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# 7/8/2011

Types of Quantities

Chapter 1.4
THE RING OF
POLYNOMIALS

Variables

## represented only by letters

and whose values may be
arbitrarily chosen depending
on the situation.

Types of Quantities

Example 1.4.1
Consider the formula F ma

Constant
a quantity whose value is fixed

## and may not be changed during

a particular discussion.

- force

- mass

- acceleration

## F , m, and a are variables.

Example 1.4.1
In the formula for computing the
circumference of a circle 2 r
2 and

are constants,

while r

is a variable.

Algebraic Expressions

## Any combination of numbers and

symbols related by the operations
from the previous sections will be
called an algebraic expression.
Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers and roots

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Example 1.4.2

2x 3 y

y 2xy2

x
x
y

x 3 2x
are algebraic expressions

Algebraic Expressions
Each distinct part, together with its
sign, is called a term of the algebraic
expression.
2x 2 xy 3

Algebraic Expressions
Any algebraic expression consisting
of distinct parts separated by + or
is called an algebraic sum.
2x 2 xy 3

2xy 5

Types of Algebraic
Expressions
An algebraic expression consisting of
1 term
- monomial
2 terms

- binomial

3 terms
- trinomial
any number of terms - multinomial

2xy 5

Algebraic Expressions

Algebraic Expressions
In 3u4v,
3 is the coefficient of u4v.

## Each factor of a term may be called

the coefficient of the others.

## 3u4 is the coefficient of v.

3v is the coefficient of u4 .
3 is the numerical coefficient.
u4v is the literal coefficient.

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Algebraic Expressions

Polynomials

T e r m s h a v in g th e s a m e lit e r a l
c o e ffic ie n ts a r e c a lle d s im ila r
te rm s .
3x

2xy x

5y

A polynomial in t is an algebraic
expression involving only nonnegative integral powers of t.

Example 1.4.3
Is 2xt 2 3 yt 3 1 a polynomial in t ?
Is it a polynomial in x ?
Is it a polynomial in y ?

Polynomials
The notations can be used to
find the value of the expression
when the value of the variable
is given.

Polynomials
A polynomial in t can be expressed
as P t .
P t t 2 2t 1
A polynomial in x and y can be
expressed as Q x , y .
Q x , y x 2 y2

1
gt, then
2
1
S 4 g 4 2g
2
1
S 0 g 0 0
2

If S t

If C x 7, then
C 1 7
C 7
C is a constant polynomial.

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Polynomials
The degree of a term of a polynomial
in a variable is the exponent of the

Example 1.4.5
The degree of x 2 y in x is 2.

variable.

The degree of x 3 y 4 in y is 4.
The degree of a term of a polynomial in
some variables is the sum of the degrees
of all variables in that term.

## The degree of x 4 y10 in x and y is 14.

Polynomials

Example 1.4.6
1.

The degree of P in x is 3.

## The degree of the polynomial in some

variables is that of its term of highest
degree in those variables.

P x 3x 3 x 2

2.

Q x , y 3x 4 x 3 y 2x 2 y2 y3
The degree of Q in x is 4.
The degree of Q in y is 3.
The degree of Q in x and y is 4.

Example 1.4.7

If

similar terms.

P x x 3 2x 2 1 and
Q x x 3 3x 2 5x 10

P x Q x 2x 3 x 2 5x 9

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Example 1.4.8

Multiplication of Polynomials

## To multiply two polynomials, we

apply the distributive property,
the laws of exponents, and add
similar terms.

## Perform the indicated operations.

1.

3t

10

2 2t 5 3t 2 2 2t 3t 2 2 5

6t3 4t 15t 2
3

6t 4t 15t 2 10
6t3 15t 2 4t 10

Example 1.4.8

2.

2x

y 3xy 2x 2 4 y
3

Special Products

6 x y 4 x 8x y 3xy2 2x 2 y 4 y2

## Binomial Sum and Difference

x y x y x 2 y2

6 x 3 y 4 x 4 10x 2 y 3xy2 4 y2

Example 1.4.9
Perform the indicated operation.
Use special products.
x y x y x 2 y2
1.

x 2 x 2 x 2 4

2.

3x y 3x y 9x y
5a b 2c 5a b 2c 25a b

3.

4 2

4c 6