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TEMAS LNGUA INGLESA III SEMESTRE 4 PROF.

GLAUCE SOARES CASIMIRO


Tema 1 -Talking about Present and Past Tenses
O Simple Present usado para expressar eventos, aes ou condies rotineiras, permanentes.
I go to the gym every day. / She always remembers my birthday./ He hardly ever goes to the
museum. / It always eats meat in the morning. / We don't know each other./ His situation doesn't
look good.
(Pode-se usar o Simple Present para afirmar ou negar uma opinio, algo que acredita-se ser
verdadeiro ou no).
You look great in this dress. / I don't think it's a good idea to lie. / Italians eat lots of pasta./ She
doesnt know anyone in her neighborhood. / He never watches TV in the afternoon.
Existem algumas expresses indicadoras deste tempo verbal, que normalmente so:
usually, frequently, often, every day, all the time.
I thank God for my house every day. / She recently has a new apartment. / I sometimes do social
work. / She usually does voluntary work. / I wash my car every weekend. / He washes his car
very well all the time.
Interrogativa: Use os verbos auxiliares "do/doese no modifique o verbo.
Do you like to play cards every weekend? / Where do you live? / Does she work with you all the
time?/ What time does he go to school? / When do they leave home?
Negativa:
Do not = don't (usados para: I, you, we, they)
Does not = doesn't (usados para: he, she ou it).
I do not like that kind of food. / They dont cry very often./ We dont get up late on week days. /
Jack does not work here. / Paul doesnt play with his sons every day. / Cindy doesnt go to the gym
at night.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
O presente contnuo usado para expressar aes que esto acontecendo no momento da fala.
geralmente empregado com os advrbios de tempo: now, at this moment, look, pay attention, listen!
My sister and I are doing our homework now. / What is John doing at this moment? / Look! Jill
isnt cleaning the bathroom. She is cleaning her bedroom. / Pay attention! I am explaining the
grammar.
SIMPLE PAST TENSE
The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be
used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action.
Affirmative: I spoke. /Negative: I did not speak. Interrogative: Did I speak?
For irregular verbs, use the past form. For regular verbs, just add ed.
Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed.
Examples:
After a final-eonly add-d: love loved
Final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or as final consonant after a vowel is doubled: admit
admitted/travel travelled
Final-y after a consonant becomes-i: hurry hurried
Action in the past taking place once, never or several times: He visited his parents every weekend.
Actions in the past taking place one after theother:Hecamein,tookoffhiscoatand sat down.
Action in the past taking place in the middle of another action: When I was having breakfast, the
phone suddenly rang.
Tema 2 - How to use the Present Perfect tense in life?
O Presente Perfeito usado para expressar:
a) Aes que comearam no passado e continuam at o presente.
I have lived here since 2009. / She has studied English for three years. / We have gone shopping
by ourselves since
2010.
b) Aes que aconteceram num tempo indefinido no passado. (Se for mencionado ou sugerido o
tempo exato em que a ao
ocorreu, usa-se o passado simples.)
I have studied English (tempo indefinido) / I studied English yesterday. (tempo exato)
c) Aes que aconteceram vrias vezes no passado.
We have seen that film many times. / He has listen to that music several times.

d) Aes que acabaram de acontecer.


The plane has just landed. / The students have just asked their teacher a question.
e) Unfinished time.
I have visited my friends this week and I have gone to the supermarket this month.
Examples inPresent Perfect:
a) Paul has written his name in my book. / b) I have visited Miami many times./ c) She has lived here
all her life.
d) They have read that story several times. / e) We have been to the zoo. / f) She has slept in the
garden many times.
g) Who has eaten my sandwich? / h) He has sung that song before. i) You have drunk much beer. /
He has kept her photo in his drawer. / We have brought many sadwiches for our picnic. / They
have built many new buildings by the lake./ My neighbor has caught the burglar by himself. /
Someone has drunk all the wine from this bottle. / Charles has given me a nice present. / Have
they already bought their house? / Have you painted your house yet? / My roomate has just come
in the door. / Havent you ever checked the oil in this car? / We have been to the zoo twice. / The
children havent slept yet.
We have just met Helen./ The boys have already brought their books. / It has snowed since
yesterday morning.
Examples inSimple Past:
a) I won many prizes when I was young. /b) He drove home yesterday./ c) The phone was ringing
when I arrived. /g) We spoke to the director last night. / c) He went to Miami last week. / e) We started
studying German last year./ f) I had dinner an hour ago.
Agora sua vez
1) Complete as frases com as palavras abaixo: breakfast go to bed evening finish weekend
a) You have _______________ in the morning.
b) You have dinner in the _______________.
c) You _______________ at night.
d) People _______________ work at six in the afternoon.
e) Many people dont work on _______________.
2) Supply the correct form of the Present Continuous Tense of the following verbs: Study - read - try sleep - wear - build
1. Silence, please! The baby_________________
2. Look at Jane! She___________ a red blouse.
3. I __________ a book on ancient Greece.
4. We ____ hard because we have a test tomorrow.
5. The women _________ new dresses for the dinner party.
6. The man who ______my house is a good engineer.
3) Put the verb in the present continuous, simple presentorsimple past.
a) Where is Grace? She is having(she/have) a shower.
b) After the party, __________ (we/go) home.
c) How often ____________ (you/read) a newspaper?
d) ______ (I/ want) to travel around the world.
e) Jully ___________ (not/like) tea. ___________ (she/prefer) coffee.
4) Complete the sentences with since or for:
a) I've studied guitar ______ 7 years.
b) We've practiced basketball ______ we were children.
c) We have known each other ______ a long time.
d) They have tried to buy this house ______years.
e) Rodrigo has lived in Montreal ______ 1998.
5) Complete the sentences with a verb in Present Perfect Tense: Invite forget see take buy read
a) Gabriel has readthis magazine.
b) I __________ some new shoes. Do you want to see them?
c) I cant find my sweater. Somebody __________ it.
d) Im looking for Bruno. __________ him?
e) Livia is having a party tonight. She __________a lot of people.
f) Im sorry. I__________ your name.

6) Supply the Simple Past, the Simple Present or the Present Perfect Tense.
a) He always_________(give) me beautiful presents.
b) John _______(come) to the party alone last night.
c) He ____________(keep) her photo in his drawer.
d) We _______(bring) many sadwiches for our picnic.
e) They ____(build) many new buildings by the lake.
Finalizando
1. O Present Perfect Tense usado para referir-se a algo que aconteceu no passado, mas que
mantm algum tipo de conexo com o presente. I've broken my arm. (= My arm is broken now.)
2. O "Present Perfect Tense", porm, no usado quando no se refere ao presente: I missed the bus
yesterday.
3. O Present Perfect Tense tambm usado quando se referir s consequncias que aes
consumadas tm no presente:
Suzy has had a baby.George has shot his girlfriend.
4. O "Present Perfect Tense" tambm usado para afirmar e/ou perguntar/negar se algo j aconteceu
alguma vez, se j aconteceu antes, se nunca aconteceu, se aconteceu at certa data, se no
aconteceu at certo perodo, se algo ainda no aconteceu. Have you ever seen Elvis Presley? I've
never seen Elvis Presley.
5. O Present Perfect pode indicar aes que tiveram incio no passado e vm acontecendo at o
presente:
I've studied mathematics for years. / I've tried to call you since two o'clock. / She's known him
since 1897.
6. O Present Perfect nunca usado em sentenas em que existam advrbios de tempo definido, tais
como: yesterday, last
week, then, twenty years ago, in 1764.
7. Ao referir-se s aes que comearam no passado e ainda continuam acontecendo, pode-se lanar
mo de outro tipo de
construo, alm do prprio Present Perfect, chamada Present Perfect Progressive. We've been
studying since eight o'clock in the morning. Porm, o Present Perfect tem preferncia ao referir-se s
aes mais duradouras. That huge castle's stood there for 1200 Years
Tema 3 Planning the Future
Future: going to
Grammar Explanations: Its used for planned or certain actions in the future. Use be going to + base
form of the verb (change, be, have, etc) for the future.
Examples: I am going to sleep earlier./ You are going to travel next weekend./ He is going to
swim in the river./ They are going to visit their parents. / Jack is going to read his new book. /
Paul isnt going to work until late today. / Jason and I arent going to have dinner together.
Are you going to study for the English test? Yes, I am. // No, Im not.
Is Bob going to spend his holiday in Bonito? Yes, he is. // No, he isnt.
Is Tammy going to watch that film on TV tonight? Yes, she is. // No, she isnt.
What are you going to do this weekend? Im going to rest a lot!
Where is Tom going to have lunch? Hes going to have lunch at the cafeteria.
How is Carl going to spend his money? Hes going to buy a brand new car .
When is it going to be the test? Its going to be next class.
Future: will
usado para expressar ao futura. Como se forma: will + verbo principal.
Examples:
Affirmative: They will study hard tomorrow.
Negative: They wont (will not) study hard tomorrow.
Interrogative: Will they study hard tomorrow?
Abbreviated forms: ll (will); wont (will not)
- em promessas: - Dont worry, Ill take care. / - Ill talk to him when he get here.
- para oferecer ou se propor a fazer algo: - The phone's ringing. / - Im starving! Ill make some
sandwiches.
- quando algo decidido na hora da fala: - Excuse me, will you have red wine or White wine? / - Will
you marry me? /- Will she come visit her mother tonigh? / - Will we be back until 10 pm? / - Are you
going to eat this salad? / - Is Patrick going to walk to school? / - Are we going to read this book?

