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**Maui, Hawaii, USA, June 19-24, 2011
**

Copyright © 2011 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)

ISBN 978-1-880653-96-8 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set); www.isope.org

**Spectral Fatigue Analysis of a Transportation Barge
**

Amresh Negi, Sharad S. Dhavalikar

Research and Rule Development, Indian Register of shipping

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT

is required for the prediction of fatigue life. Depending on how stress

distribution is done, fatigue can be predicted using one of the three

approaches i.e. simplified approach, spectral approach or deterministic

approach.

**Fatigue failure has become one of the most significant concerns in
**

offshore marine field. Offshore floating structures like transportation

barges are subjected to cyclic loading during voyages because of

chaotic sea environment. Random sea wave induces the cyclic stress in

the structure, result in sudden local failure of the structure element.

This may cause the loss of barge and costly offshore modules which are

carried by the barge such as top sides, jackets. During its life time,

barge experiences so many loading conditions, contributing to fatigue

damage.

At design stage, an adequate factor for safety has been considered for

the loads encountered during its lifetime. But due to great uncertainties

involved in fatigue failure, it is not possible to determine the fatigue life

accurately. Among various existing methods available for the

prediction of fatigue life, spectral fatigue method is considered to be

more realistic approach by taking real sea state energy spectrum into

account and is very convenient to use at the preliminary stage of design

for the estimation of the fatigue life as compared to other methods.

Here a study is made to find fatigue damage of the transportation barge

based on spectral analysis.

**“Simplified approach” assumes the long-term stress to follow the
**

Weibull probability distribution. However, the most challenging part of

this method is to decide on the shape parameter, which requires a good

practical judgment. In “Spectral fatigue analysis”, loads are obtained by

direct calculation by performing sea keeping analysis. For each sea

state, various stress response functions are computed at specified

location of a vessel. Rayleigh probability density function used to

define the short term stress range for each sea state where the vessel is

being operated. The fatigue damage accumulated during the entire

vessel life is assumed to be sum of the damage due to encountered sea

states. “Deterministic approach” termed as one wave method which has

been considered the simplest form of spectral analysis. In this method

usually one sine wave loading function is found based on spectral

method. But again it depends on designer’s experience to select the set

of deterministic load waves that will predict adequate fatigue damage

demand for specified locations and joint configuration of ship structure.

**KEY WORDS: Fatigue damage; spectral analysis; stress transfer
**

function; probability density function; bending moment RAO.

**During voyages a vessel encounters the ocean waves from different
**

directions and as result it undergoes through so called wave induced

loads. If ship considered as flexible beam subjected to random sea

environment, which bends the ship hull girder upward direction

(Hogging) and downward direction (sagging) depends on the position

of the wave crests along the ship hull. Repetitive nature of these loads

makes an internal structure element which contributes to ship strength,

fail in fatigue mode.

