare0,73and0,95whichgivestrong
relationships between these predictors and the total electricity consumption. Total
floor area and number of rooms are statistically significant predictors for seasonal
hotelsintheRijekaregion,sincep<0,01whileformultipleregressionanalysisR2=0,59.
Total electricity consumption per square meter against total floor area gives no
relationship.

113

Electricity consumption, kWh

Linear Regression with


1500000

1000000

y = -166387,90 + 82,00 x

95,00% Mean Prediction Interval

R2 = 0,73

500000

$
$ $

4000

8000

12000

Total floor area, m

16000
2

Figure3.25.TheannualelectricityconsumptionforseasonalhotelsintheRijekaregion
againsttotalfloorareaofthehotel
Linear Regression with

Electricity consumption, kWh

y = -195452,15 + 4257,31 x
1500000

95,00% Mean Prediction Interval

R = 0,95
2

1000000

500000

$ $
$

0
100

200

300

400

Number of rooms

Figure3.26.TheannualelectricityconsumptionforseasonalhotelsintheRijekaregion
againstnumberofrooms
114

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Linear Regression with


2

Electricity consumption, kWh/m

95,00% Mean Prediction Interval


$

100

y = 42,92 + 0,00 x

R = 0,08

75

50

25

$ $

4000

8000

12000

16000

Total floor area, m

Figure3.27.Theannualelectricityconsumptionpersquaremeterforseasonalhotelsinthe
Rijekaregionagainstnumberofrooms

In the Table 3.19., results for 8 different groups of hotels from regression and
correlation analysis are presented. It can be seen that R2 values for total electricity
consumptionwithindependentvariables(floorarea,numberofrooms,andproduct
of these two variables) gives media or strong relationships, depending on region.
MultipleregressionanalysisforDubrovnik,RijekaandSplitregionsshowthatthese
twopredictors(totalfloorareaandnumberofrooms)arestatisticalsignificantp<0,01,
while for region of Istria, results are not statistically significant. Correlations for
regions of Dubrovnik, Rijeka and groups of coastal hotels with 5&4 and 2 stars are
strong and it can be concluded that electricity consumption could be predicted by
knowingtotalfloorareaornumberofrooms.However,onehastobearinmindthat
hotelsamplesforthesegroupsofhotelsarelowerthan15.

115

Table3.19.RegressionanalysisresultsR2valuesforelectricityconsumptionforseasonal
hotels
R2valueforelectricityconsumptionin[kWh]seasonalhotels

Region
Dubrovnik Istria
Rijeka Split
Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia
(12)
(16)
(9)
(18)
(57)
5&4*(4) 3*(40)
2*(13)
(Noofhotels)
2
0.7316
0.7318
0.6221
0.6936
Floorarea,[m ]
0.4364
0.4887 0.4660
0.4825
0.7236
Numberofrooms 0.6921
0.5396
0.1634 0.949 0.3626 0.3356 0.8957
0.7768
m2*No.ofrooms 0.7398
0.2659 0.9474 0.3733 0.3932 0.7924
0.5463
2
2
R valuefornormalizedelectricityconsumptioninkWh/m

Floorarea,[m2]
0.0745
0.0001 0.0830 0.0974 0.0091 0.0431
0.1717
0.0397
Numberofrooms 0.0139
0.0183 0.5011 0.1167 0.0047 0.2971
0.0692
0.002
m2*No.ofrooms 0.0309
0.0003 0.2886 0.1145 0.0033 0.1549
0.0752
0.0035
R2valuefornormalizedelectricityconsumptioninkWh/room

Floorarea,[m2]
0.0005
0.0365 0.4884 0.0131 0.0167 0.4296
0.0791
0.0014
Numberofrooms 0.0541
0.0297 0.4314 0.1132 0.0103 0.7678
0.1621
0.0332

Total electricity consumption per square meter against total floor area gives very
weak relationship withR2 values between0,0001to0,1717.From the other side,the
totalelectricityconsumptionperroomagainstfloorareaandnumberofroomsgives
mainlyweakrelationship,exceptfortheregionofRijekaandagroupofcoastalhotels
with5&4starswhereastrongrelationshipispresentedwithR2valuesbetween0,429
and0,7678.

Regression equations (3.7.) (3.14.) with media or strong relationships estimate


electricityconsumptionaccordingtofloorarea(FA)fordifferentgroups(regions)of
seasonalhotels.
(EFA)DS=60,751xFA+51660

[kWh],

R2=0,7316

(3.7.)

[kWh],

R2=0,4364

(3.8.)

[kWh],

R2=0,7318

(3.9.)

[kWh],

R2=0,4887(3.10.)

(EFA)IS=92,631xFA23330 8

(EFA)RS=82,005xFA166388

(EFA)SS=34,816xFA+159895

116

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

(EFA)CROS=62,871xFA4306,3

[kWh],

R2=0,466

(3.11.)

R2=0,6221

(3.12.)

[kWh],

R2=0,4825

(3.13.)

[kWh],

R2=0,6936

(3.14.)

(EFA)CRO5&4S=123,38xFA314062 [kWh],

(EFA)CRO3S=43,093xFA+127107

(EFA)CRO2S=39,738xFA+16142

Regression equations (3.15.) (3.21.) estimate electricity consumption according to


numberofguestsrooms(NR)fordifferentgroups(regions)ofseasonalhotels.

(ENR)DS=3180,7xNR+22533

[kWh],

R2=0,6921

(3.15.)

[kWh],

R2=0,949

(3.16.)

[kWh],

R2=0,3626

(3.17.)

[kWh],

R2=0,3356

(3.18.)

[kWh],

R2=0,8957

(3.19.)

[kWh],

R2=0,5396

(3.20.)

[kWh],

R2=0,7236

(3.21.)

(ENR)RS=4257,3xNR195452

(ENR)SS=1890,7xNR+161253

(ENR)CROS=2956,4xNR+39915

(ENR)CRO5&4S=10883xNR0,6

(ENR)CRO3S=2444,8xNR+72880

(ENR)CRO2S=1777,1xNR+12704

Equations with R2>0,6 (strong relationship) might be useful for electricity


consumption prediction in the design phase of hotels. Also for future planning and
scenariosforregionalelectricityconsumptionintheservicesector.

117

3.4.1.2.

The regression analysis for electricity consumption for non seasonal


hotels

Thesameanalysisperformedonseasonalhotels,whichrepresents64%oftotalhotel
stockontheAdriaticcoast,hasbeenmadefornonseasonalones.Regressionanalysis
has shown that two predictors: floor area (FA) and number of rooms (NR) are
statistically significant (p<0,01) for non seasonal hotels on the Adriatic coast. 46,5%
(R2=0,465)ofthedependentvariableelectricityconsumptionisexplainedbythese
two predictors. Table 3.20. presents results of multiple regression analysis for these
two predictors, while the electricity consumption might be explained by equation
(3.22.).
(EFANR)CRONS=24,99xFA+4227,3xNR163356,57
R2=0,465;p<0,01

[kWh],

(3.22.)

Table 3.20. Results of multiple regression analysis for electricity consumption for non
seasonalhotelsonAdriaticcoast
R2=0,465

UnstandardizedCoefficients

Standardized
Coefficients

B
163356,57
24,99

Beta

0,267

Std.Error
195406,83
18,102

Constant
Floorarea
Numberof
4227,3
1759,05
rooms
DependentVariable:Electricityconsumption
*p<0,05
**p<0,01

0,465*

Figure3.28.Figure3.30.presentsurveyedresultsforallnonseasonalhotelsonthe
Adriaticcoast.RegressionfitlinewithR2valuesforrelationshipsbetweenelectricity
consumption, total floor area, and number of rooms was given with 95% mean
predictioninterval.ItcanbeseenthatR2valuesare0,36and0,43whichgivesamedia
relationship between these variables and a total electricity consumption. Total floor
area and number of rooms are statistically significant predictors for nonseasonal
hotelsonAdriaticcoast,sincep<0,01whileformultipleregressionanalysisR2=0,465.
118

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Totalelectricity consumption per square meter againstthe total floorarea, asinthe


caseofseasonalhotels,givesnorelationship.

Linear Regression with

Electricity consumption, kWh

95,00% Mean Prediction Interval


2000000

y = 130407,76 + 55,96 x

R = 0,36
2

1000000

$$
$
$
$
$
$
$

$
$ $$
$

$
$$

0
0

$ $$
$
$
$

10000

20000

Total floor area, m

Figure3.28.TheannualelectricityconsumptionfornonseasonalhotelsinCroatia(Adriatic
coast)againsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

119

Electricity consumption, kWh

2000000

y = -162051,19 + 5956,37 x

$
$

$
$ $$$
$$
$
$ $
$
$
$
$

R2 = 0,43

$$

1000000

Linear Regression with


95,00% Mean Prediction Interval

$
$

$
$
$

100

200

300

Number of rooms

Figure3.29.TheannualelectricityconsumptionfornonseasonalhotelsinCroatia(Adriatic
coast)againstnumberofguestrooms

Electricity consumption, kWh/m

160

Linear Regression with


95,00% Mean Prediction Interval

120

y= 78,59 + -0,00 x

R = 0,01

$ $

80

$
$ $

40

$
$

$ $

$
$

10000

20000
2

Total floor area, m

Figure3.30.Theannualelectricityconsumptionpersquaremeterfornonseasonalhotelsin
Croatia(Adriaticcoast)againsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

120

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

In the Table 3.21. results for 7 different groups of hotels from regression and
correlationanalysisarepresented.ItcanbeseenthatR2valuesforthetotalelectricity
consumptionforindependentvariables(floorarea,numberofrooms,andproductof
these two variables) gives media or strong relationships, depending on the region,
butcorrelationsareasstrongasforseasonalhotels.Reasonforthatmightbedifferent
occupancy rates throughout the year. For the region of Split and a group of coastal
hotelswith2stars,relationshipsarestrong,howeverhotelsampleissmallandthese
correlationsarenotstatisticallysignificant.

Table 3.21. Regression analysis results R2 values for electricity consumption for non
seasonalhotels

Region(No
ofhotels)
Floorarea,[m2]
Numberofrooms
m2*No.ofrooms

Floorarea,[m2]
Numberofrooms
m2*No.ofrooms

Floorarea,[m2]
Numberofrooms

R2valueforelectricityconsumptionin[kWh]nonseasonalhotels
Dubrovnik Istria Rijeka Split
Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia
(6)
(0)
(21)
(5)
(32)
5&4*(6) 3*(20) 2*(6)
0.4709

0.5173 0.8659 0.3579 0.0049


0.3884 0.6866
0.6436 0.2783
0.5528

0.5686 0.5934 0.4294 0.0014


0.6710 0.9684 0.4468 0.0030
0.6244

0.6297 0.5375
2
R valuefornormalizedelectricityconsumptionin[KWh/m2]
0.0212

0.0136 0.1206 0.0100 0.2810


0.0380 0.0011
0.3002

0.0005 0.1250 0.0128 0.1146


0.0261 0.0107
0.0015

0
0.0335 0
0.3251
0.0014 0.0222
R2valuefornormalizedelectricityconsumptionin[kWh/room]
0.4950

0.1334 0.0402 0.0931 0.0579


0.0726 0.0125
0.1895

0.0203 0.0063 0.0162 0.1328


0.0248 0.1163

Total electricity consumption per square meter against total floor area gives a very
weak relationship with R2 value between 0 and 0,281. From the other side, total
electricity consumption per room against floor area and number of rooms, gives
mainly weak relationships, except for the region of Dubrovnik where a strong
relationshipisnotedwithR2value0,495.

Regression equations (3.23.) (3.27.) with media or strong relationships estimate


electricityconsumptionaccordingtofloorarea(FA)fordifferentgroups(regions)of
nonseasonalhotels.

121


(EFA)DNS=71,401xFA+423138

[kWh],

R2=0,4709;

(3.23.)

[kWh],

R2=0,5173

(3.24.)

[kWh],

R2=0,8659

(3.25.)

[kWh],

R2=0,3579

(3.26.)

[kWh],

R2=0,3884

(3.27.)

(EFA)RNS=49,714xFA+76458

(EFA)SNS=141,23xFA207643

(EFA)CRONS=55,964xFA+130408

(EFA)CRO3NS=55,274xFA+113561

Regression equations (3.28.) (3.32.) estimate electricity consumption according to


thenumberofguestrooms(NR)fordifferentgroups(regions)ofseasonalhotels.

(ENR)DNS=10831xNR570645

[kWh],

R2=0,5528

(3.28.)

[kWh],

R2=0,5686

(3.29.)

[kWh],

R2=0,5934

(3.30.)

[kWh],

R2=0,4294

(3.31.)

[kWh],

R2=0,6436

(3.32.)

(ENR)RNS=5481,1xNR169298

(ENR)SNS=7067xNR141326

(ENR)CRONS=5956,4xNR162051

(ENR)CRO3NS=6754xNR285888

3.4.1.3.

Multipleregressionanalysisforelectricityconsumption

Linear regression analysis has shown that there is a strong relationship between
electricityconsumptionandtotalfloorareaandnumberofrooms.However,inorder
toestablishabettercorrelationandrelationshipbetweenassortedvariables,multiple
regressionanalysiswithfivepredictorswasapplied.
122

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Duringtheenergyaudit,dataaboutguestnightsinallhotelswasnotavailable.But
for this research, data about guest nights for 14hotels belongingto a hotel chain in
the Rijeka region was obtained and analysed. As a first step, linear regression
analysis was done for variables connected with hotel dynamics (guest nights,
occupancy and combination of these variables). Results for coefficient of
determination are presented in Table 3.22. It can be seen that the total electricity
consumption against guest nights gives a relationship with R2 = 0,3665, while the
product of guest nights and total floor area gives a better relationship with R2 =
0,5111.
Table 3.22. Regression analysis results R2 values for electricity consumption for non
seasonalhotels(LiburniaRivierahotelsRijekaregion)
R2valueforelectricityconsumptioninkWh
forLiburniahotels
guestnights
0.3665
occupancy,%
0.0155
m2*guestnight
0.5111
guestn*m2/room 0.3973
m2/room*%
0.1016

Firstofall,multipleregressionanalysiswasdoneforindependentvariablesthatare
constantduringtime:totalfloorarea(FA),numberofrooms(NR)andfloorareaper
room(FAR).Floorareaperroomisanindicatorthatgivesarelationoftotalfloorarea
to number of rooms. Size of the rooms are mostly determined by standards of
categorisation (see Table 3.2. and Table 3.3.) while FAR gives insight to the floor
space belonging floor area to additional facilities, per one room. The regression
equationpresentingtotalelectricityconsumptionis:

E FA NR RFA = 14,85 FA + 6681,02 NR + 5137,19 FAR 567073,53

(3.33.)

with the coefficient of determination being R2 =0,797 this means there is a strong
relationshipbetweenthesevariablesandtotalelectricityconsumption.

123

Furthermore, it was investigated how the variables guest nights (GN) and
occupancy rate (OR) influenced the total electricity consumption together with
variables total floor area (FA) and number of rooms (NR). The regression
equations(3.34.)(3.35.)areasfollows:

E FA NR GN = 30,56 FA + 6166,5 NR 11 GN 58780,9

(3.34.)

withthecoefficientofdetermination,R2=0,836and

E FA NR GN OC = 27,56 FA + 12368,72 NR 28,89 GN + 17792,2 OR 867509,73

(3.35.)

withthecoefficientofdetermination,R2=0,885.

Regressionequations(3.34.)and(3.35.)includevariablesGNandORgiveusbetterR
square values and promote a more accurate estimation of the total electricity
consumption.

Attheend,multipleregressionanalysiswasperformedwithfivepossibleindicators
ofelectricityconsumption(withdatathatwasavailableforthisstudy),threeofthem
areconstantduringthelifetimeofhotel(totalfloorareaFA,numberofroomsNR
andfloorareaperroomFAR)andtwoofthemconstantlychanging(guestnights
GNandoccupancyrateOR).Theregressionequationis:

E FA NR GN OC = 9,96 FA + 11762,1 NR 22,81 GN + 11646,8 OC + 2688,74 RFA 792849.86

(3.36.)

with the coefficient of determination, R2=0,89, which gives the best relationship and
the best possible estimated total electricity consumption with available data. These
indicators are relatively easy to collect from hotel management and therefore
electricityconsumptionplanningcaneasilybedoneusingthisformula.
124

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

3.4.2. Regressionanalysisforheatingoilconsumption

Inthischapterregressionanalysisforheatingoilconsumptioninhotelsiselaborated
in similar manner as for electricity consumption the previous chapter. As it was
shown in subchapter3.2.2.2.and3.2.2.4.heating oilisthesecond most used energy
resource in hotels. 90% of hotels utilize oil for heating and domestic hot water
production.
Explanatory parameters for heating oil consumption with regard to space heating
would be; size of the hotel (total floor area FA and number of rooms NR), and
number of degree days in the heating season (if one compares hotels in different
regions) and building characteristics as a Uvalue for building envelope. Heating
demandisquiteindependentwithregardtothenumberofguestssincemosthotels
do not have automatic regulation that would provide individual room control of
indoor temperature. With regards to domestic hot water consumption, explanatory
indicators would be; number of guests GN (that indicate sanitary water
consumptionandwaterconsumptionforcleaning)andnumberofmealsprepared.If
hotelfacilitiesincludeaswimmingpoolwithheatedwater,freshwaterconsumption
forthepoolwouldbeoneoftheindicatorsforoilconsumption.

Asaconclusionitcanbesaidthatthereareseveralexplanatoryindicatorsthatmight
describeelectricityconsumptioninhotels.Theseare:

totalfloorarea

numberofrooms

floorareaperroom

guestnights

occupancyrate

heatingdegreedays

percentageoffloorareathatisheated

freshwaterconsumption

125

freshwaterconsumptionforthepools

yearofhotelconstruction

yearofboilerinstallation

Informationaboutguestnights,occupancyandmealsprepared,asmentionedbefore,
was not available for this study. Therefore, regression and correlation analysis was
madefordifferenthotelcategoriesandregions(thatrepresentdifferencesindegree
days) and finally it was summarized for all hotels, separately for seasonal and non
seasonalhotelsforthreeexplanatoryvariables:totalfloorarea,numberofroomsand
productofthesetwovariables(floorareaxnumberofrooms).

Descriptivestatisticalanalysisinsubchapter3.2.hasshownthatthereisadifference
in heating oil consumption with regards to regional location of hotel. Therefore, in
ordertobetterexplainoilconsumptionasadependentvariable,regressionanalysis
was done for different regions separately in the same manner as for the case of
electricityconsumption.Hotelsamplesforsomeoftheregionsandgroupsofhotelsis
lower than 15 which might not be statistically significant; however this is the only
dataavailable.

3.4.2.1.

Theregressionanalysisforheatingoilconsumptioninseasonalhotels

Regressionanalysishasshownthattwopredictors:floorareaandnumberofrooms
are statistically significant (p<0,01) for seasonal hotels on the Adriatic coast, while
56,2%(R2=0,562)ofthedependentvariableheatingoilconsumptionisexplainedby
thesetwopredictors.Table3.23.presentsresultsofmultipleregressionforthesetwo
predictors, while the heating oil consumption might be explained with equation
(3.37).

126

(OFANR)CROS=4,43xFA+97,43xNR+4488,7

[litres],

R2=0,562;p<0,01

(3.37.)

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Table3.23.Resultsofmultipleregressionanalysisforoilconsumptionforseasonalhotels
R2=0,562

Constant
Floorarea
Numberof
rooms

UnstandardizedCoefficients

Standardized
Coefficients

B
4488,68
4,43

Std.Error
10412,25
1,476

Beta

0,524**

97,43

61,21

0,278

DependentVariable:Heatingoilconsumption
*p<0,05
**p<0,01

Figure 3.31. Figure 3.33. present surveyed results for seasonal 3 star hotels on the
Adriaticcoast.RegressionfitlinewithR2valuesforrelationshipbetweenheatingoil
consumption, total floor area, and number of rooms with 95% mean prediction
intervalisgiven.ItcanbeseenthatR2valuesare0,55and0,59whichimpliesmedia
relationshipbetweenthesevariablesandthetotalheatingoilconsumption(SeeTable
3.24.).

200.000

Linear Regression with


95,00% Mean Prediction Interval

$
$

Oil consumption, liters

y = 4091,36 + 5,91 x
R2 = 0,55
150.000

100.000

$
$

50.000

$
$

$$
$ $
$ $

$ $
$
$

10000

Total floor area, m

20000
2

Figure3.31.Theannualheatingoilconsumptionpersquaremeterforseasonal3starhotels
ontheAdriaticcoastagainsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

127

Linear Regression with


95,00% Mean Prediction Interval

Oil consumption, litres

y = 12632,11 + 232,13 x
R = 0,59
2

200.000
$

$
$

$$
$
$
$ $
$
$ $
$
$ $
$
$$
$$

100.000

250

500

750

Number of rooms

Figure3.32.Theannualheatingoilconsumptionforseasonal3starhotelsontheAdriatic
coastagainstnumberofguestrooms

Linear Regression with


95,00% Mean Prediction Interval

y = 9,49 + -0,00 x

Oil consumption, litres/m

R2 = 0,06

20

10

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

$$

$
$
$

$
$

10000

20000

Total floor area, m

Figure3.33.Theannualoilconsumptionpersquaremeterforseasonal3starhotelsinon
theAdriaticcoastagainsttotalfloorareaofthehotel

128

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

InTable3.24.resultsfor7differentgroupsofhotelsfromregressionandcorrelation
analysis are presented. It can be seen that the R2 value for total heating oil
consumption and independent variables (floor area, number of rooms, and product
of these two variables) gives a media relationship, or in some cases strong
relationship,dependingontheregion.Thereasonforthisisthatseasonalhotelsuse
heatingsystemsonlyduringtheAprilandOctober monthsifthereisaneed, while
hotwaterismostlyusedasdomestichotwaterthroughouttheseason.Thereforeoil
consumptionisinfluencedbynumberofguestsandmealsprepared.

Table3.24.RegressionanalysisresultsR2valuesforheatingoilconsumptionforseasonal
hotels

R2valueforheatingoilconsumptionin[litres]seasonalhotels

Region
(Noofhotels)

Dubrovnik
(12)

Floorarea,[m2]
Numberofrooms
m2*No.ofrooms

Floorarea,[m2]
Yearofhotel
construction
Yearofboiler
installation

Floorarea,[m2]
Yearofhotel
construction
Yearofboiler
installation

0.4367
0.3551 0.8744 0.7036 0.5252 0.545
0.3270
0.1733 0.9203 0.236 0.4307 0.585
0.3045
0.3206 0.9473 0.6465 0.5146 0.6357
R2valuefornormalizedheatingoilconsumptioninl/m2
0.6915 0.5482 0.1185 0.0464 0.0600
0.0173
0.1076

Istria
(4)

0.4855

Rijeka
(6)

Split
(11)

0.2393 0.185

Croatia
(33)

0.0125

Croatia
3*(22)

0.0016

Dubrovnik
3*(8)

0.652
0.6764
0.659

0.0286
0.2976 0.0517 0.0799 0.015
0.0171

R2valuefornormalizedheatingoilconsumptioninl/room
0.018
0.6214 0.0256 0.0039 0.0022 0.0196

0.438

0.1054 0.358

0.0076

0.0019

0.01

0.3494

0.6364 0.0138 0.0098

0.0119

It was expected that the relationship between year of boiler installation, which
influencesboilerefficiency,andtotaloilconsumptionwouldbestronger,howeveras
itcanbeseenfromTable3.24.thisrelationshipisveryweakexceptfortheregionof
Istria.

129

Total heating oil consumption according to total floor area might be estimated by
followingtheregressionequations:

(OFA)RS=12,029xFA36303

[l],

R2=0,8744

(3.38.)

[l],

R2=0,7036

(3.39.)

[l],

R2=0,652

(3.40.)

[l],

R2=0,55

(3.41.)

(OFA)SS=4,085xFA+12045

(OFA)D3S=3,095xFA+9204,6

(OFA)CRO3S=5,91xFA+4091,36

Theseequationsmightbeusefulforheatingoilconsumptionpredictioninthedesign
phaseofahotelandforfutureplanningandscenariosforheatingoilconsumptionin
servicesector.

Regression analysis of total heating oil consumption according to the number of


roomsgivesastrongrelationshiponlyfortheregionofRijekaand3starhotelsinthe
regionofDubrovnik.Regressionequationsareasfollows:

(ONR)RS=218,27xNR+20518

[l],

R2=0,9203

(3.42.)

[l],

R2=0,6764

(3.43.)

[l],

R2=0,59

(3.44.)

(ONR)D3S=146,59xNR+7311,6

(ONR)CRO3S=232,13xNR+12632,1

130

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

3.4.2.2.

The regression analysis for heating oil consumption for nonseasonal


hotels

Regression analysis results for 4 groups of nonseasonal hotels (depending of


availabilityofdata)arepresentedinTable3.25.Fromthecoefficientofdetermination
itcanbeseenthatthereisnostrongrelationshipbetweentotaloilconsumptionand
explanatoryfactors.

It was expected that the relationship between total floor area and number of rooms
would have a stronger relationship with the total oil consumption due to fact that
nonseasonalhotelsrequireheatingfromOctobertillApril.

Table 3.25. Regression analysis results R2 values for heating oil consumption for non
seasonalhotels
R2valueforheatingoilconsumptionin[litres]nonseasonal
hotels

Rijeka
Split
Croatia Rijeka3*
Region
Dubrovnik Istria
(18)
(6)
(24)
(11)
(Noofhotels)
2
Floorarea,[m ]

0.4232
0.0139
0.3271
0.2966
Numberofrooms

0.3788
0.0060
0.2595
0.2418
2
m *No.ofrooms

0.0082
0.1847
0.2954
R2valuefornormalizedheatingoilconsumptioninl/m2

Floorarea,[m2]

0.1043
0.2789
0.0709

Yearofhotel

construction

0.0164
0.0308
0.0541

Yearofboiler

installation

0.0323
0.2102
0
R2valuefornormalizedheatingoilconsumptioninl/room

Floorarea,[m2]

0.0113

0.0192

Yearofhotel

construction

0.0421
0.1541
0.178

Yearofboiler

0.6841
installation

0.1585
0.1134

3.4.2.3.

Multipleregressionanalysisforheatingoilconsumption

Linear regression analysis has shown that there is no strong relationship between
heatingoilconsumptionandtotalfloorareaandnumberofroomsfornonseasonal

131

hotels.Therefore,similartotheelectricityconsumptioncase,multipleregressionwill
includeseveralexplanatoryvariablesthatwillhelpestimateoilconsumption.

Thesamedataforguestnightsastheelectricityconsumptionanalysisfrom14hotels
belonging to hotel chain in the Rijeka region were used. As a first step linear
regression analysis was done for variables connected with hotel dynamics (guest
nights, occupancy and combination of these variables). Results for the coefficient of
determination are presented in Table 3.26. It can be seen that total heating oil
consumptionagainstguestnightsgivesarelationshipwithR2=0,7483,andhencea
strongrelationship.

Table 3.26. Regression analysis results R2 values for heating oil consumption for non
seasonalhotels(LiburniaRivierahotelsRijekaregion)
R2valueforheatingoilconsumptionin
litresforLiburniahotels
guestnights
0.7483
occupancy,%

m2*guestnight
0.3755
guestn*m2/room
0.5136
m2/room*%
0.058

Firstofall,multipleregressionanalysiswasdoneforindependentvariablesthatare
constantduringtime:totalfloorarea(FA),numberofrooms(NR)andfloorareaper
room(FAR).Theregressionequationestimatingtotalheatingoilconsumptionis:

OFA NR RFA = 2,2 FA + 1430,9 NR + 743,12 FAR 60966,3

(3.45.)

withthecoefficientofdeterminationbeingR2=0,49whichdonotgiveaverystrong
relationship between these variables and total oil consumption. This confirms that
withconstantbuildingvariablesitisnotpossibletopredictoilconsumption.

132

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Furthermore, it was investigated how variables such as; guest nights (GN) and
occupancy rate (OR) influence the total oil consumption together with other
variables; total floor area (FA) and number of rooms (NR). The regression
equations(3.46.)(3.47.)presentthis:

OFA NR GN = 2,53 FA 1485,25 NR + 6,79 GN 15434,5

(3.46.)

withthecoefficientofdetermination,R2=0,837and

OFA NR GN OC = 1,94 FA 432,6 NR + 3,97 GN + 2336,48 OR 125205 (3.47.)

withthecoefficientofdetermination,R2=0,852.

Regression equations (3.46.) and (3.47.) give better Rsquare values and gives more
accurate estimates of total oil consumption since the variables GN and OR are
included.

Attheendmultipleregressionanalysiswasperformedwithfivepossibleindicators
of oil consumption (with data that was available for this study). Three of them are
constant during the life time of hotel (total floor area FA, number of rooms NR,
floorareaperroomFAR)andtwoofthemareconstantlychanging(guestnights
GNandoccupancyrateOR).Theregressionequationforheatingoilconsumption
is:

O FA NR FAR GN OC = 13,06 FA 189,64 NR + 0,674 GN + 5702,51 OC 1471,73 RFA 167723,6

(3.48.)

with the coefficient of determination R2=0,882which gives the best relationship and
thebestpossibleestimationoftotaloilconsumptionwithavailabledata.

133

3.4.3. CasestudyhotelD1(Dubrovnikregion)regressionanalysis

Thecasestudywasusedtocomparetherelationshipbetweenelectricityconsumption
and number of guests per month for seasonal hotels in the Dubrovnik region. On
Figure 3.34. one can see the typical guest load curve. The regression fit line is
presentedwithapolynomiclinewithRsquarecoefficientof0,954and0,885foryears
2003and2004respectively.

Number of guests per month for hotel D1


y = -846.65x 2 + 7284.6x - 6288.7
R2 = 0.954

12000

Guest nights

10000
2003

8000

2004

6000

Poly. (2004)

4000

Poly. (2003)

2000
0
Apr.

May

June

July
months

Aug.

Sep.

Oct.
y = -878.27x 2 + 7590.3x - 7363.4
R2 = 0.8846

Figure3.34.TheguestloadprofileforhotelD1inDubrovnikregionforyears2003and2004

Occupancy rate during the period of April August goes from 7% to 100%. From
Figure3.35.onecanseethatasoccupancyrateincrease,electricityconsumptionper
guestnightisdecreasing.Atthesametimeelectricityconsumptionpersquaremeter
is growing. However, weather occupancy rate is at a minimum or not, there is still
significantamountofenergybeingusedtooperatehotelsfacilities.

134

Chapter3.EnergyAuditSchemeinHotels

Monthly electricity consumption in Hotel D1 for year 2004

35.00

35.00
y = 2.2321x 2 - 17.778x + 46.106
R2 = 0.8794

30.00

25.00

25.00

20.00

20.00

15.00

15.00

10.00

kWh/guest

kWh/m2

30.00

10.00
2

5.00

5.00

y = -1.3435x + 12.786x - 8.675


R2 = 0.9283

0.00

0.00
Apr.
kWh/m2

May

June

kWh/guest

July

Aug

months
Poly. (kWh/guest)

Sep.

Oct.
Poly. (kWh/m2)

Figure3.35.Theelectricityconsumptionpersquaremeterandguestforyears2003and2004
(hotelD1)

135

Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

4.

THEPROBLEMDEFINITIONAND
PROBLEMSOLVINGMETHODOLOGY
SYSTEMTHINKINGINHOTELS

Based on the energy audit results presented in the previous chapter, this chapter will set a
thesishypothesisandpresentaproblemsolvingmethodology.AsystemsThinkingApproach
was used as an integrated approach to problems related with energy usage in hotels. An
emphasiseisgiventoHVAC&RandDHWsystemsthataccountforapproximately6070%
ofthetotalenergyconsumptioninhotels.

4.1. Introduction

Chapter 1 indicated that the aim of this research is to tackle energy performance in
hotels from five different perspectives and to give future scenarios. These
perspectives are; mathematicalengineering, environmental, tourism, policy and
economic. Therefore, during the evaluation of the current state of energy
performanceinhotelsandthedevelopmentofalgorithmsforenergyefficientsystem
designandretrofit,asystemsthinkingapproachshouldbeimplemented,takinginto
accountalloftheseperspectives.

This study is about one specific type of energy usage systems, energy usage in
hotels, and how this system behaves. A hotel building is a specific type of energy
usage system when compared to other systems in the service sector such as
supermarkets,schoolsorhospitals.Allofthesesystemsaredifferentwithregardsto
behaviouralpatternsofpeople,occupancyfactor,levelofthermalcomfortandindoor
air quality. Therefore, the type of systems required to operate the building, and
137

consequentlytheirenergyuseintensityexpressedinkWh/(m2year),isdifferent.Thus,
energy use intensity is a measure that is comparable only within the same type of
systems(buildings)withsimilarstandardsandlocalclimate,anditisalsodependant
onenergyutilizationsystemswithinthebuildings.Mechanicalsystemsinhotelsorin
any building must work in line with the building layout, orientation, envelope,
lightingstrategies,electricalequipmentandsitecharacteristicstoreducedependence
on energy derived from fossil fuels, and to increase the use of passive energy and
renewableenergysources.

Theenergysystemrelatedtoanybuildingmightbedividedintwomainparts:energy
production system and energy usage system (Lundqvist 2006). Energy production
systemsaretypicallylarge scale andare suppliedwithprimaryenergy(fossilfuels,
renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal). The
outputs from energy production systems are electricity and heat (energy carriers),
that should be maximized with regard to input of primary energy (efficiency). This
thesis is focused on energy usage systems in hotels and solutions for minimizing
required inputs (energy carriers and fossil fuels) with increased utilization of free
energy (solar, passive and seawater energy). Emphasis is also given on increased
efficiency of energy transformation systems for HVAC (heating, ventilation and air
conditioning) and DHW (domestic hot water) systems (Figure 4.1.). Catering (C),
lighting(L)andotherelectricalsystemswerenotconsideredinthisstudy.

138

Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

Energy usage system

Energy production system

HVAC
Large scale
Primary
energy

Energy carriers

DHW

Energy

Energy

production

transfromation

L
Other
Fossil fuel

Seawater
Hydro
Wind

Solar
Passive

Biomass

Free energy

Figure4.1.Schematicviewofenergyproductionandenergyusagesystems

Ifonelooksattheprojectdevelopmentphasesofabuildingconsistingof;schematic
design,designdevelopment,contractdocumentationandconstructionitcanbeseen
that the most expensive actions are during system erection and operation (Figure
4.2.).Thereforeifpossible,energyefficiencyactionsshouldbetakenearly,duringthe
design phase, especially if new hotel facilities or major renovations are considered.
However, bearing in mind increasing energy prices and current regulations about
energy saving measures, retrofitting an existing system might be an economically
feasibleoptiontoo.Atthebeginningofthedesignprocessitischeaptotestnewideas
while the impact on life cycle costs (LCC) and Life Cycle Climate Performance
(LCCP) are huge. Different tools to test new ideas exist and one of them is using a
computer simulation environment, such as TRNSYS, used in this thesis. TRNSYS
givesopportunitiestomodeldifferentHVACsystemsandtotesttheirperformance
according to building requirements for cooling and heating calculated with real
139

climatic data (Test Reference Year TRY or Typical Meteorological Year TMY).
Thereforeanumberofdesiredoptionsmightbesimulatedandcomparedunderthe
sameconditions.

Decreasing
impact on
performance
Increasing
cost and
disruption

Schematic
Design

Design
Development

Contract
Documentation

Construction

Figure4.2.Impactonperformancevscostofdisruption(Jongeling2003)

Furthermore,thereisanewregulation,EUdirective91/2002EnergyPerformancein
Buildings,thatgivesguidelinesfortheapplicationofminimumrequirementsonthe
energyperformanceofnewbuildingsandexistingbuildingsthataresubjecttomajor
renovations. For new buildings with a total useful floor area over 1000 m2, member
states(aswellasCroatiasincetheprocessofharmonisationwiththeEUhasstarted)
shallensurethatthetechnical,environmentalandeconomicfeasibilityofalternative
systems such as: decentralised energy supply systems based on renewable energy,
CHP, district or block heating or cooling (if available) and heat pumps are
considered, and are taken into account before beginning construction. Major
renovations of existing buildings above 1000 m2 should be regarded as an
opportunitytoapplycosteffectivemeasureswhichenhanceenergyperformance(EC
2002). A majority of hotels on the Adriatic coast are buildings with total floor area
greater than 1000 m2 (average total floor space depending on the region is between
7700 and 10700 m2). Therefore, any major renovation should be considered as an

140

Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

opportunitytoimplementenergyefficientmeasures.Sinceallbuildingswillhavean
impact on longterm energy consumption, new buildings should therefore meet
minimum energy performance requirements tailored to the local climate. The
applicationofalternativeenergysupplysystemsisgenerallynotexploredtoitsfull
potential and therefore the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of
alternativeenergysupplysystemsshouldbehighlightedandconsideredfordifferent
typesofbuildings.

4.2. TraditionalmindsetinhotelsontheAdriatic
coast

The energy audits have shown that HVAC&R&DHW10 systems in hotels are not
consideredasanintegratedsystem,butratherasacollectionofseveralindependent
units.ThereareevencaseswhereheatingandDHWsystemsareseparated,although
they utilize the same energy source and both require hot water storage. One of the
reasons for this is the absence of an integrated systems approach during the design
phase.

Furtheron,itwasrecordedthatduringthelifetimeofahotel,thenumberofservices
and requirements change. For example, a hotel that was originally meant to be
seasonal currently operates during the whole year and vice versa. With regards to
cooling and airconditioning system installations, it was noticed that they are new,
sincecoolingwasnotoriginallyarequirementforhotelswithhighercategory(4and
5 stars). During the years, category standards have changed, guest standard has
increasedwhiletheclimatehas,tosomeextent,alsochanged.Thesituationinhotels

10

HVAC&R&DHWsystemsHeatingVentilationAirconditioning&Refrigeration&DomesticHotWatersystems

141

on the Adriatic coast has significantly changed after the war (subsequent to 1995),
when the majority of hotels underwent major renovations in order to comply with
the new categorization regulations. Major changes were done in rooms interior,
whileheatingandDHWsystemsremainedthesame.Asaconsequencetoincreased
hotelcategoryrequirements,thermalcomfortcriteriaalsorose,leadingtoanincrease
in energy consumption. There are also a number of hotels with 3 stars that have
installed cooling systems in recent years, although it is not a requirement for that
category. The process of major refurbishment should be considered as a golden
opportunitytoapplyasystemsthinkingapproachwithanimplementationofenergy
efficienttechnologiesandrenewableenergysources.