- I wont be here next weekend. / - My father wont let me go to your party . / - We wont go to the
beach this Holiday. / - He is not going to ask somebody the way. / - I'm not going to borrow his T-shirt. /
- Megan is not going to see the doctor this
evening.
WILL + TIME CLAUSES
As Time Clauses so oraes temporais que, seguidas de algumas conjunes, se ligam a outra
orao. Correspondem, na Lngua Portuguesa, s oraes subordinadas adverbiais temporais.
When you get back, I'll make you dinner ./ When you finish your studies, you will be a great doctor . /
You will be a great doctor when you finish you studies. / Hell call me as soon as he get in Canada.
/ As soon as he get in Canada, hell call me.
Before I leave, Ill take a shower . / Ill take a shower before I leave.
As principais conjunes usadas nesse tipo de oraes so:
Before depois de / By the time quando / na poca em que / If se / Since desde que /
Until/till at (que) /
When quando / While enquanto / Whenever quando quer quer
Tema 4 Making Comparisons
Adjetivos so palavras que modificam os substantivos dando-lhes alguma qualidade. Ex: He is
an intelligent boy .
Porm, h duas diferenas importantes entre o uso dos adjetivos em portugus e em ingls.
Os adjetivos aparecem antes dos substantivos em ingls. Ex: She is a pretty girl.
Os adjetivos em ingls so invariveis, ou seja, no possuem gnero nem plural como em
portugus. Ex: There are big houses in this neighborhood. I bought a big car yesterday .
Quando h mais de um adjetivo para o mesmo substantivo, eles aparecem na seguinte
ordem: tamanho forma cor origem material funo.
Ex: Its a big square brown French wooden dining table.
Quando h mais de dois adjetivos para o mesmo substantivo, eles devem ser separados por
vrgula.
Ex: I need a large, square, wooden box.
Se houver dois adjetivos da mesma categoria deve-se utilizar a palavra and (e) para fazer a
ligao entre eles.
Ex: It is a dark and cold room.
a) Expressa uma opinio: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult. Ex.: It was a difficult test. This is a silly
song.
b) Expressa tamanho: large, tiny, enormous, little. Ex.: This is a large t-shirt. Your house is enormous.
c) Expressa idade: ancient, new, young, old. Ex.: Europe is full of ancient buildings. My grandpa is
very old.
d) Expressa forma: square, round, flat, rectangular. Ex.: This is a rectangular flag.I like round cushion.
e) Expressa cor: blue, pink, reddish, grey. Ex.: We have a blue ocean in Brazil. Barney is a black dog.
f) Expressa origem: French, American, eastern, Greek. Ex.: Mc Donalds is an American restaurant.
Jacque Chirac is French.
g) Expressa material: wooden, metal, cotton, paper. Ex.: Theres a wooden table in the kitchen.That
sculpture is made of metal.
No so flexionados quanto ao nmero: A rich boy Rich boys / He is rich They are rich.
COMPARATIVO DE IGUALDADE:
Compara-se duas coisas de forma igualitria com a expresso: (as + adjetivo + as) e em
oraes negativas o primeiro as pode ser substitudo por so. She is as tall as Jane. / She isnt
so tall as Jane. / I am as tall as my sister . / I don't spend so much money on clothes as my
sister .
COMPARATIVO DE INFERIORIDADE:
usado para demonstrar a inferioridade de uma coisa em relao outra, usa-se a
expresso: less + adjetivo + than.
Some species are less adaptable than others. / You are less short than your father. / My car is
less old than yours./
Your hair is less long than mine.
COMPARATIVO DE SUPERIORIDADE:

usado para demonstrar a superioridade de alguma coisa em relao a outra. Quando o


adjetivo for monossilbico, usa-se: (adjetivo + sufixo -er + than). A Lion is stronger than a wolf. / I
am taller than my sister. / This leather jacket is nicer than the wool one.
Com adjetivos com mais de uma slaba, usa-se: (more + adjetivo + than). Julie is more beautiful
than Lana.
Examples:
1. He always arrives late because his house is FURTHER THAN from work. / 2. Today is HOTTER
than yesterday . /3. He is YOUNGER than you. / 4. My car is MORE EXPENSIVE than your car . / 5.
That house is BIGGER than this one. / 6. I am BUSIER now than before. / 1. His jacket is more
expensive than mine./ 2. She is more intelligent than you. / 3. His office is more comfortable than
mine. / 4. This road is more dangerous than the highway ./ 5. Mr . Jones is more successful
than his
brother .
1. Jeremy is ten years old. Julia is eight years old. Jeremy is older than Julie.
2. An ocean is larger than a sea.
3. A rolls Royce costs a lot of money. A Twingo costs less money. A Rolls Royce is more
expensive than a Twingo.
4. Johns results were bad. Freds results were very poor . Freds results were worse than
Johns.
SUPERLATIVO:
usado para dar maior intensificao do adjetivo a algo. Quando o adjetivo for monossilbico,
usa-se: (the + adjetivo + sufixo est). February is the shortest month of the year . / This is the
nicest leather jacket. / I am the tallest in my family .
Com adjetivos de mais de uma slaba, usa-se: (the most + adjetivo).
This is the most efficient program of all. / This is the most beautiful jacket. / This is the most
expensive cd-rom
nowadays.
AGORA SUA VEZ
1) Answer the questions. Use the words in parentheses.
1. When will you travel? (in June)__________
2. Where will they work? (at home)________
3. What will she do? (work)_______________
4. How will Tom travel? (by plane)_________
5. Where will you talk? (in the park)________
2) Answer the questions. Use the words in parentheses.
1. What will we eat? (sandwiches)_________
2. When will they come? (tomorrow)_______
3. When will you study? (next week)_______
4. What time will the stores open? (at 9 o clock)
3) Complete as frases com os adjetivos abaixo, usando o comparativo que se pede:
Good pretty smart hard old fast
1. Peter and Bill always get 10 on their tests. Peter is __________ his friend Bill. (igualdade)
2. You have a Fiat 98 and I have a Ford 93. My car is __________ your car . (superioridade)
3. Gisele and Daniela are top models but I think Gisele is _________ Daniela. (superioridade)
4. Im very bad at History. Im good at Geography. Geography is not __________ History for me.
(inferioridade)
5. A Mercedes is __________ a BMW . (igualdade)
4) Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).
a) The weather this summer is even __________(bad) than last summer .
b) Which is ______ (big) animal in the world?
c) My car is ________ (expensive) yours.
d) This is _____ (interesting) movie I've ever seen.
e) Fruit is ____________ (health) chocolat.
5) Write as or than:
a) My hair is the same colour ______ yours.
b) Brazil is bigger ______ Portugal.
c) Tennis isnt as popular ____ football.