INTRODUCTION

Stochastic nature of the ocean environment is the main source of the

fatigue demand for welded structural elements. Fatigue failure if not

considered at design stage can produce precarious consequences on the

floating structure. High tensile steel is extensively used in ship building

to improve strength to weight ratio. But, usage of high tensile steel has

not really enhanced the fatigue strength because of increase in hull

stress level. Fatigue strength estimation broadly can be classified into

two categories: (Xiang-chun Guo-qing and Hui-long, 2006) cumulative

fatigue damage based on S-N curve and fracture mechanics method

based on crack propagation. In cumulative fatigue damage assessment

using probabilistic approach, an appropriate stress distribution function

**For assessment of fatigue strength it is required to compute the stress
**

cycles for different loading and environmental conditions. Stress cycles

can be estimated considering the wave induced global loads and local

loads. However, proper selection of type of loads depends on the

location of the structural element, for which fatigue life needs to be

predicted. A significant work on application of spectral fatigue method

936

Eventually the damages were obtained using long crested and short crested sea waves and Indian Ocean scatter table. In his analysis. Assuming the induced stress variation follow the Raleigh probability density function to describe the stress range distribution is termed as Narrow Band Approximation (NBA).1998). 1990). Suffix i and j represents the 937 (8) . The total number of stress cycles anticipated in a sea state can be estimated by considering the span of time (T seconds) in which the damage will be accumulated. Stress transfer function has been found based on the vertical and horizontal bending moment calculated at midship structure element for the various wave headings. Cycle counting rain flow techniques are applied in order to determine the number of response cycles for the fatigue assessment due to irregular loads. f 0ij f 0ij = Spectral fatigue assessment technique is based on S-N curve approach. These non propelled barges are towed by single or more than one Tugs at normal tow speed of 5. it is very important to apply appropriate wide band correction factors. NBA results in more fatigue damage than rain flow counting of narrow band process. ni is the total number of the cycles that structure endure and N i ( Si ) is the D= (6) Narrow Band Approximation (1) ni N i ( Si ) m0ij ⎛T ⎞ ⎛m ⎞ D = ⎜ ⎟ (2 2) m Γ ⎜ + 1⎟ f 0ij pi (σ ij ) m ⎝C⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ Where. (2010). Γ denotes the gamma function. ε ij ) = a ( m ) + [1 − a ( m )][1 − ε ij ]b ( m ) Where b = 2 2m0 ij . Total number of cycles in combination of the sea states and the wave headings can be determined by Transportation barges have considerable role in setting up an offshore field as these large beam box shape structure are moving heavy items from the fabrication yard to the actual field of deployment. S-N curve gives a relationship between the applied stress amplitude (S) and number of cycle (N) to failure at that stress amplitude. (3) Where. Multiplying the fatigue damage obtained due to NBA by this correction factor can be approximated to wide band process. But as matter of fact the load process induced in floating structure in ocean environment is