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Chapter 14 Review

Define the following:

Histamines – trigger the inflammatory response
Phagocytes – digest foreign particles and pathogens
Pathogen – disease causing agent
Pyrogens – hormones which stimulate the brain to increase body temperature
Macrophages – large phagocytes
Antigens – organism or parts of organisms that can trigger an immune response, this includes
mold, bacteria, viruses, or foreign cells.
Epitopes - sites on the surface of an antigen molecule to which a single antibody molecule binds
Interleukins - any group of naturally occurring proteins that mediate communication between
cells; regulate cell growth, differentiation, and mobility; important in stimulating immune
responses, such as inflammation
cytokins – polypeptides

1. Differentiate between antibiotics and vaccines

a. Antibiotics kill bacteria,
b. Vaccines prepare for immunity to a particular disease, causes a person to develop
artificially acquired active immunity
2. How does active immunity differ from passive immunity
a. Active immunity
i. Naturally acquired – exposure to live pathogens, results in symptoms of a
disease and stimulation of an immune response
ii.Artificially acquired – exposure to a vaccine containing weakened or
dead pathogens or their components, results in stimulation of an immune
response without the severe symptoms of a disease
b. Passive immunity
i. Artificially acquired – injection of gamma globulin containing
antibodies, results in short term immunity without stimulating an
immune response
ii.Naturally acquired – antibodies passed to fetus from pregnant woman
with active immunity, results in short term immunity for infant without
stimulating an immune response
3. Explain B cell cloning
Members of varieties of B cells originate from a single early cell, so they are all
alike, forming a clone. Each variety has a particular type of antigen receptor on their
cell membranes that can respond only to a specific antigen.
4. What are the 3 signs of infection?
a. Local infection – redness, swelling, pain, warmth
b. Systemic infection – fever, chills, aches
5. What is the benefit of having a fever’
a. It indicates the body is fighting off the infection; kicks off immune system into
high gear, spurring the rapid production of white blood cells
6. Differentiate between endotoxins and exotoxins
a. endotoxin - A toxin that forms an integral part of the cell wall of certain
bacteria and is only released upon destruction of the bacterial cell. Endotoxins
are less potent and less specific than most exotoxins and do not form toxoids.
b. exotoxin - a potent toxin formed and secreted by the bacterial cell, and found
free in the surrounding medium.
7. What is the body’s first line of defense
a. skin, scabs; mucus membranes in the nose, respiratory tract, digestive and
reproductive tracts; hair and cilia; tears; stomach acid; symbiotic organism [E
8. What cells make up the body’s second line of defense? What is the function of each
of these cells?
a. White blood cells
i. Phagocytes – digest foreign particles and pathogens
ii.Macrophages – large phagocytes
9. What are the 2 functions of the lymph system
a. return fluids, proteins, and waste products back to the blood
b. defend the body against disease by destroying bacteria and viruses
10. What are the functions of tonsils, thymus and spleen?
a. Tonsils – filters and destroys bacteria
b. Thymus – produces hormones that help mature white blood cells
c. Spleen – removes worn out red blood cells, platelets, bacteria, and other particles
from the blood, stores lymphocytes
11. What are the 5 antibodies and what function does each have?
a. IgM: 1st to respond in a primary response to an antigen
b. IgA: protects portals of entry to the body
c. IgE: responds to allergic reactions and parasite infections
d. IgD: found on mature B cells
e. IgG: effective against antigens in secondary response and toxins, viruses, and
12. What are the 3 methods of infection and give examples of each
a. Airborne or droplet infection – sneezing coughing, talking
b. Waterborne infection – contaminated drinking water
c. Contact infections – glassware, silverware, puncture wounds, sexual contact
13. What is the sign of a systemic infection
a. fever, chills, aches
14. Differentiate between MHC I and MHC II
a. MHC I – present on the surface of any nucleated cell
b. MHC II – present on the surface of immune cells
15. What are the body’s nonspecific defenses , its humoral defense and its cellular
a. nonspecific defenses - 1st line ( #7) 2nd line ( #8)
b. humoral defense - B-cells  memory cells (seek out certain pathogens) and
plasma cells (produce antibodies)
c. cellular defense ~ T-cells (#17b)
16. Differentiate between live “weakened” virus vaccine and killed virus vaccine
a. Live “weakened” virus vaccine - contain weakened (altered )forms of the virus
b. Killed virus vaccine - contain viruses that have been treated by
chemical or physical means to prevent them from replicating in the
17. Differentiate B cells from T cells
a. made and matured in bone marrow; seek out specific pathogens and produce
b. have a direct interaction with antigens; destroy virus infected cells
18. Be familiar with the history of Polio in America and the work of the March of
Dimes. Study your movie notes