d) Kelly cant wait longer _____ na hour.


e) I play videogames as much ____ you.
6) Write the oposite:
a) easier - __________
b) heavier - __________
c) colder - ____________
d) more expensive - __________
e) better - ____________
Finalizando
Adjectives/Superlative
Interesting - the most interesting / Weak - the weakest / Funny - the funniest / Important - the
most important /
Careful - the most careful / Big - the biggest / Small - the smallest / Polluted - the most
polluted / Boring - the most boring / Angry - the angriest
Examples:
1. This is the most interesting book I have ever read. / 2. Which is the most dangerous animal
in the world? /3. Who is the richest woman on earth? / 4. He was the cleverest thief of all. / 5. The
Alps are very high. They are the highest mountains in Europe. / 6. In the government of a
country, the President is the most important person.
1. Carla is fifteen. Angela is twenty. Carla is younger than Angela. / 2. Brazil is big. It is the biggest
country in South America. /
3. A Fusca is cheap. A Fusca is cheaper than a BMW. / 4. Peter results were terrible. He was the worst
player in the team./ 5. New York is a large city, it is very important. It is the most important city in the
USA.
1. English is the least difficult subject I have. / 2. This car is the cheapest in the shop. / 3. Carol is the
most beautiful girl in class.
4. Bob is as tall as Ted. / 5. History is less difficult than Math. / 6. Lucy is younger than Karen. / 7. Sue
is more intelligent than Mary. / 8. Can Bob run as fast as Jack? / 9. A table is usually less heavy than a
chair. / 10. She was the most popular than girl in school. /
Os adjetivos curtos so aqueles formados por uma ou duas slabas.
Adjetivos - Comparativo de Superioridade - Superlativo :Tall
taller than
the tallest / Short
shorter than
the shortest / Small
smaller than
the smallest /Heavy
heavier than
the
heaviest / Easy
easier than
the easiest / Hot
hotter than
the hottest / Big
bigger than
the biggest
Os adjetivos longos so aqueles formados por trs ou mais slabas.
Adjetivos Comparativo de Superioridade Superlativo: Beautiful more beautiful than the most
beautiful/ Expensive more expensive than the most expensive/ Intelligent more intelligent than
the most intelligent /Confortable more confortable than the most confortable
H ainda os adjetivos que possuem formas irregulares para os graus comparativo e superlativo
de superioridade.
Adjetivos Comparativo de Superioridade Superlativo
Good
better than
the Best / Bad
worse than
the worst / Little
less than
the least /
Few
fewer than
the fewest / Much
more than
the most / Many
more than
the most /
Far farther than/further than the farthest/ the furthest
Tema 5 Comparing Past Tenses
Passado Simples Negativo
Para o passado negativo, usa-se o verbo auxiliar did+not para todas as pessoas. Repare que se
utiliza o auxiliar did not + infinitivo. I didnt play; He didnt come.
Passado Simples Interrogativo
Did you like your teacher? Yes, I did./ No, I didnt. / Did he study Spanish? Yes, he did./ No, he
didnt.
Repare que se utiliza o auxiliar did + infinitivo.Did you play ?; Did he have?
Verbos Regulares
Afirmaes
Os verbos regulares no Simple Past so constitudos da partcula ed, no final do verbo, e
para isso, deve-se seguir algumas regras:
-Verbos j terminados em -E apenas ganham o -D: To dance = danced.

- Verbos terminados em consoante + y, perdem o -Y e ganham -IED: To study = studied.


- Verbos terminados em vogal + y, apenas ganham -ED: To play = played.
- Verbos terminados em vogal + consoante, dobram a ltima consoante e ganham -ED: To stop =
stopped.
Verbos Irregulares
As frases afirmativas com verbos irregulares se compem do sujeito + passado simples do
verbo: -I saw a ghost
- She said lies.
As interrogaes no Simple Past pedem ajuda do auxiliar DID (passado de DO) + a forma
normal do verbo:
- Did you drink? - Did she sleep?
Examples in Simple Past:
a) I won many prizes when I was young. / b) He drove home yesterday . / c) The phone was ringing
when I arrived. / g) We spoke to the director last night. / c) He went to Miami last week. / e) We
started studying German last year . /f) I had dinner an hour ago.
PAST CONTINUOUS
O Past Continuous o tempo verbal que usado para descrever uma ao que estava
acontecendo em algum tempo no passado. Sua estrutura se d por sujeito + passado do verbo
'to be' + verbo -ing.
I was watching tv last night.
At this time last week, I was playing soccer .
When / While
O When (quando) e While (enquanto) so utilizados em frases do past contnuos para
demonstrar aes que estavam acontecendo quando alguma outra aconteceu, ou enquanto outra
ao estava acontecendo.
I was studing when John called me. / Daniel was washing his car while I was watering plants.
Simple Past x Past Continuous
muito comum confundirmos esses dois tempos verbais, afinal, o sentido que eles passam
so bem parecidos quando pensamos na nossa lngua. Porm, veja os exemplos.
Simple Past Rita cooked yesterday .
Past Continuous Rita was cooking when her husband arrived.
I talked to Harrison last night. Simple Past
I was talking to Harrison when my cell phone broke. Past continuous
Megan cried tonight. Simple Past
Megan was crying while his brother was talking to her . Past continuous
INTENSIFIERS Very, Too and Enough
Os intensifiers so usados para dar mais intensidade ao significado dos adjetivos.
- Very significa 'muito' quando acompanhado de adjetivos. "very beautiful", "very expensive" e
"very ugly". This girl is very beautiful! Im in love with her . Everybody thinks Danny is very clever.
- O too usado quando queremos dizer que algo ou est mais do que o normal, como se o
very representasse o muito e o too o est demais . This shoes are too big for me. It's too hot!
- O enough usado para expressar que algo ou no (not enough) suficiente. Sally is old
enough to go out with friends at night. My English isnt good enough to hold a conversation.
Tema 6 Active and Passive Voices
Conjugation for the Passive Voice
We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather
easy , as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. To
form the required tense, we conjugate the
auxiliary verb.
Present Simple: It is made.
Present Continuous: It is being made.
Present Perfect: It has been made.
Use of the Passive Voice
We use the passive when:
We want to make the active object more important.
We do not know the active subject.