not narrow band. D (≤ 1. M i =1 Bendat (1964) suggested a method of determination of fatigue life thought PSDs of stress. Y.) is the cumulative damage ratio. In general. These coefficients are determined experimentally.specific environmental conditions as sea state and the wave heading respectively. This correction factor is based on simulations and given by (4) λ ( m.0~6. spectral fatigue analysis has been performed for the transportation barge by considering various rain flow correction factors. m and C is the slope and strength coefficient of S-N curve respectively. However. the stress time history can be estimated by numerical simulation or experimentally. However. was done by Wang. it illustrates the material or structural element capacity to fatigue failure at constant stress range. Where.0 knots. for design purpose.ds C C 0 In order to predict fatigue life accurately. therefore a cycle correction factor known as rain flow wide band correction factor is included in the analysis to avoid conservatism due to NBA. 5. He demonstrated that the probability density function of peaks for a narrow band signal tended towards a Raleigh distribution as the bandwidth reduced. The probability of occurrence (pi) of the sea state can be obtained from the scatter table. In time domain fatigue analysis. this relation cannot be directly applied to the ship structure which is exposed to random loadings. In present study. Based on assumption that the fatigue damage linearly accumulative. 1 is known as palmgreen-Miner linear damage rule given by following equation as D=∑ m2ij Finally.. where m0ij is the zeroth moment of the spectral m process. Total damage produced by random loads can be calculated by summing the damage produced in each cycle. n = T . Over a period of time different researchers have given the correction factors based on intensive numerical simulation to obtained wide banded random process. S-N diagrams can be represented by following equation (Jiao and Moan. Zero up crossing frequency (f0ij) can be found by Eq. 2010) SPECTRAL FATIGUE: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND C N= m S 1 2π (5) Wrisching’s Rain Flow Correction Factor Wrisching and Light (1980) presented an empirical wide band correction factor. { } n n ∞ m E ( s ) = ∫ s m f S ( s ) . a variable amplitude stress range can be considered as a random variable S with a probability density function fS(s). a relation between the variable amplitude stress range and mean fatigue life in conjunction with Eq. this is very time consuming process. pi . The author has implemented the spectral fatigue analysis to predict the fatigue life at connection of main deck longitudinal to a transverse web at the midship section of dredger barge. Thus. he considered the cyclic stresses due to vertical and horizontal bending moment and finally compares with IACS R56. For the Gaussian load process this function can be approximated as Rayleigh distribution and expected value can be given as ⎛ m⎞ E {s m } = b m Γ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ (7) The most fundamental step for fatigue analysis is to have stress response of the structure. 1). the equation for a single sea state and heading is given as (Wang. (2) mean life to failure at stress range Si by utilizing the equation (Eq. the cumulative fatigue damage due to stochastic load process can be calculated with Palmgren-Miner model (Folsø. R.

