Mat Chapter 14

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Mat Chapter 14

© All Rights Reserved

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1.0

DESIGN OF BEAM-COLUMNS - II

INTRODUCTION

Their behaviour under uniaxial bending, biaxial bending and torsional flexural buckling

were discussed in Part I on this topic in the previous chapter. It was shown that a range

of behaviour varying from flexural yielding to torsional flexural or flexural buckling is

possible.

In this chapter evaluation of strength of beam-columns is discussed. The steps in the

analysis of strength of beam-column are presented along with an example.

2.0

STRENGTH OF BEAM-COLUMNS

The discussions in the part I of this topic, clearly indicated that the behaviour of beamcolumns is fairly complex, particularly at the ultimate stage and hence exact evaluation of

the strength would require fairly complex analysis. However, for design purposes,

simplified equations are available, using which it is possible to obtain the strength of

members, conservatively. These are discussed below.

2.1 Modes of Failure

The following are the possible modes of failure of beam-columns

2.1.1

This is usually encountered in the case of short, stocky beam columns (/r << 50) with

relatively smaller axial compression ratio (Fc/Py < 0.33) and beam-columns bent in

reverse curvature.

The strength of the end section reached under combined axial force and bending

moment, governs the failure.

The strength of the section may be governed by plastic buckling of plate elements

in the case of plastic, compact and semi-compact sections or the elastic buckling of

plate elements in the case of slender sections (see the chapter on plate buckling).

2.1.2

This type of failure is encountered in the case of all members subjected to larger

compression (Fc/Py > 0.5) and single curvature bending about the minor axis as well as

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DESIGN OF BEAM-COLUMNS-II

not very slender members subjected to axial compression and single curvature bending

about the major axis.

The member fails by reaching the strength of the member at a section over the length

of the member, under the combined axial compression and magnified bending

moment.

In the case of weak axis bending of slender members (/r > 80), the failure may be by

weak axis buckling, or failure of the maximum moment section under the combined

effect of axial force and magnified moment.

The section failure may be due to elastic or plastic plate buckling depending on the

slenderness ratio (b/t) of the plate (See the chapter on plate buckling).

2.1.3

and uniaxial bending about the major axis or biaxial bending.

At the ultimate stage the member undergoes biaxial bending and torsional instability

mode of failure.

The design code specifies, as given below, the linear interaction equations to check the

section strength to prevent local section failure as well as member failure by flexural

yielding and torsional flexural buckling. These are conservative simplifications of the

non-linear failure envelopes discussed in the previous chapter.

2.2.1

Fc

Ag f yd

My

Mx

1.0

Z x f yd Z y f yd

(5)

where Fc, Mx and My are the actual compressive force and bending moments about the

major (x) axis and minor (y) axis of the cross section, respectively. Ag is the gross area of

cross section in the case of plastic, compact and semi-compact sections and effective

area, Aeff, of cross section in the case of slender sections (see the chapters on cold formed steel members). Zx , Zy are the plastic section moduli, Zp, of the cross section

about the major and minor axis, respectively in plastic and compact sections and the

elastic section moduli, Sx, Sy in non-compact sections and effective section moduli, Seff, in

slender sections, respectively. The fyd is the design yield strength given by fy/mo (mo =

1.15). Normally, actual bending moments at one of the two ends of the compressive

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14 - 2

DESIGN OF BEAM-COLUMNS-II

member would govern. The moments obtained from the linear-elastic analysis would

suffice for normal buildings with only a few storeys and lower axial compression. In

very tall buildings with a large axial compression and large lateral sway, the end moments

after accounting for the P- effects have to be considered.

2.2.2

The interaction equation to check the member capacity as governed by overall member

buckling is given by

My

Fc

M

kx x k y

1 .0

Fcl

M ux

M uy

( 6)

where, Fc, Mx,and My are the actual axial compression, and actual bending moments about

the major (x) and minor (y) axes, respectively. Fcl, Mux, Muy are the design compressive

strength, and the bending strength about the x and y axis, respectively, when only the

corresponding axial force/bending moment is acting. These are calculated considering

buckling in the case of compression and bending about major axis. The method of

calculating these strengths was discussed in the respective chapters on compression

members and beams. These design strengths have to be calculated considering the type

of section (plastic, compact, semi-compact and slender) as well as lateral buckling, in the

case of strong axis bending. kx, ky are the moment amplification factors which account

for the effect of moment gradient over the member length, instead of uniform moment

over the entire length, and magnification of moments due to the axial force acting on the

deformed column. These are given by:

k 1

Fc

1.5

Pc

Z S

/ M max )

where, ( 2 M 4 )

0.9

1.3

1.4

(7)

Z , S plastic and elastic sec tion mod uli , respectively

P- analysis. In this case, the actual axial compression and bending moments as obtained

from such an analysis may be used in the interaction equation and the sway effects may

be disregarded in evaluation of Pu, Pex and Pey. These methods of analysis and design are

beyond the scope of this chapter and are not discussed herein.

Version II

14 - 3

DESIGN OF BEAM-COLUMNS-II

4.0

(i)

Area, principal axes moments of inertia, section moduli, radii of gyration,

effective lengths and slenderness ratios.

(ii)

Evaluate the type of section based on the (b/t) ratio of the plate elements, as

plastic, compact, semi-compact, or slender.

(iii)

Check for resistance of the cross-section under the combined effects as governed

by yielding (Eq. 5).

(iv)

buckling (Eq. 6).

4.0

SUMMARY

This chapter presented equations for the design of beam-columns and an example design.

The behaviour and design of beam-columns are contained in the two parts on this topic.

The following are the important points discussed in these chapters.

The beam-column may fail by reaching either the ultimate strength of the section (in

the case of smaller axial load and shorter members) or by the buckling strength as

governed by weak axis buckling or lateral torsional buckling.

At lower loads, the failure is likely to be after the formation of the plastic hinges,

especially in the case of shorter members.

In slender beam-columns with larger axial compression, either weak axis or lateral

torsional buckling would control failure.

The interaction formulae given for the design are conservative and simple,

considering the complicated nature of beam-column failure.

In the design of beam-columns in frames, the magnification of moment due to P-

and P- effects are to be considered.

5.0 REFERENCES

1. BS5950: Part 1: 1985 Structural Use of Steelwork in Building, Part I Code of

Practice for Design in Simple and Continuous Construction: Hot Rolled Steel

Sections, British Standards Institution

2. Dowling P.J, Knowles and Owens, G.W., Structural Steel Design, Butterworth,

London, 1998.

3. Eurocode 3: 1992, Design of Steel structures, British Standards Institution

Version II

14 - 4

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