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resistance to flow. When the intermolecular forces of attraction

are strong within a liquid, there is a larger viscosity. An example of

this phenomenon is imagining a race between two liquids down a

windshield. Which would you expect to roll down the windshield

faster honey or water? Obviously from experience one would

expect water to easily speed right past the honey, a fact that

reveals honey has a much higher viscocity than water.

Introduction

Viscosity can be not only a fluids resistance to flow but also a

gas resistance to flow, change shape or movement. The opposite

of viscosity is fluidity which measures the ease of flow while

liquids such as motor oil or honey which are sluggish and high in

viscosity are known asviscous. One may ask the question of what

is actually going on in the liquids to make one type flow faster and

the other more resistant to flow such as the comparison between

honey and water earlier. Because part of a fluid moves, it forces

other adjacent parts of the liquid to move along with it causing an

internal friction between the molecules which ultimately leads to

a reduced rate of flow. It is also important to note that the

viscosity of liquids and gases are affected by temperature but in

opposite ways meaning that upon heating, the viscosity of a liquid

decreases rapidly, whereas gases flow more sluggishly. Why is

this the case? As temperature increases, the average speed of

molecules in a liquid also increases and as a result, they spend

less time with their "neighbors." Therefore, as temperature

increases, the average intermolecular forces decrease and the

molecules are able to interact without being "weighed down" by

one another. The viscosity of a gas, however, increases as

temperature increases because there is an increase in frequency

of intermolecular collisions at higher temperatures. Since the

molecules are flying around in the void most of the time, any

increase in the contact they have with one another will increase

the intermolecular force which will ultimately lead to a disability

for the whole substance to move.

Laminar shear of fluid

between two plates. Friction

between the fluid and the

moving boundaries causes the

fluid to shear. The force

required for this action is a

measure

of

the

fluid's

viscosity.

In a general parallel flow (such as could occur in a straight pipe),

the shear stress is proportional to the gradient of the velocity

The dynamic (shear) viscosity of a fluid expresses its resistance to

shearing flows, where adjacent layers move parallel to each other

with different speeds. It can be defined through the idealized

situation known as a Couette flow, where a layer of fluid is

trapped between two horizontal plates, one fixed and one moving

horizontally at constant speed . (The plates are assumed to be

very large, so that one need not consider what happens near their

edges.)

If the speed of the top plate is small enough, the fluid particles

will move parallel to it, and their speed will vary linearly from zero

at the bottom to at the top. Each layer of fluid will move faster

than the one just below it, and friction between them will give rise

to a force resisting their relative motion. In particular, the fluid will

apply on the top plate a force in the direction opposite to its

motion, and an equal but opposite one to the bottom plate. An

external force is therefore required in order to keep the top plate

moving at constant speed.

The magnitude of this force is found to be proportional to the

speed and the area of each plate, and inversely proportional

to their separation :

The proportionality factor in this formula is the viscosity

(specifically, the dynamic viscosity) of the fluid.

The ratio

is called the rate of shear deformation or shear

velocity, and is the derivative of the fluid speed in the

direction perpendicular to the plates. Isaac Newton expressed the

viscous forces by the differential equation

where

and

is the local shear velocity. This formula

assumes that the flow is moving along parallel lines and the

axis, perpendicular to the flow, points in the direction of

maximum shear velocity. This equation can be used where the

velocity does not vary linearly with , such as in fluid flowing

through a pipe.

Use of the Greek letter mu () for the dynamic stress viscosity is

common among mechanical and chemical engineers, as well as

physicists. However, the Greek letter eta () is also used by

chemists, physicists, and the IUPAC.

Kinematic viscosity

viscosity to the density of the fluid . It is usually denoted by

theGreek letter nu ().

It is a convenient concept when analyzing the Reynolds number,

that expresses the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces:

where

Bulk viscosity

When a compressible fluid is compressed or expanded

evenly, without shear, it may still exhibit a form of internal friction

that resists its flow. These forces are related to the rate of

compression or expansion by a factor , called the volume

viscosity, bulk viscosity or second viscosity.

The bulk viscosity is important only when the fluid is being rapidly

compressed or expanded, such as in sound and shock waves. Bulk

viscosity explains the loss of energy in those waves, as described

by Stokes' law of sound attenuation.

Viscosity tensor

In general, the stresses within a flow can be attributed partly

to the deformation of the material from some rest state

(elastic stress), and partly to the rate of change of the

deformation over time (viscous stress). In a fluid, by definition, the

elastic stress includes only the hydrostatic pressure.

In very general terms, the fluid's viscosity is the relation between

the strain rate and the viscous stress. In the Newtonian

fluid model, the relationship is by definition a linear map,

described by a viscosity tensor that, multiplied by the strain rate

tensor (which is the gradient of the flow's velocity), gives the

viscous stress tensor.

The viscosity tensor has nine independent degrees of freedom in

general. For isotropic Newtonian fluids, these can be reduced to

two independent parameters. The most usual decomposition

yields the stress viscosity and the bulk viscosity .