2004 ) is given as follows Based on the rice distribution term as Rician distribution the wide band correction factor was given by Kim. India) is considered.V and RAOM. for bi-linear S-N curves where the negative slope changes at point Q = (NQ. 2( χ − β 2 ) 1 − β − D1 + D12 D1 = . D = . β ) = + ⎢1 + ( 2 ⎛m ⎞ 2 πβ ⎢ Γ ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎝2 ⎠⎦ ⎛T ⎞ ⎛m ⎞ M D D = ⎜ ⎟ (2 2) m Γ ⎜ + 1⎟ ∑∑ λ (m.926 − 0. 2007) given as ⎛ Q ⎞ Γ ( m + 1) ⎛ R ⎞ λ ( m.υij ) µij f 0ij pi (σ ij ) m ⎝C⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ i =1 j =1 (11) β = 1−υ2 in the sea state and µi is the endurance factor having its value between 0 and 1 and measuring the contribution of the lower branch of the S-N curve to the damage. εij is a measure of bandwidth process and can be estimated as (Cartwrite and Longuet-Higgins. ε ij = 1 − m22ij The Pierson-Moskowitz (P-M) spectrum is used to define the distribution of energy with frequency for the short term wave statistics. 1956).323 Environmental Conditions and Wave Spectrum Operating area of the barge considered for the analysis is Indian Ocean. SQ) from m to r = m + ∆m (∆m > 0) and the constant C changes to C’.587 m − 2. Hence. Z = 1 m4 2 ( m0 ) 2 Stress Transfer Function and Spectral Moments Correction factor (Kim. x) = ∫ u a −1 exp ( −u ) du 1. p(S ) = D1 e Q −Z2 + D2 Z 2 R 2 e + D3 Ze R2 −Z 2 2 m1 m0 Γ ( m / 2 + 1) Γ 0 ( r / 2 + 1. The P-M equation to model the sea state is given by (IACS R34) (9) m0ij m4 ij Longuet –Higgins (1975) proposed new spectral width parameter. Linear addition of short term damages sustained over all the sea states gives the total damage for the structure element. m0 ij m2ij υij = m02ij −1 4 ⎡ 1 ⎛ 2π ⎞ 4 ⎤ H S2 ⎛ 2π ⎞ −5 −4 Sξ (ω ) = ⎜ ⎟ ω Exp ⎢ − ⎜ ⎟ ω ⎥ 4π ⎝ TZ ⎠ ⎢⎣ π ⎝ TZ ⎠ ⎥⎦ (10) Closed Form Fatigue Damage Expression Rice’s Formulation The short term damage incurred in the i-th sea-state in j-th direction.Where. m2 S . the expression (ABS Guideline note. M and D denotes the total number of sea states and direction respectively. D3 = 1 − D1 − D2 2 1+ β 2 1− R Q= (15) Where.033m.R= D1 1 − β − D1 + D12 χm = Γ 0 ( m / 2 + 1. where waves are reached to the point of equilibrium with the wind blowing for long time over a large area.ν i ) − (1/ν i ) ⎛ SQ ⎞ ⎟ Where. These Vertical and Horizontal bending moment RAOs (RAOM. ν i = ⎜ ⎜ 2 2σ ⎟ ij ⎠ ⎝ Where. σ ij = m0 ij is the standard deviation of the stress response Where the regularity factor β calculated by −Z Q (14) Wave induced Vertical and horizontal bending moments were obtained for a set of wave frequencies and headings for unit wave amplitude through performing seakeeping analysis.ν i ) (16) 2 Γ 0 =Incomplete Gamma function x (13) 1 2 ( m0 ) 2 0 While deriving the above equation for the fatigue damage in specific sea state the stress range is normally expressed in terms of probability density functions for different short-term intervals corresponding to the individual cells of the wave scatter diagram. wave data for the Indian Ocean scatter table (NIO. β ) = D1 ⎜ +⎜ ⎟ ⎟ D2 + D3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ Γ ⎛ m + 1⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ m ∆m / 2 Γ 0 ( a. It is defined as (12) The Dirlik Wide Band Rain Flow Correction Factor µi = 1 − Based on Monte Carlo simulation Dirlik (1985) purposed the stress range probability function as combination of an Exponential and two Rayleight distributions for the stress range probability density function as follows.H ) are converted into stress transfer function (Vertical and horizontal bending stress RAO) as (Folsø. Total fatigue damage accumulated over operational service life (T) can be estimated by accounting for all sea states encountered with the different wave directions and all possible load cases. a ( m ) = 0. β = 1− ε 2 . Goa.1998) m (14) 938 . b ( m ) = 1..25( β − D3 − D2 R ) β − χ m − D12 . Wang and Shin. P-M spectrum is used to model fully developed sea. Wang and Shin (2007) as ⎡ ⎛ m +1⎞⎤ m +1 Γ ⎜ ⎟ 1− β 2 1+ β ⎢ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎥ 1− β 2 ) 2 ⎝ λ ( m. which is more effective than the old one and used for the analysis. R.