With regards to cooling systems, the questionnaires have shown that all cooling
systemsinstalledinsurveyedhotelsarenotolderthan14yearwiththeexceptionof
two systems that are 27 years old (utilizing R22). However, the majority of there
systems were installed in the last 6 years. It was also realised that cooling systems
were consideredasseparate units withoutattemptstoutilizerejectedheatfromthe
condenserfordomestichotwaterheating.Therewereonlytwohotels,outof75who
declaredpossessionofacoolingsystemwithcondenserheatrecoveryforswimming
poolwaterheating.Only5hotelsoutof42whoconfirmedinstallationofcentralized
coolingsystemhavecoldwaterthermalstorage.Withregardstocoolingsystemsin3
star hotels, it was realised that systems were installed without traces of systems
thinkingsincesplitsystemsareinstalledindifferentfacilitiesandinvariousplaces,
mainlydependingofavailablefinancing.

The energy audit was used as a tool to identify opportunities for increased energy
efficiency measures and to set a benchmark for energy and water consumption in
hotels. An energy audit doesnt make much sense if theres no reference values for
energyconsumption.Furthermore,TRNSYSasasimulationtoolwasusedtoevaluate

142

Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

existingsystems,energyconsumptionforcoolingsystemsandforefficientanalysisof
energysavingpossibilitieswithintroductionofthesystemsthinkingapproach.

Therearethreelevelsofenergyefficiencythatwereconsideredinthisresearch:

Energyefficiencyondemandside(buildingenvelope)

Energyefficiencyonenergyutilizationside(HVAC&R&DHWsystems)

Energy efficiency of power supply systems (electricity, gas, heating oil,


renewableenergysources)

Thereforeitisnecessarytolookatthebuilding(hotel)asasystemwithcomponents
such as: building envelope, heating, cooling, ventilation, refrigeration system,
domestichotwater,andfuelsthatpowerthesesystems.Worldexperiencespresented
in chapter 1 show that approximately 6070% of total energy in hotels is utilized in
HVAC&R&DHW systems, therefore improvement of these will contribute to an
overallincreaseinhotelenergyefficiency,whichisthefocusofthisresearch.

The methodology used in this research consists of identifying the systems and the
importantquestionsrelatedtothemasforexample,thesystemsefficiencymeasures
andactorperspective(SoftSystemMethodsSSMbyCheckland).Itisthennecessary
to change to an engineering/science perspective where the system is defined in a
classicalway(asthermodynamicsystems)inordertomodelthesystemsinTRNSYS.
Thereforethereisaneedtoexplainthesystemthinkingapproachusedinthisthesis
andforsystemsmodelling.

143

4.3.

Theneedforsystemthinkingapproach

According to (Checkland 2002) the approach is a way of going about tackling a


problem, while a particular approach may be relevant to more than one subject.
Systemsapproachisfurtheronexplainedas:

Asystemsapproach:anapproachtoaproblemwhichtakesabroadview,whichtries
to take all aspects into account, which concentrates on interaction between the
differentpartsoftheproblem.

Systemthinkingisgoalorientedandgivesanswertothequestion:

How can we provide an efficient means to meet the following objective.?


(Checkland2002)

As it was elaborated in Chapter 3, a hotel is a complex building with numerous


energy systems and parameters that influence energy consumption behaviours. The
goal (intention) of this research is to establish algorithms for HVAC&R&DHW
systems design that will consequently lead to minimal energy consumption and
minimal environmental impact during the lifetime of the hotel. According to the
Croatian tourism strategy till 2010 (MINT 2003a), new hotel capacity will grow 3%
peryearwhileexistingaccommodationfacilitiesshouldimproveinquality,therefore
emphasis in this research is given to existing hotel facilities and energy efficient
retrofitpossibilities.

Soft system methodology given by Checkland presents a schematic view when


Thinkingaboutdesirableandfeasiblechange.(Figure4.3.)

144

Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

What combination of
o
Structural
o
Process
o
Attitudinal

Problematical

change is needed?

situation X

Situation

Why?
How can it be achieved?
What enabling action is also required?
Who will take the actions?
When?
What criteria will judge
o
Success/lack of success
o
Completion?

impoved

Figure4.3.Thinkingaboutdesirableandfeasiblechange(Checkland2002)

First of all, it is necessary to detect problematical situation X, which, for the case of
hotels, would be high consumption of energy resources and low efficiency of
HVAC&R&DHW systems, but also low awareness within the hotel industry and
consequentlylackoffocusontheseissues.Theenergyauditsgavethecurrentstateof
energyconsumptionandenergymanagementfromaplanningandoperationalpoint
ofview.Itwasconcludedthatenergymanagementinmanyhotelsdoesnotexistorit
isataminimum.Theawarenessofenergyconsumptioninmanycasesisneglected.
Therefore, for the case of hotels on the Adriatic coast, identification of problematic
situationsandintroductionofenergymanagementshouldbeapriority.Theenergy
audits have shown that there is a lack of renewable energy utilization and
environmentalactionsaimingtosaveenergy.

In order to answer the question; what combination of structural, process and


attitudinal change is needed in HVAC&R&DHW systems?, it is necessary to closely

145

analyzethecurrentstateofenergyconsumptionduetotheoperationofsystemsthat
provide thermal comfort, indoor climate and domestic hot water. Measurements
madeinhotelsgaveinformationaboutenergyconsumptionforhotwaterproduction
(space heating and domestic hot water). However, information about energy that is
neededtopowerairconditioning,coolingandventilationsystemswasgenerallynot
available, since it would require specific measurements within many hotels which
was not possible to arrange for this study. Therefore, to be able to estimate energy
consumption due to HVAC system operation, modelling and simulation of these
systems was done with a help of TRNSYS simulation environment. Results from
these simulations gave realistic data on how much energy is used to power HVAC
systems. Verification of this data was done using measured data for heating and
DHWobtainedinhotels.

Furthermore, to give an answer to question: what changes in existing systems are


needed and why?, modelling and simulation of advanced HVAC systems is
performed. A comparison of energy efficient HVAC systems that utilize renewable
energysourceswithexistingones,showswhichsystemsarefeasibleforretrofitand
what potential energy and environmental savings can be expected. Design and
modellingofenergyefficientsystemsalsogaveanswertothequestion:howcannew
improvementsbeachieved?.

In order to ensure successful improvements by implementing energy efficient


technologies in hotels, it is necessary to change the attitude of hotel management,
which is mainly focused on improving services for the guests, without special
attention to the energy consumption. Therefore hotel management should take
actions in the sense of technically educating the staff and change their attitudes
towards energy management, energy savings and the significance of the cost of
energy.

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Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

Whenchangesareneeded?IfhotelmanagementwantstocomplywithEUregulations
regardingenergyperformanceinbuildings,andtocontributetoenergysavingsona
regional/statelevel,allwhileprotectingtheenvironment,whichisapreconditionfor
asuccessfultouristindustry,actionsshouldbetakennow.Oneofthemeasuresthat
canbetakenwithminimal investmentand willyieldpositiveeconomicbenefits for
each hotel, is the introduction of energy management routines (energy monitoring,
recordingandregularmaintenance).Energymanagementandenergyauditsforeach
hotel will indicate the current state of energy consumption, define the energy
efficiencyofexitingsystemsandwillhighlightwhichsystemsrequireimprovements.
Furthermore, each major renovation of a hotel which leads to improvements in
servicesandariseinhotelcategoryshouldconsiderretrofittingexisting,nonefficient
HVAC&R&DHWsystems.

At the end of the discussion related to Figure 4.3., one can say that the criteria for
successful completion of changes and actions taken for the case of hotels would be
improved system operation, lowered energy costs and minimized environmental
emissionfromhotels.

One could say that system thinking should contain: .his purpose, the system (s)
selected,components,structure,themeansbywhichthesystemretainsitsintegrityandthe
coherency principle which makes it defensible to describe the system as a system.
(Checkland2002)

147

4.4.

Systemsdefinition

Firstofall,beforestartingasystemthinkinganalysisandsubsequentlymodellingthe
systems,itisnecessarytodefinethesystemanditsboundaries.

Any analysis of energy efficiency or capacity requires a system and systems


boundary;heatandworkonlyexistatasystemboundary.(Johansson2003)

Thereareseveraldefinitionsthatdefineasystem.OnegivenbyChurchman,states.
..asystemisasetofpartscoordinatedtoaccomplishasetofgoals.(Churchman
1968)

AnotherusefuldefinitionisgivenbyKotas.

A system is an identifiable collection of matter whose behaviour is the subject of


study.Foridentification,thesystemisenclosedbyasystemboundary,whichmaybe
purelyimaginaryormaycoincidewitharealboundary(Kotas1995)

Churchmansdefinitionisfocusedonthepurposeofthesystem:Buildingahotelfor
tourist accommodation, installing HVAC & DHW systems to provide thermal
comfort, indoor climate and domestic hot water for hotels guests. According to
Churchmanitisnotimportanthowthesegoalsareaccomplished.

Kotasdefinitionhasitsrootsinengineeringsciences(thermodynamics)andgivesno
roomforadiscussiononthepurposeofthesystem.Herecognizessystemboundaries
that define the number of components and behaviour between system and
environment. In the case of this research, the hotel as a building construction with
installations covering HVAC&R and DHW systems are taken as a system. Among

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Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

other factors, such as number of guests, the building envelope defines energy
consumptionforHVAC&Rsystemsandisanundividablesystemcomponent.

4.5.

TheModellingProcess

A model is an abstraction, a set of assumptions about some aspects of the world,


eitherrealorimaginary,intendedtoclarifyourviewofanobject,process,orproblem
by retaining only characteristics essential to the purpose we have in mind. (Miser,
Quade1985)

Themodellingprocessaimstoaccomplishtheobjectiveoftheresearchbymeansof
possible alternatives and criteria. A model is therefore made up of factors and
components relevant to the problem. Factors that influence models are usually
numerousand their interrelations socomplex thatmentalmodelsare inadequate to
handlethelargenumberoffactorsandtheirrelations.

The purpose of this research is to define promising energy efficient alternatives for
existing HVAC&R&DHW systems; however, the possible alternatives are quite
numerous. For this research a manageable number of three, most promising,
alternativeswereidentified.Thesealternativesare:

H: solar heating with LPG boiler as a back up; C: seawater cooling (SWC
SH)

H:heatpumpwithseawaterasaheatsource;C:seawatercooledchiller(HPS)

H: solar heating with LPG boiler as a back up; C: solar absorption chiller
(ACS)

149

DHWsystemssolarcollectorswithLPGboilerasabackupsystemforall
threealternativesystems

Prior to modelling of these three alternatives, a screening process taking into account
availability of renewable energy sources and cost of systems was undertaken. The
criteriaforscreening includesecurityinsupply,ecologyandconstructioncosts.For
example biomass boilers are not suggested, since a biomass supply network to the
coastalregionisnotyetestablished.Furthermore;althoughconsideredasanenergy
efficient measure, cold thermal storage is not considered. The reason for this is that
the majority of hotels have 3 stars and hence do not require full airconditioned
premises, while costs of installation are also high. Cold thermal storage is
economicallyviableonlyifthecoolingcapacityisabove1MW(Skelin2006).

Design cases include a scenario (e.g. about the economic future) and set technical
assumptions (Figure 4.4.). The technical assumptions are merely assumed values
explicitlystatedforthemostuncertainfactorsinthesystem(Miser,Quade1985).

During the system analysis procedure iteration is needed. Sometimes intermediate


results or a preliminary version of the final results may force the analyst to alter
initialassumptions,reviseearlierworkorcollectmoredata.Figure4.4.showstypical
iterationsandfeedbackloopsinasystemsanalysisstudy.Forexampleinthisthesis
during the modelling of DHW systems, several iterations with variation on the
numberofsolarcollectorsthatwouldmeetoptimaloperationregardingenergyand
economicalconstrains,weredone.

150

Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

Iteration to Reconsider the Constraints, Objectives, or Criteria

Forecasting
future contexts

Iteration to Improve the Predictive Process

Boundarie and
Initiation

Formulating
the problem

Constrains
Objectives

Identifying,

Identifying,

designing,

designing,

and screening

Alternatives

and screening

the

the

alternatives

alternatives

Identifying,
designing,
Consequences
(Impacts)

and screening Communicating


the
Results
alternatives

Values and
Criteria

Iteration to Improve Alternatives


Iteration to Reformulate the Problem

Figure4.4. Thesystemanalysisprocedurewithiterationloops(Miser,Quade1985)

Inthisresearch,aproblemsolvingprocedureispresentedinFigure4.5.Theanalysis
starts with indications about the current state of energy performance in the hotel
(results obtain in the Chapter 3 during analysis of energy audit in hotels) and
formulation of problems that are presented as room for improvement in the
buildings energy performance. After setting objectives, a conceptual model of
possible alternatives is formed. A physical model is built involving engineering
science which will be a basis for the computational model further on. Computer
simulations gave problem solving options that, with the help of the iterative
improvementprocess,gavefinalresults.Alternativesarerankedandcomparedwith
conventionalsystems.

151

Initiation for the

New soluions

Communicating

probelm
Solution 1

Formulating the
problem
Evaluation

Computational

Solution 2

Objectives

model
Solution 3
Simulation

Conceptual model
Modeling
Identifying designing

Iteration to

Physical model

and screening the

Mathematical

alternatives

and physical

improve model

relationships

Figure4.5. Thesystemanalysisprocedureforproblemsolvingappliedinthisresearch

Asystem mightbecharacterized intermsofthenumberof components thatdefine


size of the model and level of detail (degree of interrelatedness of components) as
suggestedbyLundqvist(2005)(Figure4.6.).

Very detailed models, on the component level, require meticulous study and
contributetonewtechnologicalresearch.Ontheotherhand,engineeringexperience
withrulesofthumbisusedformodellingnewsystems.Thelevelofdetaildecreases
withincreaseinmodelsizeandnumberofinterrelatedcomponents(Figure4.6.).

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Chapter4.TheProblemDefinitionandProblemSolvingMethodology

Figure4.6. Thecomplexityofmodels(Lundqvist2005)

Problemsrelatedtosystemswithrelativelyfew,highlyinterrelatedcomponentscan
be addressed in analytical form, mathematically. Problems related to systems with
relatively many, loosely related components can be addressed statistically. But
problems related to systems with relatively many, closely interrelated components
cannotbeaddressedeffectivelybyeitherofthesetwoproblemsolvingmethods.Onthe
onehand,suchsystemscannotusuallybesolvedmathematicallybecauseananalytical
solution to the set of equations describing the system does not exist. On the other
hand, the dynamics of these systems cannot be represented statistically, as average
tendencies, because the interrelatedness of components, or system structure, cause
markedly nonrandom behaviours. Systems analysis and simulated focus specifically
on these intermediate systems characterized by organized complexity in which
system structure both controls and is changed by system dynamics (Grant et al
1997).

153

Modellingandsimulationsoftwaretoolabilitiesallowsimulationofintegrated
systems.ThenextchapterdiscusesHVACsystemsalternativesandhowfourmodels
havebeenconceptualizedandpresentedwithcomputationalmodelsinTRNSYS.

154

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

5.

HVACSYSTEMSOPTIONSMODELLING

Thischapterdiscuseshowthemodelshavebeenconceptualized.Basedonsimulationsoftware,
the most common HVAC & DHW systems in hotels on the Adriatic coast will be modelled
and compared with suggested possible alternatives. Modelling and simulation is done using
theTRNSYS.

5.1. ConceptualModel

As it was elaborated in previous chapters, in order to provide improvements with


respect to the energy performance of buildings and at the same time to provide
thermal comfort and indoor climate, there is a need to look at the building and
different subsystems as a integrated system, not as a sum of subsystems or
components. Therefore the building, as an integrated system, should be optimized
insteadofcombiningindividuallyoptimizedcomponents.

Theconceptualmodelincludesaformulationof(i)theobjectivesofthemodel,(ii)the
definitionoftheenvironmentofthesystem,(iii)andidentificationofcomponentsof
thesystemand(iv)theirinterconnections.(Arias2005)

The main objective of the systems modelled in this research is to investigate how
energy efficient alternative HVAC systems utilizing renewable energy sources such
assolarenergyandseawatercancontributetoenergyandenvironmentalsavingsin
the hotel sector. Furthermore, results of model simulations and analysis should be
helpful in the future HVAC systems retrofit and design in hotels on the Adriatic
coast. System boundaries, system components and their interconnection for one
155

conventionalandthreealternativesystemsaredefinedinsubchapter5.3.(SeeFigure
5.7.,Figure5.13.,Figure5.17.,Figure5.20.)

According to Hansen and Clarke (Hensen, Clarke 2000) building simulation is


desirable because it is not restricted to the building structure itself but includes the
indoor conditions, while simultaneously taking into account the environment,
mechanical, electrical or structural systems, with traditional and renewable energy
supply systems. Building simulations can be used to characterise and assess
proposed new equipment and system integration concepts. It also aids in the
identificationofsuchconcepts.Simulationcanthusbeusedforbuildinganalysisand
designinordertoachieveagoodindoorenvironmentinasustainablemanner.

Object related modelling is applied which begins with a physical description of the
buildingsystemorcomponentofinterest.Also,topredictorsimulatethepeakand
average energyuse of suchbuilding,itis requiredtodefinethe building geometry,
geographical location, physical characteristics, type of equipment and operating
schedules,typeofHVACsystem,buildingoperatingschedules,plantequipment,etc.

Theflowchartthatillustratestheorderingoftheanalysisthatistypicallyperformed
byabuildingenergysimulationprogramisshowedinFigure5.1.

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Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Figure5.1.Flowchartforbuildingenergysimulationprogram(ASHRAE2001)

Procedures for estimating energy requirements vary considerably according to


complexity and have three common elements: space load, that is the amount of
energythatmustbeaddedtoorextractedfromaspacetomaintainthermalcomfort;
secondaryequipmentload,thatreferstotheequipmentthatdistributestheheating,
cooling, or ventilating medium to conditioned spaces; and, primary equipment
energy requirements, which refers to central plant equipment that converts fuel or
electricenergytoheatingorcoolingeffect.

One of the ways of discrimination between various approaches to building systems


modelling and simulation is by considering the level of abstraction ranging from
purely conceptual to fully explicit in terms of user specification and/or
mathematical/numericalrepresentationassummarisedinTable5.1.(Hansen,Clarke
2000)

157

Table5.1.HVACsystemmodellingabstractionlevels(Hansen,Clarke2000)
Level
A:Roomprocessesonly;idealplant

Type
CONCEPTUAL

B:Systemwiseintermsofrealsystems(VAV,WCH,etc.)

C:Componentwiseintermsofduct,fan,pump,pipe,etc.
D:Subcomponentlevelintermsofenergybalance,flow
balance,powerbalance,etc.

EXPLICIT

AtlevelCbothspecificactionbytheuserandtheinternalrepresentationisinterms
ofindividualplantcomponentssuchasthefan,duct,heatingcoil,boiler,pump,pipe,
etc, which are connected to form complete systems. Two main approaches can be
distinguished in terms individual component models: inputoutput based (each
separatepartofthesystemsuchasthebuildingzone,singlecomponent,subsystem,
etc. is represented by an equivalent inputoutput relationship) and conservation
equation based (each plant part is described by timeaveraged discretised heat and
massconservationstatements whicharecombinedtoformthe plantsystem matrix,
and which are solved simultaneously for each simulation time step). There are a
number of advantages of the inputoutput method: it offers a mixture of modelling
methods (analytical, numerical, internal lookup table, etc.); it may be used for the
different configuration components thus enabling piecemeal component model
development from simple to more complex descriptions; and because of the highly
modular structure it is relatively easy to add or change certain component models.
OneofthebetknownexamplesisTRNSYS.Themainadvantageoftheconservation
equation method is its implicit simultaneous solution method. The main
disadvantage is that it does not allow a mixture of modelling methods (Hensen,
Clarke2000).

SincetheprimarytaskofthisresearchistocomparethreealternativeHVACsystems
thatsupplycoolingorheatingenergytothebuilding,simulationismadeaccording
tospaceloadsandprimaryequipmentenergyrequirements.

158

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

TheenergyauditwasusedtogiveapictureaboutcurrentstatusofHVACsystemin
hotels on the Adriatic coast and to identify opportunities for energy efficiency
increase. The analysis of existing cooling systems in hotels has shown that 69% of
thesesystemsarevapourcompressioncoolingunitswithaircooledcondensers.For
hotels with 4 and 5 stars, control of thermal comfort during the cooling season is
requirementforguestroomsandotherfacilities,thereforeexperiencehasshownthat
these systems are centralized. However, for hotels with 3 stars this is not the case,
since coolingsystemaredesignedinadecentralizedfashion with anumberof split
units11 (mostly used in common spaces). Decentralized systems are cheaper if one
looks at the investment cost, but during the life time of systems, due to lower
efficiency,theyconsumemoreenergy.Asideeffectisthevisualpollution,duetothe
numberofunitsoutside.

Thereforethesystemsproposedasanalternativearecentralisedsystems.Heatpump
system (HPS) with seawater as a heat source or sink is not new in hotels, but the
share is only 12% of total cooling systems. However, two other alternative systems,
seawater cooling system solar heating (SWCSH) and solar absorption cooling
systemsolarheating(ACS)werenotfoundinthehotelsontheAdriaticcoast.

5.2. SimulationtoolTRNSYS

In this research TRNSYS 16 is used for the development of building and HVAC
systems models. TRNSYS is commonly used for HVAC analysis and sizing, solar
design, day lighting, building thermal performance, PV, wind, analysis of control

11

SplitunitThisdescribesanairconditioningorheatpumpsystemthatissplitintotwosectionsanoutdoor
sectionandanindoorsection

159

schemes, etc. TRNSYS is a transient system simulation program with a modular


structure. It is well suited for detailed analyses of system whose behaviour is time
dependent.AsystemisdefinedinTRNSYStobeasetofcomponents,interconnected
in such a manner as to accomplish a specified task. One obvious characteristic of a
systemisitsmodularity.Becausethesystemconsistsofcomponents,itispossibleto
simulatetheperformanceofthesystembycollectivelysimulatingtheperformanceof
the interconnected components. The modular simulation technique reduces the
complexityofsystemsimulationbecauseitessentiallyreducesalargeproblemintoa
numberofsmallerproblems,eachofwhichcanbemoreeasilysolvedindependently
(SEL2000).

The performance of a system component will normally depend upon characteristic


fixed parameters, the performance (or outputs) of other components, and time
dependent forcing functions. For example, for a solar water heating system,
knowledgeoftheweather(i.e.,solarradiation,ambienttemperature,etc.)andthehot
waterdemandasafunctionoftimearenecessaryinordertodeterminethetransient
systemperformance.

WithaprogramsuchasTRNSYS,whichhasthecapabilityofinterconnectingsystem
components in any desired manner, solving differential equations, and facilitating
informationoutput,theentireproblemofsystemsimulationreducestoaproblemof
identifyingallofthecomponentsandformulatingageneralmathematicaldescription
ofeach.However,ifthesystemistoocomplexitcanyieldnumericalinstability.

The TRNSYS engine (solver) requires that the user create an input file (text) that
describes which components are to be simulated and how these components are
interconnected.Thiscanbedoneeitherdirectlybyeditingthetextthatdescribesthe
componentsandthewaytheyinterfereinthemenudrivenenvironmentprogramme
(TRANSHELL),orbyconstructionaninformationflowdiagraminthegraphicalpre
160

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

processor (IISIBAT). TRANSHELL and IISIBAT are included in TRNSYS simulation


studiopackage.Fromtheflowdiagraminthegraphicalpreprocessor,adeckfileis
generatedwhichcanbereadinTRNSHELL.Whenadeckfileexists,thesimulation
canberun.

5.3. HVAC&DHWsystemsmodels

Up until the early nineties, summer thermal comfort was not a priority in either
publicorprivatebuildings.Withrespecttothehotelsector,therewereonlyafew5
star hotels that could offer adequate thermal comfort during the hottest summer
days.Previoushotelcategorizationdidnotrequireairconditioninginhotels with3
stars, which account for 50% of hotels on the Adriatic coast. Due to climate change
and increased standards, air conditioning is one of the priorities for the tourism
accommodation sector. Therefore, systems modelled in this study consist of both
coolingandheatingsystems.Itisassumedyearroundoperation.Domestichotwater
systems,asapreconditionforhoteloperation,willbemodelledwithallsystems.

Thetermenergyefficientsystemshouldalsoimplytheperformanceoptimization
ofeachbuildingscomponentsandsystems,individuallyandinitsinteractionswith
other energy consuming systems airconditioning, domestic hot water, etc. The
TRNSYS programme calculates demand profiles and at the same time matches
supply. Modelling of such big systems has the advantage of adjusting different
parameterstooptimisematchingstrategiespriortoinstallation.

InthenextsubchapterstheconventionalHVACsystemandthreealternativesystems
modelswere described indetail, whileinAppendixIVtheirdeckfiles generated in
TRNSYSsimulationstudiocanbefound.

161

In order to estimate energy consumption of a designed system as well as to make


energy, economical and environmental analysis, systems are modelled and
simulated. The simulation procedure is based on hourly profiles for climatic
conditionsandoperationalcharacteristicsforanumberoftypicaldaysoftheyearor
for8760hofoperationperyear.

5.3.1. Thehotelbuildingmodel

Forthisresearchtwohotelswith4starsinregionofSplitweremodelled.Thehotels
haveyear roundoperation andrequireadequatethermalcomfort during the whole
year:

Model1:hotelwith300beds(150rooms,A=9.000m2)

Model2:hotelwith600beds(300rooms,A=15.000m2)

The average room area is 20 m2, while additionally conditioned spaces such as
restaurants,reception,bars,sportfacilitiesis:

Model1:2.000m2

Model2:3.000m2

Thefloorareaofhotelswithoutconditioningis:

Model1:4.000m2

Model2:6.000m2

5.3.1.1.

Climateconditions

ThegeographicalpositionontheAdriaticSeaprovidesconditionsandmildclimate
thatmakeallsevencoastalcountiesinCroatiasuitablefortheuseofsolarandwind
energy.Inparticular,theAdriaticIslandsandtheDalmatianregionhavethehighest
insolation level of 23002800 sunshine hours per year (Figure 5.2.) (Hrastnik,
Frankovic2001).Splitisplacedatthe43o31latitudeand16o26longitude.

162

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Figure5.2.GeographicalpositionofSplitandsolarirradianceinCroatia(h/year)(Hrastnik,
Frankovi2001)

A square metre of horizontal surface receives 1534 kWh/m2 , while 30o inclined
surface receives 1741 kWh/m2 in the south solar irradiance annually. The average
monthlytemperaturesvariesfrom7,6oCinJanuaryto25,4oCinJuly(MZOPU2005b).
Thenumberofdayswithtemperature>30 oCis39,2,whilethenumberofdayswith
temperature <0oC is 0,4. The yearly number of hours with temperatures 30, 32 and
34oCis91,30and16respectively(Recknagel2002).Averagerelativehumidityis60%.

Design indoor temperatures12 and design outdoor temperatures13 for heating and
coolingseasonstakenforcalculationsinthisresearchareasfollows:

12

Designindoortemperatureisthetemperaturerequiredtobeproducedandmaintainedbycoolingorheating
system

13

Designoutdoortemperatureisspecifiedtemperatureusedtocalculatetheheatingorthecoolingload

163

DH

indoor

DH

out

DC

indoor

DC

out

=21oC

=1oC
=26oC

=32oC

designindoortemperatureforheatingseason
designoutdoortemperatureforheatingseason
designindoortemperatureforcoolingseason
designoutdoortemperatureforcoolingseason

TheheatingseasonperiodlastfromOctober15thuntilApril15th,whilecoolingseason
startsonJune1standfinishesonSeptember15th.However,thenumberofheatingor
cooling days in periods varies from year to year. The number of heating days with
regardstooutsidetemperatureof12oCis121,6whiledegreedaysis1437Kday/year
(MZOPU2005b).

5.3.1.2.

ThebuildingmodelinTRNSYS

The intention of this research is to demonstrate how the three alternative HVAC
systems,thatsupplyheatandcoldenergytohotelbuilding,cancontributetoenergy
and environmental savings compared to conventional HVAC system. Since
emphasize was on the HVAC systems, the building model in TRNSYS is presented
with simple, onezone building (TYPE 12: Energy/(degreehour) space heating or
cooling load). The same model of the building is used for simulations in all four
systems.

The energy/(degreeday) concept has been shown to be useful in estimating the


monthly heating load of a structure. In this space heating load model, the
energy/(degreeday), or more appropriately the energy/(degreehour), concept is
extendedtoestimatethehourbyhourheatingloadofastructure.Themodelprovide
anestimateofthespaceheatingloadwithminimalcomputationaleffort(SEL2000).

TherearefourmodesofoperationinType12.Models1,2,and3arecompatiblewith
energy rate control. Mode 4 used in this thesis models a single lumped capacitance
house compatible with temperature level control. Normally heating and/or cooling

164

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

equipment and a controller are used in conjunction with this mode. Room
temperature reflects both, the ambient conditions and the heating or cooling
equipment inputs. The advantage of temperature level control is more detailed and
realisticsimulationoftheinteractionbetweenthebuildingandequipment.Building
ismodelledwithasinglelumpedcapacitance(CAP).Thatnumberisselectedsothat
maximumswingofroomtemperatureinatimestepisontheorderofthecontroller
deadbandranges.

Inthiscase,thebuildingismodelledthroughtheuseofasingleconductanceUAfor
heat loss or gain, along with any additional gains due to solar, lights, people, etc.
Single energy balance of the structure is performed for each simulation time step.
Hour by hour energy loads that are calculated in this manner may be considerably
incorrect. However, over a period of time, the model may provide reasonable good
estimatesofoverallenergyquantities.Sincethesamebuildingmodelwasusedforall
systems,reasonablegoodestimationandcomparisonofthe energysystems may be
done.

Mathematicaldescription
Thedifferentialequationdescribingtherateofchangeofinternalenergyofalumped
capacitystructureis:

CAP

d R
= C min (i R ) + Q& gain U A ( R a ) + Q& aux Q& sens
dt

(5.1.)

where,

= 1if m& 1 >0(otherwise = 0)

Differential equation (5.1.) is solved for the final and average room temperature for
eachtimestep, RF and R .

Q& sens = (1 LHR ) Q& cool

(5.2.)

WhendegreedayloadsareusedforairconditioningcalculationsASHRAEsuggests
multiplyingthesensibleloadbyaconstantfactortoaccountforlatentloads.
165

latent load

total load

LHR =

(5.3.)

ASHRAE recommends LHR ratio of about 0.3 or 0.23. The total and latent cooling
loadarecalculatedas

Q& sens

(1 LHR )

(5.4.)

Q& lat = Q& cool Q& sens

(5.5.)

Q& cool =

In any case rate of energy transferred across the load heat exchanger and
instantaneousheatingloadarecalculatedas

Q& T = C min (i R )

(5.6.)

Q& L = U A ( R a ) Q& gain

(5.7.)

Also, depending of the mode of heating or cooling, instantaneous auxiliary heating


andrateofsensiblecoolingloadare

Q& aux =

CAP ( RF RL )

Q& L Q& T +
t

if>0

otherwise

Q& aux = 0

Q& sens =

CAP ( RF RL )

Q& T Q& L
t

if>0

otherwise

Q& sens = 0

(5.8.)

(5.9.)

Parameters,inputsandoutputsforbuildingmodelareasfollows:

Parameters

U A overallconductanceforheatlossfromhouse,[W/oC]
CAP lumpedthermalcapacitanceofhouse,[J/oC]

RI

initialroomtemperature,[oC]

c Pf

specificheatofheatsourcefluid,[J/kgoC]

C min productoftheeffectivenessandminimumcapacitancerateof

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Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

loadheatexchanger,[W/oC]

min roomsettemperatureforheating,[oC]
max roomsettemperatureforcooling,[oC]
LHR

ratiooflatenttototalcoolingload

Inputs

temperatureofthefluidfromheatsource,[oC]

m& i

massflowrateoffluidfromheatsource,[kg/s]

ambienttemperature,[oC]

Q& gain timevariantheatgains,[W]

Q& aux auxiliaryheatinginputtospace,[W]


Q& cool rateofcoolingenergyremovedfromspace,[W]

Outputs

temperatureofthefluidreturningtoheatsource,[oC]

m& o

massflowrateoffluidreturningtoheatsource,[kg/s]

averageroomtemperature,[oC]

Q& L

instantaneousheatingload,[W]

Q& T

rateofenergytransferredacrosstheloadheatexchanger,[W]

Q& aux instantaneousauxiliaryheating,[W]


Q& sens rateofsensiblecoolingload,[W]
Q& lat

rateofcoolingusedtoreduceroomhumidity,[W]

5.3.1.3.

Energyrequirements

In order to supply input data to the building model, calculations for heating and
coolingcapacityismadeaccordingtoGermanstandardscommonlyusedinCroatia.

167

Heatinglosses
Heating losses are calculated according to German standard DIN 4701 (Recknagel
2002).Theheatingcapacityiscalculatedasasumoftransmission Q& T andinfiltration
losses Q& FL :

Q& N = Q& T (a ) + Q& FL (a )

,[W]

(5.10.)

Q& T = U A( R a ) ,[W]

(5.11.)

(5.12.)

(5.13.)

Q& FL = V& c p ( R a ) ,[W]


Where:

Atotalareaofbuildingtowardenvironment,[m2]

Ucoefficientofheattransfer,[W/m2K]

R roomtemperature,[oC]

a ambienttemperature,[oC]

V& airflow,[m3/s]

c p specificthermalcapacitance,[J/kgK]

densityoftheair,[kg/m3]

Airflowduetoinfiltrationiscalculatedas:

V& = (a l ) 3 p 2

Where

a factorofinfiltration,[m3/mhPa2/3]

l lengthoffugue(cleft),[m]

p pressuredifference,[Pa]
Average a =0,6m3/mhPa2/3,whileitisgivenforpressuredifference p =1Pa

Thecalculatedheatingcapacityisasfollows:

Model1:550kW

Model2:780kW

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Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Coolingload
ThecoolingcapacityiscalculatedaccordingtostandardVDI2078(VDI1996)which
takes into account, building location and orientation, building materials, insulation,
glazing characteristics, outside temperature, solar radiation through windows and
walls, heat accumulation in the walls, internal gains and cooling load due to
ventilation rate.The cooling loadis calculatedasa sumoftheinternal coolingload
andtheexternalcoolingload:

Q& cool = Q& I + Q& E

,[W]

(5.14.)

Theinternalcoolingload Q& I ofaroomismadeupofthepartialcoolingloadsdueto


heat emission from persons Q& P , heat emission from equipment Q& Eq and heat Q& R
flowing in from adjacent rooms via the internal surface. With Q& Eq , a distinction is
madebetweencoolingloadduetoilluminationheat Q& B ,machineandapplianceheat

Q& M , heat absorption or emission in the event of material throughput through the
room Q& G (e.g.coolingwaterformachines),andotherheatsupplyandremoval Q& C
(e.g.chemicalreactions).Thus

Q& I = Q& P + Q& Eq + Q& R

(5.15.)

Q& Eq = Q& B + Q& M + Q& G + Q& C

(5.16.)

(5.17.)

(5.18.)

Where

Coolingloadduetopersons Q& P iscalculatedas:

Q& P = n p q p S i

Where

n p numberofpersons

qpheatemissionfromthehumanbody,[W]

Sicoolingloadfactorforinternalloads

Coolingloadduetolighting Q& B iscalculatedas:

Q& B = P l B B S i

169

Where

Ptotalinstalledpowerofthelights,[W]

lBsimultaneityfactorofthelightingatthetimeconcerned

Broomloadfactorduetolighting

Sicoolingloadfactorforinternalloads

Coolingloadduetomachinesandequipment Q& M iscalculatedas:


n
Pj

Q& M = l M S i aj
j =1

(5.19.)

(5.20.)

Where

Pjratedpowerofthemachinej,[W]

meanmotorefficiency

ajloadfactorofthemachinejatthetimeinquestion
lMsimultaneityfactor

Sicoolingloadfactorforinternalloads

Coolingloadduetomaterialthroughput Q& G iscalculatedas:

Q& G = m& c p ( E A ) S i

Where

m& massofthematerialbroughtintotheroomorremovedfromintheunit
oftime,[kg/s]

cpmeanspecificheatcapacity,[kJ/kgK]

Einlettemperature,[K]
Aoutlettemperature,[K]

Sicoolingloadfactorforinternalloads

Coolingloadduetodifferenttemperaturesinadjacentrooms Q& R iscalculatedas:

Q& R = U A

Where
Uheattransmissioncoefficient,[W/m2K]

170

Aarea[m2]

(5.21.)

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

temperaturedifference[K]
The effect of all other supply and removal Q& C on the room climate should be
estimated, and taken into consideration. However, for this research Q& C was
neglected, as well as Q& M , since except room refrigerator and television there is no
other machinery in hotel room. Cooling load due to material throughput Q& G was
alsoneglected.

Externalcoolingloadiscalculatedassumofcoolingloadthroughexternalwallsand
roofs Q& W ,coolingloadduetotransmissionthroughwindows Q& TW ,coolingloaddue
toradiationthroughwindows Q& S andcoolingloadduetoinfiltration Q& FL .

Q& E = Q& W + Q& TW + Q& S + Q& FL

(5.22.)

The instantaneous heat flow Q& W through external walls and roofs into the room
arisesfromthefollowing:

Q& W = U A eq

(5.23.)

Where
Uheattransmissioncoefficient,[W/m2K]

Aarea[m2]
eqequivalenttemperaturedifference[K]

Coolingloadduetotransmissionthroughwindows Q& TW iscalculatedas:

Q& TW = U F AM (a R )

(5.24.)

Where
UFheattransmissioncoefficientofthewindow,[W/m2K]

AMtotalwindowarea[m2]

aambienttemperature,[K]
Rroomairtemperature,[K]

Coolingloadduetoradiationthroughwindows Q& S iscalculatedas:

171

Q& S = Al I max + (Ag Al ) I diff . max b S a

(5.25.)

Where
Alsunexposedglassarea,[m2]

Agtotalglassarea Ag g v AM ,[m2]

gvglasssurfacecomponentofwindowarea;AMAgistheframearea

Imaxmaximumvalueofthetotalradiationforthedesignmonth,[W/m2]

Idiff.maxmaximumvalueofdiffuseradiationforthedesignmonth,[W/m2]

bradiationtransmissioncoefficientofthewindowandsunprotection

devices
Sacoolingloadfactorforexternalradiationload

Coolingloadduetoinfiltration Q& FL .isonlytakenintoconsiderationinspecialcases,


thatwasnotthecaseinthisresearch.
The room cooling load is the sum of the internal and external cooling load
components,whilethebuildingcoolingloadattimetisobtainedfromthesumofall
roomcoolingloadsattimet:
n

Q& cool = Q& cool (t )

,[W]

(5.26.)

j =1

Calculatedcoolingloadsfortwohotelsareasfollows:

Model1:280kW

Model2:485kW

DomestichotwaterDHW
Bearinginmindanaveragedailyhotwaterconsumption(DHW)of80100litresper
guest (Recknagel 2002), estimated DHW consumption, with 100% occupancy rate
wouldbe:

Model1:26.900l/day

Model2:53.800l/day

172

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

The histogram of hourly hot water demand is presented in Figure 5.3. Building
characteristicsforbothhotelmodelsaresummarizedinTable5.2.

