733 views

Uploaded by v

Skewed connections result when members frame to each other at an angle other than 90 degrees

- IStructE Appraisal of Existing Structure (2nd Edition)
- 3. Design of Pad Foundations According to EC2
- HSS Connection Manual
- Metal Building Systems-Reinforcement Design
- Tips for Developing Models and SAP2000 and ETABS
- Foundation Beam Footing
- PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF SHEAR-CRITICAL REINFORCED CONCRETE PLANE FRAMES（Guner_Serhan_200811_PhD_thesis）
- NR 310103 Structural Engineering
- Two-Way-Flat-Plate-Concrete-Floor-Slab-Design-Detailing.pdf
- Deck Slab
- Crane Beam
- Seismic Load Calculation.xlsx
- Robustness Lecture Notes
- 1999 t.r. Higgins Award Lecture Design of Reduced Beam Section Moment Connections
- Belajar ESP Installation
- API 650 12th_2013_1
- 3 Flexural Design 1
- 631-1841-1-PB
- RC PLATEs
- Detail C - Apex Check

You are on page 1of 7

SKEWED BEAMS

Skewed connections result

when members frame to each other

at an angle other than 90 degrees

T

HE STANDARD CONNECTION DETAILS

ASSUME THAT THE MEMBERS BEING

CONNECTED FRAME AT RIGHT ANGLES

TO EACH OTHER . In most structures

there will be some members which do

not meet at right angles. These are

referred to as skewed connections. They

require special design considerations to

provide for safety while providing an

economic structure.

Configurations For Skewed Single Plate

Connections To Beams

economy and safety are single plates

(Fig. 1) and end plates (Fig. 2). Single

bent plates (Fig. 3) and eccentric end

plates also work well at very acute

angles. The old traditional double bent

William A. Thornton plate connections are difficult to accu-

(top) is chief rately fit and are expensive to fabricate.

engineer of Cives

Steel Company and

There are also quality (safety) problems

president of Cives with plate cracking at the bend line as

Engineering the angle becomes more acute.

Corporation, both Single plates (Fig. 1) are the most

Figure 2: Shear End Plate

of Roswell, GA. versatile and economical skewed con-

Larry Kloiber has nection with excellent dimensional con-

been with LeJeune trol when using short slotted holes.

Steel Company for While capacity is limited, this is usually

more than three not a problem because skewed members

decades, serving as generally carry less tributary area.

chief engineer, vice

president for

Using the standard 3” hole gauge from

operations and the Table in AISC Manual of Steel

president. He Construction, Vols. I and II, single

currently serves as plates can be utilized for intersection

a structural angles of 90º to 30º. Snug tight bolts are

engineer and preferred because they are more eco-

fabrication nomical and greatly simplify installa-

consultant tion when there are adjacent beams.

responsible for They also eliminate the “banging bolt”

value engineering problem which occurs in single plate

and quality control.

connections when pretensioned bolts

e1 and e2 are

connection

eccentricities.

There are no

member

eccentricities.

Figure 3a: Bent Plate Figure 3b: Use of Angle in place of Single Bent Plate

tables can be used to select the tricity for the

required plate size and bolts bolts eb is mea-

along with the weld capacity for sured from the

the required load. This connec- face of the sup-

tion has an eccentricity related p o r t .

to physical distance a between Therefore, the

the bolts and the weld as shown eccentricity for

in Fig. 1. The actual eccentricity the weld, ew, is

depends on support rigidity, hole e w = e b + a.

type, and bolt installation. H o w e v e r ,

For a flexible support and rather than

standard holes, the eccentricity using this

for the bolts is value, AISC Figure 4: Eccentric End Plate

recommends

eb = (n − 1)− a ≥ a that the weld

size be such

where n is the number of bolts. that the plate yields before the AISC Tables to select plate size,

For a flexible support with welds yield. For A36 plate and bolts, and weld capacity. Note

short slotted holes, E70 electrodes, this requires that there is no eccentricity with

that the fillet weld size is a mini- this joint. The weld detail, how-

2n mum of 3/4 of the plate thickness. ever, has to be adjusted for the

eb = −a ≥a The actual weld detail does, actual geometry of the joint in a

3

however, have to be developed manner similar to the shear

For a rigid support and stan- for the skewed joint geometry, as plate.