v cos(ε v − ε h )⎤⎦ 1 2 Sea Keeping Analysis VBM. Where θ’ is the spreading angle between a wave component and the dominant wave direction. Step-III Stress transfer function is determined from the Load transfer function using an appropriate factor.RAOσ . Step-IV Based on the structural joint configuration. considering the long crested sea the nth order spectral moment (ABS Guideline note.H) (19) Location of the ship structure element Where εv and εh denotes phase of the stress process due to vertical and horizontal hull girder bending respectively.Sξ (ω | H s . (22) Where. ω is the encounter frequency. v = z − z0 RAOM . which is modeled using the cosine-squared approach.5 m. HBM RAO (RAOM. METHODOLOGY Table 1. z0=Distance of the neutral axis from the Base line.9247 m. damage and fatigue life calculation is done by computing various spectral moments obtained in step-IV and applying suitable equations for rain flow correction factors shown in preceding section. Eventually. Procedure for the spectral analysis is shown in Fig. wave directions.46 m. 33. Load transfer functions depend on hull form geometry. By considering sea spectrum (P-M spectrum) spectral analysis needs to be done for the forward speed of the barge. Stress transfer function can be obtained H σ (ω | θ ) = RAOσ . Once the stress energy spectrum obtained.θ ) dω ⎝π ⎠ Spectral Analysis (20) Stress response spectrum can be produced by Sσ (ω | H s . 2.5 m. Generally. Formulate load cases for different and most probable load combination to obtain the load distributions for the seakeeping analysis. cosine-squared spreading is assumed from +90 to –90 degrees on either side of the selected wave heading.Ver I yy (17) RAOσ . a vessel is going to encounter during its operational life.417 m4. Spectral analysis can be performed by using the following steps: Principal dimensions Length overall Breadth Depth Sectional properties of midship section Distance from baseline to Neutral axis. 5. wave frequency and the location of the structural element. Principle particulars of analyzed transportation barge In this paper. Tz .t = ⎡⎣( RAOσ . Ixx Moment of Inertia. 27. Hor I zz (18) Hydrodynamic Model + Load distribution Where. 1 Procedure for Spectral Fatigue Analysis Where. Applying the wave spreading function modifies the spectral moment as follows: ∞ θ ' =θ + 90 mn = ∫ ∫ ' θ =θ − 90 0 ⎛2⎞ 2 ' n ⎜ ⎟ cos θ .5832 m4. spectral fatigue analysis is discussed for the deck longitudinal stiffener of a transportation barge.ω Sσ (ω | H s .t S-N Curves. ω = ω p − V ω p 2 cosθ / g Where.v )2 + ( RAOσ . Tz ) Stress Transfer Function (Stress RAO) (23) CASE STUDY: TRANSPORTATION BARGE The procedure and theory of spectral fatigue explained in previous section was finally applied for the spectral fatigue analysis of the transportation barge. 2004) is calculated as ∞ mn = ∫ ω n Sσ (ω | H s .θ ) dω 0 Step-II Perform seakeeping analysis to determine the hull girder load transfer function. 1.v )2 + 2RAOσ . For confused short-crested sea directional spreading conditions must be apply. Step-V Finally.θ ) =| H σ (ω | θ ) |2 . Ixx = Midship section modulus with respect to neutral axis and the centre line axis of the vessel respectively in m4. stress response obtained for various sea states and respective directions. z = Vertical distance of the structural part from the base line in meters. ωp represents the regular frequency and V is the vessel speed. z0 Moment of Inertia. h = y RAOM . 939 91. This factor is based on the structure element location and used to convert the wave induced horizontal and vertical moments to get the stress transfer function. Sea States Damage. y=Horizontal distance of the structural part from the centre line in meters. Iyy.v RAOσ . Fatigue life (21) Fig. The principal particulars for the barge are given in table 1. . Confused short-crested seas result in a kinetic energy spread. Tz . Tz . 4. (2/π) cos2θ. suitable S-N curve is to be selected.V and RAOM. Iyy Step-I identify all load cases and loading conditions. The combined transfer function can be derived as RAOσ .

