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# Announcement

Course webpage
http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/~slee/1408/
Homework.5 (due by March 7)

PHYS-1408-001

## Ch.7 1, 6, 11, 14, 28, 31, 37, 41

Ch.8 6, 10, 15, 16, 22, 25, 29, 38

Lecture 12

Lab
Monday 11:00 am 12: 50 pm (Sci. 105)

## Feb. 28, 2013

Recitation
Monday 3:00 pm 3:50 pm (Sci. 105)
Quiz 3
3/7 (Next Thursday): Ch7 & 8

## Kinetic Energy (KE)

KE: Energy of a particle due to its motion K = 1/2 mv2
K = Kinetic energy
m = mass of the particle
v = Speed of the particle

Chapter 7
Energy of a System

## A change in kinetic energy is one possible result of

doing work to transfer energy into a system
1/ mv 2 - 1/ mv 2 = Fx = W
2
2
2
1
F
Calculating the work:

Principle

## Gravitational Potential Energy

In raising a mass m to a height
h, the work done by the
external force is

## This means that the work done is equal to the change

in the kinetic energy:

.
If the net work is positive, the kinetic energy
increases.
If the net work is negative, the kinetic energy
decreases.

WG = FG d = mghcos1800 = -mgh

A person exerts an
upward force Fext = mg to
lift a brick from y1 to y2 .

## We therefore define the

gravitational potential
energy at a height y above
.
some reference point:

Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy, final
The quantity mgy is identified as the gravitational potential energy, Ug.
! Ug = mgy
Units are joules (J)
Scalar quantity
Work may change the gravitational potential energy of the system.
! Wext = ug

Section 7.6

## Example: Potential energy changes for a roller coaster.

A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to point 2
and then to point 3. (a) What is the gravitational potential
energy at points 2 and 3 relative to point 1? That is, take y
= 0 at point 1.

Potential Energy
Example: Potential energy changes for a roller coaster.
A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to point 2
and then to point 3. (a) What is the gravitational potential
energy at points 2 and 3 relative to point 1? That is, take y
= 0 at point 1.

Potential Energy
Example: Potential energy changes for a roller
coaster.
A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to
point 2 and then to point 3. (b) What is the change in
potential energy when the car goes from point 2 to
point 3?

Potential Energy
Example: Potential energy changes for a roller
coaster.
A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to
point 2 and then to point 3. (b) What is the change in
potential energy when the car goes from point 2 to
point 3?

Potential Energy
Example: Potential energy changes for a roller coaster.
A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to point 2
and then to point 3. (c) Repeat parts (a) and (b), but take the
reference point (y = 0) to be at point 3.

Potential Energy

## Example 8-1: Potential energy changes for a roller coaster.

A 1000-kg roller-coaster car moves from point 1 to point 2
and then to point 3. (c) Repeat parts (a) and (b), but take the
reference point (y = 0) to be at point 3.

WG = -mgh

## In raising a mass m to a height

h, the work done by the
external force is

.
WG = FG d = mghcos1800 = -mgh

A person exerts an
upward force Fext = mg to
lift a brick from y1 to y2 .

## We therefore define the

gravitational potential
energy at a height y above
.
some reference point:

## A spring has potential

energy, called elastic
potential energy, when it is
compressed. The force
required to compress or
stretch a spring is:
where k is called the
spring constant, and
needs to be measured for
each spring.
A spring (a) can store energy (elastic potential energy) when compressed
(b), which can be used to do work when released (c) and (d).

## 8-2 Potential Energy

Then the potential energy is:

## 8-2 Potential Energy

Then the potential energy is:

## This expression is the elastic potential

energy:
Us = kx2
The elastic potential energy can be
thought of as the energy stored in the
deformed spring.
The stored potential energy can be
converted into kinetic energy.

## An energy bar chart is an important graphical representation of information

related to the energy of a system.
! The vertical axis represents the amount of energy of a given type in the
system.
! The horizontal axis shows the types of energy in the system.

## (see next slide)

In a, there is no energy.
! The spring is relaxed, the block is not moving
Section 7.6

Section 7.6

## Between b and c, the hand has done work on the system.

In d, the block has been released and is moving to the right while still in contact
with the spring.

## ! The spring is compressed.

! There is elastic potential energy in the system.
! There is no kinetic energy since the block is held steady.
Section 7.6

! The elastic PE of the system decreases while the kinetic energy increases.
In e, the spring has returned to its relaxed length and the system contains only
kinetic energy associated with the moving block.
Section 7.6

## Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

Internal Energy
The energy associated with an object s
temperature is called its internal energy,
Eint.
The friction does work and increases the
internal energy of the surface.

## A force is conservative if:

the work done by the force on an object
moving from one point to another depends
only on the initial and final positions of the
object, and is independent of the particular
path taken.
Example: gravity.

## When the book stops, all of its kinetic

energy has been transformed to internal
energy. (we will see this in Ch.8)
The total energy remains the same.

Section 7.7

## Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

Another definition of a conservative force:
a force is conservative if the net work done by the force
on an object moving around any closed path is zero.

## (a) A tiny object moves between points 1 and 2 via two

different paths, A and B. (b) The object makes a round trip, via
path A from point 1 to point 2 and via path B back to point 1.

## Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

If friction is present, the work done depends not only on the
starting and ending points, but also on the path taken. Friction
is called a non-conservative force.