dard holes, will be shown later. Single bent plates (Fig. 3a)

can be sized for either bolted or

eb = (n − 1)− a

End plates (Fig. 2) designed

for shear only are able to provide welded connections using proce-

more capacity than single plates dures similar to those in the

For a rigid support and short and if horizontal slots are uti- AISC Manual for single angle

slotted holes, lized with snug tight bolts in connections. These involve two

bearing some dimensional eccentricities, e1, and e2 from the

2n adjustment is possible. Hole bend line.

eb = −a gages can be adjusted to provide The eccentricities are mea-

3 bolt access for more acute skews. sured from the bend line because

When it cannot be determined The only real constructability the plate at this point has effec-

whether the support is rigid or problem arises when there are tively zero bending strength

flexible, the larger value of e b opposing beams that limit access because of the bend, i.e., the

from the above equations can be to the back side of the connec- plate is “kinked” at this point.

used. tion. These end plate connec- A variation on the single bent

tions can be sized using the plate of Fig. 3a is shown in Fig.

nections should not be used

unless the bolts are positioned

outside the column flanges. This

will make the connection so

eccentric that top and bottom

plates, as shown in Fig. 7, may

be needed. Extending the single

plate increases the connection

cost and, unless the connection is

designed for the increased eccen-

Connection tricity (e of Fig. 7), the column

Eccentricity design may need to account for

Only it. Except for Fig. 7, the eccen-

tricities for these connections are

the same as similar connections

to beam webs.

Figure 5: End Plate Figure 6: Eccentric End Plate Skewed connections to the col-

umn flange will also be eccentric

when the beam is aligned to the

column centerline. However, if

the beam alignment is centered

on the flange, as shown in Fig. 8,

the minor axis eccentricity is

eliminated and the major axis

eccentricity will not generally

govern the column design. The

connection eccentricity is related

to the parameter a here in the

same way as was discussed for

Fig. 1. It is reasonable to

assume that the column provides

a rigid support in Fig. 8.

When the beam is aligned to

the column centerline either sin-

gle plates (Fig. 9), eccentric end

plates (Figs. 10 and 11), or single

Figure 7: Eccentricity of Connection or Column bent plates (Fig. 12) can be used.

The eccentricity for each of these

connections is again similar to

that for the same connection to a

3b, where an angle is used pro- beam web. An additional eccen-

viding a 90º bend. The eccentric- Configurations For tricity ey, which causes a moment

ities e 1, and e 2 are again mea- about the column weak axis, is

Skewed Connections present in these connections as

sured from the “bend line,”

which is at the intersection of To Columns shown in Figs. 9 - 12. The col-

the two legs of the angle. Note umn may need to be designed for

that this connection places an this moment.

Skewed connections to wide A special skewed connection is

eccentric load on the carrying flange columns present special

beam which may need to be con- often required when there is

problems. Connections to webs another beam framing to the col-

sidered in the design of this have very limited access and

beam. umn flange at 90º. If the column

except for columns where the flange is not wide enough to

Eccentric end plates (Fig. 4) flange width is less than the

can be easily sized for the eccen- accommodate a side by side con-

depth, or for skews less than 30º, nection, a bent plate can be shop

tricity e using the tables in the connections to flanges are pre-

AISC Manual for eccentrically welded to the column with

ferred. matching holes for the second

loaded bolt groups. When connecting to column beam as shown in Fig. 13. The

webs, it may be possible to use plate weld is sized for the eccen-

either a standard end plate or tricity e2 plus any requirement

eccentric end plate as shown in for development as a fill plate in

Figs. 5 and 6. Single plate con- the orthogonal connection, and

Figure 8: Single Plate (Shear Tab) Figure 9: Single Plate (Shear Tab)

Centered on Column Flange Gravity Axis Configuration

Figure 10: Eccentric Shear End Plate Figure 11: Eccentric Shear End Plate

Gravity Axis Configuration for High Shear

the column sees an eccentric based on using standard AWS Welding Code provides a method

moment due to ey which equals e2 equal leg fillet welds. The single to calculate the effective throat

in this case. plate weld is sized to equal or for skewed T-joints with varying

exceed the strength of the plate dihedral angles which is based

which results in a fillet weld size on providing equal strength in

Methods For of 0.75 x t for orthogonal connec- the obtuse and acute welds. This

tions. The end plate weld is is shown in Fig. 14a. The AISC

Determining Strength sized to carry the applied load. Method is simpler, and simply