4 Structure connection detail RESULTS Ideally.for Double hull tankers.1 ≤ Fn ≤ 1.30 m. Various spectral moments (i. For the various loadings. Spectral analysis was done by using IRS in-house developed program IRSPEC V2. C’ = 5.ω / g ) should be avoided. The primary load effect at the selected location for the fatigue demand comes from the wave induced vertical and horizontal hull girder bending. Displacement 5294 ton.2~2. The transportation barge considered for the present study has tow speed of 5. 3D panel method based seakeeping programs are most suited for the spectral fatigue analysis. 50 25 0 0 20 40 60 Length of Ship (m) 80 100 Fig. SWAN1 requires Froude number ( Fn = V / g. Table 2. For the computation of BM RAO. hydrostatic. m2 and m4) were found for determining various wide band rain flow correction factor and the fatigue strength estimation. m1. Sea spectrum deformation due to encountered wave frequency. load distribution is another most desired input for the seakeeping analysis. 7436 ton. Ton/m 175 Fig.0 in the range of 0. Suitable ballast plans were obtained for each loading condition to achieve desired hydrostatics. Apart from hull geometry. the contribution due to inertial. 2002). stress RAO computation in this case.75*5. Fatigue damage was calculated based on various rain flow correction factors for both long crested and short crested seas. 3. i. Hence it was decided to use SWAN2 for the present study for the computation of horizontal and vertical wave induced bending moment RAOs for the location of structural detail. 7450 ton. A F2 class bilinear material (CSR Fatigue Life = 940 Design Life Damage Ratio (24) . radiation (due to ship oscillations). 2005) the draft must be 40%~60% of the depth of the barge for the transportation at sea. 2.5 and also reduced frequency ( τ = V . where as time domain code SWAN2 has no such limitations (SWAN2-User Manual. wave heading and frequency.1 rad/sec. 3. 2001) in terms of combination of vessel speed. 2. 3.L ) in the range of LC1 150 LC2 125 LC3 LC4 100 75 0. Load distribution for all four conditions is shown in Fig. Considering the structural joint location marked in Fig. 3.e. stability and strength parameters in accordance with sea warranty surveyor guidelines. Frequency domain tool like SWAN1 (RPM based) imposes certain restrictions (SWAN1-User Manual. This imposes restriction on using SWAN1. For each load case damage was computed and the expected fatigue life for the structural detail calculated by equation Fig. ∆m = 2.26 m. Four load cases have been taken for the fatigue strength assessment considering two loading conditions for each of the type of loaded module as shown in table 2.0.5 Knots (Fn = 0. and for total 19 wave frequencies 0. gravitational. 2010) characterized by m = 3.09). For the analysis the 75% of barge towing speed (V = 0. Different load cases considered for the analysis Load Conditions LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 Module Top Sides Top Sides Jacket Jacket Draft 2.278 × 1014 Mpa was chosen for structure detail as shown in Fig. the stress transfer function was calculated using equations (Eq.31 × 1011 Mpa. 3 Midship section bulkhead of the barge indicating the location of structural element for fatigue analysis Fatigue life prediction was done for the flange of the longitudinal at weld toe of bracket connection. C = 4. According to marine warranty surveyor guidelines (Noble Denton.) for all load cases and wave directions. load distribution is plotted. 4 It has been observed that most of the time transportation barges are carrying either jacket or topsides. frequency domain hydrodynamic analysis tool should be used for the seakeeping analysis.30 m.5 Knots) is considered.41 m. diffraction and Froude-Krylove were included. The analysis was done for 5 headings from 0~180 degree in the interval of 45 deg. forward speed and wave heading is considered in the program. mo. 17~20. P-M sea spectrum definition is used to model sea states. 4945 ton. 2 Load distribution for the various load cases The location of the structure detail for the fatigue estimation was taken at the connection of deck longitudinal to the transverse bulkhead vertical stiffener at midship region as shown in Fig.e.

