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Types of Quantities

Chapter 1.4

THE RING OF

POLYNOMIALS

Variables

and whose values may be

arbitrarily chosen depending

on the situation.

Types of Quantities

Example 1.4.1

Consider the formula F ma

Constant

a quantity whose value is fixed

a particular discussion.

- force

- mass

- acceleration

Example 1.4.1

In the formula for computing the

circumference of a circle 2 r

2 and

are constants,

while r

is a variable.

Algebraic Expressions

symbols related by the operations

from the previous sections will be

called an algebraic expression.

Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers and roots

7/8/2011

Example 1.4.2

2x 3 y

y 2xy2

x

x

y

x 3 2x

are algebraic expressions

Algebraic Expressions

Each distinct part, together with its

sign, is called a term of the algebraic

expression.

2x 2 xy 3

Algebraic Expressions

Any algebraic expression consisting

of distinct parts separated by + or

is called an algebraic sum.

2x 2 xy 3

2xy 5

Types of Algebraic

Expressions

An algebraic expression consisting of

1 term

- monomial

2 terms

- binomial

3 terms

- trinomial

any number of terms - multinomial

2xy 5

Algebraic Expressions

Algebraic Expressions

In 3u4v,

3 is the coefficient of u4v.

the coefficient of the others.

3v is the coefficient of u4 .

3 is the numerical coefficient.

u4v is the literal coefficient.

7/8/2011

Algebraic Expressions

Polynomials

T e r m s h a v in g th e s a m e lit e r a l

c o e ffic ie n ts a r e c a lle d s im ila r

te rm s .

3x

2xy x

5y

A polynomial in t is an algebraic

expression involving only nonnegative integral powers of t.

Example 1.4.3

Is 2xt 2 3 yt 3 1 a polynomial in t ?

Is it a polynomial in x ?

Is it a polynomial in y ?

Polynomials

The notations can be used to

find the value of the expression

when the value of the variable

is given.

Polynomials

A polynomial in t can be expressed

as P t .

P t t 2 2t 1

A polynomial in x and y can be

expressed as Q x , y .

Q x , y x 2 y2

1

gt, then

2

1

S 4 g 4 2g

2

1

S 0 g 0 0

2

If S t

If C x 7, then

C 1 7

C 7

C is a constant polynomial.

7/8/2011

Polynomials

The degree of a term of a polynomial

in a variable is the exponent of the

Example 1.4.5

The degree of x 2 y in x is 2.

variable.

The degree of x 3 y 4 in y is 4.

The degree of a term of a polynomial in

some variables is the sum of the degrees

of all variables in that term.

Polynomials

Example 1.4.6

1.

The degree of P in x is 3.

variables is that of its term of highest

degree in those variables.

P x 3x 3 x 2

2.

Q x , y 3x 4 x 3 y 2x 2 y2 y3

The degree of Q in x is 4.

The degree of Q in y is 3.

The degree of Q in x and y is 4.

Addition of Polynomials

Example 1.4.7

If

similar terms.

P x x 3 2x 2 1 and

Q x x 3 3x 2 5x 10

P x Q x 2x 3 x 2 5x 9

7/8/2011

Example 1.4.8

Multiplication of Polynomials

apply the distributive property,

the laws of exponents, and add

similar terms.

1.

3t

10

2 2t 5 3t 2 2 2t 3t 2 2 5

6t3 4t 15t 2

3

6t 4t 15t 2 10

6t3 15t 2 4t 10

Example 1.4.8

2.

2x

y 3xy 2x 2 4 y

3

Special Products

6 x y 4 x 8x y 3xy2 2x 2 y 4 y2

x y x y x 2 y2

6 x 3 y 4 x 4 10x 2 y 3xy2 4 y2

Example 1.4.9

Perform the indicated operation.

Use special products.

x y x y x 2 y2

1.

x 2 x 2 x 2 4

2.

3x y 3x y 9x y

5a b 2c 5a b 2c 25a b

3.

4 2

4c 6

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