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Electrochemical

Oxidation Of
Organic Pollutants

NUME:Stefan Andreea
GRUPA:SIPOL

Electrochemical Oxidation Of Organic Pollutants

Abstract
The main aim this paper is to use "Electrochemical Technology for removal of
Organic Pollutants from Waste Water". Today hazardous waste management has become one
of the most challenging tasks to this technological world because tons of organic pollutants
including various carcinogens are being exposed without the sufficient treatment prescribed
as per the "ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY" norms. Also in the current
scenario, the Indian government has made it mandatory to treat wastewater before
discharging it.
Electrochemical depollution is a very efficient and economic method, suitable when
the wastewater contains toxic or non-biodegradable organic pollutants. Wherever a high
standard of living is to be secured in the long-term and environmental resources protected,
essential requirements are that wastewater is treated in a proper manner.
Thus by means of electrochemical technology, which is cost and safety effective, we
can help reduce concentrations of organic pollutants to an extent as minimum as possible and
maintain the present status of the chemical world.
Keywords : Electrochemical oxidation, organic pollutants, electrochemical cells.

under the same conditions the electrooxidation


index obtained on the SnO2 anode was higher
than on the Pt anode, indicating a higher degree
of phenol oxidation.

Introduction
Water has a number of unique properties
that are essential to life and that determine its
environmental chemical behaviour. Many of
these properties are due to waters polar
molecular structure and its ability to form
hydrogen bonds. Water also has the highest
dielectric constant of any common liquid, a
maximum density as a liquid at 40 C and a
higher heat capacity than any other liquid except
amonnia. But most of the important chemical
phenomena associated with water do not occur
in solution but rather through interaction of
solutes in water with other phases. For example
the oxidation -reduction reactions catalyzed by
bacteria occur in bacterial cells. Many organic
hazardous wastes are carried through water as
emulsions of very small particles suspended in
water. Some hazardous wastes are deposited in
sediments in bodies of water from which they
may later enter the water through chemical or
physical processes and cause severe pollution
effects which need to be eliminateed as much as
possible.
The wastewaters are usualy oxidated
with ozone, which is a powerful oxidant but the
total organic carbon removal was no more than
30% and the same results were obtained using
hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Fe +2 as a
catalyst. In general by a chemical oxidation the
organic pollutants are almost completely
eliminated but the removal of total organic
carbon still remains a problem. These are the
reasons why the electrooxidation of the
hazardous pollutants has been the subject of
extensive studies during recent years.
The
electrochemical
method
of
depollution presents many important advantages
because it does not need auxiliary chemicals, it
is applicable on a large range of pollutants and
does not need high pressures and temperatures.
There has been new research on the
electrochemical oxidation of organic compounds
from the wastewaters due to its great efficiency
and the rigorous control which it allows. The
electrochemical oxidation of pollutants from
wastewaters has been studied using anodes made
from different materials. This is attributed to the
oxidation of the adsorbed organic compounds to
carbon dioxide. It has also been proven that

Wastewater Treatment :An Overview


As
indicated
above,
industrial
wastewater contains a vast array of pollutants:
insoluble, colloidal, and particulate forms, both
inorganic and organic. In addition, the required
effluent standards are also diverse, varying with
the industrial and pollutant class. Consequently,
there can be no standard design for industrial
water pollution control; rather, each site requires
a customized design to achieve optimum
performance. However, each of the many proven
processes for industrial waste treatment is able
to remove more than one type of pollutant and is
in general applicable to more than one industry.
Generally, a combination of several processes is
utilized to achieve the degree of treatment
required at the least cost. Much of the
experience and data from wastewater treatment
has been gained from municipal treatment
plants. Industrial liquid waste is similar to
wastewater but differs in significant ways. Thus,
typical design parameters and standards
developed for municipal wastewater operations
must not be blindly utilized for industrial
wastewater. It is best to run laboratory and small
pilot tests with the specific industrial wastewater
as part of the design process. It is most
important to understand the temporal variations
in industrial wastewater strength flow, and waste
components and their effect on the performance
of various treatment processes. Industry
personnel, in an effort to reduce cost, often
neglect laboratory and pilot studies and depend
on waste characteristics from similar plants. This
strategy often results in failure, delay, and
increased costs. Careful studies on the actual
waste at a plant site cannot be overemphasized.

that stocks of 5000 metric tons or more of


obsolete pesticides, including POP chemicals,
are stored in extremely hazardous conditions in
more than a thousand sites in Pakistan and
Nepal. A sizeable portion of these pesticides are
reported to have arrived as part of aid packages
from Western countries, and almost all the
pesticides were exported by developed nations
and India to Pakistan and Nepal.
Chemical corporations whose products were
identified in stockpiles in Pakistan and Nepal by
Greenpeace investigators include: Bayer and
Hoechst (Germany); DuPont, Dow Chemicals,
Diamond Shamrock and Velsicol (USA); Shell
(Netherlands); Sumitomo Chemical and Takeda
Chemical (Japan); Rhone Poulenc (France);
Sandoz (Switzerland); ICI (UK); Bharat
Pulverising Mills (India).

Figure 1: Traditional overall treatment of


wastewater
Organic Hazard In Asia

India is among the three remaining known


manufacturers of DDT (10,000 mt capacity) in
the world, the other two being Mexico and
China;

Life-threatening poisons such as DDT,


aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin and heptachlor -all of
which are either severely restricted or banned in
most countries- continue to be manufactured,
stored, used and traded freely in South Asia,
according to an investigative report released by
the
international
environmental
group
Greenpeace. The report titled "Toxic Legacies;
Poisoned Futures: Persistent Organic Pollutants
in Asia" reveals a story of potentially
widespread
contamination
caused
by
irresponsible corporate behavior, shortsighted
lending agencies and misguided government
policies.

India exports nearly 800,000 kilograms of POP


pesticides including aldrin, DDT, BHC, and
chlordane to a long list of countries, including
countries where their usage is banned. Exports
of pesticides that could be branded POPs in the
near
future
such
as
endosulfan,
sodiumpentachlorophenate, 2,4-D, and lindane
total more than two million tons. Some
pesticides such as aldrin are illegal to
manufacture in India.