Table5.2.Hotelsbuildingscharacteristics

Hotelsmodel
I

II

Numberofrooms

150

300

Numberofbeds

300

600

Totalroomsarea,m2

3000

6000

Floorareaoftherestaurant,m2

600

1200

Floorareaoftheadditionalfacilities:
950
reception,halls,publicareas,m2
Floorareaoftheswimmingpool
450
andsportfacilities,m2

1200
600

Nonconditionedfloorarea,m2

4000

6000

Hotelregionallocation

Split

Split

Locationandorientation

Closetothecoastline,
SW

Closetothecoastline,SW

Walls

Concrete,k=1,8w/m2K

Concrete,k=1,8w/m2K

Roof

Flatroof,
concrete,
10cminsulation

Flatroof,
concrete,
10cminsulation

Wallsandroofthermalinsulation

Wallswithoutinsulation

Wallswithoutinsulation

Glazing

Doubleglazing,
woodenframe,
insidevenetianblades
k=3W/m2K

Doubleglazing,
woodenframe,
insidevenetianblades
k=3W/m2K

DailyDHWconsumption,l/day

26900

53800

Heatingcapacity,kW

550

780

Coolingcapacity,kW

280

485

173

DHW consumption, kg/h

6000

4000
Model II
Model I
2000

0
0

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Time, h

Figure5.3. DHWhistogram

The time step for simulations is chosen sufficiently small such that the numerical
integration algorithm remains stable during the evaluation of the timedependent
variablesofthesystemmodelanditgoesfrom10sto200s.

5.3.2. Conventionalsystem(CS)

Cooling
The cooling system model consists of a number of parallel vapour compression
cooling units with air cooled condenser. Cooling units produce cold water with
temperaturesrangingfrom712oC,whichisdistributedtocoolingdevices(fancoils)
within the hotel. The COP of this system during simulations was relatively low
(COP=3,15) due to a high condensing temperature, influenced by high outdoor
temperatures( DC

174

out

=32oC).

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Figure5.4. Interrelationshipofconventionalcoolingsystem(CS)componentsmodelledin
TRNSYS

TRNSYS components used to build the CS cooling model are: TYPE 3.


Pump/ventilator, TYPE 8. Threestage room thermostat, TYPE 12. Energy/degree
hour house: temperature level control, TYPE 24. Quantity integrator, TYPE 53.
Parallel chillers, TYPE 65. Online graphical plotter with output file, TYPE 109. Data
readerandradiationprocessor.DescriptionofcomponentsisgiveninAppendixIII.

Heating
The heating system consists of a boiler powered by heating oil. Hot water set
temperatureinboileris55oC.Hotwaterisdistributedtofancoilsandradiatorsinthe
building.Thetemperaturedifferencebetweenthehotwatersupplyandreturnlineis
7oC.ThesystemisdesignedtocoverheatingandDHWdemandsimultaneously.

175


Figure5.5. Interrelationshipofconventionalheatingsystem(CS)componentsmodelledin
TRNSYS

TRNSYS components used to build the CS heating model are: TYPE 3.


Pump/ventilator,TYPE4.Stratifiedhotwaterstoragetank,TYPE6.OnOffauxiliary
heater, TYPE 8. Threestage room thermostat, TYPE 12. Energy/degreehour house:
temperature level control, TYPE 24. quantity integrator, TYPE 65. Online graphical
plotterwithoutputfile,TYPE109.Datareaderandradiationprocessor.Description
ofcomponentsisgiveninAppendixIII.

DHWsystem
The same boiler described above is used for domestic hot water. The minimum set
temperature in the hot water storage tank is 4045oC, which prevents unnecessary
transmission heat losses due to water preheating, extensive scale formation on heat
exchanger surfaces and storage tank. On the other hand, it is necessary to ensure
minimum hygienic conditions for hot water and to prevent the growth of various

176

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

bacteria.Therefore,thestoragetanksareperiodicallyheatedtoatemperatureof60oC.
DHWat40oCisdistributedtoconsumers(guestrooms,kitchens,toilettes).

Figure5.6. InterrelationshipofconventionalDHWsystem(CS)componentsmodelledin
TRNSYS

TRNSYS components used to build the CS DHW model are: TYPE 4. Stratified hot
waterstoragetank,TYPE11.Teepiece,temperingvalve,TYPE14.Timedependent
forcing function, TYPE 24. Quantity integrator, TYPE 65. Online graphical plotter
withoutputfile.DescriptionofcomponentsisgiveninAppendixIII.

AschematicviewofconventionalcoolingandheatingsystemcanbeseeninFigure
5.7.,whilealistofcomponentsandtheircapacitiesaregiveninTable5.3.

177

waste heat

water

System boundary

HOTEL

fan coils

DHW

water

Water tank

Oil

Oil
Boiler

electricity

Figure5.7.Schematicviewofconventional(CS)system

178

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Table5.3.Systemscomponentscapacitiesandprices(CS)
Conventionalsystemwithvapourcompressioncoolingunitandoilboiler(CS)
Systemscomponents

ModelhotelI150rooms
Qcool=300kW,Qheating=600kW,
VDHW=26,9m3/day

ModelhotelII300rooms
Qcool=500kW,Qheating=800kW,
VDHW=53,8m3/day

Working
parameters

Working
parameters

pc

500kW,cold
water12/7C

pc

Vapourcompression
300kW,cold
1. unitwithaircooled
1
water12/7C
condenser
2. Coldwaterpump 16kg/s,p=30m 1
150
3. Fancoils
1.6kW
50
Hotwaterstorage
2x12
4.
24m3
tank
m3

5. Boiler

6. Hotwaterpump
7. PumpDHW
Automatic
8.
regulation
Pipes,valves,
9.
assemblingparts

Totalcapacity700
kW:100forDHW1
600forheating.
20kg/s,p=30m 1
1kg/s,p=20m 1

Price,EUR

32.700

Price,EUR

1.400 24kg/s,p=30m 1
1.6kW
300
50.000
4.3kW
60
15.400 36m3

3x12m3

Totalcapacity950
kW:
14.900 150kWforDHW 1
and800kWfor
heating
1.900 30kg/s,p=30m 1
600 2.5kg/s,p=30m 1

50.700
1.900
90.000
23.100

24.300

2700
700

1.400

1.400

cca

4.000

cca

6.000

5.3.3. Seawatercoolingsystemsolarheating(SWCSH)

Useoftheseawaterforcoolingisnotnew,especiallyasaheatsinkinheatandpower
stations or nuclear stations where huge amounts of water are needed for cooling
purposes.Theseawater,whereavailable,isusedasaheatsinkonthecondenserside
oftherefrigerationunit.

Therearesomeexamplesintheworldwheresea,lake,riverorgroundwaterisused
directly for cooling purposes, making the cooling system less complex than
conventionalwaterchillingsystems.Thesesystemsoperatewithdeepcoldwaterand
arecalledDeepWaterSourceCooling(DWSC)systems(Hazen1995).

179

Deep water source cooling (DWSC) refers to the renewable use of a large body of
naturally cold water as a heat sink for process and comfort space cooling. The cold
water can be found in deep areas within lakes, oceans, aquifers and rivers which is
thenpumpedthroughtheprimarysideofaheatexchanger.Onthesecondaryside,
clean chilled water is produced with one tenth of the average energy required by
conventional,chillerbasedsystems.Coincidingwithsignificantenergyandoperating
cost savings, DWSC offers reductions in airborne pollutants and the release of
environmentallyharmfulrefrigerants(Hazen1995).

TherearetwopositivereasonsforusingDWSCindistrictenergysystems:

1) A DWSC system provides an environmentally passive method for reducing


contributionstoglobalwarmingandclimatechange.DWSC,byreplacingthe
equipment in a conventional energy chilled water plant, could use
approximately 1020% of the energy required to operate the centrifugal
chillers, cooling towers and pumps. To the extent that fossil fuelfired
electricity generating plants are being used to provide power for chiller
operation, any reduction in the power demand for cooling will reduce CO2
emissionsandthesubsequentglobalwarmingeffects.
2) Using naturally chilled water there is no need for refrigerants that cause
ozonedepletionorglobalwarming.Also,needforcoolingtowersandtheuse
of chemically treated cooling water is eliminated. Eliminating the cooling
tower can reduce fresh water consumption, noise and blow down water
discharge.(Zanki,Galaso2002)

A typical electrical requirement at peak, for large building air conditioning, is


approximately0.24kWhel/kWhofcoolingcapacity(Hazen1995).Thisvaluecanvary
greatly depending on the load, ambient conditions and efficiency of the chiller. A
typicalpeakelectricalenergyrequirementforalakeoroceansourcecoolingsystem
180

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

willbeintherangeof0.0280.057kWhel/kWhofcoolingcapacity.Theneteffectofa
DWSC system is a net reduction in energy and instantaneous power consumption
attributed to conventional chilled water generation and distribution of 80 to 90%
(Hazen1995).

Seawater used in existing systems worldwide is deep, cold sea or lake water with
temperatures in the range of 612oC (Zanki 2003). These temperatures would
correspondtothoseproducedinchillersforconventionalairconditioningunits.The
Adriatic Sea, compared to Oceans, is shallow with the deepest spots of 200 m
approximately2050kmsfromthedescribedsitesonthecoast(Figure5.8.).

Figure5.8.ThemapoftheAdriaticanddepthprofile(Zore1999)

Theaveragetemperatureatthedepthof200mduringthesummermonthsis12,89oC
(Buljan 1976), which is not low enough for the cooling application using fan coils.
Furthermore, any investment in a pipeline of that distance would be too expensive.
TherangeoftheseawatertemperaturesintheAdriaticareshowninTable5.4.

181

Table5.4.Averageannualandseasonalvaluesofseawatertemperatures(oC)forthewhole
Adriatic(Buljan1976)
Depth
(m)

Year
(Whole)

0
5
10
20
30
40
50
75
100
150
200
300
500
800
1000

17,88
16,80
16,77
15,61
14,84
14,43
14,28
14,04
13,79
13,19
13,01
13,72
13,45
13,23
12,82

Winter
(Jan.,Feb.,
Mar.)
12,14
11,65
11,95
12,44
12,37
12,25
13,03
13,27
13,27
13,11
13,01
13,58
13,42
13,22
12,82

Spring
(Apr.,May.,
June)
17,85
16,39
16,05
14,96
14,34
13,72
13,74
13,62
13,55
12,98
12,99
13,84
13,53
13,27
12,76

Summer
(July,Aug.,
Sept.)
23,12
22,65
21,78
18,53
16,31
15,23
14,63
14,16
13,86
13,08
12,89
13,72
13,39
13,19
12,93

Autumn
(Oct.,Nov.,
Dec.)
17,91
16,25
16,53
16,95
16,62
16,95
16,11
15,48
14,63
13,64
13,15
13,78
13,50
13,26
12,77

Amplitude
(maxmin)
10,98
11,00
9,83
6,09
4,25
4,70
3,08
2,21
1,36
0,56
0,26
0,26
0,14

WhenanalyzingthepossibilitiestoapplyfreecoolingintheMediterraneanregionof
the Adriatic Sea, where deep seawater is not available, higher quantities of cooling
water should be considered. High temperature cooling systems might be applied if
buildingsarenotalreadyequippedwithconventionalfancoilunits.Ifradiantcooling
systems14areconsideredwithbuildingtemperaturesintheorderof18/21oC,itwould
be possible to obtain the same cooling capacity and necessary thermal comfort.
Seawaterthatcouldproducecoldwaterat18/21oCshouldbeatthemaximum15oC,
whichcouldbepumpedfromdepthsof50mandafewhundredmetersoffshore.

Whenanalyzingheattransferloopsinthecoolingsystemsitisimportanttominimize
theirnumberwhileprovidingthesamecoolingcapacity.Itisobviousthateachheat
transferloop hasitsown efficiency,andinorderto increaseefficiency of thewhole

14

Radiantcoolingtheprocessofcoolingbywhichaheatabsorbingmediaabsorbsheatfromonesourceandradiates
theheataway.Acontrolledradiantsurfaceiscalledaradiantpanelif50%ormoreoftheheattransferisby
radiationtoothersurfacesseenbythepanel.

182

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

system,designshouldstrivetowarddecreasednumberofheattransferloops.Onthe
Figure5.9.schematicviewofheattransferloopsinvapourcompressionsystemwith
aircooledcondenserisgiven.

Figure5.9.Conceptualviewofachilledwaterairconditioningsystem(Esource2001)

Since cold energy in seawater cooling system is transferred to the space via the
radiant mechanism, there is no longer a need for air loops that maintain thermal
comfortinthecoolingspaces.The totalelectricityneededforthesystem, compared
withvapourcompressionsystem,isdiminishedinaccordancewithsavingsfromair
fan electricity and electricity to drive compressor. A schematic view of the heat
transfer loops for the SWC system can be seen in Figure 5.10. A literature survey
shows that seawater for high temperature cooling is neither mentioned or applied
yet. The studyofhightemperature cooling systemsfor touristcomplexes wasdone
by the same author of this research as a master thesis. Analysis has shown that
seawater cooling system can save up to 90 % of energy compared to vapour
compressionsystems,withaircooledcondensers(Zanki2002).

183


Figure5.10.Conceptualviewoftheseawatercoolingsystem(Zanki2002)

Advantagesofradiantcooling/heatingsystems
Due to the high heat capacity and density of water, thermal energy can be
transportedviawaterinpipeswithlittlepumpingpower;savingapproximately70
80%ofthefanpowernormallyusedforconditioningofabuilding(inallairsystems).
This alone reduces the peakpower of the air conditioning system by about 3045%.
Besides power savings, radiant cooling systems have numerous of advantages, as
follows(ASHRAE2000):

Separationoftheventilationtaskfromthethermalconditioning

spacesavingsduetolessareaneededforairchannels

nodrafts

nonoise

thesameinstallationforheatingandcooling

freeofmaintenanceanddurability

Cooling
The seawater cooling system is very simple and consists of three primary
components: central seafront screening, pumping and treatment plant, the central
transferlineandtheenduserdistributionnetwork.

184

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

The SWC cooling system consists of two main loops. In the first loop, centrifugal
pumpsdrawcoldseawaterfromthebottomofthesea,andthencirculateitthrough
heatexchangersthatarelocatedinthehotelsmachineroom.Thewarmedseawater
is then returned back to the sea. In the heat exchanger, airconditioning water is
chilledwhileheatistransferredtotheseawater.Thesecondpumpthencirculatesthe
chilled water throughout the hotel. The seawater, at a temperature of 15oC, is
pumped from depths greater than 50m and a few hundred meters offshore, and
results in cold water at 18/21oC. Cold water is distributed to radiant panels in the
hotel.Theroomsettemperatureis2526oC.

Heat exchangers should be of the plate and frame type, which generally provide
superior thermal performance. They are more economical and have smaller
dimensions.Platesfabricatedfromtitaniumareusedinseawaterapplicationswhile
stainless steel provides good performance in fresh water applications. Aluminium
platesarenowbeingdevelopedasacosteffectivealternativetotitanium.Plateheat
exchangerallow0.51.7oCtemperaturedifferencewithintheheatexchanger,(Hazen
1995).

TRNSYS components used to build the SWCSH cooling model are: TYPE 3:
Pump/ventilator,TYPE5.Counterflowheatexchanger:counterflow,TYPE8.Three
stage room thermostat, TYPE 12. Energy/degreehour house: temperature level
control,TYPE24.Quantityintegrator,TYPE65.Onlinegraphicalplotterwithoutput
file, TYPE 109. Data reader and radiation processor. Description of components is
given in Appendix III. Interrelationship of the seawater cooling system (SWCSH)
componentsmodelledinTRNSYSisgivenonFigure5.11.

185


Figure5.11. Interrelationshipoftheseawatercoolingsystem(SWCSH)components
modelledinTRNSYS

Heating&DHW
The heating system consists of solar collectors, hot water storage tank and a boiler
powerbyLPGasabackupsystem.Hotwaterisprovidedduringthewholeyearfor
domestic hot water and for space heating. The solar collector system is designed to
provide DHW during the summer months. The minimum temperature in the hot
water storage tank is 42oC due to certain bacterias (legionela). However, the
temperature in the storage tank can reach 90oC in the summer months. During the
wintermonths,whenoccupancyrateandDHWconsumptionislower,storagetanks
are periodically heated to temperatures of 60oC to prevent bacteria growth. Solar
collectorsareplacedontheroofwitha45oslope,orientedtowardssouth.Hotwater
with temperatures of 4045oC is distributed to radiator panels. The temperature
difference between hot water supply and return line is 10oC. Wall temperature is
approximately 2223oC to provide thermal comfort for people even when room
temperatureis18oC.

186

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

TRNSYScomponentsusedtobuildtheSWCSHheatingandDHWmodelare:TYPE
1.Solarcollector;quadraticefficiency,2ndorderincidenceanglemodifiers,TYPE2.
Onoffdifferential controller,TYPE 3.Pump/ventilator,TYPE4.Stratifiedhotwater
storage tank, TYPE 8. Threestage room thermostat, TYPE 11. Tee piece, tempering
valve,TYPE12.Energy/degreehourhouse:temperaturelevelcontrol,TYPE14.Time
dependentforcingfunction,TYPE24.Quantityintegrator,TYPE65.Onlinegraphical
plotterwithoutputfile,TYPE109.Datareaderandradiationprocessor.Description
ofcomponentsisgiveninAppendixIII.Interrelationshipofthesolarheatingsystem
(SWCSH)componentsmodelledinTRNSYSisgivenonFigure5.12.

Figure5.12. Interrelationshipofthesolarheatingsystem(SWCSH)componentsmodelled
inTRNSYS

187

System boundary

water

HOTEL
DHW

Radiant
system

Solar collectors

Heat
exchanger

Water tank

LPG
Boiler

sea
water

LPG

electricity

solar energy

Figure5.13.Schematicviewoftheseawatercoolingandsolarheatingsystems

Schematic view of the seawater cooling and solar heating systems can be seen on
Figure5.13.whilelistofcomponentsandtheircapacitiesaregiveninTable5.5.

188

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Table5.5.Systemscomponentscapacitiesandprices(SWCSH)
Seawatercoolingsystemandsolarheating(SWCSH)
Systemscomponents

ModelhotelI150rooms
Qcool=300kW,Qheating=600kW,
VDHW=26,9m3/day

ModelhotelII300rooms
Qcool=500kW,Qheating=800kW,
VDHW=53,8m3/day

Working
parameters

Working
parameters

pc

300kW,seawater
Titaniumplateheat
1.
15/18C,cold
1
exchanger
water21/18C
2. Seawaterpump

25kg/s,p=30m 1

Cold/hotwater
pump

24kg/s,p=30m;
1
15kg/s,p=30m

3.

Radiant
cooling/heating
4.
installationand
pipes
Platesolar
5.
collectors
Hotwaterstorage
6.
tank

7. BoilerLPG

8.

Pumpforsolar
collectorloop

9. Hotwaterpump
Automatic
regulation
Pipes,valves,
11.
assemblingparts
10.

9600m2,PPpipes

6x1mm

Price,EUR

500kW,
seawater
8.000 15/18C,
1
coldwater
21/18C
40kg/s,p=30
3.000
1
m
40kg/s,p=30
1.900 m;
1
20kg/s,p=30m
26.000

16200m2,PP
pipes6x1mm

350m2

166x2.1
m2

90.000 600m2

24m3

2x12m3

15.400 36m3

Total700kW:
100kWDHW+
600kWfor
heating

2kg/s,p=20m 1
1kg/s,p=20m

pc

280x
2.1m2
3x12
m3

Total950kW:
150kWfor
14.900 DHW+
1
800kWfor
heating
6,5kg/s,p=20
700
1
m
2.5kg/s,p=20
600
1
m

Price,EUR

19.500

3.300
2.700

43.800

151.400
23.100

24.400

900
700

1.400

1.400

cca5000

cca7000

189

5.3.4. Heatpumpsystem(HPS)

CoolingandHeating
Thecoolingsystemmodelconsistsoffourandtwoparallelvapourcompressionunits
with seawater cooled condensers for the case of hotel with 300 and 150 rooms
respectively. Cooling units produces cold water in the temperature range of 7/12oC
andisdistributedtocoolingdevices(fancoils)withinthehotel.Duetotherelatively
low temperature of seawater ( SWC

HPc

= 20oC) used as a heat sink, the COP of this

system during simulations was relatively high (COP=4,64), therefore less electricity
needed to power the compressor. Since seawater temperatures at a depth of 10m is
constant during the summer months, it is expected that system operation will be
stablewhichresultsinlongerequipmentlifetimeandreducedservicing.Partsofthe
system in contact with seawater should be corrosion resistant. Passing through the
condenser, seawater is heated with a = 34oC. This is in line with regulations
regarding dangerous materials and boundary values for waste water (DUV 1999),
andthereforesealifewillnotbedisturbed.

TherefrigerantusedinthevapourcompressionsystemisR134awhichbelongstothe
group of environmentally acceptable refrigerants, HFC (hydrofluorocarbons). They
donotcontainchlorinewhichisharmfulforozonelayer.

190

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Figure5.14. Interrelationshipofthevapourcompressioncoolingsystem(HPS)components
modelledinTRNSYS

TRNSYS components used to build the HPS cooling model are: TYPE 3.
Pump/ventilator, TYPE 8. Threestage room thermostat, TYPE 12. Energy/degree
hour house: temperature level control, TYPE 24. Quantity integrator, TYPE 53.
Parallel chillers, TYPE 65. Online graphical plotter with output file, TYPE 109. Data
readerandradiationprocessor.Interrelationshipofthevapourcompressioncooling
system(HPS)componentsmodelledinTRNSYSisgivenonFigure5.14.

Vapour compression units should be designed to fulfil, both cooling and heating
needs. Since the heating requirements of a vapour compression unit during the
heatingseasonishigher,theunitisselectedtocovertheseneeds.Asaconsequence,
available cooling capacity during the cooling season is higher than required.
Therefore, a number of parallel units were selected, so that optimum operation for
bothcoolingandheatingseasoncouldbeachieved.

191

Duringtheheatingseasonmodefortheheatpump,hotwaterwithtemperaturesof
5055oCisproducedinthecondenserandfurtherondistributedtothefancoilsinthe
roomsandradiatorsforareasthatareonlyheated.Temperaturedifferencebetween
supplyandreturnhotwateris7oC.

Figure5.15. Interrelationshipoftheheatpumpheatingsystem(HPS)components
modelledinTRNSYS

TRNSYS components used to build the HPS heating model are: TYPE 3.
Pump/ventilator,TYPE4.Stratifiedhotwaterstoragetank,TYPE8.Threestageroom
thermostat,TYPE12.Energy/degreehourhouse:temperaturelevelcontrol,TYPE24.
Quantityintegrator,TYPE53.Parallelchillers,TYPE65.Onlinegraphicalplotterwith
output file, TYPE 109. Data reader and radiation processor. Interrelationship of the
heat pump heating system (HPS) components modelled in TRNSYS is given on
Figure5.15.DescriptionofcomponentsisgiveninAppendixIII.

192

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

DHWsystem
DHW system consists of solar collectors, hot water storage tank, circulation pump
andaboilerpoweredbyLPGasabackupsystem.Hotwaterisprovidedduringthe
wholeyearfordomestichotwater.Thesolarcollectorsystemisdesignedtoprovide
DHWduringthesummermonths.Thetemperatureregimeinthestoragetankisthe
sameasinthecaseofSWCSHsystemSolarcollectorsareplacedontheroofwith45o
slope, oriented towards south. Mixing valves ensure that hot water of 40oC is
distributedtotheconsumers(guestrooms,kitchens,toilettes)inthehotel.

Figure5.16. InterrelationshipofthesolarDHWsystem(HPS)componentsmodelledin
TRNSYS

TRNSYScomponentsusedtobuildtheHPSDHWmodelare:TYPE1.Solarcollector,
TYPE2.Onoffdifferentialcontroller,TYPE3.Pump/ventilator,TYPE4.Stratifiedhot
waterstoragetank,TYPE11.Teepiece,temperingvalve,TYPE14.Timedependent
forcing function, TYPE 24. Quantity integrator, TYPE 65. Online graphical plotter
withoutputfile,TYPE109.Datareaderandradiationprocessor.Interrelationshipof

193

the solar DHW system (HPS) components modelled in TRNSYS is given on Figure
5.16.

Schematicviewofvapourcompressioncoolingandheatingsystem(HPS)canbeseen
onFigure5.17.whilealistofcomponentsandtheircapacitiesaregiveninTable5.6.

water

System boundary

water

HOTEL
reverse
valve

fan coils

water

DHW

Solar collectors

Water tank
LPG
Boiler

sea
water

LPG

electricity

solar energy

Figure5.17.Schematicviewofthevapourcompressioncoolingandheatingsystem(HPS)

194

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Table5.6.Systemcomponentscapacitiesandprices(HPS)
Vapourcompressioncoolingandheatingsystem,DHWsolarcollectors
Systems
components

ModelhotelI150rooms
Qcool=300kW,Qheating=600kW,
VDHW=26,9m3/day

ModelhotelII300rooms
Qcool=500kW,Qheating=800kW,
VDHW=53,8m3/day

Working
parameters

Workingparameterspc

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

pc

Chiller:300kW
coolingcapacity,
evaporator:
coolingwater
7/12C;
Vapour
condenser:
compression
2xCarrier
seawater20/23C,
unit
type:30RH2
Heatpump:
(chiller+heat
40B
600kWheating
pumpmode)
capacity,
condenser:hot
water45/50C;
evaporator:
seawater12/9C
Seawaterpump32kg/s,p=30m 1
Cold/hotwater 24kg/s,p=30m;
1
pump
15kg/s,p=30m
1.6kW
150
Fancoils
4.3kW
50
Flatplatesolar
350m2
166x2.1m2
collectors
Hotwater
24m3
2x12m3
storagetank
Total100kW:
BoilerLPG
1
(forDHW)
Pumpforsolar
3.8kg/s,p=20m 1
collectorloop
Hotwater
1kg/s,p=20m 1
pump
Automatic

regulation
Pipes,valves,

cca
assembling
parts

EUR

EUR

Chiller:500kW
coolingcapacity,
evaporator:cooling
water7/12C;
condenser:seawater 4xCarrier
20/23C,
tip:30RH2
101.000
202.000
Heatpump:
40B
800kWheating

capacity,condenser:
hotwater45/50C;
evaporator:seawater
12/9C
3.300 50kg/s,p=30m
40kg/s,p=30m;
1.900
20kg/s,p=30m
1.6kW
50.000
4.3kW
90.000 600m2
15.400 36m3

3.800

2.700

300
60
280x2.1
m2
3x12m3

90.000
151.400
23.100

Total150kW:
(forDHW)

4.800

700 6.5kg/s,p=20m

900

600 2.5kg/s,p=20m

700

3.800

1.400

1.400

4.000

cca

6.000

195

5.3.5. Solarabsorptioncoolingsystemsolarheating(ACSSH)

Cooling
The cooling system model consists of an absorption cooling unit. The generator is
poweredbyhotwaterproducedinsolarcollectorsystem.Whensolarenergyisnot
sufficienttoproducehotwaterof90oC,waterispreheatedintheboilerpoweredby
LPG.Temperaturedifferenceofthehotwateratthegeneratoris10oC.Theevaporator
produces cold water in the temperature range of 7/12oC and distributed to cooling
devices (fan coils) within the hotel. The condenser and absorber are cooled with
seawater(20oC).Underthedescribedtemperatureconditionsitispossibletoachieve
COP=0,70,75(Granryd1999).WorkingfluidsintheabsorptioncoolingunitareLiBr
andH2Owhichdonothaveaninfluenceontheenvironment.Partsofthesystemin
contactwithseawatershouldbecorrosionresistant.

Passingthroughthecondenser,seawaterisheatedwith=34oC.Itisinlinewith
theregulationaboutdangerousmaterialsandboundaryvaluesforwastewater(DUV
1999),andthereforesealifewillnotbedisturbed.

TRNSYS components used to build the ACS cooling and DHW model are: TYPE 1.
SolarCollector,TYPE2.Onoffdifferentialcontroller,TYPE3.Pump/ventilator,TYPE
4.Stratified hotwaterstoragetank,TYPE6.Onoffauxiliaryheater,TYPE8.Three
stage room thermostat, TYPE 11. Tee piece, tempering valve, TYPE 12.
Energy/degreehour house: temperature level control, TYPE 14. Time dependent
forcing function, TYPE 24. Quantity integrator, TYPE 65. Online graphical plotter
withoutputfile,TYPE107.Hotwaterfiredsingleeffectabsorptionchiller,TYPE109.
Datareaderandradiationprocessor.Interrelationshipofthesolarabsorptioncooling
system(ACS)componentsmodelledinTRNSYSisgivenonFigure5.18.Description
ofcomponentsisgiveninAppendixIII.

196

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

Figure5.18. Interrelationshipoftheabsorptioncoolingsystem(ACS)components
modelledinTRNSYS

Heating&DHWsystem
Theheatingsystemconsistsofsolarcollectors,ahotwaterstoragetankandtheboiler
poweredbyLPGasabackupsystem.Hotwaterisprovidedduringthewholeyear
fordomestichotwaterandforspaceheating.Thesolarcollectorsystemisdesigned
toprovideDHWduringthesummermonths.Thetemperatureregimeinthestorage
tankisthesameasinthecaseofSWCSHsystem.Solarcollectorsareplacedonthe
roof with a 45o slope, oriented towards south. Hot water set temperature is in the
range4045oCandisdistributedtofancoilsinthehotel.

197


Figure5.19. InterrelationshipofthesolarheatingsystemandDHW(ACS)components
modelledinTRNSYS

TRNSYS components used to build the ACS heating and DHW model are: TYPE 1.
SolarCollector,TYPE2.Onoffdifferentialcontroller,TYPE3.Pump/ventilator,TYPE
4.Stratified hotwaterstoragetank,TYPE8.Threestageroomthermostat,TYPE11.
Tee piece, tempering valve, TYPE 12. Energy/degreehour house: temperature level
control, TYPE 14. Time dependent forcing function, TYPE 24. Quantity integrator,
TYPE65.Onlinegraphicalplotterwithoutputfile,TYPE107.Hotwaterfiredsingle
effect absorption chiller, TYPE 109. Data reader and radiation processor.
Interrelationshipofthesolarheatingsystem(ACS)componentsmodelledinTRNSYS
isgivenonFigure5.19.DescriptionofcomponentsisgiveninAppendixIII.

Schematicviewoftheabsorptioncoolingandsolarheatingsystem(ACS)canbeseen
onFigure5.20.whilealistofcomponentsandtheircapacitiesaregiveninTable5.7.

198

Chapter5.HVACSystemsOptionsModelling

System boundary

water

HOTEL
DHW

Radiant
system

Solar collectors

water
Water tank

LPG
Boiler

sea
water

LPG

electricity

solar energy

Figure5.20.Schematicviewofabsorptioncoolingandsolarheating(ACS)system

199


Table5.7.Systemscomponentscapacitiesandprices(ACS)
AbsorptioncoolingandsolarheatingsystemACS
Systemscomponents

ModelhotelI150rooms
Qcool=300kW,Qheating=600kW,
VDHW=26,9m3/day

ModelhotelII300rooms
Qcool=500kW,Qheating=800kW,
VDHW=53,8m3/day

Working
parameters

Working
parameters

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

Chiller:300kW
coolingcapacity,
Absorptionunit
evaporator:cold

water7/12C;
condenser:
seawater20/23C
Seawaterpump
42kg/s,p=30m
24kg/s,p=30m;
Cold/hotwaterpump
15kg/s,p=30m
1.6kW
Fancoils
4.3kW
1500m2=
Platesolarcollectors
715x2.1m2
Hotwaterstorage
200m3
tank
Total700kW:
600kWfor
BoilerLPG
heating
100kWforDHW

pc

1
1
150
50

200

Chiller:500kW
coolingcapacity,
evaporator:cold
65.500
water7/12C;
condenser:
seawater20/23C
3.300 68kg/s,p=30m
40kg/s,p=30m;
1.900
20kg/s,p=30m
1.6kW
50.000
4.3kW
2000m2=
386.500
952x2.1m2

pc

91.000

6.900

2.700

300
60

514.600

51.500

Total950kW:
14.900 800kWforheating1
150kWforDHW

1kg/s,p=20m

90.000

36.800 200m3

800 9kg/s,p=20m

Price,
EUR

Pumpforsolarcollector
5.5kg/s,p=20m 1
loop

9. Hotwaterpump
10. Automaticregulation
Pipes,valves,
11.
assemblingparts

Price,EUR

24.300

1000

600 2.5kg/s,p=20m 1
1.400

700
1.400

cca4.000

cca 6.000

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

6.

ENERGYANDECONOMICALANALYSISOF
HVACSYSTEMSOPTIONS

ThischaptergivesenergyandeconomicanalysisofHVACsystemsdescribedandmodelledin
thepreviouschapter.Thethreeproposedalternativesarecomparedwithconventionalsystem
from an energy point of view, during one year of operation. Economic analysis provides
information about payback period if one is to invest in energy efficiency HVAC retrofit
solutions.

6.1. Energyanalysis

HVACsystemsolutionsdescribedinChapter5weremodelledandsimulatedusing
the computer programme TRNSYS. Simulations were made for seasonal and non
seasonaloperationofhotels.SeasonaloperationisconsideredtolastfromApril15th
until October 15th. The simulation programme uses Typical Meteorological Year
(TMY) as its input data, which is presented with hourly temperatures and solar
radiation. TMY is produced by Meteonorm15 software. According to TMY,
instantaneouscoolingandheatingdemandforthemodelledbuildingisdetermined.
Furthermore, cooling and heating demand is covered by the HVAC system, and its
operation is simulated using the TMY. In this way it is possible to estimate actual
building needs for energy, taking into account building physic and passive energy
sources, as well as energy (heat and cold) that HVAC systems can provide. The
programmeallowsforoptimizationofallcomponentsinthesystemtoobtainthebest
energyperformanceofthesystems.

15

Meteonormisacomprehensiveclimatologicaldatabaseforsolarenergyapplications

201

Simulationsweremadeforahotelwith150rooms,whichistheaveragenumberof
roomsinhotelsontheAdriaticcoast,andforahotelwith300rooms.Monthlyenergy
requirementsforheatingandcoolingforahotelwith150roomsisgiveninFigure6.1.

Energy requirement for the hotel (150 rooms)


350000

30
25

250000

20

200000
15
150000
10

100000

Ambient monthly mean


temperature, oC

Energy requirement, kWh

300000

50000
0

0
1

10

11

12

Month
Heating load

Cooling load

Ambient temperature

Figure6.1.Monthlyenergyrequirementsandmeanmonthlyambienttemperaturefora
hotelwith150rooms

6.1.1. Nonseasonalhotels

Hotelswithyearroundoperationshouldprovidethermalcomfortduringthewhole
year. Therefore, systems for heating, cooling and domestic hot water should be
installed. Simulation results for conventional systems and three proposed energy
efficient systems are given in Table 6.1.Table 6.4. Energy (electricity, oil and LPG)
consumptionforheating,coolinganddomestichotwatersystemisgivenseparately.
The efficiency ratios for oil and gas boilers are 0,9 and 0,99 respectively (Recknagel
2002)

202

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

Table6.1.Yearlyprimaryenergyconsumptionforconventionalsystem(CS)operation
Conventionalsystem:vapourcompressionunitwithaircooledcondenser+boiler(CS)

System

Energy
resource

Heating
(1.0115.04.
and15.10.
31.12)
Cooling
(15.04.15.10.)

Qheating oil
Qelpump electricity

DHW(whole
year)

Hotel150rooms
ratioof
energyused
Energy,kJ comparedto
conventional
system,%
5.5535E+09
5.7761E+07

Qcooling

5.6112E+09

Qelpump

Qheating
Qelpump

electricity
electricity

oil
electricity

7.9380E+07
3.8828E+06
8.3262E+07
1.3823E+09
3.6120E+06
1.3860E+09

7.0804E+09 100%

compressor

Total
HVAC&DHW
(wholeyear)

Hotel300rooms
ratioof
energyused
Energy,kJ comparedto
conventional
system,%
7.8169E+09
7.9463E+07

7.8964E+09

1.5427E+08
8.9011E+06
1.6317E+08
2.7571E+09
7.2240E+06
2.7644E+09

1.0824E+10 100%

Table 6.2. Yearly primary energy consumption for seawater cooling and solar heating
system(SWCSH)operation
Seawatercoolingsystem+solarheating(SWCSH)

System

Energy
resource

Heating(1.01
15.04.and
15.10.
31.12)+DHW
(wholeyear)
Cooling
(15.04.15.10.)

Qheating
additional
Qel
pump

Qcooling
pump

QDHW
additional
Qel
pump

DHW(whole
year)

Total
HVAC&DHW

LPG

Hotel150rooms
Hotel300rooms
ratioof
ratioof
energyused
energyused
Energy,kJ comparedto Energy,kJ comparedto
conventional
conventional
system,%
system,%
4.4969E+09

6.2326E+09

electricity 1.9247E+07
4.5162E+09 64,5%

3.1180E+07
6.2638E+09 58,8%

electricity 1,0700E+07
1,0700E+07 12,9%

electricity 4.0209E+06
1.3042E+08 9,4%

2.1713E+07
2.1713E+07 13,3%

4.8822E+08

1.1499E+07
4.9972E+08 18,1%

6.2855E+09 58,1%

LPG

1.2639E+08

4.5269E+09 63,9%

203

Table 6.3. Yearly primary energy consumption for vapour compression cooling and solar
heatingsystem(HPS)operation
Vapourcompressioncoolingandheatingsystem(HPS),DHWsolarcollectors

System

Heating
(1.0115.04.
and15.10.
31.12)
Cooling
(15.04.15.10.)

