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You are on page 1of 40

FAZIRULHISYAM HASHIM

Computer and Communication Systems Engineering

Room : A.04.98

Tel : 03-89464319

Email : fazirul@eng.upm.edu.my

1

Baseband Transmission

Baseband Transmission

Transmission

Character Coding

Formatting Analog Information

Sources of Corruption

Formatting is the first step to ensure that the

Transmit formatting is a transformation from source

information to digital symbols.

What if the source format is,

Digital?

Textual message?

Analog?

Let us consider a message with a textual

(alphanumeric) format.

Need to be encoded with one of several standard

formats,

ASCII

EBCDIC

Baudot

Hollerith

Character Coding

Character Coding

Character Coding

Recall some important terms:

characters.

Character A,e, !, = @ etc.

Symbol M=2k, k = no. of bit

Digital Waveform si(t), where i = 1,..,M.

10

M-ary Communications

Send multiple, M, waveforms.

Choose between one of M symbols instead of 1 or 0.

Waveforms differ by phase, amplitude, and/or

frequency.

Advantage: Send more information at a time.

Disadvantage: Extra bandwidth needed.

11

8-ary

32-ary

12

You want to transmit the word HOW using an 8ary system.

using 7-bit ASCII coding, followed by an eight bit for

error detection, per character. The eight bit is chosen

so that the number of ones in the 8 bits is an even

number. How many total bits are there in the

message?

b. Partition the bit stream into k = 3 bit segments.

Represent each of the 3-bit segments as an octal

number (symbol). How many octal symbols are there

in the message?

a.

13

You want to transmit the word HOW using an 8ary system.

how many symbols would be used to represent the

word HOW?

d. If the system were designed with 256-ary modulation,

how many symbols would be used to represent the

word HOW?

c.

14

We want to transmit 800 characters/s, where each

character is represented by its 7-bit ASCII

codeword, followed by an eight bit for error

detection, per character, as in Problem 2.1. A

multilevel PAM waveform with M = 16 levels is

used

What is the symbol rate?

15

We want to transmit a 100-character alphanumeric

message in 2 s, using 7-bit ASCII coding, followed

by an eight bit for error detection, per character, as

in Problem 2.1. A multilevel PAM waveform with

M = 32 levels is used.

a.

b.

symbol rate.

Repeat part (a) for 16- level PAM, eight-level PAM,

four-level PAM, and PCM (binary) waveforms.

16

Sampling - the first process of transforming an analog

digital communication system.

17

Sampling An Overview

Sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a

discrete signal.

possible to reconstruct the original

signal completely (almost perfect

reconstruction)?

18

If a signal is bandlimited:

if its Fourier transform is zero outside a finite band of

frequencies, and

if the samples are taken sufficiently close together in

relation to the highest frequency present in the signal,

then the samples uniquely specify the signal, and it can be

perfectly reconstructed.

19

The sampling rate which is known as the Nyquist

fs 2 fm

where fs = 1/Ts, Ts is the sampling rate

fm = limit/boundary of the bandlimited signal

20

fs 2 fm

1

Ts

2 fm

21

Some sampling approaches:

Impulse sampling

Natural sampling

Sample and hold sampling

22

Given a signal

periodic impulse train,

23

Impulse Sampling

24

Frequency convolution property of the Fourier

Transform is

1

X s X ( f ) X ( f )

Ts

X ( f nf

25

Natural Sampling

26

It is called as natural sampling, since the top of each

corresponding analog segment during the pulse

interval.

Xs( f )

j 2nf s t

C

F

x

(

t

)

e

n

reduces to

Xs( f )

X ( f nf s )

where Cn = (1/Ts)sinc(nT/Ts)

27

Sample-and-Hold Operation

The sampling result produces the flat top sampled

1

X s ( f ) P( f )

Ts

X ( f nf

28

29

30

Pulse Amplitude Modulation: Flat-top Sampling

Analog

PAM

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6

-0.5

Analog

PAM

0.5

1.5

2

time

2.5

3.5

-6

0

0.5

1.5

2

time

2.5

3.5

31

Aliasing

When the sampling rate is reduced, such that fs<2fm,

will be lost.

The result of undersampling is aliasing.

32

Aliasing (cont)

33

Case 1: No Aliasing

(a)

(b)

34

(a)

(b)

35

Quantization

A process of mapping a large set of input values to a

smaller set.

Simple terms - rounding values to some unit of

precision.

36

Quantize at every sampling point

37

Sources of Corruption

Sampling and Quantizing effects

1.

Quantization noise

a.

Quantizer saturation

b.

Timing jitter

c.

Channel effects

2.

Channel noise

a.

channel error.

Intersymbol interference

b.

38

Sources of Corruption

Quantization noise variance and output SNR

calculation, how?

Please read page 78-79.

39

3 SNR for Quantized Pulses.

The quantizer error variance

S

L q /4

2

( )q 2

3L

N

q / 12

40

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