Construction of the Passive Voice


The structure of the passive voice is very simple:
subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)
The main verb is always in its past participle form.
Voz ativa: Nobody recognized the woman.
Voz passiva: The woman was not recognized.
importante sempre usar by quando mencionado o executor da ao:
Voz ativa: Susan is cooking dinner .
Voz passiva: Dinner is being cooked by Susan.
Quando passamos a voz ativa para a voz passiva ocorrem algumas transformaes:
O objeto da voz ativa torna-se o sujeito da voz passiva.
O verbo to be usado no tempo em que estiver o verbo principal na voz ativa.
O verbo principal sempre usado no particpio passado na voz passiva.
Voz ativa: Anyone can plant a tree.
Voz passiva: A tree can be planted by anyone.
Give importance to active object (President Kennedy)
Subject: President Kennedy
Verb: was killed
Object: by Lee Harvey Oswald.
Active subject unknown:
My wallet has been stolen. / Water is drunk by everyone./ 100 people are employed by this
company ./
I am paid in euro./ We are not paid in dollars. /
Are they paid in yen?
Simple Present
Active: Rita writes a letter .
Passive: A letter is written by Rita.
Simple Past
Active: Rita wrote a letter .
Passive: A letter was written by Rita.
Present Perfect
Active: Rita has written a letter .
Passive: A letter has been written by Rita.
Future I
Active: Rita will write a letter .
Passive: A letter will be written by Rita.
Active: Rita can write a letter .
Passive: A letter can be written by Rita.
Present Progressive
Active: Rita is writing a letter .
Passive: A letter is being written by Rita.
Past Progressive
Active: Rita was writing a letter .
Passive: A letter was being written by Rita.
Past Perfect
Active: Rita had written a letter .
Passive: A letter had been written by Rita.
Future II
Active: Rita will have written a letter .
Passive: A letter will have been written by Rita.
Conditional I
Active: Rita would write a letter .
Passive: A letter would be written by Rita.
Conditional II
Active: Rita would have written a letter .
Passive: A letter would have been written by Rita.
Agora sua vez
1) Mark 1 to Simple Past sentences and 2 to Past Continuous sentences.
a) ( ) They were having a dring when I came.
b) ( ) John sold his house.

c) (
d) (
e) (
f) (

) Me and my boyfriend found a dog this morning.


) She was running when I saw her .
) I was living in New York.
) We took a lot of photos.

2) Choose while or when in sentences below:


a) ________ Sarah was living in Australia, she met many interesting people.
b) We were travelling ________ Mike called for help.
c) ________ I was talking on the phone, Kelly was making an apple pie.
d) Lucas was speaking ________ they were studing.
e) I had many problems ________ I was younger .
3) Fill in the gaps with very, too or enough.
a) This tea is ______ hot, but I can still drink it.
b) This coffee is cold. It's not hot ______.
c) This milk is ______ hot. I cannot drink it.
d) The bus stop is ______ close to my house.
e) They were ______ poor . They didn't have ______ food to eat.
4)
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Put the verb in brackets in Simple Past or Past Continuous and complete the sentences.
My mother _____________ (prepare) mybreakfast when I ________ (get) up.
Will ________(play) videogame when I _____________ (call) him.
While I _____________ (text), the school bus _____________ (arrive).
The girl _____________ (notice) that the boy _____________ (stare) at her .
I _____________ (listen) to the radio while I _____________ (prepare) my dinner .

5) Put the sentences in Passive Voice:


a) Erika Leonard wrote Fifty Shades of Grey.
b) My grandfather built this house in 1976.
c) Mike is painting the house.
d) They play baseball everywhere in the United States.
e) People eat avocado with sugar in Brazil.
Finalizando
Simple Past x Present Perfect
She bought a new car last month. / She has bought a new car.
He was in So Paulo last week./He has been to So Paulo already.
Have you been to the Taj Mahal?Yes, I have. I went there in 1995.
Quando o agente da voz passiva no for mencionado e tivermos que passar para a voz
ativa, deveremos empregar um sujeito:
Voz passiva: Those ships were destroyed.
Voz ativa: They/Someone/Somebody destroyed those ships.
It is said that power and ambition corrupt people. / It is reported that... / English is spoken
in Australia. / A lot of rice is eaten in China. / A lot has been written about that. / One doesn't
know exactly what happened that night.
You never know what to do in a moment like this. / You can't work in such an environment. /
You shouldn't believe everything you read./ They make Fords in Cologne. / Fords are made in
Cologne. / Susan is cooking dinner . / Dinner is being cooked by Susan
Tema 7 Real Conditions in the Future
Future: will
usado para expressar ao futura. Como se forma: Sujeito + will + verbo principal (no
infinitivo sem to).
Examples:
Affirmative: They will study hard tomorrow.
Negative: They wont (will not) study hard tomorrow.
Interrogative: Will they study hard tomorrow?
Abbreviated forms: ll (will); wont (Will not)
O Future Real Conditional, refere-se a uma condio ou situao no futuro e o resultado
dessa condio. Uma real
possibilidade que esta situao ocorrer.
If I go to my friend's house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers.
When I have a day off from work, I AM going to go to the beach.

If the weather is nice, she is going to walk to work.


If rains today, Ill have to buy an umbrella.
ADVERBS OF MANNER
Os advrbios de modo formam-se juntando um sufixo a um adjectivo, substantivo, ou advrbio
de direco: (adjectivo) + LY
beautifully / carefully / easily / quickly / slowly
She spoke in a motherly way. / He spoke in a friendly manner. / They walked in an orderly
fashion.
Mais exemplos de adjectivos terminados em -ly:
brotherly, elderly, fatherly, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, sisterly, ugly .
Posio dos advrbios de modo: (verbo) + ADVERB
He walks quickly. / She drives carefully. / They sing beautifully./
(Verbo + complemento) + ADVERB
She read the letter quickly. / He left the room furiously. / She speaks English fluently.
Plural Forms
SINGULAR PLURAL
SPELLING
A book
BookS
+s
An engineer EngineerS + s
A watch
WatchES
+es (after ch, x, s, sh, o, z)
A fax
FaxES
A glass
GlassES
A potato
PotatoES
A country
CountrIES
Consonant + Y = - Y + ies
Irregular Plurals
Child Children / Man - Men / Woman - Women/ Knife - Knives / Wife - Wives / Shelf Shelves
USO DOS ADJETIVOS QUANTITATIVOS
Many - My mother speaks many languages.
Much - There is much work today .
Few - There were few students in class.
Little - We had little time to study .
Some - There are some books in the bag.
Any - There aren't any books in the bag.
Are there any books in the bag?
Little, Few e Enough , so expresses de quantifiers usadas para indicar e fornecer a quantidade de
algo.
Little e Few significam uma pequena quantidade de alguma coisa, mas Little usado para
substantivos no-contveis e Few para substantivos contveis.
Enough significa algo suficiente, pode ser usado para substantivos no-contveis e
substantivos contveis.
Tema 8 Memories of the Past
Simple Past talks about something that happened before. It happened and it finished. Some words
are regular and just have -ed added at the end like walked, helped, and played. Others are
irregular and have many variations like ate, began, and slept.
The Past Progressive talks about something that was happening before, but for a period of time. It
uses was or were + verb-ing like was eating or were playing. It gives a background for
something that was happening while a different event happened.
Example: While I was eating, the telephone rang.
So, during the time I was eating (let's say from 6:30-7:00 p.m.) somebody called my house
(let's say they called at 6:49 p.m.).
One thing happened (simple past) during the period of time another thing was happening
(past progressive.)
Another example:
They saw an old man as they were walking down the street.
(You can think of walking as a video. You see the movement. You see the time passing.
Think of saw as a photo. It is one point of time. You don't think of the time passing. )
Signal Words of Simple Past:

yesterday , 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day , last Friday .