DHW(whole
year)

Hotel150rooms
ratioof
energyused
Energy
Q
Energy,kJ comparedto
resource
conventional
system,%
Qheating

compressor
electricity 9.2354E+08
Qelpump electricity 1.3553E+08
1.0591E+09 18,9%

Qcooling
compressor
electricity 5.5345E+07
Qelpump electricity 5.3826E+06
6.0728E+07 72,9%

QDHW
additional
1.2639E+08
LPG
Qelpump electricity 4.0209E+06
1.3042E+08 9,4%

Total
HVAC&DHW

1.2502E+09 17,4%

Hotel300rooms
ratioof
energyused
Energy,kJ comparedto
conventional
system,%
1.2375E+09
1.9104E+08
1.4285E+09 18,1%
1.0634E+08
1.0342E+07
1.1668E+08 71,5%
4.8822E+08
1.1499E+07
4.9972E+08 18,1%
2.0449E+09 19,9%

Table 6.4. Yearly primary energy consumption for absorption cooling and solar heating
system(ACS)operation
Absorptioncoolingandsolarheatingsystem(ACS)

System

Energy
resource

Heating+
DHW
(1.0115.04.i
15.10.31.12)
Cooling+
DHW
(15.04.15.10.)

Qheating
additional
Qelpump

Qgheating
addtional
Qelpump

Total
HVAC&DHW

204

Hotel150rooms
Hotel300rooms
ratioof
ratioof
energyused
energyused
Energy,kJ comparedto Energy,kJ comparedto
conventional
conventional
system,%
system,%

LPG
2.8954E+09
electricity 4.6523E+07
2.9419E+09 46,7

3.3645E+09
4.4679E+07
3.4092E+09 36,7%

LPG
2.6165E+08
electricity 2.1335E+07
2.8299E+08 36,5%

4.7563E+08
2.5870E+07
5.0151E+08 32,5%

3.2249E+09 45,55%

3.9107E+09 36,13%

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

TwoofthecolumnsineachoftheTable6.2.Table6.4.presentratiosofenergyused
to fulfil required cooling or heating demand compared to conventional systems for
hotelswith150and300roomsrespectively.Onecanobservethattheresultsfortwo
different sizes of hotels are similar. If one considers only cooling systems, it can be
seen that seawater cooling system SWC (for the hotel with 150 rooms) consumes
only 12,9% of the energy consumed in conventional cooling systems for the same
cooling demand. The vapour compression cooling system with seawater cooled
condenser (HPS) consumes 72,9%, while the absorption cooling system (ACS)
consumes161,6%oftheenergyusedinconventionalcoolingsystems.Ifonlyheating
systems are considered, the solar heating system (SWC SH) with back up boiler
(LPG) consumes 78,2%,, the heat pump heating system consumes 18,9%, while the
solar heating system designed with the absorption solar cooling system consumes
51,3%oftheenergyusedintheconventionalsystems.InTable6.1.Table6.4.energy
consumption for SWCSH and ACS cooling and heating systems are given together
with energy consumption for DHW, since they represents one system. However,
from the energy balance ratios, energy savings in ACS cooling or heating system
statedabovewereobtained.

The solar absorption cooling system consumes 2,6 times more energy for the same
coolingdemandcomparedtoconventionalcoolingsystems.However,ifonelookat
the entire HVAC&DHW system (whole year operation), it can be seen that ACS is
favourablecomparedtoconventionalsystems(CS)sinceitconsumes3645%ofthe
totalenergyinCSsystems.ThereasonforthisisutilizationofsolarenergyforDHW
andheatingsystems.

Figure6.2.providesacomparisonbetweenenergyconsumptionindifferentsystems.
IfonelooksatthewholeyearoperationitcanbeseenthattheHPSsystemisthebest
one and it consumes 17,4% of energy consumed in CS systems, 28% of energy

205

consumed in the SWCSH system and 38,8% of the energy consumed in the ACS
system.
Energy consumption in HVAC systems - non seasonal hotels
6.E+09
5.E+09
4.E+09

kJ 3.E+09
2.E+09
1.E+09
0.E+00
CS

SWC-SH

Cooling

HPS

Heating

ACS

DHW

Figure6.2.EnergyconsumptioninHVAC&DHWsystemsfornonseasonalhotels

ItcanalsobeseenintheFigure6.2.thatthehighestenergyconsumptioninallfour
systemsistheonerequiredforheating.AlthoughCScoolingsysteminfluencespick
loadsinthesummerseasons,theyconsumeonly1,2%ofenergyconsumedinhotels
to provide thermal comfort and DHW over the year (Figure 6.3.). Ratios of energy
consumptionforcoolinginthethreeproposedsustainableoptionsgofrom0,2%for
the SWC system to 6,8% for the ACS system (Figure 6.4.Figure 6.6.). All three
proposed alternative systems utilize solar energy for DHW and therefore consumes
only 9,4% of the energy needed in conventional system (CS) for yearround
operation.

206

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

Breakdown of energy consumption in HVAC system - CS

DHW
19.6%

Cooling
1.2%

Heating
79.2%

Figure6.3.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninconventionalsystem(CS)

Breakdown of energy consumption in HVAC system - SWCSH


DHW
2.9%

Cooling
0.2%

Heating
96.9%

Figure6.4.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninseawatercoolingandsolarheatingsystem
(SWCSH)

TheratioofenergyconsumptionforDHWsystemsintotalenergyconsumptionfor
eachsystemvariesfrom19,6%inconventionalsystem,to10,4%inHPS,4%inACS
and2,9%intheSWCSHsystem.

207

Breakdown of energy consumption in HVAC system - HPS

Cooling
4.9%

DHW
10.4%

Heating
84.7%

Figure6.5.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninvapourcompressioncoolingandheating
system(HPS)

Breakdown of energy consumption in HVAC system - ACS

DHW
4.0%

Cooling
6.8%

Heating
89.2%

Figure6.6.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninabsorptioncoolingandsolarheating
system(ACS)

FromtheTable6.5.onecanseetheprimaryenergyconsumptionpersquaremeterof
hoteltotalareausedinHVAC&DHWsystemsasaresultsofasimulationprocess.In
ordertogivecommentstoresults shownitis necessaryto bear inmind thatguests
occupancy rate taken into account was 100%. The hotel is considered to be heated
duringtheheatingseason(15thOctober15thApril),whilehotwaterwasproduced
208

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

every day in amount stated in Table 5.2. The energy audit showed that energy
consumptionforheatingandDHWsystem(measuredinheatingoilconsumption)in
non seasonal hotels varies considerably and goes from 55 152 kWh/m2. As stated
earlier, the average occupancy rate during the year was 28%. In winter months
occupancyrategoesbelow10%.Differencesbetweenrealoccupancyrateandtheone
taken in simulations might explain why energy consumption in real hotels is lower
than in the case of simulations. However, installed capacities in hotels are high
enoughtocoverdemandforheatingorcoolingduringthe occupancy rateof100%.
Thereasonwhysimulationsaremadewith100%occupancyrateisbecausetheaim
ofresearchistocompareconventionalandalternativeHVAC&DHWsystemsduring
thehighdemands.Itmightbeexpectedthatinyearstocomeoccupancyrateofhotels
ontheAdriaticcoastwillincrease.
Table6.5.Simulatedprimaryenergyconsumptionpersquaremeter(hotelwith150rooms)
CS
SWCSH HPS
ACS
System
Cooling,[kWh/m2]
Heating,[kWh/m2]
DHW,[kWh/m2]
TotalHVAC&DHW

2.57
173.19
42.78
218.53

0.33
135.36
4.03
139.72

1.87
32.69
4.03
38.59

6.72
88.79
4.03
99.54

6.1.1.1.

Influence of room set temperature on energy consumption in cooling


season

The room set temperature or design indoor temperature during the cooling season
for this research was 26oC. The author considered it as a satisfactory indoor
temperaturethatwillprovidethermalcomfortinthehotel.FromTable6.5.itcanbe
seenthatshareofenergyconsumedforcoolingisonly1,2%forconventionalsystem.
Inordertoseehowroomsettemperatureinfluencesenergyconsumptionforcooling,
simulations were made for 1 and 2oC lower set temperatures. The analysis has
showed that energy consumption for cooling is 58,3% higher if the room set
temperatureis25oC.Theadditionalroomsettemperaturedecreasefor1oC(24oC)will
increase energy consumption for 48,8% compared to energy consumption for the
roomsettemperature25oC.Theshareofenergyconsumptionforcoolingwillbe1,85
209

and2,7%fortheroomsettemperature25and24oCrespectively.Itcanbeconcluded
thatitisreasonabletochosehigherroomsettemperatureinordertoachieveenergy
savings.

6.1.1.2.

Energyanalysisafterimprovementsinbuildingenvelope

Althoughtheobjectiveofthisresearchistofindthebestalternativefortheexisting
HVACsystemsinthehotelsontheAdriaticcoast,theanalysiswasalsomadeforthe
caseofimprovementsinbuildingenvelope.Informationaboutexistinghotelbuilding
on the Adriatic coast, which is used in the original building model in TRNSYS
programmeispresentedinTable5.2.Thatbuildingisbuiltofconcreteanddoesnot
have thermal insulation (U=1,8 W/m2K). Windows are the age of the building
construction, approximately 30 years (it is assumed U=3 W/m2K). Improvements in
buildingmodelweredoneaccordingtoCroatianregulationaboutminimumthermal
performanceofthebuilding(MZOPU2005b)whichisinfactanadoptionoftheEU
directiveEnergyPerformanceofBuildings.Inordertoimprovethecoefficientofheat
transfertoU=0,4W/m2K,thewallsarecoveredwithinsulation.Newwindowswith
U=1,4 w/m2 were taken into account, which gave the overall Uvalue 0,79 W/m2K
(approximately4timesbetterthermalpropertiesofthebuilding).

Simulationsweredoneforconventionalsystemforbothcoolingandheatingseason.
Resultshaveshownthatenergyconsumptionforspaceheatingandspacecoolingare
25,87% and 19,11% of the energy consumption before improvements. The energy
consumption for DHW system remained the same. If one look at the whole HVAC
andDHWsystem,energyconsumptionis40,26%oftheenergyconsumptionbefore
improvements. The breakdown of energy consumption for different endusers is
showed in the Figure 6.7. One can see, that compared to a breakdown of energy
consumption prior to improvements (Figure 6.3.), energy consumption for thermal
comfort is lower and it goes from 80% to 51,5% while the rest (48,5%) is energy

210

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

consumptionforDHWsystem.Theeconomicalanalysisofsuchimprovementsinthe
buildingenvelopeispresentedinsubchapter6.2.
Breakdown of energy end-users

DHW
48.52%

Heating
50.86%
Cooling
0.62%

Figure6.7.Breakdownofenergyconsumptioninconventionalsystemafterbuilding
envelopeimprovements

6.1.2. Seasonalhotels

SeasonalhotelswithoperatingtimefromtheApril15thtoOctober15thareconsidered
tohaveonlycoolinganddomestichotwatersystems.Figure6.8.showsthatthethree
proposed sustainable systems are much more energy efficient than CS system.
EnergysavingsarethehighestfortheSWCSHsystemintheamountof90,2%.The
secondbestistheHPSsystemwith83,8%savings,whilethelastoneisACSthatcan
achieve 63,5% energy savings. The SWCSH system is the best one for seasonal
operationsince,comparedtoCSsystem,itutilizesonly12,9%and9,4%oftheenergy
forcoolingandDHWrespectively.Howmuchtheseenergysavingscancontributeto
environmentalsavingsiselaboratedinchapter7.

211

HVAC&DHW systems - seasonal hotels


9.00E+08
8.00E+08
7.00E+08
6.00E+08

kJ

5.00E+08
4.00E+08
3.00E+08
2.00E+08
1.00E+08
0.00E+00
CS

SWC-SH

Cooling

HPS

ACS

DHW

Figure6.8.EnergyconsumptionincoolingandDHWsystemsforseasonalhotels

Table 6.6 gives the energy consumption breakdown for four cooling and DHW
systemswithseasonaloperation.

Table 6.6.Energy usage breakdown for different cooling and DHW systems in seasonal
hotels

Cooling
DHW

CS
10,7%
89,3%

SWCSH
14,10%
85,90%

HPS
48,20%
51,80%

ACS
77%
23%

IftheenergyconsumptionforHVAC&DHWsystemsinthesummer(15thApril15th
October)andwinter(15thOctober15thApril)seasons istobecompared, onecan
seefromFigure6.9.thatduringthewinterseasonapproximately90%oftheenergyis
consumed.Thisratiogoesfrom89%inCSsystem,90%inHPS,91%inACSsystemto
98%intheSWCsystem.

212

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

Breakdown of energy consumption in HVAC systems


(summer-winter)
6.00E+09
5.00E+09
4.00E+09

kJ 3.00E+09
2.00E+09
1.00E+09
0.00E+00
CS

SWC-SH

HPS

HVAC-summer

ACS

HVAC-winter

Figure6.9.BreakdownofenergyconsumptioninHVACsystems(summerandwinter
operation)

6.2. Economicalanalysis

Sustainablesolutionsforenergysavingsinbuildingsarenotnew,butitisalwaysa
questionhowtheycanbeimplementedwithrespecttotheinvestmentcosts.Inmost
cases these systems have high investments which are not acceptable to investors.
Furthermore, some investors are not aware of the fact that even with higher initial
investment, it is possible to achieve high economical savings during the life time of
theequipment.However,thoseofthemwhoareawareofeconomicalsavingdonot
care because the operating costs are only 46% of total turn over and are anyway
charged to tourists. These are the main obstacles for implementation of sustainable
energytechnologies.Duetoloweroperatingcostsduringtheoperationofsustainable
technologies, pay back period in some cases can be just a few years. Therefore,
owning and operating cost information for the HVAC system should be part of the
investmentplanofafacility.

213

Economicalanalysiswasmadeforthreedescribedalternativesystemswhichresults
werecomparedwiththecostofconventionalsystem.

6.2.1. Costsstructure

Owningcosts
Thefollowingelementsmustbeestablishtocalculateannualowningcosts:

Initialcostofsystem

Analysisorstudyperiod

Interestofdiscountrate

Insurance

Propertytaxes

Refurbishmentordisposalfees

Replacementcost

Salvagevalue

Once established, these elements are coupled with operating costs to develop an
economic analysis, which may be a simple payback evaluation or an in depth
analysis. The list of components and initial costs of all HVAC &DHW systems are
giveninTable5.3.,Table5.5.Table5.7.

Operatingcosts
Operating costs are those incurred by the actual operation of the system. They
include costs of fuel and electricity. Future energy costs used in discount payback
analysismustbeevaluated.

The electricity price for this analysis is taken from the Croatian electricity utility
company(HEP)officialpricelistfor2002.(seeTable6.7.)Itisimportanttoemphasize

214

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

thattotalelectricitypricedependsoftariffmodel,timeofthedaywhenelectricityis
utilized,oilprices,maximumdemandandapplicabletaxes(ASHRAE2003).Heating
oilpriceandpriceofnaturalgasfortheperiod20022006isgiveninTable6.7.One
can observe a continuous increase of fuel prices in the recent years. The price of
electricity is still controlled by the Government, since it is considered that any
increase in price would affect social situation in the country. The price of LPG has
beenconstant during therecentyear(4,1KN/kg=0,554 EUR/kg),(Proplin2006).Net
calorificvaluesforlightheatingoilandLPGtakenforcalculationare37,158MJ/land
46,89MJ/kg.

Table6.7.ElectricityandfuelpricesinCroatiaforperiod20002006

Electricity,
EUR*/kWh
Light
heatingoil,
EUR/l
Naturalgas,
EUR/m3

2000
0,107

2001
0,095

2002
0,094

2003
0,094

200416
0,092

2005
0,091

200617
0,091

0,357

0,424

0,366

0,374

0,444

0,486

0,646

0,196

0,232

0,268

0,269

0,281

0,289

0,289

*ExchangerateforCroatiancurrencykunais1EUR=7,4KN

Maintenancecosts
Thequalityofmaintenanceandmaintenancesupervisioncanbeamajorfactorinthe
energy cost of a building (ASHRAE 2003). However it is very hard to estimate
maintenance costs. The type of HVAC equipment may have a large effect on the
maintenancecosts.Totalmaintenancecostisinfluencedbyageofthebuilding,type
of heating and cooling system and energy distribution system within the building.
Special care should be given to type of refrigerant used in refrigeration system.
Therefore for the purpose of this analysis maintenance costs were taken as a 1% of

16

Referenceforyears20002004,MGRP2004,MGRP2006

17

Referenceforyears20052005,Goriki2006

215

investmentcosts.Calculatedinvestment,operatingandmaintenancecostsforHVAC
systemsdescribedinChapter5.areshowedinTable6.8.

Table6.8.TotalcostsofHVACsystemsin2002

Totalcosts
CS

SWCSH

HPS

ACS

150rooms

122,300.00
200,800.00
72,123.10

166,900.00
278,200.00
53,915.67

272,100.00
486,800.00
30,757.14

565,700.00
790,100.00
39,071.15

300rooms

110,720.17

75,022.03

46,305.02

47,212.60

150rooms

1,223.00

1,669.00

2,721.00

5,657.00

300rooms

2,008.00

2,782.00

4,868.00

7,901.00

Investment
costs,EUR

150rooms

Operating
costs,
EUR/year
Maintenance
costs,
EUR/year

300rooms

6.2.2. Thepaybackanalysis

Inthesimplepaybacktechnique,aprojectionoftherevenuestream,costsavings,and
other factors is estimated and compared to the initial capital outlay. This simple
techniqueignoresthecostofborrowingmoney(interest)andlostopportunitycosts.
Italsoignoresinflationandthetimevalueofmoney.

Improvedpaybackanalysiswasappliedforeconomicalanalysisinthisthesis.Thisis
amoresophisticatedpaybackapproachthanasimplepaybackmethodsincecostof
the money (interest rate and discount rate) is considered (ASHRAE 2003). Payback
years,niscalculatedwithequation6.1.

n=

ln[CRF / (CRF i )]
,[years]
ln (1 + i )

(6.1.)

WherecapitalrecoveryfactorCRFiscalculatedforalternativeinvestmentsas:

216

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

CRF =

operaional savings + ma int enance savings

difference in investments

(6.2.)

Theeffectiveinterestratei,sometimescalledtherealrateaccountsforinflationratej
andinterestrateicanbeexpressedasfollows:

i =

i j

1+ j

(6.3.)

6.2.2.1.

ThepaybackanalysisofHVACsystems

The results of improved pay back analysis for three alternative system during the
roundyearoperationaregiveninTable6.9.Itcanbeseenthatthebestoptionsforthe
hotel with150roomsisSWCSH(seawatercoolingandsolarheating)withonly2,6
years payback time. The second best option is the HPS (cooling and heating with
vapour compression unit utilizing seawater as a heat sink/source) system with 3.8
yearspaybacktime.Forthehotelwith300rooms,theSWCSHsystemgives2,3while
theHPSsystemgives4,8yearsofpaybacktime.Theworstoptionforbothsizesofthe
hotelistheACSsystem(absorptioncoolingandsolarheating)withpaybackperiod
of16,9and10,8yearsforhotelswith150and300roomsrespectively.Althoughfrom
theyearlyenergyconsumptionpointofviewtheACSsystemisbetterthantheSWC
SH system, due to high initial investment costs payback period for the SWCSH
systemismuchlower.

217

Table6.9.ResultsofimprovedpaybackanalysisforHVACsystemswithenergypricesin
2002

PaybackanalysisforHVACsystems(2002)*
Inflationratej,
%
Interestratei,%
Effectiveinterest
rate,i
Savings,
EUR/year
CRF
Paybacktime,
years

3
CS

SWCSH

HPS

ACS

0.0097
150rooms
300rooms
150rooms
300rooms

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

17,761.43
34,924.14
0.3982
0.4512

39,867.96
61,555.16
0.2661
0.2152

28,617.95
57,614.57
0.0645
0.0978

150rooms

0.0

2.6

3.8

16.9

300rooms

0.0

2.3

4.8

10.8

*Priceofelectricity0,094EUR/kWh,priceofheatingoil0,366EUR/litre,priceofLPG0,554EUR/kg

Theyear2002waschosenfortheeconomicalanalysissinceitwastheyearforwhich
energy audit was done. However, during the 4 years period there were rises in the
price of fuel, especially heating oil. The price of light heating oil was changed from
0,366EUR/lto0,646EUR/lwhichrepresents76%priceincrease.Therefore,operating
costsofconventionalsystemincreasesby72%.
Table6.10.ResultsofthepaybackanalysisforHVACsystemswithenergypricesin2006

PaybackanalysisforHVACsystems(2006)*
Inflationratej,
%
Interestratei,%
Effectiveinterest
rate,i
Savings,
EUR/year
CRF
Paybacktime,
years

3
4

CS

SWCSH

HPS

ACS

0.0097
150rooms
300rooms
150rooms
300rooms

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

69,826.84
114,282.03
1.5656
1.4765

92,865.14
142,194.01
0.6199
0.4972

80,715.66
136,987.50
0.1820
0.2325

150rooms

0.0

0.6

1.6

5.7

300rooms

0.0

0.7

2.0

4.4

*Priceofelectricity0,091EUR/kWh,priceofheatingoil0,646EUR/litre,priceofLPG0,554EUR/kg

218

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

In order to show how energy prices influence costeffectiveness of different


alternative systems Table 6.10. gives results of payback analysis with latest energy
prices in 2006. It can be seen that payback period for all three alternatives has
significantlychanged.Thepaybackperiodgoesfrom0,7to5,9yearswhichmakesall
threealternativesattractivetoinvestorsandhotelowners.

6.2.2.2.

ThepaybackanalysisofDHWsystems

It is interesting to analysis only DHW systems and to calculate payback period for
solar thermal installation, because these systems are the biggest energy consumers
duringthesummerseason.FurthermoreDHWsystemsarethemostprosperousfor
utilization of renewable energy sources (solar energy). Since energy savings are
approximately 90% compared to conventional system with oil boiler, renewable
energy source should be more widely used in hotels on the Adriatic coast. In the
Table 6.11. costs analysis for two DHW systems is given. It can be seen that
investment costs are 5,3 times higher (hotel with 150 rooms) for solar thermal
installationthanforconventionalsystem.However,operatingcostsfor2002were8,6
timeslowerforsolaroption.Thepaybackperiodwas8,3and8yearsforhotelwith
150and300roomsrespectively(seeTable6.12.).

Table6.11.TotalcostsofDHWsystemsin2002
DHWoil
boiler

2002

DHWsolar
collectors+LPG
boiler

150rooms

20,800.00
28,500.00
13,717.94
27,361.52
208.00

110,200.00
180,800.00
1,598.18
6,068.21
1,102.00

300rooms

285.00

1,808.00

Investmentcosts,
EUR

150rooms

Operatingcosts,
EUR/year

150rooms

Maintenancecosts,
EUR/year

300rooms

300rooms

219

Table6.12.ResultsofimprovedpaybackanalysisforDHWsystemswithenergypricesin
2002

Paybackanalysis(2002)
Inflationratej,
%
Interestratei,%
Effectiveinterest
rate,i
Savings,
EUR/year
CRF
Paybacktime,
years

3
4

DHWoil
boiler

0.0097

DHWsolar
collectors+LPG
boiler

150rooms
300rooms
150rooms
300rooms

0.00kn
0.00kn
0.00
0.00

11,225.75
19,770.31
0.13
0.13

150rooms

0.0

8.3

300rooms

0.0

8.0

If recent heating oil prices are taken into account operating costs for conventional
DHW system are increased by 76% (Table 6.13). Therefore it is obvious that the
paybackperiodforsolaroptionshoulddecrease.ItcanbeseenfromtheTable6.14.
thatthepaybacktimeforDHWwithsolarthermalinstallationismuchlower,4,2and
3,8yearsforhotelwith150and300roomsrespectively.

Table6.13.TotalcostsofDHWsystemsin2006
DHWoil
boiler

2006

150rooms

20,800.00
28,500.00
24,111.24
48,091.39
208.00

110,200.00
180,800.00
1,594.76
6,058.42
1,102.00

300rooms

285.00

1,808.00

150rooms

Investmentcosts,
EUR

300rooms

Operatingcosts,
EUR/year

300rooms

Maintenancecosts,
EUR/year

220

DHWsolar
collectors+LPG
boiler

150rooms

Chapter6.EnergyandEconomicalAnalysisofHVACSystemsOptions

Table6.14.ResultsofimprovedpaybackanalysisforDHWsystemswithenergypricesin
2006

Paybackanalysis(2006)*
Inflationratej,
%
Interestratei,%
Effectiveinterest
rate,i
Savings,
EUR/year
CRF
Paybacktime,
years

3
4

DHWoil
boiler

0.0097

DHWsolar
collectors+LPG
boiler

150rooms
300rooms
150rooms
300rooms

0.00kn
0.00kn
0.00
0.00

21,622.48
40,509.97
0.24
0.27

150rooms

0.0

4.2

300rooms

0.0

3.8

6.2.2.3.

ThepaybackanalysisofSWCcoolingsystem

ThecoolingsystemsproposedwithinthreealternativeHVACsystemsareinthecase
ofHPSandACSsystemscombinedwithheatingsystems.However,theSWCsystem
is designed as separate system that utilize seawater as a renewable source of cold
energy.SinceenergyanalysisshowedthatincoolingseasonSWCsystemcansaveup
to 87% of energy compared to conventional system, analysis of the total costs is
made.FromtheTable6.15.onecanseethatoperatingcostsareapproximately9times
lower,whileinvestmentcostsarehalfoftheoneforconventionalsystem.Thisleads
tothe conclusionthatthe SWC system isan advantageoussystemfromenergy and
economicpointsofview.
Table6.15.Totalcostsofcoolingsystemsin2006
CSvapour
compression
2006
unit

SWCseawater
coolingsystem

150rooms

84,200.00
141,800.00
2,097.19
4,109.90
842.00

38,900.00
69,300.00
269.51
546.90
389.00

300rooms

1,418.00

693.00

Investmentcosts,
EUR

150rooms

Operatingcosts,
EUR/year

150rooms

Maintenancecosts,
EUR/year

300rooms
300rooms

221

6.2.2.4.

Thepaybackanalysisofimprovedenvelope

The energy analysis of suggested improvements in the building envelope was


presentedinsubchapter6.1.1.1.Theeconomicalanalysisisdonefortheconventional
system operation of an existing building with comparison to the building with
improvedbuildingenvelope(hotelwith150rooms).Theinvestmentcostofthermal
insulation and new glazing is significant (Table 6.16.). Although operating costs of
improvedbuildingareapproximately40%ofthecostsofexistingbuilding,duetothe
highinvestmentcosts,thepaybackperiodis36,8and20yearsfortheenergyprices
from2002andfortheexistingpricesofheatingoilandelectricityrespectively.

Table6.16.TotalcostsofCSsystemwithexistingandimprovedbuilding
CSexisting
building

300rooms
Investmentcosts,
EUR
Operatingcosts,
EUR/year
Maintenancecosts,
EUR/year

CSimproved
building

2002

0.00
0.00
110,720.17
190,033.01
1,200.00

1,361,360.00
1,361,360.00
29,199.12
50,022.91
0.00

2006

1,200.00

0.00

2002
2006
2002
2006

Table6.17.Resultsofimprovedpaybackanalysisforimprovedbuildingenvelope

Paybackanalysis(2002/2006)*
Inflationratej,
3
%
Interestratei,% 4
Effectiveinterest
0.0097
rate,i
2002
Savings,
2006
EUR/year
CRF
Paybacktime,
years

222

CSexisting
building

CSimproved
building

2006

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

44,123.98
75,340.10
0.03
0.06

2002

0.0

36.8

2006

0.0

20.0

2002

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

7. ENVIRONMENTALIMPACTANALYSIS
This chapter analyses the environmental impacts of energy consumption in tourism
accommodationsector(hotelsandprivateaccommodations)andHVACsystemsdescribedand
modelled in the chapter 5. TEWI18 concept is implemented for two systems with vapour
compression units. At the end, four scenarios with energy efficient solutions are given and
comparedwithbusinessasusualpractice.

Air pollution problems are connected with impacts that manifest themselves on a
global, regional and local level. Global pollutions are geographically related to the
whole planet Earth, regional pollutions are related to areas from a few hundreds
squarekilometrestoawholegeographicalcontinent,andlocalpollutionsarerelated
to city or industrial areas. A simplified illustration of relation between particular
pollutantsandtheirmostimportantimpactsisgivenintheTable7.1.(Juri2005).
Table7.1.Relationbetweenparticularpollutantsandtheirmostimportantimpacts
Pollutants
Impact
PM
HMs
POPs
SO2
NH3
NOx
NMVOC
CO
CO2
LOCAL(health)
REGIONAL
acidification
eutrophication
groundlevel
ozone
GLOBAL
greenhouse
effect(indirect)
greenhouse
effect(direct)

CH4

N20

PMParticulates,HMsHeavyMetals,POPsPersistentOrganicPollutants,SO2SulphurDioxide,NH3Ammonia,
NOxOxidesofNitrogen,NMVOCNonMethaneVolatileOrganicCompounds,COCarbonMonoxide,CO2Carbon
Dioxide,CH4Methane,N2ONitrogenDioxide,

18

TEWITotalEquivalentWarmingImpact

223

Themostsignificantpollutantswithpotentiallyharmfulimpactsemittedfromhotel
facilities are SO2 and NOx (local and regional impacts), particles and CO (local
impact), and CO2 as a green house gas (global impact). Gases SO2 and NOx, except
their potential health impact, are known as acid gases because of their
transformation,whentransportedonalongdistance,resultsintheformationofacid
compoundsthataresettlingdowninawet(acidrains)anddryforms.NOx,together
withNMVOC19,formphotooxidativegasozone(O3)inthelowermostlayersofthe
atmosphere (troposphere), and has a harmful impact on human health and
vegetation (Ekonerg 2005). CO emissions are the result of unburned fuel during
combustion,mostlyinvehiclesandsmallcombustionchambers,andhaveaharmful
impacts on human health, mainly on a local level. Particles carry various chemical
elements and chemical compounds (e.g. heavy metals), which settle down in the
vicinityofthesourceandhavesignificantimpactsonlocalairpollution,whileCO2is
themostsignificantcontributortoglobalwarming.

7.1. Internationalobligations
The Republic of Croatia has an obligation to balance greenhouse gas emissions in
accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC),whiletheotherpollutantshavetobedeterminedincompliancewiththe
LongRangeTransboundaryAirPollutionConvention(LRTAPC).Theobligationfor
emission monitoring and calculation arise from the Croatian Environmental
ProtectionLaw(NN2048/95andNN178/04).

The Republic of Croatia has signed and ratified the Convention on Climate Change
and according to it, is obligated to keep the amount of CO2 emissions on the 1990

19

NonMethaneVolatileOrganicCompounds

20

NNisanacronymfornarodnenovineorCroatianOfficialJournal

224

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

level. The Kyoto Protocol obliges Croatia to reduce total emissions of greenhouse
gases(CO2,CH4,N2O,HFCs21,PFCs22andSF623)byatleast5%,calculatingfromthe
average 2008 to 2012 emissions with respect to the base year (one of years in the
periodfrom1985to1990mostprobably1990)(Ekonerg2005).Croatiawillbecamea
full member of the Protocol, with all rights and obligations, after ratification of the
KyotoProtocolintheCroatianNationalParliament.
Table7.2:Emissions(withoutnatural)inCroatia(1990)andinternationalobligations(Juri
2005)
UNFCCC24
LRTAPC25

UNFCCC
Kyoto
The
TheProtocoltoAbateAcidification,
Protocol
Protocol
EutrophicationandGroundLevel
onFurther
Ozone(MPME)
Reduction
ofSulphur
Emissions

eqCO2
eqCO2
SO2
SO2
NOx
NMVOC**
NH3
[Mt]
[Mt]
[Kt]
[Kt]
[Kt]
[Kt]
[Kt]
1990*

180
180
87
105
37
2010

117
70
87
90
30
Reduction
0%
5%
35%
61%
0%
14%
19%
*possiblebaseyearforcertainProtocols
**NonMethaneVolatileOrganicCompounds

Within the Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention a number of


obligatoryprotocolsaregiven.SimplifiedobligationsgivenintheProtocolonFurther
ReductionofSulphurEmissionsandProtocoltoAbateAcidification,Eutrophication
and GroundLevel Ozone (MPME) are presented in Table 7.2. According to the
Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions Croatia has an obligation to
retain sulphur emissions below 117 Kt until 2010. MPME protocol simultaneously

21

HFCsHydrofluorocarbons

22

PFCsPerfluorocarbons

23

SF6SulphurHexafluoride

24

UNFCCCTheUnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChange

25

LRTAPCLongRangeTransboundaryAirPollutionconvention

225

limits emissions of SO2, NOx, NMVOC26 and NH3 (multipollutant), and effects of
acidification,eutrophicationandgroundlevelozone(multieffect),withgivenvalues
forstationaryandmobilesources.

7.2. Emissionsofpollutantsfromthetourism
accommodationsector
7.2.1. Greenhousegasesemissions

Globally, the most significant emissions are those of greenhouse gases. Excessive
anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions results in an increase of their
concentrationintheatmospherewhichresultsinglobalwarmingandclimatechange
overthelongterm.

Ifthefuelisfullycombusted,carboncontainedinthefueloxidizetoCO2,andifthere
is unburned fuel a smaller portion of CH4, CO and NMVOC emissions occur. Until
nowthereisnodevelopedtechnologyforreducingCO2emissions.EmissionofCO2is
dependant on the type and amount of fuel. The largest emissions occur during the
coal combustion, followed by oil and gas combustion. The guide ratio of related
emissionsofthemostcommonfossilfuelsis1:0.75:0.55(coal:oil:gas)(Juri2005).

For determining greenhouse gases emission levels, so called IPCC27 methodology is


used, developed within the UNFCCC convention. Emission calculating factors for
years20022004aregiveninTable7.3andTable7.4.FromtheTable7.4.onecansee
how specific greenhouse gasses emissions due to electricity consumption were

26

NonMethaneVolatileOrganicCompounds

27

IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange

226

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

changed during years. Croatia has a very small specific emission per unit of
consumedelectricity(CO2302g/kWhin2002),becauseabigshareofelectricityis
produced without direct emission production (in hydropower plants or in nuclear
powerplantKrsko)orisimported.In2002only40%oftotalconsumedenergywas
producedinCroatianthermalpowerplants,witharelativelyfavourabletypeoffuel
consumed(mostlynaturalgas).ItcanbeseenthatspecificCO2emissionfor2004is
the lowest for period 20022004 with Regional Conversion factor (RC) only 233
gCO2/kWh.Thespecificemissionoverelectricityproductioninthermalpowerplants
wasalsolowerin2004comparedwithpreviousyears.
Table7.3:Emissionfactorsofgreenhousegases(Juri2005)
CH4
CO2

[kg/GJ]
[g/GJ]
Extralightfueloil
73.3
10
Liquidpetrolgas
62.4
10

NO2
[g/GJ]
0.6
0.6

Table7.4:Specificgreenhousegasesemissions[g/kWh]for20022004(Juri2005,Maljkovi
2006)
CH4
NO2
CO2

year
[g/kWh]
[g/kWh]
[g/kWh]
200228
302.37
0.00658
0.00264
Specificemissionovertotal
200329
315,53
0,00780
0,00304
electricityconsumption
30
233,30
0,00507
0,00234
2004
Specificemissionover
2002
760.21
0.01655
0.00664
electricityproductionin
2003
730,91
0,01807
0,00705
thermalpowerplants
2004
696,93
0,01514
0,00698

Emissions of the most significant anthropogenic greenhouse gas, CO2, due to fossil
fuel combustion in hotels for 2002 is given in Table 7.5. The conversion is made
according to heating oil and gas consumption estimation presented in Chapter 3
(Table 3.7. and Table 3.9.) The biggest portion of greenhouse gases emissions (88%)

28

Reference:Hitrareport2005

29

Reference:Maljkovi2006

30

Reference:Maljkovi2006

227

aretheresultofburningofextralightfueloil,whiletherestisduetotheburningof
liquidpetrolgas(12%).Tocompareemissionsofgreenhousegases,CH4andN2Oare
given,althoughtheirshareintotalgreenhousegasesproductionasaconsequenceof
fuel contribution is minor (less then 1%). The total CH4 and N2O emissions are
converted to equivalent CO2 emissions (CO2eq) with equation 7.1. Global warming
potential(for100yeartimehorizon)forMethane(CH4)is21,whileforNitrousoxide
(N2O)is310(USEPA2003).
TgCO2eq=(Ggofgas)x(GWP)x(Tg/1000Gg)

(7.1)

Where
TgCO2eq=TeragramsofCarbonDioxideEquivalents
Gg=Gigagrams(equivalenttoathousandmetrictons)
GWP=GlobalWarmingPotential
Tg=Teragrams

Table7.5:Greenhousegasesemissionsduetofossilfuelcombustioninhotelsfor2002
2002
Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
Zadar
Total

CO2
[kt]
10,3
23,2
19,4
8,3
3,8
65,0

CH4
[t]
1,4
3,2
2,7
1,2
0,5
9,0

NO2
[t]
0,1
0,2
0,2
0,1
0,0
0,6

CO2eq
[kt]
10,36
23,33
19,52
8,36
3,81
65,38

Greenhousegasesemissionresultingfromelectricityconsumptioninhotelsaregiven
inTable7.6.EstimatedelectricityconsumptioninhotelsontheAdriaticcoastfor2002
takenforthisanalysisisgiveninTable3.5.

228

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

Table7.6:Greenhousegasesemissionsduetoelectricityconsumptioninhotels

Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
Zadar

CO2
[kt]
8,97
19,83
10,32
9,68
5,69

CH4
[t]
0,2
0,43
0,22
0,21
0,12

NO2
[t]
0,08
0,17
0,09
0,08
0,05

CO2eq
[kt]
9,00
19,89
10,36
9,71
5,71

Total

54,50

1,19

0,48

54,67

2002

For the purposes of this analysis, emissions from other types of tourism
accommodation such as camps and private accommodation is analysed. It is
estimated that it was approximately 25,15 millions of guest nights (MINT 2004b)
accommodated in various types of accommodation other than hotels in 2002. These
guestsnightaremostlyachievedduringthreesummermonths(JuneAugust).Itis
assumedthateachguestconsumesapproximately7kWhperdayofelectricitydueto
meals preparation (3,8 kWh) and hot water consumption (3,2 kWh) (Bohdanowicz
2003). Domestic hot water systems in private accommodation are electrical boilers,
therefore emissions due to fossil fuel are not taken into account. Estimated total
electricity consumption for 2002 was 176 GWh that is only 3% lower consumption
thanthetotalestimatedelectricityconsumptioninhotelsector.Estimatedgreenhouse
gases emissions due to electricity consumption in camps and private
accommodationsaregiveninTable7.7.