Of Skewed Fillet These standard orthogonal fillet increases the weld size on the

Welds welds of leg size W (Fig. 14) need obtuse side by the amount of the

to be modified as the skew gap as is shown in Fig. 14b.

becomes more acute in order to

The AISC tables in the maintain the required capacity. Both methods can be shown to

Manual of Steel Construction for There are two ways to do this. provide a strength equal to or

single plates and end plates are The AWS D1.1 Structural greater than the required

Figure 12: Single Bent Plate Figure 13: Single Bent Plate—

One Beam Framing to Flange Two Beams

the case for orthogonal fillets,

but rather it is the projection of

the contact length of one leg on a

line perpendicular to the other

leg. This is done to enable these

fillet welds to be measured. On

the acute side of the connection

the effective throat for a given

fillet weld size gradually increas-

es as the connection intersection

angle changes from 90º to 60º.

From 60º to 30º, the weld

changes from a fillet weld to a

partial penetration groove weld

(Fig. 16) and the effective throat

decreases due to the allowance Z

for the un-welded portion at the

root. While this allowance varies

Figure 14: Skewed Fillet Weld Sizes Required to

Match Strength of Required Othogonal Fillets based on the welding process

and position, it can conservative-

ly be taken as the throat less 1/8

inch for 60º to 45º and less 1/4”

for 45º to 30º. Joints less than

orthogonal weld size of W. The g is always greater than the 2W

main difference with regard to of the required orthogonal fillets.

strength is that the AWS method It should be noted that the

maintains equal strength in both gap g is limited by AWS to a An Example

fillets, whereas, the AISC maximum value of 3/16 inch for

method increases the strength both methods.

on the acute side by maintaining The effects of the skew on the 30º are not prequalified and gen-

a constant fillet size W while the effect throat of fillet weld can be erally should not be used.

increased size W + g on the very significant as shown in Fig. Fig. 17 shows an arrangement

obtuse side actually looses 15. Fig. 15 also shows how fillet of beams framing to a column,

strength because of the gap g. legs WO and WA are measured two of which are skewed and one

Nevertheless, it can be shown in the skewed configuration. which is off center. This often

that the sum of the strengths of Note that in non-orthogonal fil- occurs to accommodate architec-

these two fillet welds W and W + lets, the “leg size” is not the con- tural features and curtain wall

Figure 15a: Geometry of Skewed Fillet Weld Figure 15b: Geometry of Skewed Fillet Weld

Obtruse Side Acute Side

Connection Arrangement

Obtuse Angles Greater Than 120º

requirements. Consider the 5. Gross Shear - Bent Plate

design of the connection of the (AISC Spec., Sect. F2.2). φRn =

W24x76 on Line A to the column. 0.9 x 0.6 x Fy x tw x l = 0.9 x 0.6 x

The connection is similar to that 36 x 0.5 x 21 = 204 kips.

shown in Fig. 12 where the

eccentricities for the connection, 6. Net Shear - Bent Plate (AISC

e1 and e2 of Fig. 12, are taken Spec, Sect. J4.1). φRn = 0.75 x

from the bend line. The bolts are 0.6 x Fu x Anet. Anet= 0.5(21 - 7 x

A325N, 7/8”diameter, in standard (0.9375 + 0.0625)) = 7.0 in2. φRn

15/16” diameter holes. The con- = 0.75 x 0.6 x 58 x 7.0 = 183 kips.

nection material is A36, and the

members are A572 Grade 50. 7. Net Bending Strength of Bent

For the bolts, e1 = 4.125 - 1.5 = Plate. From AISC Manual Table

2.625 and for the weld, e 2 = 12.1, the net section modulus is

3.375 - xl where l = 21 and x will Sn = 24.8 in3.

be determined from AISC

Manual Table 8-42. The capaci- 0.75 Fy S n 0.75 × 58 × 24.8

φRn = = = 411 kips

ty of this connection will now be e1 2.625

determined by checking the fol-

lowing limit states.

