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Types of Quantities

Chapter 1.4
THE RING OF
POLYNOMIALS

Variables

represented only by letters


and whose values may be
arbitrarily chosen depending
on the situation.

Types of Quantities

Example 1.4.1
Consider the formula F ma

Constant
a quantity whose value is fixed

and may not be changed during


a particular discussion.

- force

- mass

- acceleration

F , m, and a are variables.

Example 1.4.1
In the formula for computing the
circumference of a circle 2 r
2 and

are constants,

while r

is a variable.

Algebraic Expressions

Any combination of numbers and


symbols related by the operations
from the previous sections will be
called an algebraic expression.
Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers and roots

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Example 1.4.2

2x 3 y

y 2xy2

x
x
y

x 3 2x
are algebraic expressions

Algebraic Expressions
Each distinct part, together with its
sign, is called a term of the algebraic
expression.
2x 2 xy 3

Algebraic Expressions
Any algebraic expression consisting
of distinct parts separated by + or
is called an algebraic sum.
2x 2 xy 3

2xy 5

Types of Algebraic
Expressions
An algebraic expression consisting of
1 term
- monomial
2 terms

- binomial

3 terms
- trinomial
any number of terms - multinomial

2xy 5

Algebraic Expressions

Algebraic Expressions
In 3u4v,
3 is the coefficient of u4v.

Each factor of a term may be called


the coefficient of the others.

3u4 is the coefficient of v.


3v is the coefficient of u4 .
3 is the numerical coefficient.
u4v is the literal coefficient.

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Algebraic Expressions

Polynomials

T e r m s h a v in g th e s a m e lit e r a l
c o e ffic ie n ts a r e c a lle d s im ila r
te rm s .
3x

2xy x

5y

A polynomial in t is an algebraic
expression involving only nonnegative integral powers of t.

Example 1.4.3
Is 2xt 2 3 yt 3 1 a polynomial in t ?
Is it a polynomial in x ?
Is it a polynomial in y ?

Polynomials
The notations can be used to
find the value of the expression
when the value of the variable
is given.

Polynomials
A polynomial in t can be expressed
as P t .
P t t 2 2t 1
A polynomial in x and y can be
expressed as Q x , y .
Q x , y x 2 y2

1
gt, then
2
1
S 4 g 4 2g
2
1
S 0 g 0 0
2

If S t

If C x 7, then
C 1 7
C 7
C is a constant polynomial.

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Polynomials
The degree of a term of a polynomial
in a variable is the exponent of the

Example 1.4.5
The degree of x 2 y in x is 2.

variable.

The degree of x 3 y 4 in y is 4.
The degree of a term of a polynomial in
some variables is the sum of the degrees
of all variables in that term.

The degree of x 4 y10 in x and y is 14.

Polynomials

Example 1.4.6
1.

The degree of P in x is 3.

The degree of the polynomial in some


variables is that of its term of highest
degree in those variables.

P x 3x 3 x 2

2.

Q x , y 3x 4 x 3 y 2x 2 y2 y3
The degree of Q in x is 4.
The degree of Q in y is 3.
The degree of Q in x and y is 4.

Addition of Polynomials

Example 1.4.7

If

To add polynomials, we add


similar terms.

P x x 3 2x 2 1 and
Q x x 3 3x 2 5x 10

P x Q x 2x 3 x 2 5x 9

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Example 1.4.8

Multiplication of Polynomials

To multiply two polynomials, we


apply the distributive property,
the laws of exponents, and add
similar terms.

Perform the indicated operations.


1.

3t

10

2 2t 5 3t 2 2 2t 3t 2 2 5

6t3 4t 15t 2
3

6t 4t 15t 2 10
6t3 15t 2 4t 10

Example 1.4.8

2.

2x

y 3xy 2x 2 4 y
3

Special Products

6 x y 4 x 8x y 3xy2 2x 2 y 4 y2

Binomial Sum and Difference

x y x y x 2 y2

6 x 3 y 4 x 4 10x 2 y 3xy2 4 y2

Example 1.4.9
Perform the indicated operation.
Use special products.
x y x y x 2 y2
1.

x 2 x 2 x 2 4

2.

3x y 3x y 9x y
5a b 2c 5a b 2c 25a b

3.

4 2

4c 6