"Asia faces a frightening scenario of


historic, current and potential poisoning by the
most dangerous variety of persistent poisons.
This situation is a result of existing stockpiles of
obsolete PCBs, the continuing production of
organophenols and other chemical pesticides and
the unmitigated expansion of dirty chlorinebased industries in the region," Focusing on a
class of poisonous chemicals called Persistent
Organic Pollutants or POPs, which are now
targeted for elimination by ongoing international
negotiations under the United Nations
Environment Program (UNEP), Greenpeace
investigations conducted between April and
August 2001 in seven Asian countries, including
Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, revealed

In Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh,


locally banned or severely restricted pesticides
are freely available. Greenpeace found DDT,
BHC, Dieldrin and Heptachlor openly sold in
vegetable markets in Karachi. Hardware stores
in New Delhi stock the deadly pesticide aldrin,
whose registration was withdrawn more than
two years ago.
POPs are a class of synthetic toxic
chemicals that cause severe and long-term
effects on wildlife, ecosystems and human
health. POPs have been implicated in the rising
incidence of certain cancers (e.g. breast,
prostate, endometriosis, etc.), reproductive
deficits such as infertility and sex-linked

disorders, declining sperm counts, fetal


malformations, neurobehavioral impairment, and
immune system dysfunction. Because of major
threats to human health, the UNEP process has
shortlisted an initial twelve substances for
elimination which include organochlorine
pesticides
(DDT,
chlordane,
mirex,
hexachlorobenzene, endrin, aldrin, toxaphene,
heptachlor), industrial chemicals like cancercausing PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and
the super-toxic dioxins and furans.
In line with the emerging requirements
of the UNEP POPs process, Greenpeace also
urges governments in the region to take action
now by taking inventory of all sources of POPs
in their countries and preventing the expansion
of POP-producing technologies such as
incinerators, PVC manufacturing, pesticide
production facilities, and pulp and paper mills
using chlorine bleaching processes.
"It is unfortunate that while governments in the
region are still grappling for ways to dispose of
their stockpiles of obsolete imported pesticides,
the continuing production and trade of these
chemicals goes on unabated. This could only
lead to an endless cycle of poisoning whose
unwitting and eventual victims are communities
and future generations," "Governments should
aim for an eventual phase-out of such polluting
practices and push for international cooperation
in developing viable and sustainable nonchemical alternatives."

estimates, intensive reuse and recycling systems


could take care of nearly 80 percent of
municipal waste. Current data suggest much
lower rates of recycling in most locations: 8
percent in the UK, 28 percent in the US, and so
on. Conversion to clean production technologies
can both help save business dollars and protect
the environment.
For toxic industrial and
medical wastes, non-incineration technologies
such as the gas phase thermo-chemical reduction
process achieve virtually 100 percent efficiency
in POPs destruction and capture all residues and
releases. Other emerging technologies include
electrochemical oxidation, molten metal
technology, solvated electron process, and
supercritical water oxidation.
Advanced
technologies
(noncombustion) available for wastewater treatment
are listed in table 1.

Why Only Electrochemical Oxidation?


In electrochemical oxidation (EO), an
electrochemical cell, operating at 50 to 60 oC
(120o to 140oF) and atmospheric pressure, is
used to generate an oxidizing species (a
mediated metal ion) at the anode (the negative
electrode) in an acidic solution. As indicated in
the flowsheet, this is
accomplished by
supplying a voltage across two electrodes
immersed in an acidic solution containing the
oxidizing species in its reduced, more natural
state.

"While governments in the region are


responsible for taking action against POPs
pollution, the liabilities associated with such
action must always fall on the polluter -the
corporations and international lending agenciesand not on the citizens who have long-endured
the polluter the corporation- and international
consequences of toxic pollution, added
Jayaraman.

What are electrochemical cells

Many oxidation-reduction reactions


occur spontaneously, giving off energy. An
example involves the spontaneous reaction that
occurs when zinc metal is placed in a solution of
copper ions as described by the net ionic
equation shown below.

Advances in wastewater treatment


Several effective, affordable, and
environmentally sound waste disposal options
are available; others are within scientific reach.
Separating waste categories can go a long way
in addressing waste problems. By some

Cu+2 (aq) + Zn (s)

Cu(s) + Zn+2 (aq)

The zinc metal slowly "dissolves" as its


oxidation produces zinc ions, which enter into

solution. At the same time, the copper ions gain


electrons and are converted into copper atoms,

which coats the zinc metal, or sediments to the


bottom of the container.

List of advanced technologies (non-combustion) available


for wastewater treatment
Technology
Non
Intrinsic
Capable of
combustion PCDD/F
containing all
destruction
formation process streams
technology
Incineration 1
No
yes
No
GPCR - Ecologic
Yes
no
Yes
Base Catalysed
Yes
no
Yes
Dechlorination
Sodium reduction
Yes
no
?
process(es)
Solvated electron
Yes
no
Yes
process
Super Critical
Yes
?
Yes
Water Oxidation
Electrochemical
Yes
no
Yes
oxidation
Vitrification
No
yes
No
Ball milling
Yes
no
Yes
Molten salt
?
?
?
Molten metal 2
?
?
?
Catalytic
Yes
no
?
hydrogenation
Solvent washing
No
no
N/A
Landfill/burial
No
no
no
Solidification/
No
no
no
Stabilization
Land spreading
No
no
no
Deep-well injection No
no
no
Technology
Non
Intrinsic
Capable of
combustion PCDD/F
containing all
destruction
formation process streams
technology
3
Incineration
No
yes
no
GPCR - Ecologic
Yes
no
yes

Capable of
reprocessing
all process
streams
No
Yes
Yes

Demonstrated
high DE

no

Yes

yes

yes?

yes

Yes

Yes

No
yes?
?
?
?

No
No
?
?
Yes

N/A
N/A
N/A

No
No
No

N/A
N/A
Capable of
reprocessing
all process
streams
No
Yes

No
No
Demonstrated
high DE

no
yes
yes

No
Yes

List of technologies that meet initial screening


Commercial
Countries where licensed and/or used for commercial
scale
treatment
Gas Phase Chemical Reduction
full
Australia, Canada, USA, Japan (Argentina?)
Technology

1
2
3

energy
produced in this reaction
is
Sodium The
reduction
process(es)
full
quickly dissipated as heat, but it can be made to
do useful
work
by a device called,
Base
Catalysed
Dechlorination
full an
Electrochemical
cell. This is donefullin the
Solvated
electron process
following way. oxidation
Electrochemical
limited
An
Electrochemical
cell
is
composed
of two
Catalytic hydrogenation
limited
compartments
or
half-cells,
each
in
Super-critical water oxidation
limited turn
composed
of
an
electrode
dipped
in
a
solution of
Ball milling
limited/demo
electrolyte.
These
half-cells
are
designed
Molten salt
demo to
contain the oxidation half-reaction and reduction
half-reaction separately as shown below.

