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You are on page 1of 11

Course webpage

http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/~slee/1408/

Homework.5 (due by March 7)

PHYS-1408-001

Ch.8 6, 10, 15, 16, 22, 25, 29, 38

Lecture 12

Lab

Monday 11:00 am 12: 50 pm (Sci. 105)

Recitation

Monday 3:00 pm 3:50 pm (Sci. 105)

Quiz 3

3/7 (Next Thursday): Ch7 & 8

KE: Energy of a particle due to its motion K = 1/2 mv2

K = Kinetic energy

m = mass of the particle

v = Speed of the particle

Chapter 7

Energy of a System

doing work to transfer energy into a system

1/ mv 2 - 1/ mv 2 = Fx = W

2

2

2

1

F

Calculating the work:

Principle

In raising a mass m to a height

h, the work done by the

external force is

in the kinetic energy:

.

If the net work is positive, the kinetic energy

increases.

If the net work is negative, the kinetic energy

decreases.

WG = FG d = mghcos1800 = -mgh

A person exerts an

upward force Fext = mg to

lift a brick from y1 to y2 .

gravitational potential

energy at a height y above

.

some reference point:

Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy, final

The quantity mgy is identified as the gravitational potential energy, Ug.

! Ug = mgy

Units are joules (J)

Scalar quantity

Work may change the gravitational potential energy of the system.

! Wext = ug

Section 7.6

A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to point 2

and then to point 3. (a) What is the gravitational potential

energy at points 2 and 3 relative to point 1? That is, take y

= 0 at point 1.

Potential Energy

Example: Potential energy changes for a roller coaster.

A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to point 2

and then to point 3. (a) What is the gravitational potential

energy at points 2 and 3 relative to point 1? That is, take y

= 0 at point 1.

Potential Energy

Example: Potential energy changes for a roller

coaster.

A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to

point 2 and then to point 3. (b) What is the change in

potential energy when the car goes from point 2 to

point 3?

Potential Energy

Example: Potential energy changes for a roller

coaster.

A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to

point 2 and then to point 3. (b) What is the change in

potential energy when the car goes from point 2 to

point 3?

Potential Energy

Example: Potential energy changes for a roller coaster.

A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to point 2

and then to point 3. (c) Repeat parts (a) and (b), but take the

reference point (y = 0) to be at point 3.

Potential Energy

A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to point 2

and then to point 3. (c) Repeat parts (a) and (b), but take the

reference point (y = 0) to be at point 3.

WG = -mgh

h, the work done by the

external force is

.

WG = FG d = mghcos1800 = -mgh

A person exerts an

upward force Fext = mg to

lift a brick from y1 to y2 .

gravitational potential

energy at a height y above

.

some reference point:

energy, called elastic

potential energy, when it is

compressed. The force

required to compress or

stretch a spring is:

where k is called the

spring constant, and

needs to be measured for

each spring.

A spring (a) can store energy (elastic potential energy) when compressed

(b), which can be used to do work when released (c) and (d).

Then the potential energy is:

Then the potential energy is:

energy:

Us = kx2

The elastic potential energy can be

thought of as the energy stored in the

deformed spring.

The stored potential energy can be

converted into kinetic energy.

related to the energy of a system.

! The vertical axis represents the amount of energy of a given type in the

system.

! The horizontal axis shows the types of energy in the system.

In a, there is no energy.

! The spring is relaxed, the block is not moving

Section 7.6

Section 7.6

In d, the block has been released and is moving to the right while still in contact

with the spring.

! There is elastic potential energy in the system.

! There is no kinetic energy since the block is held steady.

Section 7.6

! The elastic PE of the system decreases while the kinetic energy increases.

In e, the spring has returned to its relaxed length and the system contains only

kinetic energy associated with the moving block.

Section 7.6

Internal Energy

The energy associated with an object s

temperature is called its internal energy,

Eint.

The friction does work and increases the

internal energy of the surface.

the work done by the force on an object

moving from one point to another depends

only on the initial and final positions of the

object, and is independent of the particular

path taken.

Example: gravity.

energy has been transformed to internal

energy. (we will see this in Ch.8)

The total energy remains the same.

Section 7.7

Another definition of a conservative force:

a force is conservative if the net work done by the force

on an object moving around any closed path is zero.

different paths, A and B. (b) The object makes a round trip, via

path A from point 1 to point 2 and via path B back to point 1.