8. Gross Bending Strength of

1. Bolt Shear. The design Bent Plate. The gross section

strength of one bolt is φrv = 0.75 modulus near the bolts is S =

x 48 x 0.6013 = 21.6 kips (AISC 0.25 x 0.5 x 212 = 55.1.

Spec., Sect. J3.1). With the

0.90 Fy S 0.90 × 36 × 55.1

eccentricity e 1 = 2.625, AISC φRn = = = 680 kips

Table 8-18 gives C b = 6.22 by e1 2.625

interpolation. The design

strength of the seven bolts is The design strength of the con-

thus φR n = 21.6 x 6.22 = 134 nection is the least of the Limit

kips. State values given above, or φRn

2. Weld Design Strength (AISC = 134 kips, and the bolts control.

Manual Table 8-42). A 5/16” fillet The last two limit sstates,

weld of “C” shape is indicated in Numbers 7 and 8, may not seem

Fig. 17. With l = 21, kl = 3, and very important because they

al + xl = 3.375, k = 0.143, x = yield such large design

0.017, al = 3.375 - 0.017 x 21 = strengths, 411 kips and 680 kips,

3.018, a = 0.144, and Cw = 1.85. respectively. For shallow con-

The weld design strength is thus nections, ie, small, and larger

φRn = 1.85 x 5 x 21 = 194 kips. eccentricities, they can become

the controlling limit states.

3. Bearing on the W24x76 Web

(AISC Spec., Sect. J3.10). φRn = This paper is part of the 1999

0.75 x 2.4 x tw x d x Cb = 0.75 x North American Steel

2.4 x 65 x 0.440 x 0.875 x 6.22 = Construction Conference session:

280 kips. This calculation “Research II (Topic: Design of

assumes that the edge distances Skewed Connections).

equal or exceed 1.5d and the

spacing equals or exceeds 3d,

which is the case here.

(AISC Spec., Sect. J3.10). φRn =

0.75 x 2.4 x 58 x 0.5 x 0.875 x

6.22 = 284 kips. Again, this cal-

culation assumes that edge dis-

tances and spacing in the plate

equal or exceed 1.5d and 3d,

respectively, which is the case

here.

- IStructE Appraisal of Existing Structure (2nd Edition)Uploaded byStar HO
- 3. Design of Pad Foundations According to EC2Uploaded byChuksbozment
- HSS Connection ManualUploaded byTyler Smith
- Metal Building Systems-Reinforcement DesignUploaded bysunnyengg
- Tips for Developing Models and SAP2000 and ETABSUploaded bySami Syed
- Foundation Beam FootingUploaded byZain Oo
- PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF SHEAR-CRITICAL REINFORCED CONCRETE PLANE FRAMES（Guner_Serhan_200811_PhD_thesis）Uploaded byshuangyaksa
- NR 310103 Structural EngineeringUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Two-Way-Flat-Plate-Concrete-Floor-Slab-Design-Detailing.pdfUploaded byLe Duc Toan
- Deck SlabUploaded byFarid Tata
- Crane BeamUploaded byPreyash Shah
- Seismic Load Calculation.xlsxUploaded bySuraj Ojha
- Robustness Lecture NotesUploaded byLim Lion Yee
- 1999 t.r. Higgins Award Lecture Design of Reduced Beam Section Moment ConnectionsUploaded byGabriel Alberto Gutiérrez Bejarano
- Belajar ESP InstallationUploaded byAchmad Arif Angga Utama
- API 650 12th_2013_1Uploaded bynaim
- 3 Flexural Design 1Uploaded bybrayan
- 631-1841-1-PBUploaded byMike
- RC PLATEsUploaded byianiroy13
- Detail C - Apex CheckUploaded byJemy J Francis
- Bl 4201416420Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- GBUploaded byAhmad Zubir
- CH4 1 Welding Joint SymbolsUploaded byGuillermo Martínez
- Z-4 Air Washer BuildingUploaded byShubham Kothari
- BeamUploaded bymrswcecivil
- New Text DocumentUploaded byUday Udmale
- Rectangle-Beam.xlsUploaded byVeer Rajpute
- Problem 5 003Uploaded byOscar Sanchez
- Admin Building CalcUploaded byorode franklyn
- 443572Uploaded byKasine Naik