occur,
anode would
France,would
Germany,
UK,the
Netherlands,
Southbecome
Africa, more
positive
zincArabia,
cationsJapan,
are produced,
and the
Australia,
USA,as
Saudi
New Zealand
cathode
would
become
more
negative
as
Australia, USA, Mexico, Spain, New Zealand copper
USA cations are removed from solution. Using a salt
USA bridge connecting the two cells as shown in the
diagram below can solve this problem. A "salt
Australia
USA bridge" is a porous barrier, which prevents the
spontaneous mixing of the aqueous solutions in
Germany
N/A each compartment, but allows the migration of
ions in both directions to maintain electrical
neutrality. As the oxidation-reduction reaction
occurs, cations (Zn+2) from the anode migrate
via the salt bridge to the cathode, while the
anion, (SO4)-2, migrates in the opposite
direction to maintain electrical neutrality.
The two half-cells are also connected externally.
In this arrangement, electrons provided by the
oxidation reaction are forced to travel via an
external circuit to the site of the reduction
reaction. The fact that the reaction occurs
spontaneously once these half-cells are
connected indicates that there is a difference in
potential energy. This difference in potential
energy is called an electromotive force (emf)
The half-cell, called the anode, is the site at
and is measured in terms of volts. The
which the oxidation of zinc occurs as shown
zinc/copper cell has an emf of about 1.1 volts
below.
under standard conditions.
Zn (s)

Zn+2 (aq) +2e-

During the oxidation of zinc, the zinc electrode


will slowly dissolve to produce zinc ions
(Zn+2), which enter into the solution containing
Zn+2 (aq) and SO4-2 (aq) ions.
The half-cell, called the cathode, is the site at
which reduction of copper occurs as shown
below.
Cu+2 (aq) + 2e -

Cu (s)

When the reduction of copper ions


(Cu+2) occurs, copper atoms accumulate on the
surface of the solid copper electrode.
The reaction in each half-cell does not occur
unless the two half cells are connected to each
other.
Recall that in order for oxidation to
occur, there must be a corresponding reduction
reaction that is linked or "coupled" with it.
Moreover, in an isolated oxidation or reduction
half-cell, an imbalance of electrical charge

Any electrical device can be "spliced" into the


external circuit to utilize this potential energy
produced by the cell for useful work. Although
the energy available from a single cell is
relatively small, electrochemical cells can be
linked in series to boost their energy output. A
common and useful application of this
characteristic is the "battery". An example is the
lead-acid battery used in automobiles. In the
lead-acid battery, each cell has a lead metal

anode and lead (IV) oxide (lead dioxide) cathode


both of which are immersed in a solution of
sulfuric acid. This single Electrochemical cell
produces about 2 volts. Linking 6 of these cells
in series produces the 12-volt battery found in
most cars today. One disadvantage of these "wet
cells" such as the lead-acid battery is that it is
very heavy and bulky. However, like many other
"wet cells", the oxidation-reduction reaction,
which occurs, can be readily reversed via an
external current such as that provided by an
automobile's alternator. This prolongs the
lifetime and usefulness of such devices as an
energy source.

The removal of phenols from


wastewaters is, therefore, an important problem
and electrochemical oxidation technologies offer
the prospect of relatively simple equipment,
environmental friendliness, and the possibility of
high-energy efficiency by using Electrochemical
oxidation techniques.
Benefits of electrochemical over others
The
advantages
of
biological
treatments are very well known, but also their
limitations either for a high COD (Chemical
Oxygen Demand) value or the presence of very
toxic compounds. The possible presence of
inorganic compounds, such as heavy metals,
may cause a drop of the bacterial count. On the
other hand, the incineration of organic
compounds can originate the formation of toxic
products that are dragged at the same time by the
combustion gases; also, the presence of
corrosive agents can cause problems in the
stability of the materials of the incinerator
Electrochemical degradation (direct and
indirect
Electrochemical
oxidation)
and
electrocatalisys of hazardous waste water have
several advantages compared with incineration
and biological treatment.

Improtance of removing organic pollutants


and carcinogens
Phenol is human poison by inhalation,
ingestion, and skin absorption. It is a severe
irritant to the eyes, skin and respiratory system.
Human mutation data have been reported for
phenol. Also it is a questionable carcinogen in
animals and a suspected carcinogen in humans,
although the data are inconclusive. Phenol is a
general protoplasmic poison that is corrosive to
any living tissue it contacts. Phenol is highly
soluble in water. Concentrations of 1000
milligrams and more will mix with a cubic
decimeter of water. About 26.3% of phenol will
eventually end up in air, approximately 73.3% in
water, and about 0.2% in terrestrial soil and
aquatic sediments. It is used to manufacture
various phenolic and epoxy resins, for refining
lubricating oils, a fuel-oil sludge inhibitor, and
as a reagent in chemical analysis. It is also used
in the production or manufacture of a large
variety of aromatic compounds including
fertilizers, illuminating gases, coke, explosives,
lampblack, paints, paint removers, asbestos
goods, wood preservatives, textiles, perfumes,
bakelite, rubber, and other plastics. Many
industrial processes generate wastewater flows
with a high concentration of phenols and other
related compounds. These compounds are
known to betoxic, even at low concentrations,
and their treatment is very important.

Electrochemical treatment is able to treat very


toxic wastes.
This process can operate at room temperature
and atmospheric pressure
It is a environmentally friendly technology
because it uses only electricity.
The energy consumption depends on COD
The Electrochemical treatment can be stopped
simply by switching off the power.
Cost and safety effective switching off the
power.
Cost and safety effective.

Comparison of various electrodes


Compound

Anode

Cathode

Conducting

Non con oxide

oxide
4-chloro phenol

Titanium

Lead dioxide

4-catechecol
Phenolics
Phenolics
Phenolics
Phenolics
Phenolics

Tio2
Titanium
Titanium
Titanium
Sno2
Stainless steel

--Strontium oxide
Strontium oxide
Strontium oxide
----Diamond
thin

Phenolics
Phenolics
Phenol
Phenol
Phenol

Titanium
Titanium
Titanium
Titanium
Titanium

film
Lead dioxide
Oxide
Strontium oxide
Ruo
Iro

Indium oxide
Ruo2
Iro2
Ptox

Tio2
Zr02
Ta205

--

--

--

--

Other Applications Of Electrochemical Technology


The PCBs degradation
In-situ chlorine production
Ozone generation
Destruction of cyanides and nitrites
Purification of wastewater using oxidising agents and in general as a method for the reduction of COD
from any effluent.
Elimination of phenol.
Elimination of tensioactives compounds and dyes
Innovative aspects of electrochemical technology
Electrochemical technology is able to treat toxic wastewater with high concentrations of organic
compounds.
Suitable when traditional treatment methods are not effective due to: non-biodegradable materials, heavy
metals, hazardous compounds are not completely degraded
It is an environmentally friendly technology.
It avoid the problem of dropping of the bacterial count on the biological treatments
It is a cost and safety effective technology