The Simple Past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It
can also be used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action.
Affirmative: I spoke.
Negative: I did not speak.
Interrogative: Did I speak?
For irregular verbs, use the past form. For regular verbs, just add ed.
Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed.
Examples:
After a final -e only add d : love loved
Final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled:
admit admitted travel travelled
Final -y after a consonant becomes i: hurry hurried
Use of Simple Past Tense
Action in the past taking place once, never or several times: He visited his parents every
weekend.
Actions in the past taking place one after the other: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.
Action in the past taking place in the middle of another action: When I was having breakfast,
the phone suddenly
rang.
Past Progressive = Past Continuous Tense
Functions and Examples:
We use the past continuous to say that an action was in progress at a particular time in
the past. The action had already started at this time, but had not finished. I was having dinner at
6pm last night. What were you doing at midnight last night?
We use the past continuous to say that an action was in progress at every moment during a period
of time: You were working all day yesterday, weren't you? I was playing football all day yesterday.
We use the past continuous together with the Past Simple. The past continuous refers to a
"longer" or background" action that was in progress; the past simple refers to a shorter action
that interrupted the longer action, or happened in the middle of it: - He was walking to work when he
met John./ - She was eating when the phone rang. /- While I was working in the garden, I heard a
woman scream.
We use the Past Continuous to say that an action in the past was temporary: You were
working in the Sales Department last month, weren't you? / They were living in Paris for a year .
We use the Past Continuous with words such as always to talk about things that happened
repeatedly . : Grandpa was always telling us funny stories about his life and cracking jokes.
Simple Past & Past Continuous Tenses
1. While I was texting, the school bus arrived. / 2. Cindy broke her leg while she was
snowboarding. / 3. He was listening to the radio while he was preparing breakfast. / 4. My father
was driving at 70 km/h when a policeman stopped him.
5. The girl noticed that the boy was watching her .
Agora sua vez...
01) Answer the questions. Use the words in parentheses.
a) When will you travel? (in June)_________
b) Where will they work? (at home)________
c) What will she do? (work)______________
d) How will Tom travel? (by plane)_________
e) What will we eat? (sandwiches)_________
f) When will they come? (tomorrow)_______
g) When will you study? (next week)_______
h) What time will the stores open? (at 9 o clock)_________
02) Circle the adjective in each statement. Change the adjective to an adverb and write it on
the line. Some adjectives and adverbs have the same form. Ex.: I ate my food quick. Quickly.
a) I finished the work easy . _______________
b) They sold the house cheap. ____________
c) She waited for you patient. _____________
d) I didnt tie the rope secure. ____________
e) I want to pronounce words correct. ______
f) He held the baby careful. ____________

g) I didnt arrive late.____________________


03) Change the following adjectives to adverbs of manner .
a) Quick____________________
b) Dangerous________________
c) Normal___________________
d) Safe_____________________
e) Rapid____________________
f) Fast_____________________
g) Constant_________________
h) Slow_____________________
i) Good____________________
04) Complete com much ou many:
a) Sue drinks _____________ tea.
b) Jim always puts _____________ salt on his food.
c) You have _______________ friends.
d) Do you know _______________ people?
e) It costs _________________ money to repair the sofa.
05) Write first conditions sentences. Ex.: (she/go/France/have/learn French) If she goes to France,
she'll have to learn
French.
a) (Daniel/ pass/exame/win a present) _____________________________________
b) (not/rain/the studants/practice sports in the playground)_____________________________________
c) (you/ wear/ seatbelt/ be/safe in an accident)_____________________________________
Finalizando...
O used to usado para manifestar aes que costumavam ser feitas no passado e hoje no
acontece mais. I used to work on saturdays. My family used to spend their Summer vacations
in Recife. Now they go to different places.
I used to be happy .
WOULD
Podemos usar o would como uma variao do used to, pois ambos tm a funo de falar
sobre as coisas que aconteciam no passado e hoje no acontecem mais, como atividades,
hbitos ou eventos.
Porm, a diferena que o would no usado com o verbo to be na frase, logo ele no
usado para falar de condies passadas ou estados. Nesses casos, aceito apenas o uso do
used to.
Magie would be very intelligent/ Magie used to be very intelligent. / I would have long hair ./ I
used to have long hair .
possvel usar o would apenas para variar o uso no used to quando estamos contando uma
sequncia de fatos passados. bastante comum tambm usar a constrao d ao invs da
palavra toda.
We used to wake up early on Christmas morning. Then, wed go to the living room and wait
for my mom to arrive.
After she arrived, we would open the presents, and then we used to have breakfast.
PAST PASSIVE VOICE
Fbio opened the door . / The door was opened by Fbio.
sempre importante lembrar que para construir uma frase na voz passiva a estrutura ser:
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs).
Somebody cleans this room every day ./ This room is cleaned every day .
Somebody cleaned this room yesterday ./ This room was cleaned yesterday .
Somebody is cleaning the room at the moment./ The room is being cleaned at the moment.
Tema 9 Learning about Modals
Modal Verb: Can
It Express Ability / Possibility; Inability / Impossibility; Asking for permission; Request .
They can control their own budgets. / We cant fix it. / Can I smoke here? / Can you help me?
Modal Verb: Could
Asking for permission; Request; Suggestion; Future possibility; Ability in the past.

Could I borrow your dictionary? / Could you say it again more slowly? / We could try to fix it
ourselves.
I think we could have another Gulf War. / He gave up his old job so he could work for us.
May
Asking for permission; Future possibility.
May I have another cup of coffee? / China may become a major economic power.
Might
Present possibility; Future possibility.
We'd better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now. / They might give us a 10%
discount.
MODAL VERBS:
Can we leave for dinner?/ Could they work together?/ Must she must study hard?/ They couldnt
work later.
She cant go out./ You mustnt smoke here.
TO BE ABLE TO
He will be able to swim tomorrow./ He was able to read that letter yesterday ./ He is able to come
today .
He will be able to travel next year ./ He was not able to drive the car last night.
CAN
I can go with you./ He can speak English./ We can have a good time here./ I can walk to school
in the morning.
She can write beautiful letters./ My friends can play tennis.
Must: Necessity / Obligation; Prohibition.
We must say good-bye now. / They mustnt disrupt the work more than necessary.
Ought to: Saying whats right or correct.
We ought to employ a professional writer.
Shall : Offer ; Suggestion; Asking what to do.
Shall I help you with your luggage? / Shall we say 2.30 then? / Shall I do that or will you?
Should: Saying whats right or correct; Recommending action; Uncertain prediction.
We should sort out this problem at once. / I think we should check everything again. / Profits
should increase next year.
WILL: Instant decisions; Offer; Promise; Certain prediction.
I cant see any taxis so Ill walk. / I'll do that for you if you like. / Ill get back to you first thing on
Monday.
Profits will increase next year.
WOULD: Asking for permission; Request; Request; Making arrangements; Invitation; Preferences.
Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me? / Would you pass the salt please? / Would you
mind waiting a moment? / "Would three o`clock suit you?" - "Thatd be fine." / Would you like to
play golf this Friday? / "Would you prefer tea or coffee?" - "Id like tea please.
Meaning
Example
to express ability I can speak a little Russian.
to request permission
Can I open the window?
to express possibility
I may be home late.
to request permission
May I sit down, please?
to express obligation
I must go now.
to express strong belief She must be over 90 years old.
to give advice
You should stop smoking.
to request or offer
Would you like a cup of tea?
in if -sentences
If I were you, I would say sorry .
Can: pode ser usado para expressar permisso, possibilidade; habilidade, solicitao...
Can I drink water? / I can speak English. / They can control their own budgets./ We cant fix it./
Can I smoke here?
Can you help me?
Could: empregado para expressar habilidade, s que no passado. usado com o sentindo
de poderia, em um
contexto mais formal. I could ride a bike when I was 5 years old./ Could you bring me a sandwich
and a coke,
please?
Could: Asking for permission. Request. Suggestion. Future possibility . Ability in the past.
Could I borrow your dictionary?/ Could you say it again more slowly? / We could try to fix it
ourselves./