Table7.7:Greenhousegasesemissionsduetoelectricityconsumptionincampsandprivate
accommodations
2002
Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
Zadar
Total

CO2
[kt]
8.9
19.3
10.1
9.4
5.5
53.2

CH4
[t]
0.19
0.42
0.22
0.21
0.12
1.16

NO2
[t]
0.08
0.17
0.09
0.08
0.05
0.47

CO2eq
[kt]
8,93
19,36
10,13
9,43
5,52
53,37

229

Totalgreenhousegasesemissionsduetofuelcombustionandelectricityconsumption
inhotels,campsandprivateaccommodationinCroatiawasabout 174ktCO2eqin
2002. Contribution of emissions in hotel accommodations with respect to total
emissionsisabout69%(Figure7.1.).

200.0
180.0
160.0

Emissions [kt]

140.0
120.0
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
CO2

CO2-eq
Hotels

Private accommodation and camps

Figure7.1:Contributionofhotels,privateaccommodationandcampstototalCO2and
greenhousegasesemissions

The

service

sector

(catering

industry,

facilities/institutions

and

small

entrepreneurship)contributestototalanthropogenicemissionsinCroatiawith23%.
If greenhouse gases emissions from hotels, camps and private accommodations is
comparedwiththetotalemissionsoftheservicesector,theirsharesumsuptoabout
9%.,andifindirectemissionsaretakenintoaccount,thatportionreachesashighas
23%(Figure7.2.).

230

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

800
700

Emissions [kt]

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
CO2-eq
Service sector
Hotels, camps and private accommodation - direct and indirect emissions
Hotels, camps and private accommodation - direct emissions

Figure7.2:Comparisonofemissionsfromhotels,campsandprivateaccommodationwith
emissionsfromservicesector

7.2.2. EmissionsofSO2,NOx,COandparticles

When observing Europe as a region today, the biggest problem environmentally is


high concentration of groundlevel ozone because of its harmful effects on human
healthandtheecosystem.Thesecondbiggestproblemisacidification,becauseofits
detrimentaleffectonforests.

In the following paragraph, emissions of SO2, NOx, CO and particles will be of


concern. SO2 is known as an acid gas because of its transformation, when
transportedoverlongdistances,resultsintheformationofacidcompoundsthatare
settlingdowninwet(acidrains)anddryforms.NOxisamixtureofNOandNO2and
is weighted as NO2. Except of the fact that NOx effects acidification and
eutrophication. NOx is a gas that, when emitted into the atmosphere, reacts with

231

volatileorganiccompoundsandotherreactivegases,andwiththepresenceofsolar
irradiation, to form groundlevel ozone. As opposed to SO2 and NOx, particles and
CO have mainly local influences, i.e. have harmful human health impacts in the
vicinityofthesource(Juri2005).

For the purpose of emissions calculations, so called EMEP31/CORINAIR32


methodologyisdevelopedwithinLRTAPCconventions.SO2emissionsarecalculated
stoichiometricaly based on the fuels sulphur content, while NOx, CO and particle
emissioncalculationsarerelatedtoemissionfactors,i.e.typeandqualityofthefuel,
and to the type of the facility in which the fuel is combusted (Juri 2005). For the
sulphur content in extra light fuel oil in 2002, data obtained from a Croatian petrol
producerinwhichtheRepublicofCroatiaisamajorshareholder,was0.4%.Emission
factorsusedincalculationsforfossilfuelsandspecificemissionsperkWharegiven
inTable7.8.and
Table7.9.

Table7.8:EmissionfactorsforSO2,NOx,COandparticles(Juri2005)

Extralightfueloil
Liquidpetrolgas

SO2
[g/GJ]
187.3
0

NOx
[g/GJ]
50
50

CO
[g/GJ]
41
41

Particles
[g/GJ]
5
0

Table7.9:SpecificemissionsofSO2,NOx,COandparticles[g/kWh](Juri2005)

Specificemissionbytotalelectricityconsumption
Specificemissionbyelectricityproducedinthermal
powerplants

SO2
[g/GJ]
1.072

NOx
[g/GJ]
0.64

CO
[g/GJ]
0.0363

Particles
[g/GJ]
0.07

2.694

1.597

0.0913

0.177

31

EMEPtheCooperativeprogrammeformonitoringandevaluationofthelongrangetransmissionofairpollutants
inEuropelinkedtotheLRTAP(EEA2002)

32

CORINAIRCOReINventoryofAIRemissions.CORINAIRisaprojectprefromedsince1995bytheEuropean
TopicCentreonAirEmissionsundercontracttotheEuropeanEnvironmentAgency,(EEA2002)

232

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

SO2,NOx,COandparticleemissionsduetofossilfuelcombustioninhotelsalongthe
Adriatic coast are given in the Table 7.10. Total SO2 and particles emissions (100%)
andmostofNOxandCOemissions(86%)aretheresultofburningextralightfueloil.

Table7.10:Emissionsofpollutantsduetofossilfuelcombustioninhotels
2002
Dubrovnik
Istra
Primorje
Split
SibenikZadar
Total

SO2
[t]
22.1
50.7
46.6
18.3
7.9
145.6

NOx
[t]
7.2
16.2
13.4
5.8
2.7
45.3

CO
[t]
5.9
13.3
11.0
4.7
2.2
37.1

Particles
[t]
0.6
1.4
1.2
0.5
0.2
3.9

Indirect emissions due to electricity consumption is given in Table 7.11. and Table
7.12.Foremissioncalculations,averagespecificemissionsbasedonconsumedelectric
energyareused(Table7.9),accordingtoproductionandimportstructurefrom2002..
Table7.11:Emissionsofpollutantsduetoelectricityconsumptioninhotels

Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
Zadar

SO2
[t]
32.5
70.3
36.6
34.3
20.2

NOx
[t]
19.3
41.6
21.7
20.3
11.9

CO
[t]
1.1
2.4
1.2
1.2
0.7

Particles
[t]
2.1
4.6
2.4
2.3
1.3

Total

193.9

114.8

6.6

12.7

2002

Table 7.12: Emissions of pollutants due to electricity consumption in camps and private
accommodation
2002
Dubrovnik
Istria
Rijeka
Split
Zadar

SO2
[t]
31.7
68.4
35.6
33.4
19.6

NOx
[t]
18.8
40.5
21.1
19.8
11.6

CO
[t]
1.1
2.3
1.2
1.1
0.7

Particles
[t]
2.1
4.5
2.3
2.2
1.3

Total

188.7

111.8

6.4

12.4

233

Overall emission of SO2, NOx, CO and particles due to fossil fuel combustion and
electricity consumption in hotels, camps and private accommodations is given in
Table 7.13. While contribution of the hotel sectors emissions to total emissions is
between57%and87%,dependingonthepollutantinquestion(Figure7.3.).

Table 7.13: Overall SO2, NOx , CO and particles emissions in hotels, camps and private
accommodation
2002

SO2
[t]
528.2

Total

NOx
[t]
271.9

CO
[t]
50.1

Particles
[t]
29

600.0

500.0

Emissions [t]

400.0

300.0

200.0

100.0

0.0
SO2

NOx
Hotels

CO

Particles

Private accommodation and camps

Figure7.3:OverallemissionsofSO2,NOx,COandparticlesproducedinhotels,campsand
privateaccommodations

Hotels,campsandprivateaccommodationsinthecostalareacontributesignificantly
to the overall service sector emissions. If indirect emissions are taken into
considerationaswell,thisportionamountsto1145%(11%forCO,22%forparticles,
26%forSO2and45%forNOx).Toillustrate,theoverallemissionsofSO2andNOxfor
234

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

the service sector and same indicators for analyzed hotels, camps and private
accommodations,aregivenintheFigure7.4.
2500

Emissions [t]

2000

1500

1000

500

0
SO2

NOx

Service sector
Hotels, camps and private accommodation - with electricity
Hotels, camps and private accommodation - without electricity

Figure7.4:Comparisonofemissionsfromhotels,campsandprivateaccommodationssector
withemissionsfromservicesector

7.3. TheanalysisoftheHVACsystem
To obtain the full picture of the alternative HVAC and domestic hot water (DHW)
systemssuggestedandanalysedinpreviouschaptersitisnecessarytoestimatetheir
environmentalimpact,especiallytheirpotentialforairpollution.Twohotelsfromthe
Split region havebeen analysed with150 and300roomsrespectively.Conventional
system with vapour compression cooling unit, heating oil boiler for space heating
andDHWiscomparedwiththreealternativeretrofitsystems:

SWCSH:seawatercoolingsystemandsolarheating

HPS:compressorunitcoolingandheating

ACS:absorptioncoolingandsolarheating

235

For the air pollution analysis it is necessary to know electricity and fossil fuels
consumptiondata,neededforasystemoperation(Table7.14.).

Table7.14:ElectricityandfossilfuelsconsumptionforanalysedHVACoptions
HotelinSplitarea
150rooms
300room

CS
Extralightfueloil.TJ
Electricity.MWh
SWC
Liquidpetrolgas.TJ
Electricity.MWh
HPS
Liquidpetrolgas.TJ
Electricity.MWh
ACS
Liquidpetrolgas.TJ
Electricity.MWh

6,94
40,18

10,57
69,40

4,5
8,32

6,23
14,69

0,13
311,65

0,49
433,39

3,16
18,85

3,84
19,6

EmissionsofSO2,NOxandCO2foranalysedoptionsaregivenintheTable7.15.
Table7.15:CO2,NOxandSO2emissionsforconventionalsystemandanalysedoptions

CS
SWCSH
HSP
ACS

Hotelwith150rooms
CO2
NOx
SO2
[t]
[kg]
[kg]
520.85
283.32
102.35
202.88

347.09
225.02
7.22
158.04

1300.02
0.03
1.20
0.07

Hotelwith300rooms
CO2
NOx
SO2
[t]
[kg]
[kg]
795.77
393.19
161.62
245.54

528.66
311.53
25.50
192.05

1980.03
0.06
1.67
0.08

If the conventional system (CS) is replaced with the SWCSH system, CO2 emission
would reduce by 45% (hotel with 150 rooms) or 50% (hotel with 300 rooms). NOx
emissions would reduce by 35% and 41%. Possible conventional system (CS)
replacement with the HPS system would result in CO2 emission reduction by 80%
andNOxreductionby98%.Thethirdalternativesystem(ACSsystem)wouldreduce
CO2emissionsby62%and70%,NOxemissionsby55%and64%.SO2emissionsforall
three alternative systems are negligible due to utilization of LPG instead extra light
236

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

fueloil.Presentemissionsofthesethreepollutantgases,forhotelswith150and300
rooms,isgiveninFigure7.5.andFigure7.6.
Hotel with 150 rooms

Emissions CO2 [t], NOx [kg] and SO2 [kg]

1400.00
1200.00
1000.00
800.00
600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
CO2

NOx
CS

SWC-SH

HPS

SO2
ACS

Figure7.5:CO2,NOxandSO2emissionsduetoHVACsystemsoperationduringoneyear
forahotelwith150rooms
Hotel with 300 rooms

Emissions CO2 [t], NOx [kg] and SO2 [kg]

2000.00
1800.00
1600.00
1400.00
1200.00
1000.00
800.00
600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
CO2

NOx
CS

SWC-SH

HPS

SO2
ACS

Figure7.6:CO2,NOxandSO2emissionsduetoHVACsystemsoperationduringoneyear
forahotelwith300rooms

237

Itisestimatedthatatypicalhotelgloballyreleasesabout160kgCO2/m2offloorarea
annually, which is equivalent to about 10 tons of CO2 per bedroom per year
(Bohdanowicz 2003). The results of this research show that typical non seasonal 4*
hotelwith150roomontheAdriaticcoastreleasesabout3,5tofCO2perroomand58
kgCO2/m2duetooperationofHVACsystems.Ifonetakesintoaccounttheelectricity
consumption for catering, lighting, and other appliances in hotels and gas
consumption for cooking, these emissions can be assumed to be 40% higher (see
Table3.14.).

It is obvious from Figure 7.5. and Figure 7.6. that significant environmental savings
canbeachieved.Therefore it is interesting to calculatethe costofpossible emission
savings per kilograms of reduced CO2 emissions (socalled mitigation cost). In the
Table 7.16. one can see calculated environmental emissions during the life time of
conventionalsystem(CS)andthethreealternativesystems(SWCSH,HPSandACS)
and possible CO2 savings . The cost of saved kg of CO2 varies from 0,032 for HPS
system,0,035forSWCSHsystemand0,089EUR/kgCO2forACSsystem.
Table7.16.Costsofenvironmentalsavings,EUR/kgCO2
System

CS
SWCSH
HSP
ACS

Investment
costs,EUR

122260
165500
271680
565300

Environmental
emissions,
kgCO2/year

520851,23
283315,72
102345,61
202883,67

Costof
Environmental CO2savings
saved
duringthe
emissions,
kgCO2,
lifetimeof
kgCO2/20
years
equipment, EUR/kgCO2
kgCO2
10417024,53

5666314,37
4750710,16
0,035
2046912,21
8370112,32
0,032
4057673,49
6359351,04
0,089

7.3.1. TotalEquivalentWarmingImpactTEWI

The environmental emissions discussed in this chapter so far were all related to
indirect emissions of greenhouse gasses due to electricity consumption and direct
emissions due to combustion of fossil fuels. However, vapour compression
238

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

refrigerationsystemsuserefrigerants,socalledHFCs33thatarestrongclimategasas
well. During the operation of these kind of systems direct emissions occur due to
leakage,serviceetc.TotalEquivalentWarmingImpact(TEWI)isaconceptthattakes
into account, not only direct, but also indirect emissions of greenhouse gases
attributedtorefrigeratingplant.Directemissions(leaks)ofrefrigerantscontainedin
refrigerating installations typically34 account for about 20% of the overall impact of
the refrigeration sector on global warming (IIR 2002). TEWI concept was described
intodetailsinChapter1.(Subchapter1.1.1.)

In this thesis, two cooling systems were compared using the TEWI concept, the
conventionalcoolingsystemCS(aircooledcondenserofvapourcompressionunit)
andtheheatpumpsystemHPS(seawatercooledcondenserofvapourcompression
unit).Itisassumedthatequipmentlifetimeis20years.Refrigerantchargeisobtained
from equipment producers (Carrier 2005). Conventional system operates with R22
(HCFC35) as a refrigerant, while working fluid in HPS system is R134a (HFC36).
According to new regulations for ozone depleting substances refrigeration systems
that contain more than 30 kg of refrigerant should be serviced regularly every 6
months(MZOPU2005a).Therefore itisassumedthatyearly leakageis10% inboth
cases.Duetoregularservicingendofliferecoveryrateshouldberelativelyhighas
well, therefore it is assumed that it is 50% and 75% for CS system and HPS system
respectively. Yearly direct and end of life emissions are calculated according to
equation7.2.and7.3.(Lunqvist2006b).

TEWI Dy = losses M ref GWPref


100

(7.2.)

33

HFCsHydrofluorocarbons

34

Therearelargedifferencesbetweendifferenttypesofsystems.Mobileairconditioningandsupermarketsarewell
knownsystemtypeswheretheimpactofdirectleakageislarge

35

HCFCHydrochlorofluorocarbons

36

HFCHydrofluorocarbons

239

TEWI ENDy = (M ref (1 ))

GWPref
N

(7.3.)

Where Mlosses is the refrigerant leakage, N is the lifetime of the refrigeration system,
Mrefistherefrigerantcharge,istherecyclingfactor,GWPrefistheGlobalWarming.
AllassumptionsforcalculationarepresentedintheTable7.17.

Table7.17.TotalEquivalentWarmingImpactanalysisforCSandHPSsystem
CSsystem

HPSsystem

20
20
Lifetime
[year]
[year]
78
55
Charge
[kg]
[kg]
R22
R134a
refrigerant
[ASHRAEN]
[ASHRAEN]
1.700
1.300
GWP:
[CO2=1]
[CO2=1]
10
10
Yearlyleakage
[%]
[%]
50
75
Endofliferecovery
[%]
[%]
13260
7150
Directemissions/year
[kgCO2]/year
[kgCO2]/year
3315
894
Endoflifeemission/year
[kgCO2]/year
[kgCO2]/year
300
300
Nominalcapacity
[kW]
[kW]
3.1
4.64
COP
[kW/kW]
[kW/kW]
3
3
Yearlyoperationtime
[%]
[%]
23128
16868
Yearlyelectricity
[kWh]/year
[kWh]/year
0.302
0.302
Regionalconversionfactor
[kgCO2/kWh]
[kgCO2/kWh]

7,425
5,131
IndirectemissionsCO2eq
[kgCO2eq]
[kgCO2eq]
13260
7150
Directemission
[kgCO2eq]
[kgCO2eq]
3315
894
Endoflifeemission
[kgCO2eq]
[kgCO2eq]
24000
13175
TotalemissionCO2eq:
[kgCO2eq]
[kgCO2eq]
0.45
0.64
ratioindirect/direct
[1]
[1]

240

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

TEWI analysis

30,000

25,000

kg CO2 eq

20,000

15,000

10,000
5,000

CS
Indirektemission CO2-eq

HPS
Direktemission:

End of life emission

Figure7.7.TEWIanalysisforCSandHPSsystemduringoneyearoperation(coolingmode)

The analysis shows that due to the short yearly operating time the direct emissions
(with the assumptions stated above) are higher than the indirect emissions. For the
CSsystemsitamountsto24ktCO2eqperyear.Directemissionsare55%and54%for
CS and HPS system respectively. The short operating time, approximately 263 h, is
duetothefactthatthedesignindoortemperaturewas26oCwhiletheoutdoordesign
temperatureis32oC.AccordingtosimulationsthatweredonefortheperiodJune1st
September 15th there is no need for constant cooling of the building since night
outdoor temperatures are lower which allows passive cooling of the building.
Furthermore, it is clear from the experience that guests do not spend a lot of time
indoorsduringthesummerperiod.

241

7.4. Scenariosforfutureenvironmentalemissions
AsitwasstatedinChapter1.(subchapter1.1.5.)thereisaconstantgrowthintourist
overnights in Croatia. The year 2003 recorded 7% more tourists and 4% more
overnightstaysincomparisonwiththepreviousyears(HGK2004).Whileintheyear
2004touristarrivalgrowthwas6%withatotal9,4milliontourists,whichconfirmed
the estimated trends. (HGK 2005). A further annual growth in tourist arrivals has
beenestimatedto8,4%byWTO(HGK2004).Anyfurthergrowthintourismarrivals
willproduceadditionalemissionsintoenvironment.

Togetaclearpictureaboutfutureemissionsgeneratedinthehotelsector,ascenario
ofemissionsaccordingtopredictedincreaseinnumberofguestnightwasmade.In
the Table 7.18. and Figure 7.8. thenumber of guest nights for years 1990 2010are
given. Data for 19892005 are obtained from official tourist statistics (MINT 2006),
while for the period 20062010 estimation was made with a 6% increase of guest
nightsperyear.

Table7.18.Numberofguestnightsthroughouttheperiod19892010
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
year
Guestnights 61849000 52523305 10158000 10725000
12908000
year
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
Guestnights 12884000 21457000 30313000 31287000
26564000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
year
Guestnights 43404354 44692456 46635103 47797287
51420948
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
year
Guestnights
(estimation) 54506205 57776577 61243172 64917762
68812828

242

1994
19977000
2000
39183000

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

Millions

guest nights

The guest nights increase in Croatia


80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
19
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year

Figure7.8.TheguestnightsincreaseinCroatiaforperiod19902010.(MINT2006)

The statistic shows that approximately 30% of guest nights is achieved in hotels.
Therefore, the energy consumption and emissions for guest nights stated in Table
7.18. are calculated on the basis of 30% of guest nights in hotels and 70% in other
typesofaccommodation.

7.4.1. Businessasusualscenario

For the business as usual scenario BAU (operation with existing conventional
HVACsystems)itisestimatedthattheincreaseinelectricityconsumptionisrelated
tothe increase in guestnightwith factor 0,9 inhotelsand factor1inothertypes of
accommodation.Coefficient0,9instead1istakenduetothefactthatoneportionof
electricityisconsumedforpublicspacesandservicesthatdonotdependonnumber
ofguests.Itisassumedthatheatingoilconsumptionisrelatedtotheincreaseinguest
nightswithfactor0,8inhotels,duetothefactthatpublicservicesandevenroomsare
heated regardless number of guests. DHW consumption is related to number of

243

guests, however, regardless number of guests storage tanks are maintained at the
designtemperatureandhotwaterisrecalculatedthroughthebuilding.
CO2-eq BAU scenario
300.00

kt CO2-eq

250.00
200.00
150.00
100.00
50.00
0.00
2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

year
Dubrovnik

Istria

Rijeka

Split

Zadar

Total

Figure7.9.EstimatedCO2eqemissionsfromtouristaccommodationsectortill2010with
BAU(businessasusual)scenario

Globally,thehotelindustryisresponsibleforemissionsofatleast130103ktofCO2
annually.(Bohdanowicz).Croatianhotelindustrycontributestothoseemissionswith
oneportionaswell.FromtheFigure7.9.itcanbeseenthatannualemissionsofCO2
eq from tourism accommodation sector will increase from 174 kt CO2eq in 2002 to
255 kt CO2eq in 2010 with business as usual scenario. This is an increase of
greenhousegasemissionsof47%in8years.Thehotelsectorisresponsiblefor68%of
theseemissions,whiletherest,32%isduetoelectricityconsumptioninothertypesof
accommodationfacilities.

There is a growing concern in Croatia due to increasing CO2 emissions caused by


growingconsumptionoffossilfuels.Ifobservedseparatelyonlythemostsignificant
greenhousegasCO2wasabovethelimitsetbytheKyotoprotocolalreadyin2003

244

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

(Figure7.10.)In2004,totalemissionofCO2was4%lowerthanthepreviousyearbut,
however,itexceedsthelimitspecifiedbyKyotoProtocolby1%.

Figure7.10.EmissionstrendsSO2,NOxandCO2(MGRP2006)

Sincetouristindustryisgrowingthiswillconsequentlyleadtoemissionincreaseas
shown in Figure 7.9. In order to comply with the Kyoto protocol energy efficient
measuresandtechnologies(alreadyavailable)shouldbeimplementedwidelyinthe
hotel industry. However, there is no established energy and ecological criteria for
tourist accommodation facilities in Croatia, that could enhance implementation of
energyefficientmeasuresandtechnologies.

Tourisminduced CO2 emissions are unlikely to be reduced through voluntary


environmental efforts by a growthoriented economy. Instruments like ecolabelling
and environmental awards and prizes can help, but CO2 energy tax to implement
the polluter pays principle are unavoidable. Greater sustainability of the tourism
product i.e. more regional products, less noise and emissions, less waste and

245

unpurified sewage means the creation of jobs and quality of life for the local
population,andanimprovedqualityofholidaysfortheguests(Ecotrans2001).

EuropeanUnionwithcommissiondecision2003/287/ECof14April2003established
the ecological criteria for the award of the Community ecolabel to tourist
accommodationservice(EU2003).Thereareanumberofecologicalcriteriasetoutin
theAnnextoDecisionthattouristaccommodationservicemustcomplywith.The
criteria aim to limit the main environmental impact from the three phases of the
serviceslifecycle(purchasing,provisionoftheservice,waste)withaimto:
-

limitenergyconsumption

limitwaterconsumption

limitwasteproduction

favour the use of renewable resources and of substances which are less
hazardoustotheenvironment

promoteenvironmentcommunicationandeducation

Energy criteria comprises the following issues: electricity from renewable sources,
coalandheavyoils,electricityforheating,boilerefficiency,airconditioning,window
insulation, switching off heating or air conditioning, switching off lights, energy
efficientlightbulbs,saunatimercontrol.(EU2003)

According to survey undertaken in hotels on the Adriatic coast, it has been shown
thatnoneofthehotelsontheAdriaticcoastfulfilthesestrictcriteria.Thisisonemore
reasontoestablishamethodologythatwillhelphotelstoretrofittheirenergysystem
according to ecological criteria as well. Furthermore, two scenarios with
implementation of solar collectors for DHW and alternative HVAC systems will
indicate possible savings and how greenhouse emissions increase could be
mitigated.

246

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

7.4.2. ScenariowithsolarcollectorsforDHWsystem

The three analysed alternative HVAC&DHW systems for hot water production
consistofsolarcollectorsinstallationandLPGboilerasabackupsystem.Ithasbeen
shown that this system is the best alternative with regards to energy consumption
due to the high insolation on the Adriatic coast. Results of simulations in TRNSYS
software showed that solar collector installation can save up to 90% of fossil fuel
annually.

Two scenarios have been developed. The first one (S1) considers retrofit of existing
conventionalDHWsystem(heatingoilboiler)withsolarcollectorinstallationwitha
retrofit rate of 10% annually. This would mean that by 2016 all hotels on the
Adriatic coast will have solar collectors installations. The second scenario (S2)
assumes 5% of new solar DHW systems annually, that will lead to 50% renewable
energy installations in hotels on the Adriatic coast by 2016. The business as usual
scenario (BAU) assumes that there is no changes in existing systems and that all
hotelsoperateswithconventionalDHWsystem.Fortheperiod20022005realguest
nightnumberinhotelsweretakenfromofficialstatistics,whileforperiod20062016a
6%annualincreaseisassumed.

FromFigure7.11.onecanseethatscenarioS1willleadtosignificantCO2emissions
savings during the period 20072016, while scenario S2 will leave CO2 emissions on
approximately the same level as in 2006. During the period 20072016, according to
theBAUscenarioDHWsystemwillberesponsiblefor212ktofCO2.ScenarioS1will
achieve55%savingswith95,1ktofemittedCO2,whilescenarioS2willachieve28%
emissionsavingswiththetotal153,5ktofemittedCO2.

247

CO2 emissions scenario for DHW systems


30.00
25.00

CO2 kt

20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

year
BAU

S1

S2

Figure7.11.CO2emissionsscenariosforDHWsystemsfortheperiod20022016

Emission savings from DHW systems are especially significant for seasonal hotels,
since approximately 90% of the total energy consumed in thermal system is for
domestichotwaterproduction.Therest,10%isenergyusedforspacecooling.(Table
6.6)

7.4.3. ScenariosforHVACsystems

Although DHW systems contributes with 20% of the total consumption in thermal
systems (conventional HVAC&DHW system) scenarios S1 and S2 has shown that
retrofitofDHWsystemscanachievesignificantenvironmentalsavings.Furthermore,
energyanalysishasshowedthatthethreeanalysedHVACoptionscanachieveupto
81%savingsforspaceheating(HPSsystem)andupto87%savingsforcooling(SWC
system). In order to investigate future emissions from existing HVAC systems and
possible environmental savings two scenarios were made. These scenarios consider

248

Chapter7.EnvironmentalImpactAnalysis

heating and cooling systems retrofit in non seasonal hotels. The environmental
analysis of different HVAC options has shown that approximately 3,47 tCO2/room
andyearisemittedduetooperationofconventionalHVAC&DHWsystem(suchas
described in this study with round year operation). There were total 14208 rooms
registeredin139nonseasonalhotelsontheAdriaticcoastin2002(MINT2003b).Itis
assumed that total number of rooms will annually grow for 1% (MINT 2006) . The
thirdscenario,S3assumes2%ofnewHPSsystemsinstallationsand1%ofnewSWC
installations annually based on the number of rooms. That would mean that 3% of
the rooms will be provided with heat and cold energy produced in energy efficient
systems. According to this scenario approximately 30% of hotels will have energy
efficientsolutionforheatingandcoolingby2016.Thefourthscenario,S4assumes5%
of new HPS systems installations and 2% of new SWC installations annually, that
wouldleadto75%ofenergyefficientsystemby2016.
CO2 emissions scenario for HVAC systems
50.00
45.00
40.00

CO2 kt

35.00
30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

year
BAU

S3

S4

Figure7.12.CO2emissionsscenariosforHVACsystemsfortheperiod20022016non
seasonalhotels

249

Figure7.12.showstheemissionsfromHVACsystemsinnonseasonalhotelsforthe
period 20022016. Changes are assumed to start in 2007. The business as usual
scenario would produce 434,3 kt CO2 in the next 10 years. If scenario S3 or S4 is
applied it would be possible to achieve 11% (46,7 kt CO2) and 27% (117,7 kt CO2)
emissionsavingsrespectively forthesameperiod.In2016,annualemissionswould
decrease from 45,4 kt CO2 in BAU scenario to 36,65 kt CO2 and 22,58 for S3 and S4
scenariorespectively.

250

Chapter8.HOTECOMethodology

8. HOTECOMETHODOLOGY
This chapter summarises research presented in this thesis and presents an algorithm, a
methodology developed for improving energy performance in hotels and energy efficient
retrofitofHVACsystemsinhotelsontheAdriaticcoast.

There are a number of strategies and energy acts based on sustainability principles
that each country or bigger energy associations develop. These strategies are
established with the purpose to decrease production and energy utilization, and in
that way decrease GHG emissions and pollution. Strategies promote sustainable
energy development, e.g. renewable energy technologies, energy savings measures,
increasedenergyefficiency,andenergyconservationmeasures.Forexampleresearch
and development strategies for International Energy Agency (IEA) under Energy
ConservationinBuildingsandCommunitySystemsProgram(ECBCS)arebasedon:
1)Technologicalopportunitiestosaveenergyinthebuildingsectorand,2)Meansto
remove technical obstacles to market penetration of new energy conservation
technologies.
Thestrategiesaredevelopedinorderto:

developanenergyefficient,comfortableandsustainablebuilding;

introducelowenergybuildingconceptsbasedonadvancedinstallationsand
energy recovery systems as well as on optimized integration of energy
conservationandutilizationofrenewableenergies;

introduceintegratedbuildingtechnicalsystemconceptthatcanbeupgraded
usingtheadvancementsinbuildingenergyconservationtechnologies;

minimizenonrenewableenergyusedforheating,coolingandlighting;

identify ways to improve HVACsystems and components to use less


electricity;

251

improvetheutilizationofbuildingenergymanagementsystemsbyanalyzing
theneedofusersanddevelopingguidestodesignmanmachineinterfacesof
technicalsystems;

assessthefeasibilityofadvancedcontrolstrategiesofHVACsystems;

establish indoor air quality and optimal ventilation needs and to identify
alternativeenergyefficientstrategiesincontrollingtheindoorenvironment;

develop and asses system concepts, for local integrated power, cooling and
heatinggenerationanddistributionsystems(ECBCS2002).

The strategies and activities, which might be connected to the tourism


accommodation sector are (i) sustainable building design, (ii) alternative HVAC
systems,(iii)renewableenergysources,(iv)energyconsumptioninbuildingsand(v)
environmentalimpactofextensiveutilizationofenergyresources.However,inorder
to understand energy performance in different types of buildings each type of
building should be studied separately. In that way specific problems can be
identified. Moreover, it is also necessary to take into account the geographical
location of the building, local weather conditions, year of construction, current
regulations, international obligations, social and other trends that might influence
energyconsumptioninbuildings.

One objective of this research was to establish a useful methodology for HVAC
energyefficientretrofitsolutions.Thefindingsaresummarizedinthealgorithmthat
consistsof4parts:
PartI:Hoteldatacollectionandenergyconsumptionanalysis(Figure8.1.)
PartII:HVACsystemsmodelling(Figure8.2.)
PartIII:Economicalanalysis(Figure8.3.)
PartIV:Environmentalanalysis(Figure8.4.)

252

Chapter8.HOTECOMethodology

Part I collects the majority of hotel building parameters and energy and water
consumption.Theresultisanevaluationofcurrentstateofenergyconsumptionand
energy efficiency of the HVAC systems. The input data from hotel management
includelocation,hotelcategory,operationalschedule,yearofconstruction,totalfloor
area, number of rooms, number of beds, additional facilities (restaurant, swimming
pool), heated floor area, cooled floor area and room floor area. Furthermore, it is
necessarytogivedataaboutthetypeofcoolingandheatingsystem,aswellasthatof
the domestic hot water system. Input data required are presented with the
questionnaireinAppendixI.Duringthisresearchitwasrealisedthattheguestnights
are one of the significant explanatory factors for energy consumption. Therefore it
shouldbeincludedasinputdatawhileenergyconsumptionasoutputshouldbealso
presented in the form of kWh/guest night. Monthly consumption and costs for
electricity and fossil fuels as well as guest nights are needed. In order to rate and
compare current energy consumption in the hotel, it is necessary to use the
benchmarks for hotels established and presented in Chapter 3. In order to convert
litresofheatingoilandm3ofgasorkgofLPGintoprimaryenergy,thetypeoffuel
and its calorific value should be known. At the end, a graphical presentation of
resultsisproduced(Figure8.1.).

BasedonresultsandanalysisfromPartI,alternativeHVACsystemsutilizingenergy
efficientandrenewableenergytechnologiesaresuggestedinthePartII.Thebuilding
geometry and thermal properties are needed as inputs. Design indoor and design
outdoortemperatures shouldbeknown.Buildingis modelledas asimple onezone
model, since a multizone model would require too much time for this type of
analysis.Heatingandcoolingcapacitiesarecalculatedaccordingtoproceduregiven
inSubchapter5.3.Ifthesescapacitiesareknownfortheexistinghotel,theyareused
for HVAC systems modelling. Further on, HVAC systems are modelled and
simulated in TRNSYS simulation studio. Outputs are electricity and fuel
consumptionformodelledsystems(Figure8.2.).

253

PARTI:Hoteldatacollectionandenergyconsumptionanalysis

START1

Inputdata:
Generalinformations
Buildingphysicaldata

Inputdata:
Lastfouryearsmonthly
electricity,heatingoil,gasand
waterconsumptionandcostsof
fuel.
Monthlynumberofguests

Calculateprimaryenergyconsumption:
Electricity:kWh/m2,kWh/room,kWh/guestnight,
EUR/guestnight
Heatingoil:l/m2,l/room,l/guestnight,EUR/guestnight,
kWh/m2,kWh/room,kWh/guestnight,
Gas:m3/m2,m3/room,m3/guestnight,EUR/guestnight,
kWh/m2,kWh/room,kWh/guestnight,
Water:m3/m2,m3/room,m3/guestnight,EUR/guestnight,

Calculatetotalprimaryenergy
consumption(EnergyUseIntensity)

Energy:kWh/m2,kWh/room,kWh/guest
night,EUR/guestnight

IfEUI<EUIaverage

No

Rateahotelasenergynot
efficient

Yes

Rateahotelasenergy
efficient

254

Chapter8.HOTECOMethodology

Statisticaldataprocessing
[kWh/m2]=f(month),
[kWh/guestnight]=f(month)
[kWh/guestnight]=f(guestnight)

Displayresults(graphical):
Energyconsumptionpermonthand
year(electricity,oil,gas,water)
Costsofenergypermonthandyear
Breakdownoffueltypeintotal
consumption
Breakdownofcostsintotalenergy
costs

Analysisofresults

Outputs:
Analysisofenergyconsumptiontrends,andratioof
differentfueltype
Sugestionsforenergysavingsmeasures(HVAC&DHW
systems)

Ifsugestionsare
accepted

Yes

START2

No
START4
Environmentalanalysisofcurrent
state

Figure8.1.PartIHoteldatacollectionandenergyconsumptionanalysis

255

PARTII:HVACsystemsmodelling

START2

Inputdata:
Buildinggeometryandthermal
properties,DIT,DOT,heatingand
colingcapacity

Buildingmodeling
Calculatecoolingandheatingcapacity:
Buidlingmodelingsimpleonezonemodel
calculationofinputdataforTRNSYSmodel

HVACsystemsmodellinginTRNSYS

Outputs:
Energyconsumption,energysavings,ratioof
renewableenergysources

IfHVACsystem
achievesenergysavings

Yes

START3

No

END
1

Figure8.2.PartIIHVACsystemsmodelling

256

Chapter8.HOTECOMethodology

PARTIII:Economicalanalysis

START3

Inputdata:
Energyprices,equipmentprices,
interestrate

Calculations:
CalculateoperatingcostsofnewHVAC
system,Calculatepaybacktime

Outputs:
Operatingcosts,paybacktime

END

Figure8.3.PartIIIEconomicalanalysis

PartIIIisacalculationoftheeconomicalviabilityofthesuggestedHVACoptionsas
explained in subchapter 6.2. Prices of fuel, investment costs and interest rates are
inputdata(Figure8.3.).

PartIVgivesanenvironmentalanalysisduetoenergyusageinthehotelandpossible
environmental savings if current HVAC systems would be replaced with energy
efficient solutions. The input data for this part of the algorithm are regional
conversionemissionfactorsfordifferenttypesoffuel.FortheTEWIcalculations,the
typeofrefrigerantandthechargeandtypicalannualleakageisneeded(Figure8.4.).
AdetailedprocedurefortheenvironmentalanalysisisgiveninChapter7.

257

PARTIV:Environmentalanalysis

START4

Inputdata:
RegioanalconversionfactorRC
[kgCO2/kWh],conversionfactorfor
fuel[g/GJ],refrigerantcharge

Inputs:
Readtotalenergyandfuelconsumption
ReadenergyandfuelconsumptioninHVAC
systems

Calculations:
CalculateCO2eqemissionsandTEWI
factor

Outputs:
Totalemissions:kgCO2eq/m2,kgCO2eq/room,
kgCO2eq/m2,HVACemissions,TEWI

Displayresults(graphical):
CO2eqemissionspermonthandyear
(electricity,oil,gas)
TEWI

END

Figure8.4.PartIVEnvironmentalanalysis

258

Chapter9.ConclusionsandFutureWork

9. CONCLUSIONSANDFUTUREWORK
This chapter summarizes the main conclusions of the research about energy performance in
hotelsandenergyefficientsolutionsforHVACsystemsretrofitontheAdriaticcoast.Finally,
somesuggestionsforfutureresearcharepresented.

9.1. Conclusions
9.1.1. Energyuseinhotelsandenvironmentalemissions

The World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg 2002,


acknowledgedtourismasoneofthemajorenergyconsumingsectorsandrequested
statestointegrateenergyefficiencyintotourismrelatedpolices.Europeanhotels,for
example, consume approximately 39TWh/year (CHOSE 2001). According to the
EuropeanEnvironmentalAgency(EEA),tourismisresponsiblefor57%ofthetotal
emissionsinEurope.Dependingonthesourceofenergy(hydro,wind,nuclear,oil
orcoalbased)hotelscanberesponsiblefortheannualgenerationofupto160kgof
carbon dioxide per square meter of area, which is equivalent to 10 tons of CO2 per
bedroom. Energy consumption for thermal systems in hotels depending on hotel
category and location, is in the range of 61 70%. Therefore if energy efficient
measures would be applied to HVAC and DHW systems, significant energy and
environmentalsavingscouldbeachieved,whatthisresearchhasbeenshown.