Major Drawbacks
The major drawbacks of this technology mainly include:
1) passivation
2) destabilisation of electrode material.
3) Passivation: The Passivstion of electrodes is due to building of sucessive layers of blocking films of
high molecular weight unreactive materials thus leading to the decrease in rate of reaction and after
sometime complete end of reaction.
4) Destabalisation of material: The destabilisation of electrode material widely confines to the corrison
problem. Due to improper selection of electrode pair sometimes the organic pollutant in long reaction time
corrodes the electrode material leading to destabilisation

Present State Of Electrohcemical Technology


At present Electrochemical technology is applicable for following treatment units:
Elimination of lead and lead oxides from waste waters.
Recovery of NaCl by electrodialysis.
Textile wastewater treatment using Electrochemical technology.
Conclusion
From the overall study of Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants and Electrochemical
technology we can conclude that this electrochemical degradation proved to be faster than the usual
treatments such as biodegradation, photoxidation. It is a clean technique, it does not need any chemical
reagent which may be harmful or expensive, it can be easily operated (needs no complex controls) and
also optimum safety condition prevails since the oxidizing agents are generated in-situ.
The only drawback of this technology is thr high operating cost of the reactor.
This suggests that in the future this kind of treatment should be prefferentially employed for the
preliminary treatment of organic wastewater constituents.

References
1) Janetm M . K esselman, Nathans Lewis &
Michaelr. Hoffmann, Photoelectrochemical Degradation of 4-Chlorocatechol at TiO2 Electrodes, W.
M. Keck Laboratories, California Institute of Technolog
2) L. Gherardini a , Ch. Comninellis b, N. Vatistas a,a , Electrochemical oxidation of waste water in
acid medias using ti-sno2 electrodes, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Pisa

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3) Subramanian Tamilmani Srini Raghavan Wayne Huang, Electrochemical Treatment of WaSTE


Water Using Boron Doped Diamond Electrode (BDD), Materials Science and Engineering Department
University of Arizona
4) P. Caizares, F. Martnez, M. Daz, Electrochemical oxidation azqueos waste using active and nonactive electrodes, Department of Chemical Engineering. Universidad de Castilla SPAIN
5) Edison A. Laurindo, Nerilso Bocchi and Romeu C. Rocha-Filho, Production and Characterization of
Ti/PbO2 Electrodes by a Thermal-Electrochemical Method, Departamento de Qumica, Universidade SP, Brazil
6) Jiangning Wu, Oxidative Polymerization of Phenol in Wastewater: An Assessment of Ozonation
and Enzymatic Processes, School of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada
7) William O'Grady , Paul Natishan, Brian StonE and Patrick Hagans, Electrochemical Oxidation of
Phenol Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes, Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory,
Washington, DC
8) A.Savall, N. Belhadj Tahar, C. Manaranche,, Kinetics and mechanisitc aspects of electrochemical
oxidation of organic pollutants, France
9) L. Gherardini a , Ch. Comninellis b , N. Vatistas a, electrochemical oxidation of waste waters,
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Pisa.

TRADUCEREA ARTUCOLULUI

Oxidarea electrochimica a poluanilor organici

Abstract
Scopul principal al acestei lucrri este de a folosi "tehnologia electrochimiei pentru ndeprtarea poluan ilor
organici din apele reziduale". Astzi, gestionarea deeurilor periculoase a devenit una dintre sarcinile cele mai dificile n
aceast lume tehnologic, deoarece tone de poluani organici, inclusiv diferite substante cancerigene sunt expuse fr
tratament suficient prescris conform normelor "Agentiei pentru Protectia Mediului". De asemenea, n contextul actual,
guvernul indian a fcut obligatorie tratarea apelor uzate nainte de evacuarea acesteia.

11

Depoluarea electrochimica este o metod foarte eficient i economic, potrivita atunci cnd apele uzate cuprind
poluanii organici toxici sau non-biodegradabili.
Astfel, prin intermediul tehnologiei electrochimice, care este sgura si ieftina, putem ajuta la reducerea
concentraiilor de poluani organici ntr-o msur minima i menine starea actual a lumii chimice.

Cuvinte cheie: Oxidare electrochimic, poluanii organici, celule electrochimice.

Introducere
Apa are o serie de proprieti unice, care sunt eseniale pentru via a i care determin comportamentul chimic al
mediului. Multe dintre aceste proprieti se datoreaz structurii moleculare polare ale apei i capacitatii de a forma
legturi de hidrogen. Apa are, de asemenea, cea mai mare constanta dielectric , o densitate maxim n stare lichid la
temperatura de 40 C i o capacitate termic mai mare dect n alte lichide cu excep ia amonniacului. Dar cele mai
importante fenomene chimice asociate cu apa nu au loc n solu ie, ci mai degrab printr-o interac iune a substan elor
dizolvate n ap cu alte faze. De exemplu, reac iile de oxido-reducere catalizate de bacterii apar n celulele bacteriene.
Multe deeuri periculoase organice sunt efectuate prin intermediul apei, emulsii de foarte mici particule n suspensie n
ap. Unele deeuri periculoase sunt depozitate n sedimente n corpurile de ap prin care poate intra mai trziu apa prin
procese chimice sau fizice i provoca efecte grave de poluare care trebuie s fie eliminate ct mai mult posibil.
Apele uzate sunt de obicei, oxidat cu ozon, care este un oxidant puternic, dar ndeprtarea carbonului organic
total a fost de nu mai mult de 30% i aceleai rezultate au fost obinute cu ajutorul peroxidului de hidrogen n prezen de
Fe +2 drept catalizator. n general, printr-o oxidare chimic poluanii organici sunt aproape complet eliminati, dar
ndeprtarea carbonului organic total rmne o problem. Acestea sunt motivele pentru care electrooxidarea poluan ilor
a fost subiectul unor studii extinse n ultimii ani.
Metoda electrochimic de depoluare prezint mai multe avantaje importante, pentru c nu are nevoie de produse
chimice auxiliare, acesta este aplicabil pe o gam larg de poluani i nu are nevoie de presiuni si temperaturi ridicate.
Oxidarea electrochimic a poluanilor din ape reziduale a fost studiat folosind anozi realizati din diferite
materiale. Acest lucru este atribuit oxidarii compuilor organici adsorbi i la dioxid de carbon. De asemenea, sa dovedit c,
n aceleai condiii indicele electrooxidare obinut pe anod SnO2 a fost mai mare dect la catod Pt, indicnd un grad mai
ridicat de fenol oxidare.
Tratarea apelor uzate: O privire de ansamblu
Aa cum sa indicat mai sus, apele uzate industriale conin o gam larg de poluan i: insolubil, coloidali, i forme
de particule, att anorganice si organice. n plus, standardele sunt, de asemenea, diverse, variind cu clasa industrial i
poluant. Prin urmare, nu poate exista nici o varianta standard pentru controlul polurii apelor industriale. Cu toate