- A Teaching Guide for Structural Steel ConnectionsUploaded byv
- PILE Foundation Analysis_ASCE William Saul-1980_searchableUploaded byv
- Strut and Tie Part 1Uploaded byTurcu Catalin Nicolae
- Design of Lifting and Tailing LugsNetsc001Uploaded byTshilidzi Irene Netselo
- ACI 314 Design Aid-11.pdfUploaded byASQ
- Articles from Wire Reinforcement InstituteUploaded byv
- EM 1110-1-1904 - Settlement AnalysisUploaded byPDHLibrary
- Load and Resistance Factor DesignUploaded by8986103t
- Structural Design Loads for One- and Two-Family DwellingsUploaded byv
- Masonry Technical Notes for Design and ConstructionUploaded byv
- CleanColumns_V3_0Uploaded byv
- Parametric Bay Studies V4_0 (AISC)Uploaded byv
- A Fatigue Primer for Structural EngineersUploaded byv
- Brick Technical Notes for Design and ConstructionUploaded byv
- Basic Vibration TheoryUploaded bytjoker
- Foundations for CompressorsUploaded byv
- Modern Sewer Design 4th Ed. 1999Uploaded byv
- NASA RP-1228 - Fastener Design ManualUploaded byv
- Comprehensive Design Example for Prestressed Concrete (Psc) Girder Superstructure BridgeUploaded byaleitaosilva
- Calculation of SpringsUploaded byv
- Concrete Pipe Design ManualUploaded byv
- Seismic Design and Retrofit of Piping SystemsUploaded byv
- Design Guide for Highway Noise BarriersUploaded byv
- Standard Plans for Southern Pine BridgesUploaded byv
- Epoxy Anchor IssuesUploaded byv
- Design and Construction Driven Pile Foundation Vol 2Uploaded byv
- Standard Plans for Timber Bridge SuperstructuresUploaded byv
- Hydraulic Design of Highway CulvertUploaded byMohammad Saleem Zahidi
- Design and Construction of Driven Piles Vol 1Uploaded byv
- Residential Building ConstructionUploaded byvelarajan

- Chapter 19 (Calculation of BM and KM; KM Curves)Uploaded byShip Wonders
- Bernhard Raninger - Large Scale Biogas Plant Operations in ChinaUploaded byAsia Clean Energy Forum
- Grip.resumeUploaded byHannah Grip
- EM InductionUploaded bySakib Ex-rcc
- CHEM 1315Uploaded byGabe Marquez
- 19690029285Uploaded byviorelcroitoru
- MOTION to QUASHUploaded byCasey Ibasco
- web 2 0Uploaded byapi-272868299
- Estudio Plataformas InestablesUploaded bySergio López
- General Policy for National Parks review terms of referenceUploaded byStuff Newsroom
- Form 3 Return of Allotment.docUploaded byNabeel Safdar
- Ethics in AdvertisingUploaded bygift57
- Maya 4 BasicsUploaded byVijay Chavan
- Eli Lilly R&D Innovation SetupUploaded bysushaantb400
- Zomato Case StudyUploaded bySharath Kumar
- Fluid Statics-By a R PaulUploaded byHimanshu Gautam
- The Importance of Digital Technology in LifeUploaded byJunel Alapa
- Temperature Control Using Analog PID controllerUploaded byNiravI.Kukadiya
- 2008 Durham Police Department Crime ReportUploaded byztracer
- PhD DissertationUploaded byShito Ryu
- 1st Sessional With SolutionUploaded byTahir Iqbal
- Exchange - Hybrid MailFlowUploaded byawslab8
- Dado Com SlowdownUploaded byglaucoaguiar2009
- Filtration for Bottling 2000 LPHUploaded bySuselo Handoko
- Legacy WA 300 Dual Relay Automatic Wall Switch Cut SheetUploaded byJennifer White
- The aestheticization of suffering.pdfUploaded byboidamata
- COMELEC Reso 9019Uploaded byGoyo Larrazabal
- International Scrum Master Foundation - Study GuideUploaded byAjay KUmar
- 77629926 RF SolutionsUploaded byhoang_minhtien
- A Synopsis by Jacob NeedlemanUploaded byjimakopool