TheanalysishasshownthatenergyconsumptioninhotelsontheAdriaticcoastisin
therangeof124to327kWh/m2and97to234kWh/m2forseasonalandnonseasonal
hotels respectively. Higher values correspond to higher hotel categories. With
comparisontootherMediterraneanhotels,hotelsontheAdriaticcoastconsumeless
259

energy(2530%).Thisfactcanbeexplainedwithalowaverageyearlyoccupancyrate
of28%andlowerenergyconsumptionforcoolingcomparedto,forexample,Italyor
Greece. Further, 65% of seasonal hotels operate heating systems only during the
periodApriltoOctoberordonotpossessheatingsystematall.Fiftypercentofhotels
witha3starcategoryarenotobligedtoinstallcoolingsystems.However,inyearsto
comeitisexpectedthatthenumberoftouristsandhotelsoccupancyrateswillgrow,
while tourist season will be extended to autumn and winter months. Furthermore,
manyhotelswillupgradetheirservicesandinstallcoolingsystems.Thesignificance
oftheestablishedbenchmarkswillbedemonstratedinthehotelsabilitytocompare
their performance with similar groups of hotels and to assess environmental
performance,whichwillhelpstoidentifyandprioritiseareastomanage.

Aregressionanalysis,whichisoftenusedforstudyingbuildingenergyperformance,
was applied. Single parameter and multiple regression models have been made in
order to establish correlations between energy consumption and a number of fixed
hotelparameters suchasthenumberofroomsandtotalfloorareaofthebuildings.
Althoughanalysisshowedthattheseparametersaresignificantforexplainingenergy
consumption (R2=0,430,73 for seasonal and 0,380,86 for non seasonal hotels with
totalfloorareaasvariable),hoteldodifferalotwithregardstoenergyconsumption
even within the same hotel category. For example, electricity consumption in non
seasonal hotels with 3 star rating goes from 29,15 to 148,88 kWh/m2. It is thus
impossible to accurately estimate the energy consumption without analysis of the
hotel itself. Furthermore, it has been shown that the number of guests and the
occupancy rates are significant parameters for energy consumption estimation.
Therefore,theseparametersshouldberegularlyusedforfutureanalysis.

It has been estimated that the total floor area of the hotel stock is approximately 3
millionm2,amongwhich72%isplacedonthemainland,whiletherestofthe28%is
placed on the islands. The hotel sector consumes approximately 181 GWh of
260

Chapter9.ConclusionsandFutureWork

electricity (1,14% of total electricity consumed in Croatia) and 229,5 GWh of energy
fromheatingoiland35,36GWhofenergyfromLPG.Duetoenergyconsumption,the
tourist accommodation sector (hotels, private accommodation and camps) released
intotheatmosphereapproximately174ktCO2eqin2002.Theseemissionspresented
approximately 0,8% of total CO2eq emissions in Croatia in 2002. According to the
BAU scenario, the tourist accommodation sector will contribute a 0,4 % emission
increaseabovelimitationsdefinedbyKyotoprotocolby2010.Ithasbeenshownthat
energy efficient HVAC and DHW system retrofit, depending on tempo, can
contribute to either emission limitation to current state or to gradually decrease
emissions in years to come. It is estimated that the average hotel generates
approximately69kgCO2/m2,whichisequivalentto3,9tCO2/roomannually(basedon
datafrom2002).Averagenonseasonalhotelwitha3starratingand150roomsare
responsiblefor585tCO2.

9.1.2. ModellingandSimulations

Although the Adriatic Islands and Dalmatian region have a high insolation level of
23002800 sunshine hours per year, the energy audit has shown that utilization of
renewable energy sources (solar) in the hotel sector is on a very low level. It was
recordedthatonly5%ofhotelshavesolarcollectorsinstalled.Therefore,amajorityof
hotels consume heating oil as a fuel for domestic hot water production and space
heating,whileLPGisusedforcooking.

Thereareanumberofenergyefficientmeasuresandtechnologiesavailable,butthey
shouldbeappliedinthepropermannertakingintoaccountanumberoflocalfactors.
It has been shown that a systems thinking approach in the HVAC systems and
buildingdesignandsystemmodellingarenecessaryinthedesignphase.TRNSYSis
thesuggestedsoftwarethatcanhelpinHVACsystemmodellingandanalysis.Three

261

alternative systems proposed in this research have a great potential for the energy
savingswithregardtocurrentandfutureneedsforheatandcoldenergy.Although
the solar absorption cooling system (ACS) and the seawater cooling system (SWC)
are not found on the Adriatic coast jet, they should be considered as a viable
alternative for the conventional vapour compression system (CS). Installations of
thesetwosystemsarepossibleiflocalconditionsallowstheplacementofalargesolar
collectorfieldsorifcoldseawaterisavailable.

Thesimulationresultshaveshownthatenergyuseinexistingandnewhotelscanbe
reducedsignificantlyinaneconomicalfashion,whilestillprovidingthebuilding
services that tourists need, without sacrificing comfort, health or safety. The best
alternative system from an energy, environmental and economical point of view is
the HPS system that can reduce energy consumption up to 17,4% in non seasonal
hotels. Withregards to cooling systems,the bestalternativeistheSWCsystemthat
can achieve up to 87% of energy and environmental savings. This system is
recommended in seasonal hotels where space heating is not needed. Operation of
such systems with a combination of solar collectors for domestic hot water can
achieve 90,2% of energy savings compared to conventional system. Since radiant
cooling system has a slow response to outside temperatures this system is
recommended in hotels with a 3 stars rating where a highly controlled indoor
environment is not required. However, this system will still provide a satisfactory
indoor climate.AlthoughACShasa higherinvestmentcost,ithasbeen shownthat
withthegrowingtrendofincreasingfossilfuelpricesthateventhatsystemcanpay
of in 5,7 years. The cost per saved kg of CO2 varies from 0,032 for an HPS system,
0,035 for a SWCSH system and 0,089 EUR/kgCO2 for an ACS system. The costs of
possibleCO2savingswillbeanargumentwhenemissiontradingisestablished.

262

Chapter9.ConclusionsandFutureWork

9.1.3. Practicalapplicationofthestudy

Energy efficiency has an important role on both state, energy utility as well as on
energy consumer level. Improving energy efficiency, and thereby decreasing
environmentalemissions,willplayanimportantroleinyearstocome.Croatia,asa
candidate country for EU, will have to implement energy efficiency measures, not
onlyasaconsequencesofEUdirectives(suchasdirective2002/91/EContheEnergy
Performance of Buildings), but also to reduce the environmental impact in its own
backyard.Inthatway,Croatiawillcontributetothereductionofgreenhousegasses
emission and climate change and show its own commitments to sustainability that
areinlinewiththeKyotoandMontrealprotocols.Energyefficiencyis,infact,oneof
strategicissuesofanycountry.Besidesenvironmentalimpactsitcanhaveimpacton
socioeconomicissuesaswell.

Thisstudytriestogiveaclearpictureaboutenergyuseandenvironmentalemissions
fromthehotelsectorandhasidentifiedareasforpossibleenergyandenvironmental
savings.Wehopethatthedatapresentedwillbeofgreathelpforenergyplanningon
both regional and state levels, since the tourism industry has an important share in
Croatian economy and development. Hoteliers will also be able to compare their
energyperformancewiththeaveragehotelontheAdriaticcoastandfurtherinitiate
energyefficiencymeasures.

Since the building sector where hotels belongs is responsible for 40% of CO2
emissions, implementation of the HOTECO methodology, or similar, for the HVAC
systems retrofit in general can have a positive impact and can contribute to energy
and emissions savings in the future. Approximately 50% of hotels on the Adriatic
coast were built in the period 19611980. Today a majority of these hotels require
substantial refurbishment. On the other side, during the war period a number of
hotels were devastated or inhabited with refugees. The process of hotels

263

refurbishment is still ongoing and it should be considered as a possibility for the


implementationofenergyefficienttechnologiesthatalreadyexistonthemarket.

It is expected that the HOTECO methodology will have practical application in the
hotelsectorinCroatiaandinotherMediterraneancountries.Itwillbeusefulforboth
hotel management and for the building and HVAC system designers. Furthermore,
the HOTECO methodology is a basis for further research in the area of the HVAC
systemmodellinginhotelsandothertypesofbuildings.Theevaluationofenergyuse
in hotels will additionally encourage hotel management to start implementing
monitoringprocedureandtoimproveenergymanagementofthehotelbuilding.

AccordingtotheMinistryofTourism,themaingoalsforthedevelopmentoftourism
aretoprofileCroatiaasoneofthebesttouristdestinationsintheMediterraneanand
Europe, and to increase earnings from tourism. In order to implement the tourism
developmentpolicyinawaytoachievethesetupgoals,itisnecessarytocreatenew
typesofofferingsandproductsintourism.Itisalsoimperativetoraisethequalityof
accommodation, catering and other services in the tourist industry while protecting
the environment, cultural and historical heritage. It should be clear that sustainable
development of the hotel and tourist industry can not be done without special care
for the environment and by association, the development of sustainable energy
systems, in terms of the implementation of energy efficient technologies and
renewable energy sources. Therefore, Ministry of Tourism should encourage any
environmentallyorientedinitiativeinthehotelsectorandpromoteenergyefficiency
technologies.Firststepmightbeanadoptionoftheecologicalcriteriafortheaward
oftheCommunityecolabeltotouristaccommodationservice,ordevelopmentofits
ownecolabelfortourismaccommodationfacilities.

264

Chapter9.ConclusionsandFutureWork

9.2. Futurework

Themethodologypresentedinthisthesisprovidesabasisforfutureresearchabout
energyperformanceinhotels.Thenextstepwouldbetoincludedetailedinformation
aboutguestnightsintotheanalysis,sinceitasbeenshownonthebasisof20hotels
that the number of guest nights has a significant impact on energy consumption in
hotels.Awebbasedapplicationforbetterdatacollectionisplanned.Hotelsshouldbe
encouraged to provide energy consumption data and occupancy rates for the last
four years. Using this information it would be possible to establish a relationship
betweenoccupancyratesandenergyconsumptionforeachhotel.Inputdatashould
beextendedtothelightingsystemandelectricalequipmentinrestaurantsandother
facilities and detailed data on water consumption. It would be desirable to set up a
measurement procedure, for example, how to determine hot and cold water
consumption.

Furthermore, on the basis of the HOTECO methodology and the modelled HVAC
systems, an easy to use software programme should be developed. This software
should be able to set ratings for each hotel on the basis of established benchmarks
and further, to analyse the best HVAC retrofit option for each hotel. The software
should produce energy, environmental and economical data as well. This software
wouldhelphoteliersindecisionmakingaboutHVACsystemretrofitandmonitoring
of energy consumption. Continuous monitoring and reporting will raise their
awareness aboutenvironmental emissionsfromhotels.Withrespecttothe Croatian
obligationstotheKyotoandMontrealprotocolsandEUdirectives,allrealisticenergy
efficientactionswillbenecessaryforcommitmentfulfilmentsintheyearstocome.A
similar approach with a systems thinking and modelling could be applied to other
typesofbuildings,suchascommercial,residentialoreducationalbuildings.

265

Nomenclature

NOMENCLATURE

Roman

Factorofinfiltration

Area

m2

Ag

Glassarea

m2

Al

Sunexposedglassarea

m2

AM

Totalwindowarea

m2

Radiation transmission coefficient of the window

m3/mhPa2/3

andsunprotectiondevices

cp

Specificheatcapacity

CAP

Lumpedthermalcapacitanceofhouse

COP

Coefficientofperformance

CRF

Capitalrecoveryfactor

EFA

Electricityconsumptionestimatedbyfloorarea

kWh/year

ENR

Electricity consumption estimated by number of

kWh/year

J/kgK
J/K

guestsrooms
EFANRRFA

Electricity consumption estimated by floor area,

kWh/year

numberofguestsroomsandroomfloorarea
EFANRGN

Electricity consumption estimated by floor area,

kWh/year

numberofguestsroomsandguestnights
EFANRGNOR

Electricity consumption estimated by floor area,

kWh/year

number of guests rooms, guest nights and


occupancyrate
EFANRGNORFAR

Electricity consumption estimated by floor area,

kWh/year

number of guests rooms, guest nights, occupancy

267

rateandroomfloorarea

C min

Product of the effectiveness and minimum

W/K

capacitancerateofloadheatexchanger
FA

Totalfloorareaofthehotel

m2

GN

Guestnights

gv

Glasssurfacecomponentofwindowarea

GWP

GlobalWarmingPotential

Interestrate

Effectiveinterestrate

Idiff.max

Maximum value of diffuse radiation for the design

W/m2

month
Imax

Maximumvalueofthetotalradiationforthedesign

W/m2

month
j

Inflationrate

Lengthoffugue(cleft)

lB

simultaneity factor of the lighting at the time

concerned
lM

Simultaneityfactorofmachines

LHR

Ratiooflatenttototalcoolingload

m&

Mass of the material brought into the room or

kg/s

removedfromintheunitoftime

m& i

Massflowrateoffluidfromheatsource

kg/s

m& o

Massflowrateoffluidreturningtoheatsource

kg/s

Mlosses

Refrigerantleakage

kg

Mref

Refrigerantcharge

kg

Numberofyears

np

Numberofpersons

Lifetimeofrefrigerationsystem

268

year

Nomenclature

NR

Numberofguestsrooms

OFA

Heatingoilconsumptionestimatedbyfloorarea

litres/year

ONR

Heating oil consumption estimated by number of

litres/year

guestsrooms
OFANRRFA

Heating oil consumption estimated by floor area,

litres/year

numberofguestsroomsandroomfloorarea
OFANRGN

Heating oil consumption estimated by floor area,

litres/year

numberofguestsroomsandguestnights
OFANRGNOR

Heating oil consumption estimated by floor area,

litres/year

number of guests rooms, guest nights and


occupancyrate
OFANRGNORFAR

Heating oil consumption estimated by floor area,

litres/year

number of guests rooms, guest nights, occupancy


rateandroomfloorarea
OR

Occupancyrate

plevel(statisticallysignificantatlevelof95%or99%

ifp<0,05orp<0,01)
P

Totalinstalledpowerofthelights

Pressuredifference

Pa

Pj

Ratedpowerofthemachinej

qp

Heatemissionfromthehumanbody

Q& aux

Auxiliaryheatinginputtospace

Q& B

Coolingloadduetoilluminationheat

Q& C

Other heat supply and removal (e.g. chemical

reactions).

Q& cool

Rateofcoolingenergyremovedfromspace

Q& Eq

Heatemissionfromequipment

Q& FL

Infiltrationloses

269

Q& G

Heatabsorptionoremissionintheeventofmaterial

throughputthroughtheroom(e.g.coolingwaterfor
machines)

Q& gain

Timevariantheatgains

Q& I

Internalcoolingload

Q& L

Instantaneousheatingload

Q& lat

Rateofcoolingusedtoreduceroomhumidity

Q& M

Machineandapplianceheat

Q& N

Heatinglosses

Q& P

Heatemissionfrompersons

Q& R

Heat flowing in from adjacent rooms via the

internalsurface

Q& S

Coolingloadduetoradiationthroughwindows

Q& sens

Rateofsensiblecoolingload

Q& T

Transmissionlosses

Q& TW

Coolingloadduetotransmissionthroughwindows

Q& W

Coolingloadthroughexternalwallsandroofs

Pearsoncorrelationcoefficient

R2

Rsquare,coefficientofdetermination

RC

Regionalconversionfactor

RFA

Roomfloorarea

Sa

Coolingloadfactorforexternalradiationload

Si

Coolingloadfactorforinternalloads

SSR

Variancebyregressionmodel

SSyy

Totalvariation

Heattransfercoefficient

W/m2K

UF

Heattransfercoefficientofthewindow

W/m2K

270

kgCO2/kWh
m2

Nomenclature

U A

Overallconductanceforheatlossfromhouse

W/K

V&

Airflow

m3/s

Regressionfunction

Meanvalueofthefunction

Greek

Forcingfunction

Meanmotorefficiency

Ambienttemperature

Outlettemperature

Designindoortemperatureforcoolingseason

Designoutdoortemperatureforcoolingseason

Designindoortemperatureforheatingseason

Designoutdoortemperatureforheatingseason

Inlettemperature

Temperatureofthefluidfromheatsource

max

Roomsettemperatureforcooling

min

Roomsettemperatureforheating

Temperatureofthefluidreturningtoheatsource

Roomtemperature

Averageroomtemperature

RI

Initialroomtemperature

eq

Equivalenttemperaturedifference

Recyclingfactor

aj

Loadfactorofthemachinejatthetimeinquestion

Roomloadfactorduetolighting

DC

indoor

DC

out

DH

indoor

DH

out

C
C

271

Density

Subscripts

Ambient

aux

Auxiliary

cool

Cooling

Lighting

CRONS

NonseasonalhotelsinCroatia

CRO3NS

Nonseasonalhotelswith3starsinCroatia

CROS

SeasonalhotelsinCroatia

CRO2S

Seasonalhotelswith2starsinCroatia

CRO3S

Seasonalhotelswith3starsinCroatia

CRO5&4S

Seasonalhotelswith5and4starsinCroatia

DCindoor

Designcoolingindoortemperature

DCout

Designcoolingoutdoortemperature

DHindoor

Designheatingindoortemperature

DHout

Designheatingoutdoortemperature

DNS

NonseasonalhotelsinDubrovnikregion

DS

SeasonalhotelsinDubrovnikregion

D3S

Seasonalhotelswith3starsinDubrovnikregion

External

Eq

Equipment

eq

Equivalent

Fluid

gain

Gains

Inlet

Internal

IS

SeasonalhotelsinIstriaregion

272

kg/m3

Nomenclature

Load

Lat

Latent

Machine

Outlet

Person

Room

RI

Initialroom

RNS

NonseasonalhotelsinRijekaregion

RS

SeasonalhotelsinRijekaregion

sens

Sensible

SNS

NonseasonalhotelsinSplitregion

SS

SeasonalhotelsinSplitregion

Transferred

Walls

273

AppendixI

APPENDIXI:ENERGYAUDITQUESTIONNARIE

275

276

AppendixI

277

278

AppendixI

279

280

AppendixII

APPENDIXII:BREAKDOWNOFELECTRICITY,OIL
ANDGASCONSUMPTIONBYREGION

Breakdow n of hotels category in


Dubrovnik region

Breakdow n of electricity consum ption by


hotel's category in Dubrovnik region

8; 12%

17%

29; 45%

37%

28; 43%

46%
5* and 4*

3*

5* and 4*

2* and 1*

3*

2* and 1*

Breakdow n of electricity consum ption by


hotel's category in Istria

Breakdow n of hotels by category in Istria

7; 6%
15%

26%

45; 37%

70; 57%
59%
5* and 4*

3*

5* and 4*

2* and 1*

3*

2* and 1*

281

Breakdow n of electricity consum ption by


hotel's category in Rijeka region

Breakdow n of hotels by category in Rijeka


region
5; 6%

13%
32%

34; 39%

48; 55%
55%
5* and 4*

3*

5* and 4*

2* and 1*

3*

2* and 1*

Breakdow n of electricity consum ption by


hotel's category in Split region

Breakdow n of hotels by category in Split


region
3; 4%

4%

24%

36; 43%

45; 53%
72%
5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

Breakdow n of electricity consum ption by


hotel's category in Zadar region

15%

Breakdow n of hotels by category in Zadar


region
2; 6%

10%

14; 40%

19; 54%
75%
5* and 4*

282

3*

2* and 1*

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

AppendixII

Breakdow n of oil consum ption by hotel's


category in Dubrovnik region

Breakdown of gas consumption by hotel's


category in Dubrovnik region
7%

15%

26%

33%

41%

5* and 4*

3*

78%
2* and 1*

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

Breakdow n of oil consum ption by hotel's


category in Istria region

Breakdown of gas consumption by hotel's


category in Istria
3%

18%

26%

42%

55%
56%
5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

Breakdow n of oil consum ption by hotel's


category in Rijeka region

Breakdown of gas consumption by hotel's


category in Rijeka region

8%

6%

40%

50%

44%

52%

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

283

Breakdow n of oil consum ption by hotel's


category in Split region

Breakdown of gas consumption by hotel's


category in Split region

4%

1%

39%

44%

55%

57%

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

Breakdow n of oil consum ption by hotel's


category in Zadar region

Breakdown of gas consumption by hotel's


category in Zadar region

13%

3%

30%
40%

57%
57%
5* and 4*

284

3*

2* and 1*

5* and 4*

3*

2* and 1*

AppendixIII

APPENDIXIII:TRNSYSCOMPONENTSUSEDIN
THEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEMODELS

TYPE 1: Solar Collector; Quadratic Efficiency, 2nd Order Incidence Angle


Modifiers
This component models the thermal performance of a flatplate solar collector. The
solarcollectorarraymayconsistofcollectorsconnectedinseriesandinparallel.The
thermalperformanceofthecollectorarrayisdeterminedbythenumberofmodules
inseriesandthecharacteristicsofeachmodule.Theusermustprovideresultsfrom
standard tests of collector efficiency versus a ratio of fluid temperature minus
ambient temperature to solar radiation. The fluid temperature may be the inlet
temperature,theaveragetemperature,ortheoutlettemperature.InTYPE1,thereare
5possibilitiesforconsideringtheeffectsofoffnormalsolarincidence.Inthisinstance
ofTYPE1,asecondorderquadraticfunctionisusedtocomputetheincidenceangle
modifier.ThecoefficientsofthefunctionaresuppliedbyanASHRAEorequivalent
test.

TYPE2:Onoffdifferentialcontroller
Theon/offdifferentialcontrollergeneratesacontrolfunctionothatcantakevalues
of0or1.Thevalueofoischosenasafunctionofthedifferencebetweenupperand
lower temperatures, TH and TL, compared with two dead band temperature
differences,THandTL.Thenewvalueofoisdependentonwhetheriisequalto
0otto1.Usually,oisconnectedtoigivingahysteresiseffect.

285

TYPE3:Pump/ventilator
Thepumpmodelcomputesamassflowrateusingavariablecontrolfunction,which
must be between 0 and 1, and a fixed maximum flow capacity. Pump power
consumption is also calculated, either as a linear function of mass flow rate or by a
userdefinedrelationshipbetweenmassflowrateandpowerconsumption.Inmany
systems,thereisnocontinuousflowmodulationandthecontrolfunctioniseither0
or1.Inthatcase,theoutletflowrateandthepowerusedareeitherbothzeroorboth
attheirmaximumvalues.Pumporfanpowerconsumptionmayalsobecalculated.

TYPE4:Stratifiedhotwaterstoragetank
The thermal performance of a fluid filled stratified storage tank is modelled by
assumingthatthetankconsistsofN (N 15)fullymixedequalvolumesegments.The
degreeofstratificationisdeterminedbythevalueN.IfNisequal1,thestoragetank
is modelled as a fullymixed tank with no stratification effects. Options of fixed or
variable inlets, unequal size nodes, temperature dead band at heater thermostats,
incremental loss coefficients, and losses to flue gas of auxiliary heater are all
available.

The mode that describes the height of inlet and outlet node is chosen. Two electric
resistanceheating elements that are subject to temperature and time control are
included in model as a back up system. The control option allows their utilization
during selected periods. The electric resistance heaters may operate in two modes.
Thefirstmode,amaster/slaverelationship,allowsthebottomheatingelementtobe
enabledonlywhenthetopelementissatisfied.Inthiscontrolmode,itisimpossible
for both electric heaters to be on simultaneously. The second mode allows both
heaterstobeon.Thisallowsquickerheatingofthestoragetank,butatasignificantly
higherelectricaldemand.Ifnoelectricheatingelementsarepresentinthetanktobe
modelled,themaximumauxiliaryheatingrateissettozero.

286

AppendixIII

Theauxiliaryheatersemployatemperature deadband. Theheaterisenabledifthe


temperatureofthenodecontainingthethermostatislessthanTset Tdborifitwas
on for the previous interval and the thermostat temperature is less than Tset. If the
lower heater meets these criteria and the master/slave relationship is employed, a
checkwillbemadetoseeiftheupperelectricheaterisonbeforeenablingthesecond
heatingelement.

In order to take into account boiling effects, the boiling temperature of the fluid
shouldbesupplied,thatiscalculatedwithmodelofapressurereliefvalve.Venting
willreleasesufficientenergytokeepthetankattheboilingtemperature.Thelossof
massduetoventinghasbeenneglected.

The model calculates the overall loss from any node above and including auxiliary
heateroccursfromtheexteriorandinteriorofthetank.Theoverallconductancefora
heat loss to the flue when the heater is not operating, (UA)f is based upon an
temperatureoftheenvironment.Thisconductanceisdividedamongthenodesabove
andincludingtheheater.Anassumption,employedinthismodel,istoassumethat
thefluidstreamsflowingupanddownfromeachnodearefullymixedbeforethey
entereachsegment.

TYPE5:CounterFlowHeatExchanger
A zero capacitance sensible heat exchanger is modelled in various configurations
(parallel, counter, various cross flow configurations and shell and tube models). In
thisinstance,acounterflowheatexchangerismodelled.Giventhehotandcoldside
inlet temperatures and flow rates, the effectiveness is calculated for a given fixed
valueoftheoverallheattransfercoefficient.

287

TYPE6:OnOffAuxiliaryHeater
An auxiliary heater is modelled to elevate the temperature of a flow stream using
eitherinternalcontrol,externalcontroloracombinationofbothtypesofcontrol.The
heater is designed to add heat to the flow stream at a userdesignated rate (Qmax)
whenevertheexternalcontrolinputisequalto1andtheheateroutlettemperature
is less than a userspecified maximum (Tset). By specifying a constant value of the
control function of equal 1 and specifying a sufficiently large value of Qmax, this
routine will perform like a domestic hot water auxiliary with internal control to
maintainanoutlettemperatureofTset.Byprovidingacontrolfunctionof0or1froma
thermostatorcontroller,TYPE6routinewillperformlikeafurnaceaddingheatata
rateofQmaxbutnotexceedinganoutlettemperatureofTset.

TYPE8:ThreestageRoomThermostat
A three stage room thermostat is modelled to output three on/off control functions
thatcanbeusedtocontrolasystemhavingasolarheatsource,anauxiliaryheater,
andacoolingsystem.Thiscontrolleristobeusedtocontrolsystemsontemperature
levelsandiscompatiblewiththeTYPE12mode4andtheTYPE19mode2loads.The
controller commands cooling at high room temperatures, first stage (solar source)
heating at lower room temperatures, and second stage (auxiliary source) heating at
evenlowerroomtemperatures.Theuserhastheoption,throughparameterISTG,to
disable first stage heating during second stage heating and the capability, through
parameterTmin,todisablefirststageheatingwheneverthesourcetemperatureistoo
low. Although solar heating is specified in the description of this component, any
threestageheatingsystemmaybecontrolledusingtheTYPE8routine.

Inmanyheatingapplications,thedesiredroomtemperaturemaydependonthetime
of day or the day of the week. This variation of the heating on/off temperatures is
modelledinthisinstanceofTYPE8usinganoptionalsetbackcontrolfunctionset
and set back temperature difference Tset . When this option is used, the usual
288

AppendixIII

temperatures at which first and second stage heating are commanded are both
reduced by set x Tset. Typically, set is calculated by a TYPE l4 timedependent
functiongenerator.

In this instance, a hysteresis effects can be included in the model by supplying the
optionaldeadbandtemperaturedifferenceTdb.AsinglevalueofTdb,ifsupplied,is
appliedtoallthreeoutputcontrolfunctions.

TYPE11:TeePiece,FlowDiverter,FlowMixer,TemperingValve
Theuseofpipeteepieces,mixers,anddiverterswhicharesubjecttoexternalcontrol
is often necessary in thermal systems. This component has ten modes of operation.
Modes 1 through 5 are normally used for fluids with only one important property,
suchastemperature.Modes6through10areforfluids,suchasmoistair,withtwo
importantproperties,suchastemperatureandhumidity.

TeePiece:This instanceof the TYPE 11 modeluses mode1 to modelateepiece in


whichtwoinletliquidstreamsaremixedtogetherintoasingleliquidoutletstream.
Tempering Valve: This variant of the TYPE 11 model uses mode 4 or mode 5 to
modelatemperaturecontrolledliquidflowdiverter.Inmode4theentireflowstream
issentthroughoutlet1whenTh<Ti.Inmode5,theentireflowstreamissentthrough
outlet2underthesecircumstances.

TYPE12:Energy/DegreeHourHouse:TemperatureLevelControl
The energy/(degreeday) concept has been shown to be useful in estimating the
monthlyheatingloadofastructure(ASHRAE).Inthisspaceheatingloadmodel,the
energy/(degreeday), or more appropriately the energy/(degreehour), concept is
extended to estimate the hour by hour heating load of a structure. The model
providesanestimateofthespaceheatingloadwithminimalcomputationaleffort.

289


TherearefourmodesofoperationinTYPE12.Models1,2,and3arecompatiblewith
energy rate control. Mode 4 used in this thesis models a single lumped capacitance
house compatible with temperature level control. Normally heating and/or cooling
equipmentandacontrollerareusedinconjunctionwiththismode.

TYPE14:TimeDependentForcingFunction
In a transient simulation, it is sometimes convenient to employ a time dependent
forcing function which has a behaviour characterized by a repeated pattern. The
patternoftheforcingfunctionisestablishedbyasetofdiscretedatapointsindicating
thevalueofthefunctionatvarioustimesthroughoutonecycle.Linearinterpolation
isprovidedinordertogenerateacontinuousforcingfunctionfromthediscretedata.
ThecyclewillrepeateveryNhourswhereNisthelastvalueoftimespecified.

TYPE24:QuantityIntegrator
Thiscomponentintegratesaseriesofquantitiesoveraperiodoftime.Eachquantity
integrator can have up to, but no more than 500 inputs. TYPE 24 is able to reset
periodically throughout the simulation either after a specified number of hours or
aftereachmonthoftheyear.

TYPE53:ParallelChillers
This component models the thermal performance and power requirements of
identical motor driven chillers that are installed in parallel. Each of the operating
chillers is assumed to be controlled to maintain a specified chilled water supply
temperature through modulation of the compressor capacity (either vane control or
variable speed). The inputs to the component are the temperatures and total flow
ratesoftheevaporatorandcondenserwater,thedesiredchilledwatersetpoint,and
the total number of chillers operating. The flow rates are divided equally between

290

AppendixIII

each of the operating chillers so as to give identical loading and heat rejection for
eachchiller.

Themodelreliesonanempiricalcurvefittoperformancedata.Theusermustcreate
an external file containing performance data for a single chiller. The component
parameterlistspecifies theFortranlogicalunit associated withthedatafileandthe
number of operating points in the file. Each line of input in the data file has three
items. X the ratio of chiller load to a specified design load, Y the ratio of the
temperaturedifferencebetweenthecondenserwateroutletandtheevaporatorwater
outlet relative to a specified design temperature difference, and Z, the ratio of the
measuredpowerrelativetothepoweratthespecifieddesignconditions.

TYPE65:Onlinegraphicalplotterwithoutputfile
Theonlinegraphicscomponentisusedtodisplayselectedsystemvariableswhilethe
simulationisprogressing.Thiscomponentishighlyrecommendedandwidelyused
sinceitprovidesvaluablevariableinformationandallowsuserstoimmediatelyseeif
thesystemisnotperformingasdesired.Theselectedvariableswillbedisplayedina
separateplotwindowonthescreen.

TYPE107:HotWaterFiredSingleEffectAbsorptionChiller
Type107usesanormalizedcataloguedatalookupapproachtomodelasingleeffect
hotwater fired absorption chiller. Hot WaterFired indicates that the energy
suppliedtothemachinesgeneratorcomesfromahotwaterstream.Becausethedata
files are normalized, the user may model any size chiller using a given set of data
files.

TYPE109:DataReaderandRadiationProcessor
This component serves the main purpose of reading weather data at regular time
intervalsfromadatafile,convertingittoadesiredsystemofunitsandprocessingthe

291

solar radiation data to obtain tilted surface radiation and angle of incidence for an
arbitrarynumberofsurfaces.
Inthismode,TYPE109readsaweatherdatafileinthestandardTMY2format.The
TMY2formatisusedbytheNationalSolarRadiationDataBase(USA)butTMY2files
canbegeneratedfrommanyprograms,suchasMeteonorm(REF).

292

AppendixIV

APPENDIXIV:TRNSYSDECKFILES
Conventionalcoolingsystem(CS)

VERSION16
*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio
*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=3624
STOP=6192
STEP=0.027777778
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*
UNIT2TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf
*$POSITION107181
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
65

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGND:\Vlasta2005\PhDVlasta\SimTRNSYS\PhD\HRSplit133340.tm265
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

293

*ModelHotel(Type12)
*
UNIT3TYPE12 Hotel
*$UNIT_NAMEHotel
*$MODEL.\LoadsandStructures\SingleZoneModels\Energy(DegreeDay)SpaceLoad(Type12)\Temperature
LevelControl\Type12c.tmf
*$POSITION258181
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS7
4

!1Temperaturelevelcontrol
125999.996662

!2Overallconductanceofhouse
750000
!3Housethermalcapacitance
10

!4Initialroomtemperature
4.19

!5Specificheatofsourcefluid
3599.999905

!6EffectivenessCminproduct
0.23

!7Latentheatratio
INPUTS6
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletflowrate
2,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Internalgains
0,0

![unconnected]Auxiliaryheatinput
10,5

!Chillers:Chilledwaterload>Coolinginput
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00100.00.00.0
*

*ModelThermostat(Type8)
*
UNIT4TYPE8
Thermostat
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION393181
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.00

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
26

!4Temperatureforcooling
21

!51ststageheatingtemperature
15

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
0

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelVentilator(Type3)
*
UNIT5TYPE3
Ventilator
*$UNIT_NAMEVentilator
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION171405
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
108000
!1Maximumflowrate

294

AppendixIV

1.005

!2Fluidspecificheat
21599.999428

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
2,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10100.01.0
*

*ModelPumpcoldwater(Type3)
*
UNIT6TYPE3
Pumpcoldwater
*$UNIT_NAMEPumpcoldwater
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION319287
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
56160.001373

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
14126.399626

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.01.0
*

*ModelChillers(Type53)
*
UNIT10TYPE53 Chillers
*$UNIT_NAMEChillers
*$MODEL.\HVAC\ParallelChillers\Type53.tmf
*$POSITION257352
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS11
0.85

!1Overallmotorefficiency
3599999.733642

!2Singlechillercapacity
1799.999867

!3Chillersurgelimit
67

!4Logicalunit
17

!5Numberofdatapoints
349199.974163

!6Designloadfordata
31.36

!7Designtemperaturedifference
35.2

!8Designpowerconsumption
1.005

!9Condenserwaterspecificheat
4.190

!10Evaporatorwaterspecificheat
1

!11Printindicator
INPUTS6
0,0

![unconnected]Chilledwatersettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Evaporatorinlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Evaporatorflowrate
5,1

!Ventilator:Outletfluidtemperature>Condenserinlettemperature
5,2

!Ventilator:Outletflowrate>Condenserflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Numberofoperatingchillers

295

***INITIALINPUTVALUES
71256160.001373101080003
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNChillerAirCarrierAquaSnap30RA100.dat.txt67
*|?Whichfilecontainsthechillerperformancedata?|1000
*

*EQUATIONSSum
*
EQUATIONS2
PSumm=[5,3]+[6,3]
QoSumm=[3,8]+[3,7]
*$UNIT_NAMESum
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION431266

*ModelIntegrator(Type24)
*
UNIT8TYPE24 Integrator
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION541265
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS4
PSumm
!Sum:PSumm>Inputtobeintegrated1
10,6

!Chillers:Totalchillerpower>Inputtobeintegrated2
10,5

!Chillers:Chilledwaterload>Inputtobeintegrated3
QoSumm
!Sum:QoSumm>Inputtobeintegrated4
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.00.00.0
*

*ModelMonitoring1(Type65)
*
UNIT11TYPE65 Monitoring1
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring1
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION502171
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
1

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0

!3Leftaxisminimum
40

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
8

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
68

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS3
2,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Leftaxisvariable2

296

AppendixIV

10,8

!Chillers:COP>Rightaxisvariable
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TambTroomCOP
LABELS3

Graph1
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNHouse.plt68
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring2(Type65)
*
UNIT12TYPE65 Monitoring2
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring2
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION460396
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
1

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0.0

!3Leftaxisminimum
60

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
8

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
69

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS3
10,1

!Chillers:Evaporatoroutlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
10,3

!Chillers:Condenseroutlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
0,0

![unconnected]Rightaxisvariable
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
EvaporatorCondenserCOP
LABELS3
Temperatures
Heattransferrates
Graph1
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEvap.plt69
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT7TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION630266
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
66

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode

297

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime
1

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS4
8,3

!Integrator:Resultofintegration3>Inputtobeprinted1
8,1

!Integrator:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted2
8,2

!Integrator:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted3
8,4

!Integrator:Resultofintegration4>Inputtobeprinted4
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
CollingEnergyEvapPPumpPChillerCollingEnergyHouse
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEnergijeHladenja.out66
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*

END

298

AppendixIV

Conventionalheatingsystem(CS)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio
*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=0
STOP=8760
STEP=0.055555557
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelHotel(Type12)
*
UNIT16TYPE12 Hotel
*$UNIT_NAMEHotel
*$MODEL.\LoadsandStructures\SingleZoneModels\Energy(DegreeDay)SpaceLoad(Type12)\Temperature
LevelControl\Type12c.tmf
*$POSITION279160
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS7
4

!1Temperaturelevelcontrol
89999.997616

!2Overallconductanceofhouse
750000
!3Housethermalcapacitance
10

!4Initialroomtemperature
4.19

!5Specificheatofsourcefluid
68745.598179

!6EffectivenessCminproduct
0.23

!7Latentheatratio
INPUTS6
26,1

!Pump1:Outletfluidtemperature>Inlettemperature
26,2

!Pump1:Outletflowrate>Inletflowrate
19,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Internalgains
0,0

![unconnected]Auxiliaryheatinput
0,0

![unconnected]Coolinginput
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00100.00.00.0
*

*ModelThermostat1(Type8)
*
UNIT17TYPE8 Thermostat1
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat1
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf

299

*$POSITION415161
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.0

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
32

!4Temperatureforcooling
24

!51ststageheatingtemperature
20

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
2

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
16,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelMonitoring(Type65)
*
UNIT18TYPE65 Monitoring
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION556169
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
2

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
10

!3Leftaxisminimum
30

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
200000
!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
69

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS4
19,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
16,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
22,1

!Integrator1:Resultofintegration>Rightaxisvariable1
23,1

!Integrator2:Resultofintegration>Rightaxisvariable2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TambTroomEnergyHeaterEnergyPump
LABELS3
Temperatures

Grijanje_Kotlom
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNGrijanjeKotlomSustav2.plt69
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*
UNIT19TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf

300

AppendixIV

*$POSITION169161
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
70

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Weather\Meteonorm\Europe\HRSplit133340.tm270
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