12

acestea, fiecare dintre multiplele procese pentru tratarea de eurilor industriale sunt capabile de a elimina mai mult decat
un tip de poluant i este n general aplicabil la mai mult de o industrie. n general, o combina ie de mai multe procese este
utilizat pentru a atinge gradul de tratament necesar la cel mai mic cost. O mare parte a experien ei i a datelor de epurare
a apelor uzate a fost ctigat de la instalaiile de tratare municipale. De eurile lichide industriale sunt similare cu a apelor
uzate, dar difer n mod semnificativ. Astfel, parametrii de proiectare tipici i standarde elaborate pentru opera iunile de
evacuare a apelor reziduale municipale nu trebuie s fie utilizate orbe te pentru ape uzate industriale. Cel mai bine este
de a rula i testele de laborator pilot mici, cu apele uzate industriale specific ca parte a procesului de proiectare. Este cel
mai important s se neleag variaiile temporale n fluxul industrial putere a apelor uzate, precum i a componentelor de
deeuri i efectul lor asupra performanei diferitelor procese de tratare. Personalul din Industrie, ntr-un efort de a reduce
costurile, de multe ori faci studii pilot care depind de caracteristicile de eurilor de la instala ii similare. Aceast strategie
de multe ori duce la eec, ntrziere, i creterea costurilor.

Hazard Organic n Asia


Otrvurile pun viata in pericol, cum ar fi DDT, aldrin, clordan, dieldrin i-heptaclor toate care sunt fie sever
restricionate sau interzise n majoritatea rilor, continu s fie fabricate, depozitate, utilizate i comercializate n mod
liber n Asia de Sud, potrivit unui raport publicat de investiga ie de ctre grupul interna ional de mediu Greenpeace.
Raportul intitulat "moteniri toxice; otrvuri Futures: poluanii organici persisten i n Asia", dezvluie o poveste de
contaminare pe o scar larg cauzat de un comportament corporativ iresponsabil, agen iile de miopi de creditare i de
politicile guvernamentale greite.
"Asia se confrunt cu un scenariu nfricotor de otrviri istorice, actuale i poten iale de cea mai periculoasa
varietate de otrvuri persistente. Aceast situaie este o urmare a stocurilor existente de PCB-uri nvechite, continuarea
produciei de organophenols i alte pesticide chimice i extinderea fr cru are de clor murdar industriile din regiune pe
baza de "Concentrandu-se pe o clasa de substante chimice toxice numite poluani organici persisten i sau POP, care sunt
n prezent vizate pentru eliminarea de negocierile interna ionale n curs de desf urare n cadrul Programului Na iunilor
Unite pentru Mediu (UNEP), investigaii Greenpeace desfurate ntre aprilie i august 2001 n apte ri din Asia, inclusiv
Bangladesh, India, Nepal i Pakistan, a relevat faptul c stocurile de 5000 de tone sau mai mult de pesticide inutilizabile i
interzise, inclusiv POP, substane chimice sunt depozitate n condiii extrem de periculoase n mai mult de o mie de site-uri
din Pakistan i Nepal. O parte important din aceste pesticide sunt raportate pentru a fi ajuns, ca parte a pachetelor de
ajutor din rile occidentale, i aproape toate pesticidele au fost exportate de ctre rile dezvoltate i India pentru
Pakistan i Nepal.
Corporaii chimice ale cror produse au fost identificate n stocurilor din Pakistan i Nepal de anchetatori Greenpeace
includ: Bayer si Hoechst (Germania), DuPont, Dow Chemicals, Diamond Shamrock i Velsicol (SUA), Shell (Olanda),
Sumitomo Chemical i Takeda Chemical (Japonia) , Rhone Poulenc (Fran a), Sandoz (Elvetia), ICI (Marea Britanie);
Bharat pulverizarea Mills (India).
India este printre cei trei productori de DDT (10.000 tone capacitate) din lume, celelalte dou fiind Mexic i China;
India export aproape 800.000 de kilograme de pesticide POP, inclusiv Aldrin, DDT, BHC, i clordan pentru o list lung
de ri, inclusiv ri n care folosirea lor este interzis. Exporturile de pesticide, care ar putea fi de marc POP n viitorul
apropiat, cum ar fi endosulfan, sodiumpentachlorophenate, 2,4-D, i lindan total de mai mult de dou milioane de tone.
Unele pesticide, cum ar fi aldrin sunt ilegale pentru fabricarea n India.
n Pakistan, India, Nepal i Bangladesh, pesticide interzise la nivel local sau sever restric ionate sunt disponibile n mod
liber. Greenpeace a gsit DDT, BHC, Dieldrin Heptaclor i vndut n mod deschis n pie ele de legume din Karachi.
Magazine de hardware n New Delhi stoc aldrin pesticide de moarte, a crui nregistrare a fost retras n urm cu mai
mult de doi ani.
POP sunt o clas de substane chimice toxice sintetice care produc efecte asupra vie ii slbatice, ecosistemelor i
sntii umane pe termen lung grave i. POP au fost implicate n cre terea inciden ei anumitor tipuri de cancer (de
exemplu, de sn, de prostat, endometrioz, etc), deficite de reproducere, cum ar fi infertilitate si tulburari legata de sex,
n scdere numrului de spermatozoizi, malformaii fetale, afectare neuro-comportamentale, i disfunc ie a sistemului
imunitar. Din cauza unor ameninri majore la adresa sntii umane, procesul de UNEP a nominalizat un ini iale de
dousprezece substane de eliminare, care includ pesticidele organoclorurate (DDT, clordan, mirex, hexaclorbenzenul,
endrin, aldrin, toxafen, heptaclor), produse chimice industriale, cum ar fi cauzatoare de cancer, PCB (policlorura i
bifenili) i a dioxinelor i furanilor super-toxice.