Newtonian

and

nonNewtonian fluids

Viscosity, the slope of

each

line,

varies

among

materials

Newton's law of viscosity is

a constitutive

equation (like Hooke's

law, Fick's law, Ohm's law): it is

not a fundamental law of

nature but an approximation

that holds in some materials

and fails in others.

A fluid that behaves according

to Newton's law, with a

viscosity that is independent

of the stress, is said to be Newtonian.Gases, water and many

common liquids can be considered Newtonian in ordinary

conditions and contexts. There are manynon-Newtonian fluids that

significantly deviate from that law in some way or other. For

example:

Shear thickening liquids, whose viscosity increases with the

rate of shear strain.

Shear thinning liquids, whose viscosity decreases with the

rate of shear strain.

Thixotropic liquids, that become less viscous over time when

shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed.

Rheopectic liquids, that become more viscous over time

when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed.

Bingham plastics that behave as a solid at low stresses but

flows as a viscous fluid at high stresses.

Shear thinning liquids are very commonly, but misleadingly,

described as thixotropic.

Even for a Newtonian fluid, the viscosity usually depends on its

composition and temperature. For gases and othercompressible

fluids, it depends on temperature and varies very slowly with

pressure.

The viscosity of some fluids may depend on other factors.

A magnetorheological fluid, for example, becomes thicker when

like a solid.

Viscosity in solids

The viscous forces that arise during fluid flow must not be

confused with the elastic forces that arise in a solid in response to

shear, compression or extension stresses. While in the latter the

stress is proportional to the amount of shear deformation, in a

fluid it is proportional to the rate of deformation over time. (For

this reason, Maxwell used the term fugitive elasticity for fluid

viscosity.)

However, many liquids (including water) will briefly react like

elastic solids when subjected to sudden stress. Conversely, many

"solids" (even granite) will flow like liquids, albeit very slowly,

even under arbitrarily small stress.[7] Such materials are

therefore best described as possessing both elasticity (reaction to

deformation) and viscosity (reaction to rate of deformation); that

is, being viscoelastic.

Indeed, some authors have claimed that amorphous solids, such

as glass and many polymers, are actually liquids with a very high

viscosity (e.g.~greater than 1012 Pas). [8]However, other authors

dispute this hypothesis, claiming instead that there is some

threshold for the stress, below which most solids will not flow at

all,[9] and that alleged instances of glass flow in window panes of

old buildings are due to the crude manufacturing process of older

eras rather than to the viscosity of glass.

Viscoelastic solids may exhibit both shear viscosity and bulk

viscosity. The extensional viscosity is a linear combination of the

shear and bulk viscosities that describes the reaction of a solid

elastic material to elongation. It is widely used for characterizing

polymers.

In geology, earth materials that exhibit viscous deformation at

least three times greater than their elastic deformation are

sometimes called rheids.

Viscosity measurement

Viscosity

is

measured

with

various

types

of viscometers and rheometers. A rheometer is used for those

fluids that cannot be defined by a single value of viscosity and

is the case for a viscometer. Close temperature control of the fluid

is essential to acquire accurate measurements, particularly in

materials like lubricants, whose viscosity can double with a

change of only 5 C.

For some fluids, viscosity is a constant over a wide range of shear

rates (Newtonian fluids). The fluids without a constant viscosity

(non-Newtonian fluids) cannot be described by a single number.

Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit a variety of different correlations

between shear stress and shear rate.

One of the most common instruments for measuring kinematic

viscosity is the glass capillary viscometer.

In coating industries, viscosity may be measured with a cup in

which the efflux time is measured. There are several sorts of cupe.g. Zahn cup, Ford viscosity cup- with usage of each type varying

mainly according to the industry. The efflux time can also be

converted to kinematic viscosities (centistokes, cSt) through the

conversion equations.

Also used in coatings, a Stormer viscometer uses load-based

rotation in order to determine viscosity. The viscosity is reported

in Krebs units (KU), which are unique to Stormer viscometers.

Vibrating viscometers can also be used to measure viscosity.

These models such as the Dynatrol use vibration rather than

rotation to measure viscosity.

Extensional

viscosity can

be

measured

with

various rheometers that apply extensional stress.

Volume viscosity can be measured with an acoustic rheometer.

Apparent viscosity is a calculation derived from tests performed

on drilling fluid used in oil or gas well development. These

calculations and tests help engineers develop and maintain the

properties of the drilling fluid to the specifications required.

Viscometer

A viscometer (also called viscosimeter) is an instrument used

to measure the viscosity of a fluid. For liquids with viscosities

which vary with flow conditions, an instrument called

arheometer is used. Viscometers only measure under one flow

condition.

moves through it, or the object is stationary and the fluid moves

past it. The drag caused by relative motion of the fluid and a

surface is a measure of the viscosity. The flow conditions must

have a sufficiently small value of Reynolds number for there to

be laminar flow.

At 20.00 degrees Celsius the viscosity of water is 1.002 mPas and

its kinematic viscosity (ratio of viscosity to density) is

1.0038 mm2/s. These values are used for calibrating certain types

of viscometers.

College of Engineering

Civil Engineering Department

Fluid Mechanics

Viscosity and viscometer

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