*ModelPump2(Type3)
*
UNIT20TYPE3 Pump2
*$UNIT_NAMEPump2
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION458371
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
72000

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
8999.999762

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
24,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Inletfluidtemperature
24,2

!Storagetank:Flowratetoheatsource>Inletmassflowrate
25,2

!Thermostat2:Controlsignalfor2ndstageheating>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
1250000
*

*ModelBoiler(Type6)
*
UNIT21TYPE6 Boiler
*$UNIT_NAMEBoiler
*$MODEL.\HVAC\AuxiliaryHeaters\Type6.tmf
*$POSITION555371
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
1979999.853503

!1Maximumheatingrate
4.19

!2Specificheatoffluid
0.0

!3Overalllosscoefficientforheaterduringoperation
1

!4Efficiencyofauxiliaryheater
INPUTS5
20,1

!Pump2:Outletfluidtemperature>Inletfluidtemperature
20,2

!Pump2:Outletflowrate>Fluidmassflowrate
25,2

!Thermostat2:Controlsignalfor2ndstageheating>ControlFunction
0,0

![unconnected]Setpointtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Temperatureofsurroundings
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.015520.0
*

301


*ModelIntegrator1(Type24)
*
UNIT22TYPE24 Integrator1
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator1
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION489475
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS1
21,5

!Boiler:Rateofenergydeliverytofluidstream>Inputtobeintegrated
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.0
*

*ModelIntegrator2(Type24)
*
UNIT23TYPE24 Integrator2
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator2
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION489534
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS1
SumPump12

!Sum:SumPump12>Inputtobeintegrated
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.0
*

*ModelStoragetank(Type4)
*
UNIT24TYPE4 Storagetank
*$UNIT_NAMEStoragetank
*$MODEL.\ThermalStorage\StratifiedStorageTank\VariableInlets\UniformLosses\Type4c.tmf
*$POSITION371328
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS22
2

!1Variableinletpositions
0.3

!2Tankvolume
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1000.0
!4Fluiddensity
2.52

!5Tanklosscoefficient
0.5

!6Heightofnode1
0.5

!7Heightofnode2
0.5

!8Heightofnode3
1

!9Auxiliaryheatermode
1

!10Nodecontainingheatingelement1
1

!11Nodecontainingthermostat1
60.0

!12Setpointtemperatureforelement1
5.0

!13Deadbandforheatingelement1
0

!14Maximumheatingrateofelement1
1

!15Nodecontainingheatingelement2
1

!16Nodecontainingthermostat2
60.0

!17Setpointtemperatureforelement2
5.0

!18Deadbandforheatingelement2
0

!19Maximumheatingrateofelement2

302

AppendixIV

0.0

!20Notused(FlueUA)
20.0

!21Notused(Tflue)
100.0

!22Boilingpoint
INPUTS7
21,1

!Boiler:Outletfluidtemperature>Hotsidetemperature
21,2

!Boiler:Outletfluidflowrate>Hotsideflowrate
16,1

!Hotel:Temperaturetoheatsource>Coldsidetemperature
16,2

!Hotel:Flowratetoheatsource>Coldsideflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Environmenttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement1
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
45.0100.020.0022.00.00.0
DERIVATIVES3
10

!1Initialtemperatureofnode1
10

!2Initialtemperatureofnode2
10

!3Initialtemperatureofnode3
*

*ModelThermostat2(Type8)
*
UNIT25TYPE8 Thermostat2
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat2
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION479264
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.0

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
65

!4Temperatureforcooling
60

!51ststageheatingtemperature
55

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
2

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
24,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelPump1(Type3)
*
UNIT26TYPE3 Pump1
*$UNIT_NAMEPump1
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION318267
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
59400

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
14565.599614

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
24,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Inletfluidtemperature
24,4

!Storagetank:Flowratetoload>Inletmassflowrate
17,2

!Thermostat1:Controlsignalfor2ndstageheating>Controlsignal

303

***INITIALINPUTVALUES
1250000
*
*EQUATIONSSum
EQUATIONS1
SumPump12=[26,3]+[20,3]
*$UNIT_NAMESum
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION399535

END

304

AppendixIV

Seawatercoolingsystem(SWC)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio

*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=3624
STOP=6192
STEP=0.027777778
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*
UNIT2TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf
*$POSITION137168
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
55

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Weather\Meteonorm\Europe\HRSplit133340.tm255
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

*ModelHotel(Type12)
*
UNIT3TYPE12 Hotel
*$UNIT_NAMEHotel
*$MODEL.\LoadsandStructures\SingleZoneModels\Energy(DegreeDay)SpaceLoad(Type12)\Temperature
LevelControl\Type12c.tmf
*$POSITION278168
*$LAYERMain#

305

PARAMETERS7
4

!1Temperaturelevelcontrol
125999.996662

!2Overallconductanceofhouse
1000000
!3Housethermalcapacitance
10

!4Initialroomtemperature
4.19

!5Specificheatofsourcefluid
7199.99981

!6EffectivenessCminproduct
0.23

!7Latentheatratio
INPUTS6
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletflowrate
2,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Internalgains
0,0

![unconnected]Auxiliaryheatinput
8,5

!Heatexchanger:Heattransferrate>Coolinginput
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00100.00.00.0
*

*ModelThermostat(Type8)
*
UNIT4TYPE8
Thermostat
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION458168
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
120

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
26

!4Temperatureforcooling
20

!51ststageheatingtemperature
20

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
0

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelSeawaterpump(Type3)
*
UNIT7TYPE3
Seawaterpump
*$UNIT_NAMESeawaterpump
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION135369
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS5
219203.997803

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
80639.997864

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal

306

AppendixIV

***INITIALINPUTVALUES
15100.01.0
*

*ModelColdwaterpump(Type3)
*
UNIT9TYPE3
Coldwaterpump
*$UNIT_NAMEColdwaterpump
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION133275
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
215100
!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
79127.997904

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
8,1

!Heatexchanger:Hotsideoutlettemperature>Inletfluidtemperature
8,2

!Heatexchanger:Hotsideflowrate>Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.01.0
*

*ModelHeatexchanger(Type5)
*
UNIT8TYPE5
Heatexchanger
*$UNIT_NAMEHeatexchanger
*$MODEL.\HeatExchangers\CounterFlow\Type5b.tmf
*$POSITION278349
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1Counterflowmode
4.19

!2Specificheatofhotsidefluid
4.19

!3Specificheatofcoldsidefluid
0

!4Notused
INPUTS5
0,0

![unconnected]Hotsideinlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Hotsideflowrate
7,1

!Seawaterpump:Outletfluidtemperature>Coldsideinlettemperature
7,2

!Seawaterpump:Outletflowrate>Coldsideflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Overallheattransfercoefficientofexchanger
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
1921510020.0100.0899999.976158
*

*EQUATIONSSum
*
EQUATIONS2
PSumm=[7,3]+[9,3]
QoSumm=[3,8]+[3,7]
*$UNIT_NAMESum
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION461253

307


*ModelIntegrator(Type24)
*
UNIT11TYPE24 Integrator
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION563253
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS3
8,5

!Heatexchanger:Heattransferrate>Inputtobeintegrated1
PSumm
!Sum:PSumm>Inputtobeintegrated2
QoSumm
!Sum:QoSumm>Inputtobeintegrated3
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.00.0
*

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT10TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION667253
*$LAYEROutputs#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
57

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode
0

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime
1

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS3
11,1

!Integrator:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted1
11,2

!Integrator:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted2
11,3

!Integrator:Resultofintegration3>Inputtobeprinted3
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
CollingEnergyOnHXPPumpCollingEnergyOnHouse
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEnergijeHladenja.out57
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring(Type65)
*
UNIT6TYPE65 Monitoring
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION660178
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables

308

AppendixIV

!3Leftaxisminimum
40

!4Leftaxismaximum
0

!5Rightaxisminimum
40

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
56

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS2
2,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TambTroom
LABELS3

Kuca
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNKucaHladenje.plt56
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring2(Type65)
*
UNIT13TYPE65 Monitoring2
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring2
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION276477
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
3

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0.0

!3Leftaxisminimum
30

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
30

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
58

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS3
8,3

!Heatexchanger:Coldsideoutlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
3,1

!Hotel:Temperaturetoheatsource>Leftaxisvariable2
8,1

!Heatexchanger:Hotsideoutlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable3
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TempMoreIzlazTempFromHotelTempToHotel
LABELS3

Izmjenjivac
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNTempIzmjenivac.plt58
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

END

309

Solarheatingsystem(SWCSH)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio

*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=0
STOP=8760
STEP=0.002777778
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelThermostat(Type8)
*
UNIT4TYPE8
Thermostat
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION417145
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.0

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
32

!4Temperatureforcooling
24

!51ststageheatingtemperature
21

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
0

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*
UNIT6TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf
*$POSITION173145

310

AppendixIV

*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
67

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Weather\Meteonorm\Europe\HRSplit133340.tm267
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

*ModelHotel(Type12)
*
UNIT3TYPE12 Hotel
*$UNIT_NAMEHotel
*$MODEL.\LoadsandStructures\SingleZoneModels\Energy(DegreeDay)SpaceLoad(Type12)\Temperature
LevelControl\Type12c.tmf
*$POSITION301145
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS7
4

!1Temperaturelevelcontrol
89999.997616

!2Overallconductanceofhouse
750000
!3Housethermalcapacitance
10

!4Initialroomtemperature
4.19

!5Specificheatofsourcefluid
142559.996223

!6EffectivenessCminproduct
0.23

!7Latentheatratio
INPUTS6
13,1

!Pump1:Outletfluidtemperature>Inlettemperature
13,2

!Pump1:Outletflowrate>Inletflowrate
6,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Internalgains
0,0

![unconnected]Auxiliaryheatinput
0,0

![unconnected]Coolinginput
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00100.00.00.0
*

*ModelStoragetank(Type4)
*
UNIT11TYPE4 Storagetank
*$UNIT_NAMEStoragetank
*$MODEL.\ThermalStorage\StratifiedStorageTank\VariableInlets\UniformLosses\Type4c.tmf
*$POSITION406325
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS22
2

!1Variableinletpositions
24

!2Tankvolume
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1000.0
!4Fluiddensity
2.52

!5Tanklosscoefficient
1

!6Heightofnode1
1

!7Heightofnode2
1

!8Heightofnode3

311

!9Auxiliaryheatermode
2

!10Nodecontainingheatingelement1
1

!11Nodecontainingthermostat1
42.5

!12Setpointtemperatureforelement1
0

!13Deadbandforheatingelement1
2519999.813549

!14Maximumheatingrateofelement1
1

!15Nodecontainingheatingelement2
1

!16Nodecontainingthermostat2
60.0

!17Setpointtemperatureforelement2
5.0

!18Deadbandforheatingelement2
0

!19Maximumheatingrateofelement2
0.0

!20Notused(FlueUA)
20.0

!21Notused(Tflue)
100.0

!22Boilingpoint
INPUTS7
12,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>Hotsidetemperature
12,2

!Solarcollectors:Outletflowrate>Hotsideflowrate
24,1

!Mixing2:Outlettemperature>Coldsidetemperature
24,2

!Mixing2:Outletflowrate>Coldsideflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Environmenttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement1
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
000022.010.0
DERIVATIVES3
12

!1Initialtemperatureofnode1
12

!2Initialtemperatureofnode2
12

!3Initialtemperatureofnode3
*

*ModelSolarcollectors(Type1)
*
UNIT12TYPE1 Solarcollectors
*$UNIT_NAMESolarcollectors
*$MODEL.\SolarThermalCollectors\QuadraticEfficiencyCollector\2ndOrderIncidenceAngle
Modifiers\Type1b.tmf
*$POSITION225305
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS11
1

!1Numberinseries
350

!2Collectorarea
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1

!4Efficiencymode
40.0

!5Testedflowrate
0.80

!6Interceptefficiency
13.0

!7Efficiencyslope
0.05

!8Efficiencycurvature
2

!9Opticalmode2
0.2

!101storderIAM
0.0

!112ndorderIAM
INPUTS9
15,1

!Pump2:Outletfluidtemperature>Inlettemperature
15,2

!Pump2:Outletflowrate>Inletflowrate
6,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
6,18

!TMY:totalradiationontiltedsurface>Incidentradiation
6,12

!TMY:totalradiationonhorizontal>Totalhorizontalradiation
6,14

!TMY:skydiffuseradiationonhorizontal>Horizontaldiffuseradiation
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
6,22

!TMY:angleofincidencefortiltedsurface>Incidenceangle
6,23

!TMY:slopeoftiltedsurface>Collectorslope

312

AppendixIV

***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0010.00.00.00.245.00.
*

*ModelMixingvalve(Type11)
*
UNIT22TYPE11 Mixingvalve
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingvalve
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TemperingValve\OtherFluids\Type11b.tmf
*$POSITION651369
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
4

!1Temperingvalvemode
7

!2Nb.ofoscillationsallowed
INPUTS4
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
21,1

!HistogramDHW:Averagevalueoffunction>Inletflowrate
11,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Heatsourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setpointtemperature
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10.0100040
*

*ModelMixing2(Type11)
*
UNIT24TYPE11 Mixing2
*$UNIT_NAMEMixing2
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TeePiece\OtherFluids\Type11h.tmf
*$POSITION546369
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS1
1

!1Teepiecemode
INPUTS4
3,1

!Hotel:Temperaturetoheatsource>Temperatureatinlet1
3,2

!Hotel:Flowratetoheatsource>Flowrateatinlet1
22,1

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet1>Temperatureatinlet2
22,2

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet1>Flowrateatinlet2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.020.0100.0
*

*ModelRegulator(Type2)
*
UNIT18TYPE2 Regulator
*$UNIT_NAMERegulator
*$MODEL.\Controllers\DifferentialControllerw_Hysteresis\forTemperatures\Solver0(SuccessiveSubstitution)
ControlStrategy\Type2b.tmf
*$POSITION132390
*$LAYERMain#
*$#NOTE:Thiscontrolstrategycanonlybeusedwithsolver0(Successivesubstitution)
*$#
PARAMETERS2
5

!1No.ofoscillations
100.0

!2Highlimitcutout
INPUTS6
12,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>UpperinputtemperatureTh
11,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>LowerinputtemperatureTl
11,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>MonitoringtemperatureTin
18,1

!Regulator:Outputcontrolfunction>Inputcontrolfunction
0,0

![unconnected]UpperdeadbanddT

313

0,0

![unconnected]LowerdeadbanddT
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
602020010.02.0
*

*EQUATIONSSum
*
EQUATIONS1
Mout=[11,4][13,2]
*$UNIT_NAMESum
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION558267

*ModelMixing1(Type11)
*
UNIT23TYPE11 Mixing1
*$UNIT_NAMEMixing1
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TeePiece\OtherFluids\Type11h.tmf
*$POSITION651305
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS1
1

!1Teepiecemode
INPUTS4
11,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Temperatureatinlet1
Mout

!Sum:Mout>Flowrateatinlet1
22,3

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet2>Temperatureatinlet2
22,4

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet2>Flowrateatinlet2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.020.0100.0
*

*ModelPump1(Type3)
*
UNIT13TYPE3 Pump1
*$UNIT_NAMEPump1
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION352244
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
50400

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
18539.999509

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
11,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Inletfluidtemperature
11,4

!Storagetank:Flowratetoload>Inletmassflowrate
4,2

!Thermostat:Controlsignalfor2ndstageheating>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
1250000
*

*EQUATIONSSum2
*
EQUATIONS1
SumPump12=[13,3]+[15,3]
*$UNIT_NAMESum2

314

AppendixIV

*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION397546

*ModelPump2(Type3)
*
UNIT15TYPE3 Pump2
*$UNIT_NAMEPump2
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION90305
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
10800

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
2915.999923

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
11,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Inletfluidtemperature
11,2

!Storagetank:Flowratetoheatsource>Inletmassflowrate
18,1

!Regulator:Outputcontrolfunction>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10100.01.0
*

*ModelIntegrator2(Type24)
*
UNIT9TYPE24 Integrator2
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator2
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION553546
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS3
SumPump12

!Sum2:SumPump12>Inputtobeintegrated1
23,2

!Mixing1:Outletflowrate>Inputtobeintegrated2
3,5

!Hotel:HeattransferrateacrossHX>Inputtobeintegrated3
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.00.0
*

*ModelIntegrator1(Type24)
*
UNIT10TYPE24 Integrator1
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator1
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION553465
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS2
11,8

!Storagetank:Auxiliaryheatingrate>Inputtobeintegrated1
12,3

!Solarcollectors:Usefulenergygain>Inputtobeintegrated2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.0

315

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT17TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION680505
*$LAYEROutputs#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
69

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode
0

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime
1

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS5
10,1

!Integrator1:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted1
9,1

!Integrator2:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted2
10,2

!Integrator1:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted3
9,2

!Integrator2:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted4
9,3

!Integrator2:Resultofintegration3>Inputtobeprinted5
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
AuxHeaterEnergyPumpEnergyEnergyFromCollPTVConsumption_kgHeatTransferedToHouse

***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEnergyConsumptionSustav1.out69
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring1(Type65)
*
UNIT19TYPE65 Monitoring1
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring1
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithoutFile\Type65d.tmf
*$POSITION684126
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
10

!3Leftaxisminimum
30

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
50

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
1

!10Logicalunitforoutputfile
0

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS2
6,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TambTroom
LABELS3

316

AppendixIV

House
*

*ModelMonitoring2(Type65)
*
UNIT20TYPE65 Monitoring2
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring2
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithoutFile\Type65d.tmf
*$POSITION135522
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
6

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
5

!3Leftaxisminimum
60

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
1000.0
!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
1

!10Logicalunitforoutputfile
0

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS6
11,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Leftaxisvariable1
11,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Leftaxisvariable2
11,12

!Storagetank:Averagetanktemperature>Leftaxisvariable3
11,13

!Storagetank:Temperatureofnode1+>Leftaxisvariable4
12,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable5
23,1

!Mixing1:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable6
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TToHeatSourceTToLoadTAverageTankTMidleTankTFromCollTToConsumers

LABELS3

Graph1
*

*ModelHistogramDHW(Type14)
*
UNIT21TYPE14 HistogramDHW
*$UNIT_NAMEHistogramDHW
*$MODEL.\Utility\ForcingFunctions\General\Type14h.tmf
*$POSITION675211
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS44
0

!1Initialvalueoftime
50

!2Initialvalueoffunction
1

!3Timeatpoint1
100

!4Valueatpoint1
4

!5Timeatpoint2
150

!6Valueatpoint2
5

!7Timeatpoint3
100

!8Valueatpoint3
6

!9Timeatpoint4
1500

!10Valueatpoint4
7

!11Timeatpoint5

317

2000

!12Valueatpoint5
8

!13Timeatpoint6
2500

!14Valueatpoint6
9

!15Timeatpoint7
3000

!16Valueatpoint7
10

!17Timeatpoint8
2000

!18Valueatpoint8
11

!19Timeatpoint9
500

!20Valueatpoint9
13

!21Timeatpoint10
500

!22Valueatpoint10
14

!23Timeatpoint11
750

!24Valueatpoint11
15

!25Timeatpoint12
1000

!26Valueatpoint12
16

!27Timeatpoint13
1250

!28Valueatpoint13
17

!29Timeatpoint14
2000

!30Valueatpoint14
18

!31Timeatpoint15
2500

!32Valueatpoint15
19

!33Timeatpoint16
3000

!34Valueatpoint16
20

!35Timeatpoint17
1500

!36Valueatpoint17
21

!37Timeatpoint18
1000

!38Valueatpoint18
22

!39Timeatpoint19
500

!40Valueatpoint19
23

!41Timeatpoint20
250

!42Valueatpoint20
24

!43Timeatpoint21
50

!44Valueatpoint21
*

END

318

AppendixIV

Chillerseawatercooledcondenser(HPS)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio
*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=3624
STOP=6192
STEP=0.013888889
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*
UNIT2TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf
*$POSITION116128
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
59

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Weather\Meteonorm\Europe\HRSplit133340.tm259
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

*ModelHotel(Type12)
*
UNIT3TYPE12 Hotel
*$UNIT_NAMEHotel
*$MODEL.\LoadsandStructures\SingleZoneModels\Energy(DegreeDay)SpaceLoad(Type12)\Temperature
LevelControl\Type12c.tmf
*$POSITION269128
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS7

319

!1Temperaturelevelcontrol
125999.996662

!2Overallconductanceofhouse
750000
!3Housethermalcapacitance
10

!4Initialroomtemperature
4.19

!5Specificheatofsourcefluid
3599.999905

!6EffectivenessCminproduct
0.23

!7Latentheatratio
INPUTS6
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletflowrate
2,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Internalgains
0,0

![unconnected]Auxiliaryheatinput
12,5

!Chillers:Chilledwaterload>Coolinginput
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00100.00.00.0
*

*ModelMonitoring1(Type65)
*
UNIT13TYPE65 Monitoring1
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring1
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION513118
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
10

!3Leftaxisminimum
40

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
6

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
63

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS2
2,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TambTroom
LABELS3

Graph1
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNHouse.plt63
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*EQUATIONSSum
*
EQUATIONS2
PSumm=[7,3]+[8,3]
QoSumm=[3,8]+[3,7]
*$UNIT_NAMESum
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION443213

320

AppendixIV

*ModelThermostat(Type8)
*
UNIT4TYPE8
Thermostat
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION404128
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.00

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
26

!4Temperatureforcooling
21

!51ststageheatingtemperature
15

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
0

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelIntegrator(Type24)
*
UNIT10TYPE24 Integrator
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION552213
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS4
PSumm
!Sum:PSumm>Inputtobeintegrated1
12,6

!Chillers:Totalchillerpower>Inputtobeintegrated2
12,5

!Chillers:Chilledwaterload>Inputtobeintegrated3
QoSumm
!Sum:QoSumm>Inputtobeintegrated4
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.00.00.0
*

*ModelPumpcoldwater(Type3)
*
UNIT8TYPE3
Pumpcoldwater
*$UNIT_NAMEPumpcoldwater
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION210235
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
90000

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
33109.199123

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient

321

INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.01.0
*

*ModelSeawaterpump(Type3)
*
UNIT7TYPE3
Seawaterpump
*$UNIT_NAMESeawaterpump
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION182352
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
130000
!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
45982.798782

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20100.01.0
*

*ModelChillers(Type53)
*
UNIT12TYPE53 Chillers
*$UNIT_NAMEChillers
*$MODEL.\HVAC\ParallelChillers\Type53.tmf
*$POSITION268299
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS11
0.85

!1Overallmotorefficiency
539999.960046

!2Singlechillercapacity
1799.999867

!3Chillersurgelimit
62

!4Logicalunit
21

!5Numberofdatapoints
169343.990766

!6Designloadfordata
32.5

!7Designtemperaturedifference
15.16

!8Designpowerconsumption
4.190

!9Condenserwaterspecificheat
4.190

!10Evaporatorwaterspecificheat
1

!11Printindicator
INPUTS6
0,0

![unconnected]Chilledwatersettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Evaporatorinlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Evaporatorflowrate
7,1

!Seawaterpump:Outletfluidtemperature>Condenserinlettemperature
7,2

!Seawaterpump:Outletflowrate>Condenserflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Numberofoperatingchillers
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
71290000005
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNChillerTraneEXWA240WToW.dat62
*|?Whichfilecontainsthechillerperformancedata?|1000

322

AppendixIV

*ModelMonitoring2(Type65)
*
UNIT14TYPE65 Monitoring2
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring2
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION439342
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
1

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0.0

!3Leftaxisminimum
30

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
10

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
64

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS3
12,1

!Chillers:Evaporatoroutlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
12,3

!Chillers:Condenseroutlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
12,8

!Chillers:COP>Rightaxisvariable
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
EvaporatorCondenserCOP
LABELS3
Temperatures
Heattransferrates
COP
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEvap.plt64
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT9TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION633213
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
61

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode
0

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime
1

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS4
10,3

!Integrator:Resultofintegration3>Inputtobeprinted1
10,1

!Integrator:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted2
10,2

!Integrator:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted3
10,4

!Integrator:Resultofintegration4>Inputtobeprinted4

323

***INITIALINPUTVALUES
CollingEnergyEvapPPumpPChillerCollingEnergyHouse
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEnergijeHladenja.out61
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*

END

324

AppendixIV

Heatpumpheatingsystem(HPS)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio
*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=0
STOP=8760
STEP=0.027777778
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS
EQUATIONS1
STARTDAY=INT(START/24)+1
SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*

UNIT20TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf
*$POSITION84117
*$LAYERWeatherDataFiles#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
54

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Weather\Meteonorm\Europe\HRSplit133340.tm254
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

*ModelThermostat1(Type8)
*
UNIT4TYPE8
Thermostat1
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat1
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION393123
*$LAYERMain#

325

PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.0

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
32

!4Temperatureforcooling
26

!51ststageheatingtemperature
21

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
0

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelThermostat2(Type8)
*
UNIT31TYPE8 Thermostat2
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat2
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION396221
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.0

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
70

!4Temperatureforcooling
50

!51ststageheatingtemperature
42

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
0

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
29,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.000
*

*ModelHotel(Type12)
*
UNIT3TYPE12 Hotel
*$UNIT_NAMEHotel
*$MODEL.\LoadsandStructures\SingleZoneModels\Energy(DegreeDay)SpaceLoad(Type12)\Temperature
LevelControl\Type12c.tmf
*$POSITION212117
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS7
4

!1Temperaturelevelcontrol
89999.997616

!2Overallconductanceofhouse
7500000
!3Housethermalcapacitance
10

!4Initialroomtemperature
4.19

!5Specificheatofsourcefluid
68745.598179

!6EffectivenessCminproduct
0.23

!7Latentheatratio
INPUTS6
34,1

!Pump1:Outletfluidtemperature>Inlettemperature
34,2

!Pump1:Outletflowrate>Inletflowrate

326

AppendixIV

20,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Internalgains
0,0

![unconnected]Auxiliaryheatinput
0,0

![unconnected]Coolinginput
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00100.00.00.0
*

*ModelPump2(Type3)
*
UNIT27TYPE3 Pump2
*$UNIT_NAMEPump2
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION396371
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
169999.996948

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
41691.598896

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
29,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Inletfluidtemperature
29,2

!Storagetank:Flowratetoheatsource>Inletmassflowrate
31,2

!Thermostat2:Controlsignalfor2ndstageheating>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.01
*

*ModelPump(Type3)
*
UNIT32TYPE3 Pump
*$UNIT_NAMEPump
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION590415
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
119999.995422

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
44143.198831

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
31,2

!Thermostat2:Controlsignalfor2ndstageheating>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
12100.01
*

*ModelHeatpump(Type53)
*
UNIT28TYPE53 Heatpump
*$UNIT_NAMEHeatpump
*$MODEL.\HVAC\ParallelChillers\TYPE53.tmf
*$POSITION492371
*$LAYERMain#
*$#
*$#
*$#

327

*$#
PARAMETERS11
0.85

!1Overallmotorefficiency
539999.960046

!2Singlechillercapacity
35999.997336

!3Chillersurgelimit
60

!4Logicalunit
10

!5Numberofdatapoints
186731.982339

!6Designloadfordata
42

!7Designtemperaturedifference
22.68

!8Designpowerconsumption
4.190

!9Condenserwaterspecificheat
4.190

!10Evaporatorwaterspecificheat
1

!11Printindicator
INPUTS6
0,0

![unconnected]Chilledwatersettemperature
32,1

!Pump:Outletfluidtemperature>Evaporatorinlettemperature
32,2

!Pump:Outletflowrate>Evaporatorflowrate
27,1

!Pump2:Outletfluidtemperature>Condenserinlettemperature
27,2

!Pump2:Outletflowrate>Condenserflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Numberofoperatingchillers
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
900008
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNHeatPumpTraneEXWA240WToW.dat60
*|?Whichfilecontainsthechillerperformancedata?|1000
*

*ModelStoragetank(Type4)
*
UNIT29TYPE4 Storagetank
*$UNIT_NAMEStoragetank
*$MODEL.\ThermalStorage\StratifiedStorageTank\VariableInlets\UniformLosses\Type4c.tmf
*$POSITION316309
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS22
2

!1Variableinletpositions
400

!2Tankvolume
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1000.0
!4Fluiddensity
2.52

!5Tanklosscoefficient
0.5

!6Heightofnode1
0.5

!7Heightofnode2
0.5

!8Heightofnode3
1

!9Auxiliaryheatermode
1

!10Nodecontainingheatingelement1
1

!11Nodecontainingthermostat1
60.0

!12Setpointtemperatureforelement1
5.0

!13Deadbandforheatingelement1
0

!14Maximumheatingrateofelement1
1

!15Nodecontainingheatingelement2
1

!16Nodecontainingthermostat2
60.0

!17Setpointtemperatureforelement2
5.0

!18Deadbandforheatingelement2
0

!19Maximumheatingrateofelement2
0.0

!20Notused(FlueUA)
20.0

!21Notused(Tflue)
100.0

!22Boilingpoint
INPUTS7
28,3

!Heatpump:Condenseroutlettemperature>Hotsidetemperature
28,4

!Heatpump:Condenseroutletflowrate>Hotsideflowrate

328

AppendixIV

3,1

!Hotel:Temperaturetoheatsource>Coldsidetemperature
3,2

!Hotel:Flowratetoheatsource>Coldsideflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Environmenttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement1
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
000022.00.00.0
DERIVATIVES3
40

!1Initialtemperatureofnode1
40

!2Initialtemperatureofnode2
40

!3Initialtemperatureofnode3
*

*ModelPump1(Type3)
*
UNIT34TYPE3 Pump1
*$UNIT_NAMEPump1
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION266232
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
180000
!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
58269.598456

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
29,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Inletfluidtemperature
29,4

!Storagetank:Flowratetoload>Inletmassflowrate
4,2

!Thermostat1:Controlsignalfor2ndstageheating>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.00
*

*EQUATIONSSum
*
EQUATIONS1
SumPump=[34,3]+[32,3]+[27,1]
*$UNIT_NAMESum
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION358477

*ModelIntegrator(Type24)
*
UNIT14TYPE24 Integrator
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION436477
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS2
SumPump

!Sum:SumPump>Inputtobeintegrated1
28,6

!Heatpump:Totalchillerpower>Inputtobeintegrated2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.0
*

329


*ModelMonitoring(Type65)
*
UNIT12TYPE65 Monitoring
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithoutFile\Type65d.tmf
*$POSITION546125
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
5

!3Leftaxisminimum
30

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
8

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
1

!10Logicalunitforoutputfile
0

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS2
20,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TambTHouse
LABELS3

gr
*

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT13TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION535477
*$LAYEROutputs#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
61

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode
0

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime
1

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS2
14,1

!Integrator:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted1
14,2

!Integrator:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
QPumpQChiller
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEnergy.out61
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*
END

330

AppendixIV

Solarabsorptioncoolingsystem+domestichotwater(ACS)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio
*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=2520
STOP=6936
STEP=0.027777778
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*
UNIT17TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf
*$POSITION10283
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
68

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Weather\Meteonorm\Europe\HRSplit133340.tm268
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

*ModelHotel(Type12)
*
UNIT3TYPE12 Hotel
*$UNIT_NAMEHotel
*$MODEL.\LoadsandStructures\SingleZoneModels\Energy(DegreeDay)SpaceLoad(Type12)\Temperature
LevelControl\Type12c.tmf
*$POSITION22683
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS7

331

!1Temperaturelevelcontrol
125999.996662

!2Overallconductanceofhouse
750000
!3Housethermalcapacitance
10

!4Initialroomtemperature
4.19

!5Specificheatofsourcefluid
3599.999905

!6EffectivenessCminproduct
0.23

!7Latentheatratio
INPUTS6
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletflowrate
17,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Internalgains
0,0

![unconnected]Auxiliaryheatinput
12,7

!Absorptionchiller:Chilledwaterenergy>Coolinginput
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00100.00.00.0
*

*ModelThermostat(Type8)
*
UNIT4TYPE8
Thermostat
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION36183
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.00

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
26

!4Temperatureforcooling
21

!51ststageheatingtemperature
21

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
0

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelPump1(Type3)
*
UNIT8TYPE3
Pump1
*$UNIT_NAMEPump1
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION274168
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
86400

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
31784.399158

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES

332

AppendixIV

20.0100.01.0
*

*ModelPump3(Type3)
*
UNIT7TYPE3
Pump3
*$UNIT_NAMEPump3
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION135340
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
180000
!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
44143.198831

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20100.01.0
*

*ModelBoiler(Type6)
*
UNIT22TYPE6 Boiler
*$UNIT_NAMEBoiler
*$MODEL.\HVAC\AuxiliaryHeaters\Type6.tmf
*$POSITION326307
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS4
3419999.74696

!1Maximumheatingrate
4.19

!2Specificheatoffluid
0.0

!3Overalllosscoefficientforheaterduringoperation
1.0

!4Efficiencyofauxiliaryheater
INPUTS5
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Inletfluidtemperature
18,4

!Storagetank:Flowratetoload>Fluidmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>ControlFunction
0,0

![unconnected]Setpointtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Temperatureofsurroundings
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00190.020.0
*

*ModelPump2(Type3)
*
UNIT20TYPE3 Pump2
*$UNIT_NAMEPump2
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION432341
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS5
90000

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
22071.599415

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3

333

12,5

!Absorptionchiller:Hotwateroutlettemperature>Inletfluidtemperature
12,6

!Absorptionchiller:Hotwaterflowrate>Inletmassflowrate
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.01.0
*

*ModelAbsorptionchiller(Type107)
*
UNIT12TYPE107 Absorptionchiller
*$UNIT_NAMEAbsorptionchiller
*$MODEL.\HVAC\AbsorptionChiller(HotWaterFired,SingleEffect)\Type107.tmf
*$POSITION225244
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS11
5380000
!1Ratedcapacity
0.53

!2RatedC.O.P.
65

!3LogicalunitforS1datafile
5

!4NumberofHWtemperaturesinS1datafile
3

!5NumberofCWstepsinS1datafile
7

!6NumberofCHWsetpointsinS1datafile
11

!7NumberofloadfractionsinS1datafile
4.190

!8HWfluidspecificheat
4.190

!9CHWfluidspecificheat
4.190

!10CWfluidspecificheat
20000.0
!11Auxiliaryelectricalpower
INPUTS8
0,0

![unconnected]Chilledwaterinlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Chilledwaterflowrate
7,1

!Pump3:Outletfluidtemperature>Coolingwaterinlettemperature
7,2

!Pump3:Outletflowrate>Coolingwaterflowrate
22,1

!Boiler:Outletfluidtemperature>Hotwaterinlettemperature
22,2

!Boiler:Outletfluidflowrate>Hotwaterflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]CHWsetpoint
4,3

!Thermostat:Controlsignalforcooling>Chillercontrolsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
1286400000071.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Examples\DataFiles\Type107HotWaterFiredAbsorptionChiller.dat65
*|?Filewithfractionofdesignenergyinputdata|1000
*

*ModelSolarcollectors(Type1)
*
UNIT15TYPE1 Solarcollectors
*$UNIT_NAMESolarcollectors
*$MODEL.\SolarThermalCollectors\QuadraticEfficiencyCollector\2ndOrderIncidenceAngle
Modifiers\Type1b.tmf
*$POSITION159414
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS11
1

!1Numberinseries
2000

!2Collectorarea
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1

!4Efficiencymode
40.0

!5Testedflowrate
0.80

!6Interceptefficiency
13.0

!7Efficiencyslope
0.05

!8Efficiencycurvature
2

!9Opticalmode2

334

AppendixIV

0.2

!101storderIAM
0.0

!112ndorderIAM
INPUTS9
16,1

!Pump4:Outletfluidtemperature>Inlettemperature
16,2

!Pump4:Outletflowrate>Inletflowrate
17,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
17,18

!TMY:totalradiationontiltedsurface>Incidentradiation
17,12

!TMY:totalradiationonhorizontal>Totalhorizontalradiation
17,14

!TMY:skydiffuseradiationonhorizontal>Horizontaldiffuseradiation
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
17,22

!TMY:angleofincidencefortiltedsurface>Incidenceangle
17,23

!TMY:slopeoftiltedsurface>Collectorslope
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0000.00.00.245.00.
*

*ModelPump4(Type3)
*
UNIT16TYPE3 Pump4
*$UNIT_NAMEPump4
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION52414
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
90000

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
14713.19961

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
18,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Inletfluidtemperature
18,2

!Storagetank:Flowratetoheatsource>Inletmassflowrate
19,1

!Regulator:Outputcontrolfunction>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10100.01.0
*

*ModelStoragetank(Type4)
*
UNIT18TYPE4 Storagetank
*$UNIT_NAMEStoragetank
*$MODEL.\ThermalStorage\StratifiedStorageTank\VariableInlets\UniformLosses\Type4c.tmf
*$POSITION286434
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS22
2

!1Variableinletpositions
200

!2Tankvolume
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1000.0
!4Fluiddensity
2.52

!5Tanklosscoefficient
2

!6Heightofnode1
2

!7Heightofnode2
2

!8Heightofnode3
1

!9Auxiliaryheatermode
2

!10Nodecontainingheatingelement1
1

!11Nodecontainingthermostat1
70

!12Setpointtemperatureforelement1
0

!13Deadbandforheatingelement1
0

!14Maximumheatingrateofelement1
2

!15Nodecontainingheatingelement2

335

!16Nodecontainingthermostat2
60.0

!17Setpointtemperatureforelement2
5.0

!18Deadbandforheatingelement2
0

!19Maximumheatingrateofelement2
0.0

!20Notused(FlueUA)
20.0

!21Notused(Tflue)
150

!22Boilingpoint
INPUTS7
15,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>Hotsidetemperature
15,2

!Solarcollectors:Outletflowrate>Hotsideflowrate
27,1

!Mixingpoint1:Outlettemperature>Coldsidetemperature
27,2

!Mixingpoint1:Outletflowrate>Coldsideflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Environmenttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement1
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
000022.000
DERIVATIVES3
10

!1Initialtemperatureofnode1
10

!2Initialtemperatureofnode2
10

!3Initialtemperatureofnode3
*

*ModelRegulator(Type2)
*
UNIT19TYPE2 Regulator
*$UNIT_NAMERegulator
*$MODEL.\Controllers\DifferentialControllerw_Hysteresis\forTemperatures\Solver0(SuccessiveSubstitution)
ControlStrategy\Type2b.tmf
*$POSITION96493
*$LAYERMain#
*$#NOTE:Thiscontrolstrategycanonlybeusedwithsolver0(Successivesubstitution)
*$#
PARAMETERS2
5