83 15. ν = ⎜ Q ⎟ ln N R ⎝ SR ⎠ In IACS 56 (1999) long term distribution of stresses are represented by a two-parameter Weibull distribution.24 0. L is the barge length between perpendiculars in m.32 0. (26) CONCLUSIONS Where.30 0.50 17.25 (1/ L3) + 0.32 17.70 18.05 20.30 0. the fatigue life for the selected structural configuration was predicted as 19.26 0.25 0.21 27. Results for fatigue life obtained for the individual loading condition as well as combined fatigue life considering long crested seas (DR – Damage ratio. The cumulative fatigue damage at structural location is given by Table 4. SQ) from m to m + ∆m be (∆m>0) and the constant C changes to C` The factor of 0.22 0. repairs.48 21. This assumption enables the use of a closed form equation for calculation of the fatigue life when the two parameters of the Weibull distribution are determined.24 years respectively. cumulative distribution function is given by ⎡ ⎛ S ⎞ς ⎤ FS ( S ) = 1 − exp ⎢ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ . NL number of cycles for the expected ship’s life. Wave induced stress range (SR) at the structural location was estimated through spectral analysis.29 25.85 ⎣⎡0. α0 may be taken equal to 0.83 24.28 0.ν ⎟ ζ ζ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ µ =1− ⎛m ⎞ Γ ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝ζ ⎠ FATIGUE ASSESMENT USING IACS R56 (31) ς ⎛S ⎞ Where.51 k = S R / ( ln N R ) 0.86 18.48 Dirlink DR 0.27 Flife (years) 15.20 Flife (years) 23. S is the stress range for the random loading process. SR is defined as the largest stress range expected for reference number of cycles NR..range. In general.88 19.86 years and 26. (26) and Eq. ς Weibull shape parameter and k is the characteristic value of the stress range.85 accounts for the non operative time of the barge such as maintenance and load out operations at shore. The value of SR was found for short crested and long crested sea for the probability level of 10-4.29 19.26 0. For bi-linear S–N curves where the negative slope changes at point Q = (NQ. P is the probability of exceedance of stress range (S) to reference stress range (SR) on an average every reference number of cycles (NR) cycles.54 22. which may be applied to ship 941 .42 16.25 (1/ L1) + 0.25 (1/ L 4 ) ⎤⎦ Table 3. µ= coefficient taking into account the change in slope of the S-N curve.78 19. L3 and L4.25 years using long crested and short crested seas respectively. IACS 56 recommended that individual component loads be determined with respect to a moderate exceeding probability level (e.1 − 0.13 (28) L − 100 300 (29) ⎛ N km ⎞ ⎛ m ⎞ D = ⎜ L ⎟ µΓ ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎠ ⎝ C ⎠ ⎝ζ (30) Where. With Wirching correction factor the fatigue life for long creased and long creasted seas were estimated 20. S > 0 ⎣⎢ ⎝ k ⎠ ⎦⎥ ς Where.87 19. From the definition of the probability distribution function.87 Rice DR 0.g.25 Flife (years) 16. (27) that (25) 0.24 Flife (years) 19.87 years and 24.33 17.22 Flife (years) 20.27 0. α0 factor taking into account the time needed for loading / unloading operations.24 Rice DR 0.23 ζ = 1. Assessment of the fatigue adequacy of the structure detail is based on the application of the Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage rule and the capacity of welded steel joints with respect to the fatigue strength is characterized by S-N curve. it follows from Eq. probability level 10-3 to 10-5). etc. For the estimation of k.27 0. −∆m ⎛m ⎞ ⎛ m + ∆m ⎞ Γ 0 ⎜ + 1. This analysis was done based on the assumption that during its service life only these four loading conditions will be encounter by the barge and each load case is experienced during one fourth of the barge operational service life. Flife – expected fatigue life) Wirsching Load Cases LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC DR 0. In order to calculate the fatigue damage.30 0. L2.85.35 Flife (years) 18.64 22.42 21. For present study a value 10-4 chosen for the NR. Flife – expected fatigue life) Load Cases 1 As a first approximation. Final results and fatigue life using Wirching.23 0. then combined fatigue life is LC = 1 P ( S > SR ) = 1 Where.94 16.20 22.ν ⎟ − ν ς Γ 0 ⎜ + 1.35 21. NL may be taken as N L = α 0T / 4log L .26 0.28 0. If predicted fatigue life for the structure detail due to different load cases are represented as L1. Rice and Dirlik wideband rain flow correction factors for long creasted and short crested seas are presented in table 3 and table 4.32 0. Results for fatigue life obtained for the individual loading condition as well as combined fatigue life considering short crested seas (DR – Damage ratio. reference stress This paper presents a spectral procedure for the assessment of fatigue life of deck structural element of a transportation barge based on the linear summation of short term accumulation of fatigue damage for each individual bin of a scatter table.77 22.25 (1/ L 2 ) + 0.86 20.28 0. the Weibull shape parameter for the considered barge structural detail may be taken as Dirlink DR (27) NR Using F2 class bilinear S-N curve.59 Wirsching LC1 LC2 LC3 LC4 LC DR 0.21 0.

