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POLY ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE

process card 103 - 1/2

1 - The products PAC 18% and PAC 9 HB


PAC is a flocculant of new concept, the specific properties of which derive from the
action of its basic active constituent, namely Poly Aluminium Chloride.
This is a polynuclear complex of polymerised hydro-aluminium ions, having the
following general formula:
{ Al2 (OH)n Cl 6-n }x
PAC is supplied in the form of aqueous solution which facilitates the transport and
storage operations and subsequent dosage of the reagent.
Two types of solutions are supplied, corresponding to:
-

PAC 18, containing 17,5 0,5% Al2O3, specific for waste waters and neutral
sizing in paper making.
It is used as primary coagulant aid for any clarifying/flocculation process relating to
the treatment of surface or underground water and urban or industrial effluents
PAC 9 HB, containing 9 0,5% Al2O3, specific for potable waters.

2 - Production methods The PAC 18% production process lies in the batch etching
reaction of alumina with an acqueous solution of hydrochloric acid.
The reaction takes place in a glass lined reactor equipped with agitator. During
reaction the temperature is controlled and at end of reaction the product is discharged
into an holding tank.
The discharged product is maintained in agitation and non reacted alumina and
insolubles are separated by filtration.
A venting system assures the collection of vent discharges for storage tanks and
safety valves.
The liquid effluents, mainly acid waters, are collected into a holding tank from which
they are recycled to the production plant.
Using sulphuric acid instead of hydrochloric acid Aluminium sulphate solution can be
produced with the same process.
The PAC 9 HB, production process is obtained by reaction of PAC 18% with aluminum
sulphate and a basifier, using a GFRP reactor and a mixer-mill of particular design.
The reaction is carried out at room conditions and production filtration is not required.
3 - Quality The basic product from the plant will be according the following specifications.
Specifications

PAC 18%

- Appearance
- Density at 20C
kg/dm3
- Viscosity at 20C Cst
- Freezing point
C
- pH at 20C
N
- Al2O3 content
%
- Al2O3/Cl ratio
max

clear liquid
1,35
21,6
-20
0,8 1,2
18
3,3 3,5

Aluminium
Sulphate (8%)
liquid
8
-

PAC 9 HB
clear liquid
1,20
10-20
23
9
-

Formulations, according to end use requirements, will be obtained by blending the basic
product with other formula components.

POLY ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE

process card 103 - 2/2

4 - Consumptions - Referred to one m. ton of finished product


Feedstock
& utilities
- Alumina
(Al2O3-58/62%) kg
- Hydrochloric acid (3133%)
kg
- Sulphuric acid
(98%)
kg
- PAC 18%
kg
- Alum 8%
kg
- Basifier 100%
kg
- Steam
(7 bar)
kg
- Cooling water
m3
- Electric power
kwh
- Compressed air
Nm3

5 - Investment

PAC 18%

- U.S. Dollars
- Required area (m. 50x50)
- Type of process
- Capacity PAC 18% sol
- Operation (24 hr/day)

300 325
680 700
250
15
35
16

Aluminium
sulphate (8%)
145
242
170
16
38
16

PAC 9 HB
460
75
15
15
10

: (quoted on request)
: m2 2500
: BATCH
: t/yr 25.000
: 330 days/yr

6 - Use pattern
Water treatment - The poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is used for settling of solid
particles present into drinkable waters and for the flocculation of civil and industrial
effluents.
It has also a high antibactericide effect, due to the presence of chlorine into the
product formula, and can be utilized for large range of pH and with higher turbidity.
Paper manufacture - The main features of PAC are its high Al2O3 content and
polymeric nature, which give rise to products of hydrolysis characterized by a high
molecular weight and a large number of positive electric charges able to interact with
the cellulose fibres and size, optimizing the sizing phase and the retention of fibres.

7 - Basicity - Simple dilution of PAC 18% allows to obtain a PAC 10% solution showing a
basicity up to 40%.
By blending some components to PAC 18% it is possible to produce PAC 9% H.B. a
solution with a basicity of 64 68% without formation of solid residues as common for
other commercial processes which require a filtration.
The stability to storage is very good and PH range is 2 3.
PAC 9 HB is recommended for treatment of potable waters whilst PAC 18% is used for
waste waters of civil and industrial effluents.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
CONSITO S.r.l.-Piazza IV Novembre, 1-20124 Milano (Italy)-Tel. 02-66981651 - Fax 02-66984739 e-mail: consito@consito.it