A crate is pushed at constant speed across a rough floor from position 1 to position 2
via two paths, one straight and one curved. The pushing force FP is always in the
direction of motion. (The friction force opposes the motion.)
Hence, the work it does is W = FPd, so if d is greater (as for the curved path),
then W is greater. The work done does not depend only on points 1 and 2; it
also depends on the path taken.

## Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

## Potential energy can

only be defined for
conservative forces.

Define a potential energy function, U, such that the work done by a conservative
force equals the decrease in the potential energy of the system.
The work done by such a force, F, is
xf

Wint = Fx dx = U
xi

if we know F(x):

Section 7.8

## Conservative Forces and Potential Energy cross check!!!

Look at the case of a deformed spring:

Fs =

dUs
d !1
"
= \$ kx 2 % = kx
dx
dx & 2
'

## ! This is Hooke s Law and confirms the equation for U

Chapter 8
Conservation of Energy
Three youngsters enjoy the transformation
of potential energy to kinetic energy on a
waterslide. !
We can analyze processes such as these
with the techniques developed in this
chapter. !

Energy Review

Types of Systems

Kinetic Energy

Non-isolated systems

## ! Associated with movement of members of a system

! Energy can cross the system boundary in a variety of ways. (see next slide)
! Total energy of the system changes

Potential Energy
! Determined by the configuration of the system
! Gravitational & Elastic Potential Energies have been studied

Isolated systems
! Energy does not cross the boundary of the system
! Total energy of the system is constant

Internal Energy
! Related to the temperature of the system

Conservation of energy
! Can be used if no non-conservative forces act within the isolated system

Introduction

Introduction

## Examples of Ways to Transfer Energy Into or out of a system

Conservation of Energy
Energy is conserved

Heat !

Work !

## ! This means that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.

! If the total amount of energy in a system changes, it can only be due to the
fact that energy has crossed the boundary of the system by some method of
energy transfer.

Mechanical Wave !

Electrical Transmission !
Electromagnetic

Matter Transfer !
Section 8.1

Section 8.1

## Conservation of Energy, cont.

Isolated System

Mathematically, Esystem = #

## ! Esystem = total energy of the system

! T = energy transferred across the system boundary
! Established symbols: Twork = W and Theat = Q

## The primarily mathematical representation of the energy version of the analysis

model of the non-isolated system is given by the full expansion of the above
equation.

! Remember Emech = K + U
! This is conservation of energy for an isolated system with no nonconservative forces acting.
If non-conservative forces are acting, some energy is transformed into internal
energy.

## ! K + U + Eint = W + Q + TMW + TMT + TET + TER

! TMW transfer by mechanical waves
! TMT by matter transfer
! TET by electrical transmission
! TER by electromagnetic transmission"

## Conservation of Energy becomes Esystem = 0

! Esystem is all kinetic, potential, and internal energies
! This is the most general statement of the isolated system model.

Section 8.1

Section 8.2

## Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Isolated System, cont.
The changes in energy can be written out and rearranged.

## From work-kinetic energy theorem, Won book = Kbook

Kf + Uf = Ki + Ui
??? -- How?

## Look at work done by the book as it falls from some

height to a lower height

## Also, Won book = Fr = mgyb mgya = Kbook

mgyb mgya = -(Uf - Ui) = -Ug
So, K = -Ug => K + Ug = 0

## We define the sum of kinetic and potential energies as mechanical

energy in the system: Emech = K + Ug
Conservation of Mechanical Energy for an isolated system:
Kf + Uf = Ki+ Ui
Section 8.2

Conservation of Energy,
Example 1 (Drop a Ball)

Conservation of Energy,
Example 2 (Pendulum)

Initial conditions:
Ei = Ki + Ui = mgh

## The configuration for zero potential energy is

the ground
Conservation rules applied at some point y
above the ground gives
Kf + Uf = Ki + Ugi
1/2 mvf2 + mgy = 0 + mgh

## As the pendulum swings,

there is a continuous change between
PE and KE
@ A, the energy is PE
@ B, all of the PE @ A is transformed
into KE
Let 0 PE be @ B
@ C, the KE has been transformed
back into PE

Conservation of Energy,
Example 3 (Spring Gun)

the final point

EA = EC

## KA + UgA + UsA = KC + UgC + UsC

0 + 0 + 1/2 kx2 = 0 + mgh + 0
1/2 kx2 = mgh
k = 2mgh/x2
where h = (xC - xB)

## Example Spring Gun, final

The energy of the gun-projectile-Earth
system is initially zero.
The popgun is loaded by means of an
external agent doing work on the
system to push the spring downward.
After the popgun is loaded, elastic
potential energy is stored in the spring
and the gravitational potential energy is
lower because the projectile is below
the zero height.
As the projectile passes through the
zero height, all the energy of the
system is kinetic.
At the maximum height, all the energy
is gravitational potential.
Section 8.2

## Problem Solving Using Conservation of

Mechanical Energy

## Problem Solving Using Conservation of

Mechanical Energy

## If the original height of the

rock is y1 = h = 3.0 m,
calculate the rock s speed
when it has fallen to 1.0 m
above the ground.

## If the original height of the

rock is y1 = h = 3.0 m,
calculate the rock s speed
when it has fallen to 1.0 m
above the ground.