13

n conformitate cu cerinele emergente ale procesului de UNEP POP, Greenpeace solicit, de asemenea, guvernele din
regiune s ia msuri acum prin luarea inventar al tuturor surselor de POP-uri n rile lor i a preveni extinderea de
tehnologii productoare de POP, cum ar fi incineratoare, de fabricaie PVC, facilit i de produc ie de pesticide, i celuloz
i hrtie mori folosind procese cu clor.
"Este regretabil faptul c n timp ce guvernele din regiune sunt nc se lupt pentru modalit i de a dispune de stocuri lor
de pesticide inutilizabile i interzise importate, continuarea produc iei i comer ului cu aceste substan e chimice va
continua,. Acest lucru ar putea duce doar la un ciclu nesfr it de otrvire a cror ne tiutor i eventualele victime sunt
comunitile i generaiile viitoare "," Guvernele ar trebui s urmreasc pentru o eventual faz-out din astfel de practici
poluante i mpinge pentru cooperarea internaional n dezvoltarea de alternative non-chimice viabile i durabile. "
"n timp ce guvernele din regiune sunt responsabile pentru luarea de msuri mpotriva polurii cu POP,
datoriile asociate cu o astfel de aciune trebuie s fie ntotdeauna cdea pe poluatorul corpora iile i agen iile
internaionale de creditare i nu asupra cetenilor care au lung a suferit poluatorul consecin elor interna ionale ale
polurii toxice-profit i, "adaug
Jayaraman.
Progrese in tratarea apelor uzate
Mai multe efective, la preuri accesibile, i ecologice op iunile de eliminare a de eurilor sunt disponibile, altele
sunt la indemana tiinifice. Separarea categorii de deeuri poate merge un drum lung n abordarea problemelor
deeurilor. Dupa unele estimari, sistemele de refolosire i de reciclare intensiv ar putea avea grij de aproape 80 la sut
din deeurile municipale. Datele actuale sugereaza rate mult mai mici de reciclare n cele mai multe loca ii: 8 la sut n
Marea Britanie, 28 la suta din SUA, i aa mai departe. Conversie pentru a cur a tehnologii de produc ie poate att ajuta
la salvarea de dolari de afaceri i de a proteja mediul nconjurtor. De de euri industriale i medicale toxice, tehnologii
non-incinerare, cum ar fi procesul de reducere a termo-chimic n faz de gaz atinge aproape 100 la suta eficienta in
distrugerea POP i captura toate reziduurile i comunicate. Alte tehnologii emergente includ oxidarea electrochimic,
tehnologia de metal topit, procesul de electroni solvatat, i oxidare n ap supercritic.
Tehnologii avansate (fr combustie) disponibile pentru tratarea apelor uzate sunt prezentate n tabelul 1.

De ce electrochimia de oxidare?
La oxidarea electrochimic (EO), o celul electrochimic, care func ioneaz la 50 pn la 60 C (120 la 140 F)
i la presiune atmosferic, este utilizat pentru a genera o specie de oxidare (un ion metalic mediat) la anod (electrodul
negativ) ntr-o soluie acid. Dup cum se indic n schema tehnologic, aceasta se realizeaz prin furnizarea de o tensiune
peste doi electrozi cufundai ntr-o soluie acid care conine speciile de oxidare n redus, stare mai natural.
Ce sunt celule electrochimice

Multe reacii de oxido-reducere apar spontan, oferindu-off de energie. Un exemplu implic reac ia spontan care
apare atunci cand zincului metalic este plasat ntr-o soluie de ioni de cupru a a cum este descris de ecua ia ionic net se
arat mai jos.
Cu +2 (aq) + Zn (uri) Cu (s) + Zn +2 (aq)
Zincul metalic ncet "dizolv" ca oxidarea acestuia produce ioni de zinc, care intr n solu ie. n acela i timp,
ionii de cupru obine electroni i se transform n atomi de cupru, care acoper metalul de zinc, sau sedimente la fundul
recipientului.

Lista de tehnologii avansate (non-ardere) disponibile


pentru tratarea apelor uzate

14

Tehnologie

Tehnologie
distrugere
ardere
Incinerare [1]
Nu
GPCR - Ecologic
Da
Catalizat de baz Da
declorare
Proces de reducere de Da
sodiu (ES)
Procesul de electroni Da
solvat
Oxidarea
cu
ap Da
super-critic
Oxidare
Da
electrochimica
Vitrificare
Nu
Bile de frezat
Da
Sare topit
?
De metal topit [2]
?
Hidrogenarea
Da
catalitic
Splat solvent
Nu
Depozitele de deeuri / Nu
nmormntare
Solidificare /
Nu
Stabilizare
Teren de raspandire
Nu
Injecie Deep-bine
Nu
Tehnologie
Tehnologie
distrugere
ardere
Incinerare [3]
Nu
GPCR - Ecologic
Da

nonFormarea
dePCDD
intrinsec / F
da
nu
nu

Capabil de a conineCapabil
deA demonstrat
toate fluxurile dereprocesare tuturornalt DE
proces
fluxurilor de proces
Nu
Nu
nu
Da
Da
da
Da
Da
da

nu

nu

nu

Da

Da

da

Da

da?

da

nu

Da

Da

Da

da
nu
?
?
nu

Nu
Da
?
?
?

Nu
da?
?
?
?

Nu
Nu
?
?
Da

nu
nu

N/A
nu

N/A
N/A

Nu
Nu

nu

nu

N/A

Nu

nu
nu
nonFormarea
dePCDD
intrinsec / F
da
nu

nu
N/A
Nu
nu
N/A
Nu
Capabil de a conineCapabil
deA demonstrat
toate fluxurile dereprocesare tuturornalt DE
proces
fluxurilor de proces
nu
Nu
Nu
da
Da
Da

de

de

Lista de tehnologii care ndeplinesc screening-ul initial


Tehnologie
Scar comercial rile n care liceniai i / sau utilizate pentru tratarea comercial
Faza de gaz de reducere chimic
complet
Australia, Canada, Statele Unite ale Americii, Japonia
(Argentina?)
Proces de reducere de sodiu (ES)
complet
Frana, Germania, Marea Britanie, Olanda, Africa de Sud,
Australia, Statele Unite ale Americii, Arabia Saudit, Japonia,
Noua Zeeland
Catalizat de baz declorare
complet
Australia, Statele Unite ale Americii, Mexic, Spania, Noua
Zeeland
Procesul de electroni solvat
complet
Statele Unite ale Americii
Oxidare electrochimica
limitat
Statele Unite ale Americii
Hidrogenarea catalitic
limitat
Australia
Oxidare super-critic de ap
limitat
Statele Unite ale Americii
Bile de frezat
limitat / demo Germania
Sare topit
demo
N/A