I think we could have another Gulf War . He gave up his old job so he could work for us.
May: usado para expressar uma possibilidade no presente ou no futuro. Tambm pode ser
usado para pedir
permisso, no entanto, may usado em contextos mais formais que o can.
It may rain tomorrow. May I go to the bathroom? May I have another cup of coffee? China may
become a major economic power .
Might: usado para expressar possibilidades no passado ou no presente.
She might have come to the party ./ He might have lunch with us tomorrow. / We'd better
phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now. / They might give us a 10% discount.
Should e Ought to: usado para expressar um conselho.
You should go to the doctor./ You ought to quit smoking. / We ought to employ a professional
writer./
We should sort out this problem at once./ I think we should check everything again. / Profits
should increase next year .
Must: usado para expressar obrigao.
You must go to school. / She must study more. / We must say good-bye now. / They mustnt
disrupt the work more than necessary .
Used to: empregado para expressar um hbito do passado.
I used to watch cartoons when I was a child./ She used to play on the street when she
was 8 years old.
Shall (More common in the UK than the US) : OfferSuggestion. Asking what to do. Shall I
help you with your luggage?
Shall we say 2.30 then?/ Shall I do that or will you?
WILL:
Instant decisions. Offer . Promise. Certain prediction
I cant see any taxis so Ill walk./ I'll do that for you if you like./ Ill get back to you first thing on
Monday./
Profits will increase next year .
WOULD:
Asking for permission. Request. Making arrangements. Invitation. Preferences.
Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?/ Would you pass the salt please? / Would
you mind waiting a moment? / "Would three o`clock suit you?" - "Thatd be fine."/ Would you
like to play golf this Friday? "Would you prefer tea or coffee?" - "Id like tea please."
Agora sua vez...
01) Rewrite the sentences using may.
a) Hes trying to explain it to her.___________
b) Itll rain tomorrow.____________________
c) Shes playing tennis in the afternoon._____
d) The boys go to the mountains during their vacation.____
e) My father finished his work._____________
f) Ive received a letter.__________________
02) Rewrite the sentences using might.
a) We will stay in Chicago.________________
b) The next lesson is hard.________________
c) There is someone in the garden._________
d) There is a mistake in your composition.___
e) I am going to L.A.____________________
03) Underline the modal verbs:
When Helen was 6 years old her parents took her to Baltimore and then to Washington to
famous doctors to find out if they could do something to make her hear and see again, but
the doctors could do nothing. The child

was hopelessly deaf. Dr . Bell said the Kellers should address the Perkins Institution for the
blind in Boston and ask if they could send someone to help the child.
04) I didnt feel very well yesterday .
I ____ eat anything.
a) cannot
b) couldnt
c) mustnt
05) You ______ look at me when I am talking to you.
a) could
b) should
c) would
06) I was using my pencil a minute ago. It ______ be here somewhere!
a)can
b)could
c)must
d)Would
07) You really _______ be late again.
a)must not
b)dont have to be
08) If you dont start working harder, you ______ repeat the course next year .
a)have to
b)Must
c)will have to
09) His parents spoil him. Hes always ____ to do whatever he wants.
a)been able
b)been allowed
Finalizando...
May I use your umbrella? (Permisso)
He may be in the library . (Possibilidade)
Sorry , I can not understand what you are saying. (Capacidade)
The students must behave as I say . (Obrigao)
She must be very busy, since she has three children, a job and a house to take care.
(Suposio)
Shall we go for a drink after work? (Convite)
Can I leave now? (Permisso - informal)
Could I leave now? (Permisso - formal)
It is late, you should go home. (Conselho)
She can arrive after dinner. (Possibilidade)
She must be at the beauty salon. (Deduo)
You should see a dentist. (Conselho)
Mustn't do something -> It's forbidden for someone to do something.
Couldn't do something -> Someone is unable to do something.
Don't have to do something -> It isn't necessary for someone to do something.
Shouldn't do something -> It isn't a good idea for someone to do something.
Should do something -> It's a good Idea for someone to do something.
Might do something -> It's a possibility that someone might do something.
I must go to the supermarket today . / You must be tired. / You must see the new film with Brad
Pitt. / You mustn't work on dad's computer . / You may not work on dad's computer . / I needn't go
to the supermarket, we're going to the restaurant tonight. / You ought to drive carefully in bad
weather ./ You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room. / Shall I carry your
bag? / You should drive carefully in bad weather . / You should switch off the light when you
leave / Will you please shut the door? / I think it will rain on Friday . / I will stop smoking. /
Would you shut the door, please? / Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.
Tema 10 Talking about Likes and Preferences
Prefer e Would Rather: qual a diferena? Observe as duas possveis maneiras de expressar
preferncias em ingls.

A primeira com o verbo prefer.


J a segunda seria com a locuo would rather, geralmente abreviada para d rather.
I prefer to travel at night. / She prefers her coffee black. / Id rather stay here. / Shed rather go
by bus.
Em ingls, usamos o verbo prefer quando nos referimos a preferncias em geral. Ou seja,
aquela preferncia faz parte da minha vida, do meu modo de pensar, do meu modo de agir .
Minhas escolhas so tomadas a partir daquela preferncia em geral. Assim, quando eu digo I
prefer to travel at night, digo que se eu tiver que viajar em qualquer momento da minha
vida a preferncia ser por uma viagem noturna. J o uso de d rather feito quando nos
referimos a uma preferncia em determinada ocasio. Ou seja, o que eu prefiro naquele
exato momento. Portanto, diante de uma situao envolvendo ir a algum local de nibus ou de
txi, eu posso dizer Id rather go by taxi.
Para facilitar, imagine que algum chega at voc e diz lets go partying tonight? Voc ento
diz No, thanks! Id rather stay home and watch some TV . Neste caso o uso do d rather
feito apenas para expressar a preferncia
naquele momento. Refere-se quela ocasio especfica. Em resumo, use o verbo prefer para
se referir s suas preferncias em geral [coisas que gosta, no gosta, quer, deseja, etc]. O uso de
d rather ser feito quando
estiver expressando uma preferncia especfica em [ou para] determinada ocasio.
Both like more and like better (as in the sentence I like apples more/better than oranges)
are widespread, but like more is preferred in British English whereas Americans are more likely
to choose like better:
I like apples more than oranges.
I like apples better than oranges. (UK)
Most speakers, however, consider like better somewhat less formal than like more, so it
may be better to use like more in formal situations:
I am deeply sorry for being late to work; I like using public transportation more than driving
a car, but the drivers
were on strike today (formal situations).
Expressions to like most and to like best seem to be used interchangeably both in
American and British English.
Some people consider the variant with the less grammatical than the one without, but for
most the expressions are equivalent:
I like him best. (correct)
I like him most. (correct, may sound slightly formal)
I like him the most. (correct, considered less grammatical by some)
I like him the best. (correct, considered less grammatical by some)
Like Better
These people like better the one they own, but they don't know they own it. Therefore I
would like to recommend better alignment of the urban and rural issues. Meanwhile 28% of
residents would like better relations with Russia.
Would rather vs. would prefer - to express a specific preference.
When we speak about a specific preference, would rather and would prefer have the same
meaning and are interchangeable. We went to the theatre yesterday . Today I would rather go
to the cinema. We went to the theatre yesterday . Today Iwould prefer to go to the cinema.
Would rather can be abbreviated to 'd rather.
Would prefer can be abbreviated to 'd prefer. I'd rather go to the cinema today . I'd prefer to
go to the cinema today .
Would rather is followed by the bare infinitive.
Would prefer is followed by to + infinitive.
I'd rather have water. I'd prefer to have fruit juice.
We use a past tense after would rather when we speak about the actions of other people, even
though that action may be in the present or future.
I'd rather you took a taxi than walk - it's not safe on the streets at night. / The film is quite
violent. I'd rather our
children didn't watch it.
When making a comparison we say: would rather ... Than:
It's such nice weather - I'd rather sit in the garden than watch TV .
After would prefer we say: would prefer ... rather than
It's such nice weather - I'd prefer to sit in the garden rather than watch TV .

Prefer vs. would rather - to express a general preference.