If friction is present, the work done depends not only on the

starting and ending points, but also on the path taken. Friction

is called a non-conservative force.

A crate is pushed at constant speed across a rough floor from position 1 to position 2

via two paths, one straight and one curved. The pushing force FP is always in the

direction of motion. (The friction force opposes the motion.)

Hence, the work it does is W = FPd, so if d is greater (as for the curved path),

then W is greater. The work done does not depend only on points 1 and 2; it

also depends on the path taken.

Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

only be defined for

conservative forces.

Define a potential energy function, U, such that the work done by a conservative

force equals the decrease in the potential energy of the system.

The work done by such a force, F, is

xf

Wint = Fx dx = U

xi

if we know F(x):

Section 7.8

Look at the case of a deformed spring:

Fs =

dUs

d !1

"

= $ kx 2 % = kx

dx

dx & 2

'

Chapter 8

Conservation of Energy

Three youngsters enjoy the transformation

of potential energy to kinetic energy on a

waterslide. !

We can analyze processes such as these

with the techniques developed in this

chapter. !

Energy Review

Types of Systems

Kinetic Energy

Non-isolated systems

! Energy can cross the system boundary in a variety of ways. (see next slide)

! Total energy of the system changes

Potential Energy

! Determined by the configuration of the system

! Gravitational & Elastic Potential Energies have been studied

Isolated systems

! Energy does not cross the boundary of the system

! Total energy of the system is constant

Internal Energy

! Related to the temperature of the system

Conservation of energy

! Can be used if no non-conservative forces act within the isolated system

Introduction

Introduction

Conservation of Energy

Energy is conserved

Heat !

Work !

! If the total amount of energy in a system changes, it can only be due to the

fact that energy has crossed the boundary of the system by some method of

energy transfer.

Mechanical Wave !

Electrical Transmission !

Electromagnetic

Radiation!

Matter Transfer !

Section 8.1

Section 8.1

Isolated System

Mathematically, Esystem = #

! T = energy transferred across the system boundary

! Established symbols: Twork = W and Theat = Q

model of the non-isolated system is given by the full expansion of the above

equation.

! Remember Emech = K + U

! This is conservation of energy for an isolated system with no nonconservative forces acting.

If non-conservative forces are acting, some energy is transformed into internal

energy.

! TMW transfer by mechanical waves

! TMT by matter transfer

! TET by electrical transmission

! TER by electromagnetic transmission"

! Esystem is all kinetic, potential, and internal energies

! This is the most general statement of the isolated system model.

Section 8.1

Section 8.2

Isolated System, cont.

The changes in energy can be written out and rearranged.

Kf + Uf = Ki + Ui

??? -- How?

height to a lower height

mgyb mgya = -(Uf - Ui) = -Ug

So, K = -Ug => K + Ug = 0

energy in the system: Emech = K + Ug

Conservation of Mechanical Energy for an isolated system:

Kf + Uf = Ki+ Ui

Section 8.2

Conservation of Energy,

Example 1 (Drop a Ball)

Conservation of Energy,

Example 2 (Pendulum)

Initial conditions:

Ei = Ki + Ui = mgh

the ground

Conservation rules applied at some point y

above the ground gives

Kf + Uf = Ki + Ugi

1/2 mvf2 + mgy = 0 + mgh

there is a continuous change between

PE and KE

@ A, the energy is PE

@ B, all of the PE @ A is transformed

into KE

Let 0 PE be @ B

@ C, the KE has been transformed

back into PE

Conservation of Energy,

Example 3 (Spring Gun)

the final point

EA = EC

0 + 0 + 1/2 kx2 = 0 + mgh + 0

1/2 kx2 = mgh

k = 2mgh/x2

where h = (xC - xB)

The energy of the gun-projectile-Earth

system is initially zero.

The popgun is loaded by means of an

external agent doing work on the

system to push the spring downward.

After the popgun is loaded, elastic

potential energy is stored in the spring

and the gravitational potential energy is

lower because the projectile is below

the zero height.

As the projectile passes through the

zero height, all the energy of the

system is kinetic.

At the maximum height, all the energy

is gravitational potential.

Section 8.2

Mechanical Energy

Mechanical Energy

rock is y1 = h = 3.0 m,

calculate the rock s speed

when it has fallen to 1.0 m

above the ground.

rock is y1 = h = 3.0 m,

calculate the rock s speed

when it has fallen to 1.0 m

above the ground.

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