15

Energia produs n aceast reacie este rapid disipat sub form de cldur, dar se poate face pentru a face o
munc util de ctre un dispozitiv numit, o celul electrochimic. Acest lucru se face n felul urmtor.
O celul electrochimic este compus din dou compartimente sau jumt i de celule, fiecare la rndul lor, compuse dintrun electrod nmuiat ntr-o soluie de electrolit. Aceste jumt i de celule sunt proiectate s con in oxidare jumtate de
reacie i reducerea jumtate de reacie separat, aa cum se arat mai jos.
Jumtate de celul, numit anod, este locul la care oxidarea zincului are loc a a cum se arat mai jos.
Zn (uri) Zn +2 (aq) 2 eIn timpul oxidarea zinc, electrodul de zinc se dizolv ncet pentru a produce ioni de zinc (Zn +2), care intr n solu ia care
conine Zn +2 (aq) i SO4-2 (aq) ioni.
Jumtate de celul, numit catod, este locul la care reducerea cuprului are loc a a cum se arat mai jos.
Cu +2 (aq) + 2e - Cu (s)
Atunci cnd are loc reducerea ionilor de cupru (Cu +2), atomii de cupru se acumuleaz pe suprafa a electrodului
de cupru solid.
Reacia la fiecare jumtate de celul nu are loc dect dac cele dou celule jumt i sunt conectate ntre ele.
S ne amintim c, pentru ca s se oxideze, trebuie s existe o reac ie de reducere corespunztor, care este legat
sau "cuplat" cu ea. Mai mult dect att, ntr-o oxidare sau reducere izolat jumtate de celul, s-ar produce un
dezechilibru de sarcin electric, anodul ar deveni mai pozitiv ca cationi de zinc sunt produse, iar catodul ar deveni mai
negativ ca cationii de cupru sunt eliminate din soluie. Folosind o "punte de sare", care leag cele dou celule a a cum se
arat n diagrama de mai jos se poate rezolva aceast problem. O "punte de sare" este o barier poroas, care mpiedic
amestecarea spontan a soluiilor apoase din fiecare compartiment, dar permite migrarea ionilor n ambele direc ii pentru
a menine neutralitatea electric. Dup cum se produce reac ia de oxidare-reducere, cationi (Zn +2) de la anod migra prin
puntea de sare la catod, n timp ce anion, (SO4) -2, migreaz n direcia opus pentru a menine neutralitatea electric.
Cele dou jumti de celule sunt, de asemenea, conectat extern. n acest aranjament, electronii furnizate de reac ia de
oxidare sunt obligate s se deplaseze printr-un circuit exterior la locul de reac ia de reducere. Faptul c reac ia are loc n
mod spontan o dat aceste jumti de celule sunt conectate indic faptul c exist o diferen de poten ial energetic.
Aceast diferen de potenial de energie se numete o for electromotoare (EMF) i este msurat n termeni de vol i.
Celula de zinc / cupru are o emf de aproximativ 1,1 voli n condiii standard.
Orice dispozitiv electric poate fi "mbinat" n circuitul extern pentru a utiliza aceast energie poten ial produs de celula
de lucru util. Dei energia disponibil dintr-o singur celul este relativ mic, celule electrochimice pot fi legate n serie
pentru a stimula producia de energie. O aplicaie comun i util de aceast caracteristic este "baterie". Un exemplu este
bateria plumb-acid folosite n automobile. In bateria plumb-acid, fiecare celul are un anod metalic i plumb (IV) oxid
(dioxid de plumb) catod de plumb ambele fiind scufundate ntr-o solu ie de acid sulfuric. Acest singur celul
electrochimic produce aproximativ 2 voli. Legarea 6 din aceste celule n serie produce baterie de 12 vol i a gsit n cele
mai multe masini de astzi. Un dezavantaj al acestor celule "ude", cum ar fi bateria plumb-acid este faptul c este foarte
grele i voluminoase. Cu toate acestea, ca i multe alte celule "ude", reac ia de oxido-reducere, care are loc, poate fi u or
inversat prin intermediul unui curent extern cum ar fi cele furnizate de alternator un automobil lui. Acest lucru
prelungete durata de via i utilitatea de dispozitive, cum ar fi o surs de energie.

Improtanta de ndeprtare a poluanilor organici si agenti cancerigeni


Fenolul este o otrav care prin inhalare, ingestie, i absorbtie prin piele duce la moartea oamenilor. Este un
iritant sever la ochi, piele i sistemul respirator. Datele mutatie umane au fost raportate de fenol. De asemenea, aceasta
este o substan cancerigen discutabil la animale i un carcinogen la om, de i datele nu sunt concludente. Fenol este o
otrav protoplasmic general, care este coroziv pentru orice tesut-l contacte vii. Fenolul este foarte solubil n ap.
Concentraii de 1,000 miligrame i mai mult se va amesteca cu un decimetru cub de ap. Aproximativ 26,3% din fenol se
va ncheia n cele din urm n aer, aproximativ 73,3% n ap, i aproximativ 0,2% n sol terestru i sedimentele acvatice.
Este folosit pentru fabricarea diferitelor rini fenolice i epoxidice, pentru uleiuri lubrifiante de rafinare, o inhibitor de
nmol combustibil-ulei, i ca reactiv n analiza chimic. Acesta este, de asemenea, utilizat n producerea sau fabricarea de
o mare varietate de compui aromatici, inclusiv ngrminte, gaze de iluminat, cocs, explozivi, negru de fum, vopsele, de
ndeprtare a vopselei, produse de azbest, de conservare a lemnului, textile, parfumuri, bachelit, cauciuc i alte materiale