“Fatigue damage calculations for oil tanker and container ship structure. 80. (1998). pp 212–232. “Fatigue under wide band random processes .”. It is observed that load cases LC2 and LC4 having same draft (3.”. ABS. 24. IACS R34. consideration of loads for the fatigue life demand of any structural element strongly depends on its location. Recommendation 34. From results it has been observed that modeling of sea state as long crested wave predicts the high damage as compare to modeling the sea environment as short crested wave. Dirlik. It has been found that Dirlik correction predict high fatigue life as compare to Wirsching and Rice correction factors. At initial phase of design. Wang and Shin (2007).303 and 0. 2. representing the realistic sea conditions. Mathematical and physical sciences.” Journal of Marine Science and Application. 593-1607 Xiang-chun Guo-qing and Hui-long (2006) “Study on the application of spectral fatigue analysis. Thesis.”Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. 5 (2) pp 76-83. Rev2. “Extreme Load and Fatigue Damage on FPSO in Combined Waves and Swells.”Fatigue assessment of ship structures. NASA. Vol 5.30m each) and almost same displacement (7450t and 7436t) the damage ratio (0. Vol. Vol 237. For detail fatigue analysis it is recommended to model short crested sea state. 942 . USA. PP. pp 310–317. R. On the other hand. pp. Total four load cases have been considered for the analysis. (2010). IACS R56.O. Vol 32. MIT. with due account taken of the effect of alternating wet and dry areas. pp 42-26. Kim. The present study was carried out considering the global hull structural loads. pp 499-535. National Institute of Oceanography (NIO). the stress range has been estimated by linear summation of the wave induced stress components. 2688-2694. For the structure detail. Cartwright and Higgins (1956).structure as well.”Standard Wave Data.” The International Association of Clasification Societies. (1985) “Application of Computers in Fatigue.”Wave data analysis for the coastal region of India. University of Warwick.” International Journal of Fatigue. “Spectral fatigue damage calculation in the side shell of ships.D. No.” User Manual. Rice wide band correction gives relatively low fatigue life. Rice S. Y. “Probability functions for random responses” Technical report. It is depicted that for the fatigue analysis.” Probabilistic Eng. ”Common structural rules for double hull tanker.” Journal of Geophysical Research. “General guidelines for Marine Transportations. “spectral-based fatigue analysis for vessels.”Ship Flow Simulation in Calm Water and in Waves. Vol.46–156. ”On the Joint Distribution of the Periods and Amplitudes of Sea Waves. REFERENCES ABS Guidance notes (2004).”Ship Flow Simulation in Calm Water and in Waves. No. SWAN2 (2002). SWAN1 (2001).” CSR.2494 using Wirsching’s correction factor and long crested sea states) varies considerably. (1964). Folsø. Various wide band correction factors have been used based on the spectral moment obtained from the spectral analysis. Jiao and Moan (1990). In principal. Mechanics. India (1998). 106.” Journal of the Structural Division. UK. (1945). “Probabilistic analysis of fatigue due to Gaussian load processes. 7. (2010). However.” Noble Denton International Ltd. The result obtain using IACS R56 predicts a good agreement with the result calculated using Rice correction for long crested sea and Dirlik for the short crested sea environment. T.S. Vol. Bendat. (1999). Analysis was performed using short crested and long crested sea waves assuming that damage accumulated due to each short term sea state for the scatter table. J.” User Manual. Vol 11. this requires a high computational effort.”American Bureau of Shipping.” Ph. Wang. vessel draft is not only the main fatigue strength influencing parameter but the mass distribution is also one of the critical variable to consider.” Marine Structures. Wirsching and Light (1980). Longuet –Higgins (1975).” Bell System Technical Journal Vol.1209. No. IACS. 18.” Marine Structures. Vol 7. Recommendation 56. “The statistical distribution of the maxima of a random function. Noble Denton (2005). Goa. Xue-Pittaluga and Cervetto (1994). No.” The International Association of Clasification Societies. The reason is being the high unidirectional value of stress range for the long crested wave as compare to spreading waves. MIT. designers can use long crested sea state as quick check for being on more conservative side. USA. (2000). “Spectral fatigue analysis of a ship structural detail – A practical case study.” 10th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures. pp 319-343. pp.

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