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# ECC 3109 DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS

FAZIRULHISYAM HASHIM
Computer and Communication Systems Engineering
Room : A.04.98
Tel : 03-89464319
Email : fazirul@eng.upm.edu.my
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Baseband Transmission

Baseband Transmission

## Week 2 : Introduction to Baseband

Transmission
Character Coding
Formatting Analog Information
Sources of Corruption

## Formatting & Tx of Baseband Signals

Formatting is the first step to ensure that the

## message is compatible with digital processing.

Transmit formatting is a transformation from source
information to digital symbols.
What if the source format is,
Digital?
Textual message?
Analog?

## Formatting Text - Character Coding

Let us consider a message with a textual

(alphanumeric) format.
Need to be encoded with one of several standard
formats,
ASCII
EBCDIC
Baudot
Hollerith

Character Coding

Character Coding

Character Coding
Recall some important terms:

## Message It comprises a sequence of alphanumeric

characters.
Character A,e, !, = @ etc.
Symbol M=2k, k = no. of bit
Digital Waveform si(t), where i = 1,..,M.

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M-ary Communications
Send multiple, M, waveforms.
Choose between one of M symbols instead of 1 or 0.
Waveforms differ by phase, amplitude, and/or

frequency.
Advantage: Send more information at a time.
Disadvantage: Extra bandwidth needed.

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8-ary

32-ary

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## Character Coding (Problem 2.1)

You want to transmit the word HOW using an 8ary system.

## Encode the word HOW into a sequence of bits,

using 7-bit ASCII coding, followed by an eight bit for
error detection, per character. The eight bit is chosen
so that the number of ones in the 8 bits is an even
number. How many total bits are there in the
message?
b. Partition the bit stream into k = 3 bit segments.
Represent each of the 3-bit segments as an octal
number (symbol). How many octal symbols are there
in the message?
a.

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## Character Coding (Problem 2.1)

You want to transmit the word HOW using an 8ary system.

## If the system were designed with 16-ary modulation,

how many symbols would be used to represent the
word HOW?
d. If the system were designed with 256-ary modulation,
how many symbols would be used to represent the
word HOW?
c.

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## Character Coding (Problem 2.2)

We want to transmit 800 characters/s, where each
character is represented by its 7-bit ASCII
codeword, followed by an eight bit for error
detection, per character, as in Problem 2.1. A
multilevel PAM waveform with M = 16 levels is
used

## What is the effective transmitted bit rate?

What is the symbol rate?

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## Character Coding (Problem 2.3)

We want to transmit a 100-character alphanumeric
message in 2 s, using 7-bit ASCII coding, followed
by an eight bit for error detection, per character, as
in Problem 2.1. A multilevel PAM waveform with
M = 32 levels is used.

a.
b.

## Calculate the effective transmitted bit rate and the

symbol rate.
Repeat part (a) for 16- level PAM, eight-level PAM,
four-level PAM, and PCM (binary) waveforms.

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## Formatting Analog Information

Sampling - the first process of transforming an analog

## waveform into a form that is compatible with a

digital communication system.

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Sampling An Overview
Sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a

discrete signal.

## Under what circumstances is it

possible to reconstruct the original
signal completely (almost perfect
reconstruction)?

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## The Sampling Theorem

If a signal is bandlimited:
if its Fourier transform is zero outside a finite band of

frequencies, and
if the samples are taken sufficiently close together in
relation to the highest frequency present in the signal,
then the samples uniquely specify the signal, and it can be

perfectly reconstructed.

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## The Sampling Theorem (cont)

The sampling rate which is known as the Nyquist

## criterion or Nyquist rate is

fs 2 fm
where fs = 1/Ts, Ts is the sampling rate
fm = limit/boundary of the bandlimited signal

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fs 2 fm

1
Ts
2 fm

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## The Sampling Theorem (cont)

Some sampling approaches:
Impulse sampling
Natural sampling
Sample and hold sampling

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Given a signal

## , we can model sampling by using

periodic impulse train,

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Impulse Sampling

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## Impulse Sampling (cont)

Frequency convolution property of the Fourier

Transform is

1
X s X ( f ) X ( f )
Ts

X ( f nf

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Natural Sampling

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## Natural Sampling (cont)

It is called as natural sampling, since the top of each

## pulse in the xs(t) sequence retains the shape of its

corresponding analog segment during the pulse
interval.

Xs( f )

j 2nf s t
C
F
x
(
t
)
e
n

reduces to

Xs( f )

X ( f nf s )

where Cn = (1/Ts)sinc(nT/Ts)
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Sample-and-Hold Operation
The sampling result produces the flat top sampled

1
X s ( f ) P( f )
Ts

X ( f nf

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## Sampling A Graphical Representation

Pulse Amplitude Modulation: Flat-top Sampling

Analog
PAM

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6
-0.5

Analog
PAM

0.5

1.5

2
time

2.5

3.5

-6
0

0.5

1.5

2
time

2.5

3.5

## Compare these two diagrams, what is your observation?

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Aliasing
When the sampling rate is reduced, such that fs<2fm,

## the replications will overlap and some information

will be lost.
The result of undersampling is aliasing.

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Aliasing (cont)

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Case 1: No Aliasing

(a)

(b)
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## Case 2: Aliasing Occurs

(a)

(b)
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Quantization
A process of mapping a large set of input values to a

smaller set.
Simple terms - rounding values to some unit of
precision.

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## Sampled and Quantized

Quantize at every sampling point

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Sources of Corruption
Sampling and Quantizing effects

1.

Quantization noise

a.

## Round off or truncation error.

Quantizer saturation

b.

Timing jitter

c.

Channel effects

2.

Channel noise

a.

## Thermal noise, interference from circuit switching can cause

channel error.

Intersymbol interference

b.

## Overlapping when the channel is bandlimited.

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Sources of Corruption
Quantization noise variance and output SNR

calculation, how?
Please read page 78-79.

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## Sources of Corruption (cont)

3 SNR for Quantized Pulses.
The quantizer error variance

S
L q /4
2
( )q 2
3L
N
q / 12

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