When we talk about general preferences we can use prefer or would rather. The meaning is
the same.
I prefer walking to cycling. / I'd rather walk than cycle.
After prefer we use the verb in its ing form. After would rather we use than.
I prefer using a keyboard to writing with a pen./ I'd rather use a keyboard than write with a
pen.
Would you rather have classes in the morning or in the afternoon? - Id prefer to be / Id
rather be in school
in the morning. / - How about pasta for dinner? - - Id rather have a sandwich. / Id prefer to have a
sandwich.
Like Better
Consumers would have to pay significantly more, and I am sure they would not like that any
better. / And I had this idea that camp was going to be just like this, but better. / Look, if
you're going to help me like that, is better if you do nothing / To learn what flowers or fruit
smell like it is better to buy the natural article. / Looks like you better start showing the spaz
some respect. / I know that it was not easy to reach, because we would all like something
better, including your Commissioner . / Looks like I better do a lot more than apologize. /
Countries which already have better systems - like my own country, Sweden - should be able
to retain them./ If you like somebody, they look better to you.
Agora sua vez...
1) Complete the sentences using like & better:
a) Do not imagine that the alternative will be a slightly different government whose colours we
____ slightly _____.
b) It is ________ that as we can take any points into consideration.
c) This allows New Wave to go with the Avid flow in order to come up with more creative
solutions that producers ________.
d) If they vote ____ me, all the _____.
02) Quando se deve usar prefer ou would rather nas frases?
03) Choose the correct answer .
Normally, we ______ going to the beach. I _______ buy the blue shirt.
a) prefer/prefer
b) would rather/ prefer
c) prefer/ would rather
d) would rather/ would rether
e) prefer/ like
04) Choose the answer that complete more rightly the sentence.
I fell tired this evening...
a) They will understand.
b) I'd prefer not to go to the club tonight.
c) I prefer go out.
d) Let's go out.
e) So I'm going to play chess.
05) Zake prefers travelling by plane:
a) to car .
b) to ship.
c) to travel by ship
d) than a car .
e) to travelling by ship.
06) Supply the sentences with Would Rather or Prefer:
a) She ________ eat a salad than a hamburger .
b) They _______ volleyball. They don't like soccer .
c) We ________ watching basketball.
d) I ________ stay home tonight.
e) We all ________ have the meeting at 8pm.
07) Fill in the spaces with the correct words.

a)
b)
c)
d)

I would rather ____________ (learn) French than Japanese.


I would prefer __________ (have) dinner late tonight.
Would you rather __________ (drive) a car or a truck?
She would rather __________ (live) alone than with her cousins.

Finalizando...
As expresses que expressam nossas preferncias: would rather e prefer to tm algumas
diferenas.
Quando queremos falar que preferimos algo entre em duas alternativas ou em uma situao
especfica, usamos a expresso would rather ('d rather).
Sua estrutura a seguinte: Would rather ('d rather) + verb
The weather is lousy . I would rather stay home than go out, I dont want to get wet. Hed
rather have lunch at home than at work.
O prefer usado quando nos referimos s nossas preferncias em geral. Por exemplo, se
algum diz "I prefer pop music" significa que o estilo de msica que ela mais gosta o pop.
A estrutura dele : Prefer + verb + ing /Prefer to + verb. Veja:
Jorge prefer dogs to cats.
I prefer not traveling this year .
Samuel prefer water to beer .
Perceba, com os exemplos citados, que, quando h mais de uma opo, o than acompanha
o would rather e o to
acompanha o prefer. possvel dizer tambm would prefer para falar sobre preferncia, do
mesmo modo que would rather, pois eles tm exatamente o mesmo significado.
Id rather stay here. / Id prefer to stay here.
Shed rather go to bed. / Shed prefer to go to bed.
Alm dessas, h outras expresses que indicam preferncia:
Like better: Which fruit do you like better/prefer, mango or apple?
Like more: Which color do you like more/prefer, brown or blue?
Would rather x Had better
H duas expresses comuns em ingls que expressam conselho e preferncia.
A primeira had better, que pode ser traduzida como melhor, seria melhor e usada
para indicar que se algum no fizer o que foi sugerido, algo ruim pode (might) acontecer .
Youd better study harder for the Spanish test if you want to pass. / Ill get the reports ready
by noon. / Youd better! / Id better go to bed, I have to get up real early tomorrow.
Fazemos a negativa colocando a palavra not depois do better . Youd better not do that. /
Podemos expressar preferncia com a expresso would rather .
The weather is lousy . Id rather stay home than go out, I dont want to get wet. Would rather
e had better so seguidos do infinitivo do verbo principal sem a preposio to . He would
rather stay here. He had better take an aspirin.
1. Would rather expressa preferncia no presente. Tem o mesmo sentido do verbo prefer .
She would rather take a taxi. / She prefers to take a taxi.
2. Had better expressa conselho, recomendao.
You look sick. You'd better see a doctor
Tema: Reviso de Contedo
Prefer e Would Rather: qual a diferena? Observe as duas possveis maneiras de expressar
preferncias em ingls.
A primeira com o verbo prefer.
J a segunda seria com a locuo would rather, geralmente abreviada para d rather.
Would rather vs. would prefer to express a specific preference.
When we speak about a specific preference, would rather and would prefer have the same meaning
and are interchangeable.
We went to the theatre yesterday . Today I would rather go to the cinema. We went to the theatre
yesterday . Today
Iwould prefer to go to the cinema.
Would rather can be abbreviated to 'd rather. Would prefer can be abbreviated to 'd prefer.
I'd rather go to the cinema today . / I'd prefer to go to the cinema today .
Both like more and like better (as in the sentence I like apples more/better than oranges) are
widespread, but like more is preferred in British English whereas Americans are more likely to
choose like better:
I like apples more than oranges. / I like apples better than oranges. (UK)
I like him best. (correct) / I like him most. (correct, may sound slightly formal)

I like him the most. (correct, considered less grammatical by some)/ I like him the best. (correct,
considered less grammatical by some)
O Simple Present usado para expressar eventos, aes ou condies rotineiras, permanentes.
I go to the gym every day . / She always remembers my birthday ./ He hardly ever goes to the
museum. / It always eats meat in the morning. / We don't know each other . / His situation
doesn't look good. / (Pode-se usar o Simple Present para afirmar ou negar uma opinio, algo que
acredita-se ser verdadeiro ou no).
You look great in this dress. / I don't think it's a good idea to lie. / Italians eat lots of pasta. /
She doesn t know anyone in her neighborhood. / He never watches TV in the afternoon.
Existem algumas expresses indicadoras deste tempo verbal, que normalmente so: usually,
frequently, often, every day, all
the time.
I thank God for my house every day. / She recently has a new apartment. / I sometimes do social
work. / She usually does voluntary work. / I wash my car every weekend. / He washes his car
very well all the time.
Interrogativa: Use os verbos auxiliares "do/does e no modifique o verbo. Do you like to play
cards every weekend?
Where do you live?/ Does she work with you all the time? / What time does he go to school?/
When do they leave home?
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
O presente contnuo usado para expressar aes que esto acontecendo no momento da fala.
geralmente empregado com os advrbios de tempo: now, at this moment, look, pay attention, listen!
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
My sister and I are doing our homework now. What is John doing at this moment? Look! Jill isnt
cleaning the bathroom. She is cleaning her bedroom. Pay attention! I am explaining the grammar .
SIMPLE PAST TENSE
The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be
used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action.
Affirmative: I spoke.
Negative: I did not speak.
Interrogative: Did I speak?
For irregular verbs, use the past form. For regular verbs, just add ed .
O Presente Perfeito usado para expressar:
a) Aes que comearam no passado e continuam at o presente.
I have lived here since 2009.
She has studied English for three years.
We have gone shopping by ourselves since 2010.
b) Aes que aconteceram num tempo indefinido no passado. (Se for mencionado ou sugerido o
tempo exato em que a ao
ocorreu, usa-se o passado simples. )
I have studied English (tempo indefinido)
I studied English yesterday . (tempo exato)
c) Aes que aconteceram vrias vezes no passado.
We have seen that film many times.
He has listen to that music several times.
d) Aes que acabaram de acontecer .
The plane has just landed.
The students have just asked their teacher a question.
e) Unfinished time.
I have visited my friends this week and I have gone to the supermarket this month.
Future: going to
Grammar Explanations: Its used for planned or certain actions in the future. Use be going to + base
form of the verb (change, be, have, etc) for the future.
Examples:
I am going to sleep earlier./ You are going to travel next weekend./ He is going to swim in the
river. / They are going to visit their parents. / Jack is going to read his new book. / Paul isnt
going to work until late today. / Jason and I arent going to have dinner together.