16

plastice . Multe procese industriale genera fluxuri de ape uzate, cu o concentra ie mare de fenoli i al i compu i conexe.
Aceti compui sunt cunoscui betoxic, chiar i la concentraii sczute, iar tratamentul lor este foarte important.
ndeprtarea fenolilor din ape reziduale este, prin urmare, o problem important i tehnologii electrochimice de
oxidare ofera perspectiva echipament relativ simplu, respectarea mediului, precum i posibilitatea de eficien nalt
energie, prin utilizarea tehnicilor de oxidare electrochimic.
Beneficiile electrochimiei n detrimentul altor tehnologii
Avantajele tratamente biologice sunt foarte bine cunoscute, dar, de asemenea, limitele lor, fie pentru o mare
valoare COD (Cererea de oxigen chimic) sau prezena unor compu i foarte toxici. Posibila prezen de compu i
anorganici, cum ar fi metalele grele, poate cauza o scdere a numrului de bacterii. Pe de alt parte, incinerarea compu i
organici pot originea formrii produilor toxici care sunt trase n acela i timp, prin arderea gaze; asemenea, prezen a unor
ageni corozivi pot cauza probleme n stabilitatea materiale de incinerator
Degradare electrochimica (directe i indirecte oxidare electrochimic) i electrocatalisys de ap de euri
periculoase au mai multe avantaje n comparaie cu incinerarea i tratarea biologic.
Tratamentul electrochimic este capabil de a trata deeuri foarte toxice.
Acest proces poate funciona la temperatura camerei i presiune atmosferic
Este o tehnologie ecologic, deoarece folosete doar energie electric.
Consumul de energie depinde COD
Tratamentul electrochimice poate fi oprit pur i simplu prin oprirea putere.
Cost i siguran eficiente oprirea alimentrii.

Compararea diferitilor electrozi


Compus
4-clor fenol

Anod
Titan

Catod
Dioxid de plumb

Efectuarea oxid

Oxid non con

4-catechecol
Fenoli
Fenoli
Fenoli
Fenoli
Fenoli

TiO2
Titan
Titan
Titan
SnO2
Inox

--Oxid de stroniu
Oxid de stroniu
Oxid de stroniu
----Diamant film subire

Oxid de indiu
Ruo2
Iro2
Ptox

TiO2
Zr02
Ta205

Fenoli
Fenoli
Fenol
Fenol
Fenol

Titan
Titan
Titan
Titan
Titan

Dioxid de plumb
Oxid
Oxid de stroniu
Ruo
Iro

17

Alte aplicaii ale tehnologiei electrochimice

Stadiul actual al tehnologiei Electrochimice

Degradarea PCB

n prezent tehnologia electrochimic se aplic pentru


urmtoarele uniti de tratament:

In-situ pentru producerea clorului


Eliminarea de plumb i plumb oxizi din apele uzate.
Generaie ozon
Recuperarea de NaCl de electrodializ.
Distrugerea cianurilor i nitrii
Textile epurare a apelor uzate folosind tehnologia
electrochimica.

Purificarea apelor uzate utiliznd ageni de oxidare i,


n general, ca o metod de reducere a CCO de la orice
efluent.

Concluzie

Eliminarea fenol.

Din studiul de ansamblu a "oxidarii electrochimice a


poluanilor organici" prin tehnologie electrochimica,
putem concluziona c aceast degradare electrochimica
s-au dovedit a fi mai rapida dect tratamentele uzuale,
cum ar fi de biodegradare, photoxidation. Este o tehnica
de curat, ea nu are nevoie de nici un reactiv chimic care
poate fi duntoare sau scump, acesta poate fi utilizat
cu uurin (nu are nevoie de controale complexe) i, de
asemenea, condiii optime de siguran prevaleaz,
deoarece agenii de oxidare sunt generate in situ.

Eliminarea compuilor tensioactivi i vopsele


Aspcte inovative ale tehnologiei electrochimice
Tehnologia electrochimica este capabil de a trata apelor
uzate toxice cu concentraii mari de compui organici.
Potrivit atunci cnd metodele de tratament traditionale
nu sunt eficiente din cauza: materiale nonbiodegradabile, metale grele, compui periculoi nu sunt
complet degradate

Singurul dezavantaj al acestei tehnologii este thr costuri


mari de operare a reactorului.
Acest lucru sugereaz c, n viitor, acest tip de
tratament ar trebui s fie folosite prefferentially pentru
tratamentul preliminar de constitueni organici a apelor
uzate.

Este o tehnologie ecologic.


Evita problema de scdere a numrul de bacterii pe
tratamentele biologice
Este o tehnologie eficient de cost i de siguran
Dezavantajele majore

Referine

Cele mai importante dezavantaje ale acestei tehnologii


includ n principal:

1) J anetm M. K esselman, N Athans Lewis &


M ichaelr. H offmann, Degradarea fotoelectrochimica
de 4-Chlorocatechol la TiO2 Electrozi, WM Keck
Laboratories, California Institute of Technolog

1) pasivizare
2) destabilizare a materialului de electrod.

2) L. Gherardini o, Ch. Comninellis b, N. Vatistas o, o,


E oxidare lectrochemical a apelor uzate n mass-media
de acid utiliznd electrozi ti-SnO2, Departamentul de
Inginerie Chimica, Universitatea din Pisa

3) Pasivizarea: Passivstion de electrozi se datoreaz


construirea de straturi sucessive de blocare filme de
greutate materiale redusa molecular mare conducnd
astfel la scderea ratei de reacie i dup sfritul
cndva complet de reacie.

3) Subramanian Tamilmani Srini Raghavan Wayne


Huang, Tratamentul electrochimic a apelor uzate
folosind bor dopate Diamond electrod (BDD), Stiinta si
Ingineria Materialelor Departament Universitatea din
Arizona

4) Destabalisation de material: Destabilizarea de


material electrod limiteaz foarte mult la problema
corrison. Datorit selecie necorespunztoare de perechi
de electrozi, uneori poluant organic n timpul de reacie
timp corodeaz materialul de electrod care duce la
destabilizarea

4) P. Caizares, F. Martnez, M. Daz, E azqueos oxidare


lectrochemical pierde folosind electrozi active i

18

inactive, Departamentul de
Universidad de Castilla SPANIA

Inginerie

Chimica.

5) Edison A. Laurindo, Nerilso Bocchi i Romeu C.


Rocha-Filho, producie i caracterizarea Ti/PbO2
electrozi de un termic Metoda electrochimic,
Departamento de Qumica, Universidade - SP, Brazilia
6) Jiangning Wu, oxidativ Polimerizarea de fenol n
apelor uzate: O evaluare de ozonare i enzimatice
Procese, Scoala de Inginerie Chimica, Ryerson
Politehnic University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
7) William O'Grady, Paul Natishan, Brian Stone si
Patrick Hagans, electrochimice de oxidare de fenol
folosind bor dopate Diamond electrozi, Divizia de
Chimie, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC
8) A.Savall, N. Belhadj Tahar, C. Manaranche,, Netics ki
i aspecte mechanisitc de oxidare electrochimic de
poluani organici, Frana
9) L. Gherardini o, Ch. Comninellis b, N. Vatistas o,
oxidare electrochimica a apelor uzate, Departamentul
de Inginerie Chimica, Universitatea din Pisa.

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