!1No.ofoscillations
100.0

!2Highlimitcutout
INPUTS6
15,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>UpperinputtemperatureTh
18,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>LowerinputtemperatureTl
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>MonitoringtemperatureTin
19,1

!Regulator:Outputcontrolfunction>Inputcontrolfunction
0,0

![unconnected]UpperdeadbanddT
0,0

![unconnected]LowerdeadbanddT
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
602020010.02.0
*

*EQUATIONSSum1
*
EQUATIONS2
PPumpSum=[7,3]+[8,3]+[20,3]+[16,3]
QoSum=[3,8]+[3,7]
*$UNIT_NAMESum1
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION459168

336

AppendixIV

*ModelIntegrator(Type24)
*
UNIT10TYPE24 Integrator
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION555167
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS7
PPumpSum

!Sum1:PPumpSum>Inputtobeintegrated1
12,9

!Absorptionchiller:Hotwaterenergy>Inputtobeintegrated2
15,3

!Solarcollectors:Usefulenergygain>Inputtobeintegrated3
12,7

!Absorptionchiller:Chilledwaterenergy>Inputtobeintegrated4
QoSum
!Sum1:QoSum>Inputtobeintegrated5
12,10

!Absorptionchiller:Electricalenergyrequired>Inputtobeintegrated6
22,5

!Boiler:Rateofenergydeliverytofluidstream>Inputtobeintegrated7
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
*

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT9TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION662168
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
61

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode
0

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime
1

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS7
10,4

!Integrator:Resultofintegration4>Inputtobeprinted1
10,1

!Integrator:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted2
10,2

!Integrator:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted3
10,5

!Integrator:Resultofintegration5>Inputtobeprinted4
10,3

!Integrator:Resultofintegration3>Inputtobeprinted5
10,6

!Integrator:Resultofintegration6>Inputtobeprinted6
10,7

!Integrator:Resultofintegration7>Inputtobeprinted7
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
CollingEnergyEvapPPumpHotWaterEnergyChillerCollingEnergyHouse
EnergyFromCollElecticalEnergyRequiChillerAuxHeaterEnergy
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEnergijeHladenjaApsorp.out61
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring1(Type65)
*
UNIT21TYPE65 Monitoring1
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring1

337

*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithoutFile\Type65d.tmf
*$POSITION54683
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0.0

!3Leftaxisminimum
40

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
1000.0
!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
1

!10Logicalunitforoutputfile
0

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS2
17,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
AmbientAverage
LABELS3

House
*

*ModelMonitoring3(Type65)
*
UNIT23TYPE65 Monitoring3
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring3
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithoutFile\Type65d.tmf
*$POSITION361553
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
6

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0.0

!3Leftaxisminimum
150

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
1000.0
!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
1

!10Logicalunitforoutputfile
0

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS6
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Leftaxisvariable1
18,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Leftaxisvariable2
18,12

!Storagetank:Averagetanktemperature>Leftaxisvariable3
18,13

!Storagetank:Temperatureofnode1+>Leftaxisvariable4
15,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable5
28,1

!Mixingpoint2:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable6
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TToLoadTToCollTTankAverageTTankMidleTCollOutTToConsumers
LABELS3

Collector

338

AppendixIV

*ModelMonitoring2(Type65)
*
UNIT24TYPE65 Monitoring2
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring2
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithoutFile\Type65d.tmf
*$POSITION662244
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
3

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0.0

!3Leftaxisminimum
110

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
1000.0
!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
1

!10Logicalunitforoutputfile
0

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS3
12,1

!Absorptionchiller:Chilledwatertemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
12,3

!Absorptionchiller:Coolingwatertemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
12,5

!Absorptionchiller:Hotwateroutlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable3
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
ChilledCoolingHot
LABELS3

Absorption
*

*ModelHistogramDHW(Type14)
*
UNIT25TYPE14 HistogramDHW
*$UNIT_NAMEHistogramDHW
*$MODEL.\Utility\ForcingFunctions\General\Type14h.tmf
*$POSITION657500
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS44
0

!1Initialvalueoftime
100

!2Initialvalueoffunction
1

!3Timeatpoint1
200

!4Valueatpoint1
4

!5Timeatpoint2
300

!6Valueatpoint2
5

!7Timeatpoint3
200

!8Valueatpoint3
6

!9Timeatpoint4
3000

!10Valueatpoint4
7

!11Timeatpoint5
4000

!12Valueatpoint5
8

!13Timeatpoint6
5000

!14Valueatpoint6
9

!15Timeatpoint7
6000

!16Valueatpoint7
10

!17Timeatpoint8
4000

!18Valueatpoint8

339

11

!19Timeatpoint9
1000

!20Valueatpoint9
13

!21Timeatpoint10
1000

!22Valueatpoint10
14

!23Timeatpoint11
1500

!24Valueatpoint11
15

!25Timeatpoint12
2000

!26Valueatpoint12
16

!27Timeatpoint13
2500

!28Valueatpoint13
17

!29Timeatpoint14
4000

!30Valueatpoint14
18

!31Timeatpoint15
5000

!32Valueatpoint15
19

!33Timeatpoint16
6000

!34Valueatpoint16
20

!35Timeatpoint17
3000

!36Valueatpoint17
21

!37Timeatpoint18
2000

!38Valueatpoint18
22

!39Timeatpoint19
1000

!40Valueatpoint19
23

!41Timeatpoint20
500

!42Valueatpoint20
24

!43Timeatpoint21
100

!44Valueatpoint21
*

*ModelMixingvalve(Type11)
*
UNIT26TYPE11 Mixingvalve
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingvalve
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TemperingValve\OtherFluids\Type11b.tmf
*$POSITION534500
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
4

!1Temperingvalvemode
7

!2Nb.ofoscillationsallowed
INPUTS4
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletflowrate
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Heatsourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setpointtemperature
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10.0100040
*

*ModelMixingpoint1(Type11)
*
UNIT27TYPE11 Mixingpoint1
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingpoint1
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TeePiece\OtherFluids\Type11h.tmf
*$POSITION432500
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS1
1

!1Teepiecemode
INPUTS4
20,1

!Pump2:Outletfluidtemperature>Temperatureatinlet1
20,2

!Pump2:Outletflowrate>Flowrateatinlet1
26,1

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet1>Temperatureatinlet2

340

AppendixIV

26,2

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet1>Flowrateatinlet2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.020.0100.0
*

*ModelMixingpoint2(Type11)
*
UNIT28TYPE11 Mixingpoint2
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingpoint2
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TeePiece\OtherFluids\Type11h.tmf
*$POSITION534414
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS1
1

!1Teepiecemode
INPUTS4
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Temperatureatinlet1
Mout

!Sum2:Mout>Flowrateatinlet1
26,3

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet2>Temperatureatinlet2
26,4

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet2>Flowrateatinlet2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.020.0100.0
*

*EQUATIONSSum2
*
EQUATIONS1
Mout=[18,4][20,2]
*$UNIT_NAMESum2
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION535341

END

341

Solarheatingsystem+domestichotwater(ACS)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio
*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=0
STOP=2520
STEP=0.005555556
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*

UNIT17TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf
*$POSITION10883
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
68

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Weather\Meteonorm\Europe\HRSplit133340.tm268
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

*ModelHotel(Type12)
*
UNIT3TYPE12 Hotel
*$UNIT_NAMEHotel
*$MODEL.\LoadsandStructures\SingleZoneModels\Energy(DegreeDay)SpaceLoad(Type12)\Temperature
LevelControl\Type12c.tmf
*$POSITION22683
*$LAYERMain#

342

AppendixIV

PARAMETERS7
4

!1Temperaturelevelcontrol
89999.997616

!2Overallconductanceofhouse
750000
!3Housethermalcapacitance
10

!4Initialroomtemperature
4.19

!5Specificheatofsourcefluid
68745.598179

!6EffectivenessCminproduct
0.23

!7Latentheatratio
INPUTS6
20,1

!Pump1:Outletfluidtemperature>Inlettemperature
20,2

!Pump1:Outletflowrate>Inletflowrate
17,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Internalgains
0,0

![unconnected]Auxiliaryheatinput
0,0

![unconnected]Coolinginput
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
00100.00.00.0
*

*ModelHistogramDHW(Type14)
*
UNIT22TYPE14 HistogramDHW
*$UNIT_NAMEHistogramDHW
*$MODEL.\Utility\ForcingFunctions\General\Type14h.tmf
*$POSITION681498
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS44
0

!1Initialvalueoftime
50

!2Initialvalueoffunction
1

!3Timeatpoint1
100

!4Valueatpoint1
4

!5Timeatpoint2
150

!6Valueatpoint2
5

!7Timeatpoint3
100

!8Valueatpoint3
6

!9Timeatpoint4
1500

!10Valueatpoint4
7

!11Timeatpoint5
2000

!12Valueatpoint5
8

!13Timeatpoint6
2500

!14Valueatpoint6
9

!15Timeatpoint7
3000

!16Valueatpoint7
10

!17Timeatpoint8
2000

!18Valueatpoint8
11

!19Timeatpoint9
500

!20Valueatpoint9
13

!21Timeatpoint10
500

!22Valueatpoint10
14

!23Timeatpoint11
750

!24Valueatpoint11
15

!25Timeatpoint12
1000

!26Valueatpoint12
16

!27Timeatpoint13
1250

!28Valueatpoint13
17

!29Timeatpoint14
2000

!30Valueatpoint14
18

!31Timeatpoint15
2500

!32Valueatpoint15
19

!33Timeatpoint16

343

3000

!34Valueatpoint16
20

!35Timeatpoint17
1500

!36Valueatpoint17
21

!37Timeatpoint18
1000

!38Valueatpoint18
22

!39Timeatpoint19
500

!40Valueatpoint19
23

!41Timeatpoint20
250

!42Valueatpoint20
24

!43Timeatpoint21
50

!44Valueatpoint21
*

*ModelThermostat(Type8)
*
UNIT4TYPE8
Thermostat
*$UNIT_NAMEThermostat
*$MODEL.\Controllers\3StageRoomThermostat\w_heatingsetbackandtempdeadband\Type8b.tmf
*$POSITION36183
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS8
5

!1Nb.ofoscillationspermitted
0

!21ststageheatingin2ndstage?
20.00

!3Minimumprimarysourcetemperature
35

!4Temperatureforcooling
21

!51ststageheatingtemperature
21

!62ndstageheatingtemperature
0

!7Heatingsetbacktemperaturedifference
0

!8Temperaturedeadband
INPUTS3
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Roomtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]1ststagesourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setbackcontrolfunction
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0300
*

*ModelSolarcollectors(Type1)
*
UNIT15TYPE1 Solarcollectors
*$UNIT_NAMESolarcollectors
*$MODEL.\SolarThermalCollectors\QuadraticEfficiencyCollector\2ndOrderIncidenceAngle
Modifiers\Type1b.tmf
*$POSITION136412
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS11
1

!1Numberinseries
1500

!2Collectorarea
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1

!4Efficiencymode
40.0

!5Testedflowrate
0.80

!6Interceptefficiency
13.0

!7Efficiencyslope
0.05

!8Efficiencycurvature
2

!9Opticalmode2
0.2

!101storderIAM
0.0

!112ndorderIAM
INPUTS9
16,1

!Pump2:Outletfluidtemperature>Inlettemperature
16,2

!Pump2:Outletflowrate>Inletflowrate

344

AppendixIV

17,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
17,18

!TMY:totalradiationontiltedsurface>Incidentradiation
17,12

!TMY:totalradiationonhorizontal>Totalhorizontalradiation
17,14

!TMY:skydiffuseradiationonhorizontal>Horizontaldiffuseradiation
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
17,22

!TMY:angleofincidencefortiltedsurface>Incidenceangle
17,23

!TMY:slopeoftiltedsurface>Collectorslope
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0000.00.00.245.00.
*

*EQUATIONSSum2
*
EQUATIONS1
Mout=[18,4][20,2]
*$UNIT_NAMESum2
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION544328

*ModelMixingvalve(Type11)
*
UNIT26TYPE11 Mixingvalve
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingvalve
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TemperingValve\OtherFluids\Type11b.tmf
*$POSITION582498
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
4

!1Temperingvalvemode
7

!2Nb.ofoscillationsallowed
INPUTS4
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
22,1

!HistogramDHW:Averagevalueoffunction>Inletflowrate
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Heatsourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setpointtemperature
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10.0100040
*

*ModelMixingplace2(Type11)
*
UNIT27TYPE11 Mixingplace2
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingplace2
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TeePiece\OtherFluids\Type11h.tmf
*$POSITION482498
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS1
1

!1Teepiecemode
INPUTS4
3,1

!Hotel:Temperaturetoheatsource>Temperatureatinlet1
3,2

!Hotel:Flowratetoheatsource>Flowrateatinlet1
26,1

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet1>Temperatureatinlet2
26,2

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet1>Flowrateatinlet2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.020.0100.0
*

345

*ModelMixingplace3(Type11)
*
UNIT28TYPE11 Mixingplace3
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingplace3
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TeePiece\OtherFluids\Type11h.tmf
*$POSITION582412
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS1
1

!1Teepiecemode
INPUTS4
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Temperatureatinlet1
Mout

!Sum2:Mout>Flowrateatinlet1
26,3

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet2>Temperatureatinlet2
26,4

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet2>Flowrateatinlet2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.020.0100.0
*

*ModelPump1(Type3)
*
UNIT20TYPE3 Pump1
*$UNIT_NAMEPump1
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION337244
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS5
79200

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
29350.799222

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
4,2

!Thermostat:Controlsignalfor2ndstageheating>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.01.0
*

*ModelPump2(Type3)
*
UNIT16TYPE3 Pump2
*$UNIT_NAMEPump2
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION51412
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
59760.001373

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
14713.19961

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
18,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Inletfluidtemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Inletmassflowrate
19,1

!Regulator:Outputcontrolfunction>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10100.01.0
*

346

AppendixIV

*EQUATIONSSum
*
EQUATIONS2
PPumpSum=[20,3]+[16,3]
QoSum=[3,8]+[3,7]
*$UNIT_NAMESum
*$LAYERMain
*$POSITION399168

*ModelStoragetank(Type4)
*
UNIT18TYPE4 Storagetank
*$UNIT_NAMEStoragetank
*$MODEL.\ThermalStorage\StratifiedStorageTank\VariableInlets\UniformLosses\Type4c.tmf
*$POSITION285432
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS22
2

!1Variableinletpositions
150

!2Tankvolume
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1000.0
!4Fluiddensity
2.52

!5Tanklosscoefficient
2

!6Heightofnode1
2

!7Heightofnode2
2

!8Heightofnode3
1

!9Auxiliaryheatermode
2

!10Nodecontainingheatingelement1
1

!11Nodecontainingthermostat1
42

!12Setpointtemperatureforelement1
0

!13Deadbandforheatingelement1
2339999.826867

!14Maximumheatingrateofelement1
2

!15Nodecontainingheatingelement2
2

!16Nodecontainingthermostat2
60.0

!17Setpointtemperatureforelement2
5.0

!18Deadbandforheatingelement2
0

!19Maximumheatingrateofelement2
0.0

!20Notused(FlueUA)
20.0

!21Notused(Tflue)
100

!22Boilingpoint
INPUTS7
15,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>Hotsidetemperature
15,2

!Solarcollectors:Outletflowrate>Hotsideflowrate
27,1

!Mixingplace2:Outlettemperature>Coldsidetemperature
27,2

!Mixingplace2:Outletflowrate>Coldsideflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Environmenttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement1
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
000022.010
DERIVATIVES3
40

!1Initialtemperatureofnode1
40

!2Initialtemperatureofnode2
40

!3Initialtemperatureofnode3
*

347

*ModelRegulator(Type2)
*
UNIT19TYPE2 Regulator
*$UNIT_NAMERegulator
*$MODEL.\Controllers\DifferentialControllerw_Hysteresis\forTemperatures\Solver0(SuccessiveSubstitution)
ControlStrategy\Type2b.tmf
*$POSITION93505
*$LAYERMain#
*$#NOTE:Thiscontrolstrategycanonlybeusedwithsolver0(Successivesubstitution)
*$#
PARAMETERS2
5

!1No.ofoscillations
100.0

!2Highlimitcutout
INPUTS6
15,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>UpperinputtemperatureTh
18,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>LowerinputtemperatureTl
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>MonitoringtemperatureTin
19,1

!Regulator:Outputcontrolfunction>Inputcontrolfunction
0,0

![unconnected]UpperdeadbanddT
0,0

![unconnected]LowerdeadbanddT
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
6020200102
*

*ModelIntegrator(Type24)
*
UNIT10TYPE24 Integrator
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION513168
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS7
PPumpSum

!Sum:PPumpSum>Inputtobeintegrated1
0,0

![unconnected]Inputtobeintegrated2
15,3

!Solarcollectors:Usefulenergygain>Inputtobeintegrated3
0,0

![unconnected]Inputtobeintegrated4
QoSum
!Sum:QoSum>Inputtobeintegrated5
0,0

![unconnected]Inputtobeintegrated6
18,8

!Storagetank:Auxiliaryheatingrate>Inputtobeintegrated7
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
*

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT9TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION622168
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
61

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode
0

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime

348

AppendixIV

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS7
10,4

!Integrator:Resultofintegration4>Inputtobeprinted1
10,1

!Integrator:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted2
10,2

!Integrator:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted3
10,5

!Integrator:Resultofintegration5>Inputtobeprinted4
10,3

!Integrator:Resultofintegration3>Inputtobeprinted5
10,6

!Integrator:Resultofintegration6>Inputtobeprinted6
10,7

!Integrator:Resultofintegration7>Inputtobeprinted7
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
CollingEnergyEvapPPumpHotWaterEnergyChillerCollingEnergyHouse
EnergyFromCollElecticalEnergyRequiChillerAuxHeaterEnergy
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEnergijeGrijanjaSustav2.out61
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring(Type65)
*
UNIT21TYPE65 Monitoring
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithoutFile\Type65d.tmf
*$POSITION47583
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
2

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
5

!3Leftaxisminimum
30

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
1000.0
!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
1

!10Logicalunitforoutputfile
0

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS2
17,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
3,4

!Hotel:Averagehousetemperature>Leftaxisvariable2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
AmbientAverage
LABELS3

House
*

*ModelMonitoring2(Type65)
*
UNIT23TYPE65 Monitoring2
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring2
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithoutFile\Type65d.tmf
*$POSITION397551
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
6

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables

349

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0.0

!3Leftaxisminimum
90

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
1000.0
!6Rightaxismaximum
2

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
1

!10Logicalunitforoutputfile
0

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS6
18,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Leftaxisvariable1
18,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Leftaxisvariable2
18,12

!Storagetank:Averagetanktemperature>Leftaxisvariable3
18,13

!Storagetank:Temperatureofnode1+>Leftaxisvariable4
15,1

!Solarcollectors:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable5
28,1

!Mixingplace3:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable6
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TToLoadTToCollTTankAverageTTankMidleTCollOutTToConsumers
LABELS3

Collector
*

END

350

AppendixIV

Domestichotwatersystemoilboiler(CS)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio
*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=0
STOP=8760
STEP=0.055555557
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelStoragetank(Type4)
*
UNIT2TYPE4
Storagetank
*$UNIT_NAMEStoragetank
*$MODEL.\ThermalStorage\StratifiedStorageTank\VariableInlets\UniformLosses\Type4c.tmf
*$POSITION207279
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS22
2

!1Variableinletpositions
36

!2Tankvolume
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1000.0
!4Fluiddensity
2.52

!5Tanklosscoefficient
1

!6Heightofnode1
1

!7Heightofnode2
1

!8Heightofnode3
1

!9Auxiliaryheatermode
2

!10Nodecontainingheatingelement1
1

!11Nodecontainingthermostat1
42.5

!12Setpointtemperatureforelement1
0

!13Deadbandforheatingelement1
539999.960046

!14Maximumheatingrateofelement1
3

!15Nodecontainingheatingelement2
3

!16Nodecontainingthermostat2
60

!17Setpointtemperatureforelement2
5.0

!18Deadbandforheatingelement2
0

!19Maximumheatingrateofelement2
0.0

!20Notused(FlueUA)
20.0

!21Notused(Tflue)
100.0

!22Boilingpoint
INPUTS7
0,0

![unconnected]Hotsidetemperature

351

0,0

![unconnected]Hotsideflowrate
9,1

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet1>Coldsidetemperature
9,2

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet1>Coldsideflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Environmenttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement1
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
45.0010022.010
DERIVATIVES3
10

!1Initialtemperatureofnode1
10

!2Initialtemperatureofnode2
10

!3Initialtemperatureofnode3
*

*ModelHistogramDHW(Type14)
*
UNIT3TYPE14 HistogramDHW
*$UNIT_NAMEHistogramDHW
*$MODEL.\Utility\ForcingFunctions\General\Type14h.tmf
*$POSITION499323
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS44
0

!1Initialvalueoftime
100

!2Initialvalueoffunction
1

!3Timeatpoint1
200

!4Valueatpoint1
4

!5Timeatpoint2
300

!6Valueatpoint2
5

!7Timeatpoint3
200

!8Valueatpoint3
6

!9Timeatpoint4
3000

!10Valueatpoint4
7

!11Timeatpoint5
4000

!12Valueatpoint5
8

!13Timeatpoint6
5000

!14Valueatpoint6
9

!15Timeatpoint7
6000

!16Valueatpoint7
10

!17Timeatpoint8
4000

!18Valueatpoint8
11

!19Timeatpoint9
1000

!20Valueatpoint9
13

!21Timeatpoint10
1000

!22Valueatpoint10
14

!23Timeatpoint11
1500

!24Valueatpoint11
15

!25Timeatpoint12
2000

!26Valueatpoint12
16

!27Timeatpoint13
2500

!28Valueatpoint13
17

!29Timeatpoint14
4000

!30Valueatpoint14
18

!31Timeatpoint15
5000

!32Valueatpoint15
19

!33Timeatpoint16
6000

!34Valueatpoint16
20

!35Timeatpoint17
3000

!36Valueatpoint17
21

!37Timeatpoint18
2000

!38Valueatpoint18

352

AppendixIV

22

!39Timeatpoint19
1000

!40Valueatpoint19
23

!41Timeatpoint20
500

!42Valueatpoint20
24

!43Timeatpoint21
100

!44Valueatpoint21
*

*ModelMonitoring2(Type65)
*
UNIT4TYPE65 Monitoring2
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring2
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION265392
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
0

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
2

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0

!3Leftaxisminimum
100

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
7000

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
72

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS2
2,4

!Storagetank:Flowratetoload>Rightaxisvariable1
2,2

!Storagetank:Flowratetoheatsource>Rightaxisvariable2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
MassRateTankLOADMassRateTankSOURCE
LABELS3
kg/s

MassFlowRates
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNMassFlowRates.plt72
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring1(Type65)
*
UNIT5TYPE65 Monitoring1
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring1
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION136392
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
5

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
1

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0

!3Leftaxisminimum
60

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
7000

!6Rightaxismaximum
1

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
73

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile

353

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS6
2,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Leftaxisvariable1
2,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Leftaxisvariable2
2,12

!Storagetank:Averagetanktemperature>Leftaxisvariable3
2,13

!Storagetank:Temperatureofnode1+>Leftaxisvariable4
8,1

!Mixing:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable5
8,2

!Mixing:Outletflowrate>Rightaxisvariable
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TempToLoadTempBotomTempAverageTempMidleTempToConsumerMassRateConsum

LABELS3
Temperatures

Tank
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNTank.plt73
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelIntegrator(Type24)
*
UNIT6TYPE24 Integrator
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION446189
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS2
8,2

!Mixing:Outletflowrate>Inputtobeintegrated1
2,8

!Storagetank:Auxiliaryheatingrate>Inputtobeintegrated2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.0
*

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT7TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION563190
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
74

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode
0

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime
1

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS2
6,1

!Integrator:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted1
6,2

!Integrator:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES

354

AppendixIV

Consumption_KgAuxEnergy_kJ
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNPTV.out74
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*

*ModelMixing(Type11)
*
UNIT8TYPE11 Mixing
*$UNIT_NAMEMixing
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TeePiece\OtherFluids\Type11h.tmf
*$POSITION350259
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS1
1

!1Teepiecemode
INPUTS4
2,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Temperatureatinlet1
2,4

!Storagetank:Flowratetoload>Flowrateatinlet1
9,3

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet2>Temperatureatinlet2
9,4

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet2>Flowrateatinlet2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.020.0100.0
*

*ModelMixingvalve(Type11)
*
UNIT9TYPE11 Mixingvalve
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingvalve
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TemperingValve\OtherFluids\Type11b.tmf
*$POSITION350323
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS2
4

!1Temperingvalvemode
7

!2Nb.ofoscillationsallowed
INPUTS4
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
3,1

!HistogramDHW:Averagevalueoffunction>Inletflowrate
2,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Heatsourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setpointtemperature
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10100.055.040
*

END

355

Domestichotwatersystemsolarcollectors(HPS)

*******************************************************************************
***TRNSYSinputfile(deck)generatedbyTrnsysStudio
*******************************************************************************
***Controlcards
*******************************************************************************
*START,STOPandSTEP
CONSTANTS3
START=0
STOP=8760
STEP=0.055555557
*UserdefinedCONSTANTS

SIMULATION
START STOP STEP
!Starttime
Endtime Timestep
TOLERANCES0.0010.001

!Integration
Convergence
LIMITS303030

!Maxiterations
Maxwarnings
Tracelimit
DFQ1

!TRNSYSnumericalintegrationsolvermethod
WIDTH80

!TRNSYSoutputfilewidth,numberofcharacters
LIST

!NOLISTstatement

!MAPstatement
SOLVER011

!Solverstatement Minimumrelaxationfactor Maximum


relaxationfactor
NAN_CHECK0

!NanDEBUGstatement
OVERWRITE_CHECK0

!OverwriteDEBUGstatement
EQSOLVER0

!EQUATIONSOLVERstatement

*ModelTMY(Type109)
*
UNIT9TYPE109 TMY
*$UNIT_NAMETMY
*$MODEL.\WeatherDataReadingandProcessing\StandardFormat\TMY2\Type109TMY2.tmf
*$POSITION18772
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS4
2

!1DataReaderMode
67

!2Logicalunit
4

!3Skymodelfordiffuseradiation
1

!4Trackingmode
INPUTS3
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
0,0

![unconnected]Slopeofsurface
0,0

![unconnected]Azimuthofsurface
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.2450.0
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNC:\ProgramFiles\Trnsys16\Weather\Meteonorm\Europe\HRSplit133340.tm267
*|?Weatherdatafile|1000
*

*ModelRegulator(Type2)
*
UNIT11TYPE2 Regulator
*$UNIT_NAMERegulator
*$MODEL.\Controllers\DifferentialControllerw_Hysteresis\forTemperatures\Solver0(SuccessiveSubstitution)
ControlStrategy\Type2b.tmf
*$POSITION128288
*$LAYERMain#
*$#NOTE:Thiscontrolstrategycanonlybeusedwithsolver0(Successivesubstitution)

356

AppendixIV

*$#
PARAMETERS2
5

!1No.ofoscillations
100.0

!2Highlimitcutout
INPUTS6
5,1

!Collectors:Outlettemperature>UpperinputtemperatureTh
10,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>LowerinputtemperatureTl
10,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>MonitoringtemperatureTin
11,1

!Regulator:Outputcontrolfunction>Inputcontrolfunction
0,0

![unconnected]UpperdeadbanddT
0,0

![unconnected]LowerdeadbanddT
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
602020010.02.0
*

*ModelStoragetank(Type4)
*
UNIT10TYPE4 Storagetank
*$UNIT_NAMEStoragetank
*$MODEL.\ThermalStorage\StratifiedStorageTank\VariableInlets\UniformLosses\Type4c.tmf
*$POSITION336232
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS22
2

!1Variableinletpositions
25

!2Tankvolume
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1000.0
!4Fluiddensity
2.52

!5Tanklosscoefficient
1

!6Heightofnode1
1

!7Heightofnode2
1

!8Heightofnode3
1

!9Auxiliaryheatermode
1

!10Nodecontainingheatingelement1
2

!11Nodecontainingthermostat1
42.5

!12Setpointtemperatureforelement1
5.0

!13Deadbandforheatingelement1
359999.973364

!14Maximumheatingrateofelement1
2

!15Nodecontainingheatingelement2
2

!16Nodecontainingthermostat2
60.0

!17Setpointtemperatureforelement2
5.0

!18Deadbandforheatingelement2
0

!19Maximumheatingrateofelement2
0.0

!20Notused(FlueUA)
20.0

!21Notused(Tflue)
100.0

!22Boilingpoint
INPUTS7
5,1

!Collectors:Outlettemperature>Hotsidetemperature
5,2

!Collectors:Outletflowrate>Hotsideflowrate
13,1

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet1>Coldsidetemperature
13,2

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet1>Coldsideflowrate
0,0

![unconnected]Environmenttemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement1
0,0

![unconnected]Controlsignalforelement2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
45.0100.013.5022.010
DERIVATIVES3
40

!1Initialtemperatureofnode1
40

!2Initialtemperatureofnode2
40

!3Initialtemperatureofnode3
*

357


*ModelPump(Type3)
*
UNIT6TYPE3
Pump
*$UNIT_NAMEPump
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\Pumps\SingleSpeed\Type3b.tmf
*$POSITION87212
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS5
7200

!1Maximumflowrate
4.190

!2Fluidspecificheat
2757.599927

!3Maximumpower
0.05

!4Conversioncoefficient
0.5

!5Powercoefficient
INPUTS3
10,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Inletfluidtemperature
10,2

!Storagetank:Flowratetoheatsource>Inletmassflowrate
11,1

!Regulator:Outputcontrolfunction>Controlsignal
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10100.01.0
*

*ModelCollectors(Type1)
*
UNIT5TYPE1
Collectors
*$UNIT_NAMECollectors
*$MODEL.\SolarThermalCollectors\QuadraticEfficiencyCollector\2ndOrderIncidenceAngle
Modifiers\Type1b.tmf
*$POSITION187212
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS11
1

!1Numberinseries
350

!2Collectorarea
4.190

!3Fluidspecificheat
1

!4Efficiencymode
40.0

!5Testedflowrate
0.80

!6Interceptefficiency
13.0

!7Efficiencyslope
0.05

!8Efficiencycurvature
2

!9Opticalmode2
0.2

!101storderIAM
0.0

!112ndorderIAM
INPUTS9
6,1

!Pump:Outletfluidtemperature>Inlettemperature
6,2

!Pump:Outletflowrate>Inletflowrate
9,1

!TMY:Ambienttemperature>Ambienttemperature
9,18

!TMY:totalradiationontiltedsurface>Incidentradiation
9,12

!TMY:totalradiationonhorizontal>Totalhorizontalradiation
9,14

!TMY:skydiffuseradiationonhorizontal>Horizontaldiffuseradiation
0,0

![unconnected]Groundreflectance
9,22

!TMY:angleofincidencefortiltedsurface>Incidenceangle
9,23

!TMY:slopeoftiltedsurface>Collectorslope
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10100.010.00.00.00.245.00.
*

*ModelHistogramDHW(Type14)
*
UNIT21TYPE14 HistogramDHW
*$UNIT_NAMEHistogramDHW

358

AppendixIV

*$MODEL.\Utility\ForcingFunctions\General\Type14h.tmf
*$POSITION624315
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS44
0

!1Initialvalueoftime
50

!2Initialvalueoffunction
1

!3Timeatpoint1
100

!4Valueatpoint1
4

!5Timeatpoint2
150

!6Valueatpoint2
5

!7Timeatpoint3
100

!8Valueatpoint3
6

!9Timeatpoint4
1500

!10Valueatpoint4
7

!11Timeatpoint5
2000

!12Valueatpoint5
8

!13Timeatpoint6
2500

!14Valueatpoint6
9

!15Timeatpoint7
3000

!16Valueatpoint7
10

!17Timeatpoint8
2000

!18Valueatpoint8
11

!19Timeatpoint9
500

!20Valueatpoint9
13

!21Timeatpoint10
500

!22Valueatpoint10
14

!23Timeatpoint11
750

!24Valueatpoint11
15

!25Timeatpoint12
1000

!26Valueatpoint12
16

!27Timeatpoint13
1250

!28Valueatpoint13
17

!29Timeatpoint14
2000

!30Valueatpoint14
18

!31Timeatpoint15
2500

!32Valueatpoint15
19

!33Timeatpoint16
3000

!34Valueatpoint16
20

!35Timeatpoint17
1500

!36Valueatpoint17
21

!37Timeatpoint18
1000

!38Valueatpoint18
22

!39Timeatpoint19
500

!40Valueatpoint19
23

!41Timeatpoint20
250

!42Valueatpoint20
24

!43Timeatpoint21
50

!44Valueatpoint21
*

*ModelMixingvalve(Type11)
*
UNIT13TYPE11 Mixingvalve
*$UNIT_NAMEMixingvalve
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TemperingValve\OtherFluids\Type11b.tmf
*$POSITION478315
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS2
4

!1Temperingvalvemode
7

!2Nb.ofoscillationsallowed

359

INPUTS4
0,0

![unconnected]Inlettemperature
21,1

!HistogramDHW:Averagevalueoffunction>Inletflowrate
10,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Heatsourcetemperature
0,0

![unconnected]Setpointtemperature
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
10.0100.055.040
*

*ModelMixing(Type11)
*
UNIT14TYPE11 Mixing
*$UNIT_NAMEMixing
*$MODEL.\Hydronics\TeePiece\OtherFluids\Type11h.tmf
*$POSITION478222
*$LAYERWaterLoop#
PARAMETERS1
1

!1Teepiecemode
INPUTS4
10,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Temperatureatinlet1
10,4

!Storagetank:Flowratetoload>Flowrateatinlet1
13,3

!Mixingvalve:Temperatureatoutlet2>Temperatureatinlet2
13,4

!Mixingvalve:Flowrateatoutlet2>Flowrateatinlet2
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
20.0100.020.0100.0
*

*ModelIntegrator(Type24)
*
UNIT25TYPE24 Integrator
*$UNIT_NAMEIntegrator
*$MODEL.\Utility\Integrators\QuantityIntegrator\Type24.tmf
*$POSITION538126
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS2
STOP

!1Integrationperiod
0

!2Relativeorabsolutestarttime
INPUTS4
14,2

!Mixing:Outletflowrate>Inputtobeintegrated1
5,3

!Collectors:Usefulenergygain>Inputtobeintegrated2
10,8

!Storagetank:Auxiliaryheatingrate>Inputtobeintegrated3
6,3

!Pump:Powerconsumption>Inputtobeintegrated4
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
0.00.00.00.0
*

*ModelPloter(Type25)
*
UNIT12TYPE25 Ploter
*$UNIT_NAMEPloter
*$MODEL.\Output\Printer\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type25a.tmf
*$POSITION645126
*$LAYEROutputs#
PARAMETERS10
1

!1Printinginterval
START
!2Starttime
STOP

!3Stoptime
71

!4Logicalunit
2

!5Unitsprintingmode
0

!6Relativeorabsolutestarttime

360

AppendixIV

!7OverwriteorAppend
1

!8Printheader
0

!9Delimiter
1

!10Printlabels
INPUTS4
25,1

!Integrator:Resultofintegration1>Inputtobeprinted1
25,2

!Integrator:Resultofintegration2>Inputtobeprinted2
25,3

!Integrator:Resultofintegration3>Inputtobeprinted3
25,4

!Integrator:Resultofintegration4>Inputtobeprinted4
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
Consumption_KgEnergyFromColl_kJAuxHeatTank_kJPPump
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNEnergijePTVSustav2.out71
*|?OutputFileforprintedresults|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring3(Type65)
*
UNIT16TYPE65 Monitoring3
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring3
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION534402
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
1

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
1

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0.0

!3Leftaxisminimum
50

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
10000

!6Rightaxismaximum
2

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
72

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS2
14,1

!Mixing:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable
14,2

!Mixing:Outletflowrate>Rightaxisvariable
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TVentToLoadMVentToLoad
LABELS3

Ventili
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNVentili.plt72
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring2(Type65)
*
UNIT22TYPE65 Monitoring2
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring2
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION336402
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
0

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
5

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables

361

!3Leftaxisminimum
100

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
7000

!6Rightaxismaximum
2

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
70

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS5
5,2

!Collectors:Outletflowrate>Rightaxisvariable1
10,2

!Storagetank:Flowratetoheatsource>Rightaxisvariable2
0,0

![unconnected]Rightaxisvariable3
10,4

!Storagetank:Flowratetoload>Rightaxisvariable4
0,0

![unconnected]Rightaxisvariable5
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
MassRateCollOUTMassRateTankSOURCEMassRatePumpOUTMassRateTankLOAD
AuxHeatRate
LABELS3

MassFlowRates
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNMassFlowRatesSustav2.plt70
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

*ModelMonitoring1(Type65)
*
UNIT8TYPE65 Monitoring1
*$UNIT_NAMEMonitoring1
*$MODEL.\Output\OnlinePlotter\OnlinePlotterWithFile\TRNSYSSuppliedUnits\Type65a.tmf
*$POSITION157402
*$LAYERMain#
PARAMETERS12
6

!1Nb.ofleftaxisvariables
0

!2Nb.ofrightaxisvariables
0

!3Leftaxisminimum
100

!4Leftaxismaximum
0.0

!5Rightaxisminimum
7000

!6Rightaxismaximum
2

!7Numberofplotspersimulation
12

!8Xaxisgridpoints
0

!9ShutoffOnlinew/oremoving
66

!10LogicalUnitforoutputfile
2

!11Outputfileunits
0

!12Outputfiledelimiter
INPUTS6
5,1

!Collectors:Outlettemperature>Leftaxisvariable1
10,1

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoheatsource>Leftaxisvariable2
6,1

!Pump:Outletfluidtemperature>Leftaxisvariable3
10,12

!Storagetank:Averagetanktemperature>Leftaxisvariable4
10,13

!Storagetank:Temperatureofnode1+>Leftaxisvariable5
10,3

!Storagetank:Temperaturetoload>Leftaxisvariable6
***INITIALINPUTVALUES
TCollOutTTankToCollTCollInAverageTankTempTempTopNodeTTankToLoad

LABELS3

362

AppendixIV

Collector
***Externalfiles
ASSIGNCollectorSustav2.plt66
*|?Whatfileshouldtheonlineprintto?|1000
*

END

363

AppendixV

APPENDIXV:FLOWCHARTSSYMBOLISM

Beginningorendoftheflowchart

Manualinput

Inputoroutputoperation

Computermodel

Decision.Achoiceismadebetweentwo
alternatives

Computationalprocess

Application

Displayinformation

Flowchartconnector

365

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