Future: will
usado para expressar ao futura. Como se forma: will + verbo principal.
Examples:
Affirmative: They will study hard tomorrow.
Negative: They wont (will not) study hard tomorrow.
Interrogative: Will they study hard tomorrow?
Abbreviated forms: ll (will); wont (will not)
- em promessas: - Dont worry, Ill take care. / - Ill talk to him when he get here.
- para oferecer ou se propor a fazer algo: - Im starving! Ill make some sandwiches.
- quando algo decidido na hora da fala: - Excuse me, will you have red wine or white wine?
- I wont be here next weekend.
- My father wont let me go to your party .
- We wont go to the beach this Holiday.
WILL + TIME CLAUSES
As Time Clauses so oraes temporais que, seguidas de algumas conjunes, se ligam a outra
orao. Correspondem, na Lngua Portuguesa, s oraes subordinadas adverbiais temporais.
When you get back, I'll make you dinner ./ When you finish your studies, you will be a great
doctor . / You will be a great doctor when you finish you studies. / Hell call me as soon as he get in
Canada. / As soon as he get in Canada, hell call me.
Before I leave, Ill take a shower . / Ill take a shower before I leave.
COMPARATIVO DE IGUALDADE:
Compara-se duas coisas de forma igualitria com a expresso: (as + adjetivo + as) e em oraes
negativas o primeiro as pode ser substitudo por so.
She is as tall as Jane.
She isnt so tall as Jane.
I am as tall as my sister .
I don't spend so much money on clothes as my sister .
COMPARATIVO DE INFERIORIDADE:
usado para demonstrar a inferioridade de uma coisa em relao outra, usa-se a expresso: less +
adjetivo + than.
Some species are less adaptable than others.
You are less short than your father.
My car is less old than yours.
Your hair is less long than mine.
COMPARATIVO DE SUPERIORIDADE:
usado para demonstrar a superioridade de alguma coisa em relao a outra. Quando o adjetivo for
monossilbico, usa-se: (adjetivo + sufixo -er + than).
A Lion is stronger than a wolf.
I am taller than my sister.
This leather jacket is nicer than the wool one.
Com adjetivos com mais de uma slaba, usa-se: (more + adjetivo + than).
Julie is more beautiful than Lana.
Agora sua vez!
01) Supply the sentences with Would Rather or Prefer:
a) She ________ eat a salad than a hamburger .
a) They _______ volleyball. They don't like soccer .
b) We ________ watching basketball.
c) I ________ stay home tonight.
d) We all ________ have the meeting at 8 pm.
2) Supply the correct form of the Present Continuous Tense of the following verbs:
Study - read - try - sleep - wear - build
1. Silence, please! The baby_________________
2. Look at Jane! She___________ a red blouse.
3. I __________ a book on ancient Greece.
4. We ____ hard because we have a test tomorrow.
5. The women _________ new dresses for the dinner party .
6. The man who ______my house is a good engineer .
3) Answer the questions. Use the words in parentheses.
1. When will you travel? (in June)__________
2. Where will they work? (at home)________

3. What will she do? (work)_______________


4. How will Tom travel? (by plane)_________
5. Where will you talk? (in the park)________
4) Complete as frases com os adjetivos abaixo, usando o comparativo que se pede:Good pretty
smart hard old fast
1. Peter and Bill always get 10 on their tests. Peter is __________ his friend Bill. (igualdade)
2. You have a Fiat 98 and I have a Ford 93. My car is __________ your car . (superioridade)
3. Gisele and Daniela are top models but I think Gisele is _________ Daniela. (superioridade)
4. Im very bad at History . Im good at Geography . Geography is not __________ History for me.
(inferioridade)
5. A Mercedes is __________ a BMW . (igualdade)
5) Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).
a) The weather this summer is even __________(bad) than last summer .
b) Which is ______ (big) animal in the world?
c) My car is ________ (expensive) yours.
d) This is _____ (interesting) movie I've ever seen.
e) Fruit is ____________ (health) chocolate.
6) Mark 1 to Simple Past sentences and 2 to Past Continuous sentences.
a) ( ) They were having a dring when I came.
b) ( ) John sold his house.
c) ( ) Me and my boyfriend found a dog this morning.
d) ( ) She was running when I saw her .
e) ( ) I was living in New York.
f) ( ) We took a lot of photos.
Finalizando
As expresses que expressam nossas preferncias: would rather e prefer to tm algumas
diferenas.
Quando queremos falar que preferimos algo entre em duas alternativas ou em uma situao
especfica, usamos a expresso
would rather ('d rather).
Sua estrutura a seguinte: Would rather ('d rather) + verb
1. O Present Perfect Tense usado para referir-se a algo que aconteceu no passado, mas que mantm
algum tipo de conexo com o presente. I've broken my arm. (= My arm is broken now. )
2. O "Present Perfect Tense", porm, no usado quando no se refere ao presente: I missed the
bus yesterday .
3. O Present Perfect Tense tambm usado quando se referir s consequncias que aes
consumadas tm no presente:
Suzy has had a baby . George has shot his girlfriend.
4. O "Present Perfect Tense" tambm usado para afirmar e/ou perguntar/negar se algo j aconteceu
alguma vez, se j aconteceu antes, se nunca aconteceu, se aconteceu at certa data, se no
aconteceu at certo perodo, se algo ainda no aconteceu. Have you ever seen Elvis Presley? I've
never seen Elvis Presley .
Degree of Adjectives:
Os adjetivos curtos so aqueles formados por uma ou duas slabas.
Adjetivos
- Comparativo de Superioridade
- Superlativo
Tall
taller than
the tallest
Short
shorter than
the shortest
Small
smaller
than
the smallest
Heavy
heavier than
the heaviest
Easy
easier than
the easiest
Hot
hotter than
the hottest
Big
bigger than
the biggest
Os adjetivos longos so aqueles formados por trs ou mais slabas.
Adjetivos
Comparativo de Superioridade Superlativo
Beautiful
more beautiful than
the most beautiful
Expensive more expensive than
the most expensive

Intelligent more intelligent than


Confortable more confortable than

the most intelligent


the most confortable

H ainda os adjetivos que possuem formas irregulares para os graus comparativo e superlativo de
superioridade.
Adjetivos
Comparativo de Superioridade
Superlativo
Good
better than
the best
Bad
worse than
the worst
Little
less than
the least
Few
fewer than
the fewest
Much
more than
the most
Many
more than
the most
Far
farther than/further than
the farthest/ the furthest
PAST CONTINUOUS
O Past Continuous o tempo verbal que usado para descrever uma ao que estava acontecendo
em algum tempo no passado. Sua estrutura se d por sujeito + passado do verbo 'to be' + verbo -ing.
I was watching tv last night./ At this time last week, I was playing soccer .
When / While
O When (quando) e While (enquanto) so utilizados em frases do past contnuos para demonstrar
aes que estavam acontecendo quando alguma outra aconteceu, ou enquanto outra ao estava
acontecendo.
I was studing when John called me.
Daniel was washing his car while I was watering plants.
Simple Past x Past Continuous
muito comum confundirmos esses dois tempos verbais, afinal, o sentido que eles passam so bem
parecidos quando pensamos na nossa lngua. Porm, veja os exemplos.
Simple Past Rita cooked yesterday .
Past Continuous Rita was cooking when her husband arrived.