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Wave Equation - Lecture Note

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LaRosa

LectureNotes

PH213GENERALPHYSICS

________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER16:WAVES1

1.Thewaveequation

OutlineofMechanicalwaves

Longitudinalandtransversewaves

Wavesinastring,soundwaves

Thewaveequation

Descriptionofwavesusingfunctionsoftwovariables

Travellingwaves

2y 1 2y

Thewaveequation 2 2 2 0

x

v t

Wavesinastring

Reflectionandtransmissionofwavesataninterface

Y=Y(x,t) A

kx-t+

parenthesis is referred to as the phase

is the spatial

periodicity

T is the

temporal

periodicity

Example

A sinusoidal wave of frequency 500 Hz has a speed of 350 m/s.

a) How far apart are two points x1 and x2 that, at a given time to,

differ in phase by /3 rad?

b) What is the phase difference between two displacements Y1 and

Y2 at a certain point (at a certain xo point) at times 1 .0 ms apart?

(Notice, you are not being asked for the values of Y1 nor Y2;

just their relative phase difference.)

Solution

v=f

f = 500 Hz and v = 350 m/s implies,

= 350/500 = 0.7 m

Y = A Cos (k x - t +

a) Things happen at t = t0

Phase1 = k x1 - t0 +

Phase2 = k x2 - t0 +

Phase1 - Phase2 = [k x1 - t0 + ] - [ k x2 - t0 +

= [k( x1 - x2

= 0.7/6 = 11.7 cm

b) Things happen at x = x0

Phase1 = k x0 - t1 +

Phase2 = k x0 - t2 +

Phase1 - Phase2 = [ k x0 - t1 + ] - [k x0 - t2 +

= [ ( t2 - t1

= [ f ( t2 - t1

( t2 - t1 1 ms implies,

Phase1 - Phase2 = [ 500 Hz ( 10-3s

Mechanical Waves

Example

Cos = 1 (1/2) 2 +

For small : Cos ~ 1

3

Sin = (1/3!) +

For small : Sin =

3

Tan = (1/3!)2 + For small : Tan =

For the case of the string:

Horizontal force Fx = T Cos - T Cos

Vertical force

Fy = T Sin - T Sin

sin = , sin =

tan = , tan =

Horizontal force Fx = T - T = 0

Vertical force

Fy = T Sin - T Sin

But, conveniently for the steps to follow below, we

expressed the expression above in terms of the

tangent function

= T tan - T tan

illustrated in the figure below.

y(x,t)

y

= tan

x x

Geometrical

interpretation

x)

Or,

which is

2y 1 2y

2 2 0

2

x

v t

the wave equation

where f and g are arbitrary functions

where v

Case: y = A Sin(kx-t)

/k = v

(T/)1/2 = v

Example

At x=0

At x=xo

shakes his hands UP

and DOWN with a

(temporal) frequency

f.

So, at x=0 the motion

is described by

Y = Cos (0-t)

= Cos t

that a particular

segment of the string

located at x=xo

(point P) goes UP

and DOWN with

frequency f.

y = Cos (k xo -t)

= 2f

f =v

Reflected

Incident

incident

reflected

the total

displacement is

At the right of x=0

the total

displacement is

Transmitted

Left

side

Right

side

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