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81

2H:1V is carrying 60 m3 /s. Assuming = 1.1, determine the critical depth.

3.4. For the channel section shown in Fig. 3-11, determine the critical depth

for a flow of 80 m3 /s.

Fig. 3-11.

3.5. For a discharge of 850 m3 /s, compute the critical depth in a tunnel having

a standard horseshoe section (Fig. 3-12). The flow area, A, top water-surface

width, B, and hydraulic radius, R, at different flow depths, y, are listed in the

following table:

Fig. 3-12.

Horseshoe section

3.6. If y1 and y2 are the alternate depths in a rectangular channel, prove that

s

2(y1 y2 )2

yc = 3

y1 + y2

82

3 CRITICAL FLOW

y

(m)

A

(m2 )

R

(m)

B

(m)

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

0.0

23.4

58.3

95.7

134.8

174.6

214.4

252.5

287.0

315.4

331.7

0.00

1.34

2.68

3.70

4.50

5.15

5.65

5.99

6.13

6.01

5.08

0.0

16.6

18.2

19.2

19.8

20.0

19.6

18.3

16.0

12.0

0.0

3.7. Derive expressions for the critical depth in a prismatic channel having

the following cross sections and assuming in each case that the slope of the

channel bottom is small:

i. Trapezoidal

ii. Triangular

iii. Circular

3.8. A 50-m wide rectangular channel is carrying a flow of 250 m3 /s at a flow

depth of 5 m. To produce critical flow in this channel, determine:

i. The height of the step in the channel bottom if the width remains constant

ii. The reduction in the channel width if the channel-bottom level remains

unchanged

iii. A combination of the width reduction and the bottom step.

3.9. The drainage canal shown in Fig. 3-13 has a flow of 96 m3 /s. If the flow

depth at Section 1 is 4.22 m, what is the depth at Section 2? Assume there

are no losses in the transition.

Determine the flow depth at the downstream end if the canal ends in a

free overfall. Assume that critical depth occurs at the overfall.

3.10. Write a general-purpose computer program to determine the critical

depth in a channel for a specified discharge and for either of the following

channel cross sections:

i. Circular;

ii. Trapezoidal;

iii. Triangular; and

iv. Horseshoe.

3-8 Summary

Fig. 3-13.

83

3.11. Show that the critical depth in a channel having a triangular, rectangular, or parabolic cross section may be determined from the following explicit

equation:

1/(2m+3)

2

Q (m + 1)3

yc =

g

4k 2

in which the x and y coordinates of the sides of the half-section may be defined

as x = ky m . For a triangular cross section, k = s, m = 1; for a rectangular

cross section, k = 12 Bo , m = 0; and for a parabolic cross section, k = (1/a)m ,

and m = 1/n with the equation for the parabola being y = axn .

3.12. A mountain creek has a parabolic cross section with a top water surface

width of 9 ft at a depth of 3 ft. Determine the critical depth for a flow of 50

ft3 /s.

3.13. An 8-ft diameter concrete-lined sewer is laid at a bottom slope of 1

ft/mile. Compute the critical depth for a discharge of 100 cfs.

3.14. A trapezoidal irrigation channel is 10 ft wide at the bottom and has

side slopes of 1 V: 2H. For a flow of 100 ft3 /s, determine the critical depth.

3.15. A 5-ft dia circular culvert carries a flow of 15 ft3 /s. Determine the

critical depth.

3.16. For a horse-shoe tunnel shown in Fig. 1-17 (do = 30 ft), determine the

critical depth for a discharge of 300 cfs.

3.17. A 4-ft diameter culvert barral carries a flow of 10 ft3 /sec and discharges

free into a lake. What is the depth just upstream of the free fall?

84

3 CRITICAL FLOW

500 ft long. The invert level at the entrance is at El. 122 and the botom slope

is 0.001. A sluice gate at the entrance controls the

flow through the outlet. If

the coefficient of discharge, Cd , is 0.7 (Q = Cd A 2gH), determine the thrust

on the gate for the reservoir level of El 182. The water level in the river into

which the outlet discharges is at El. 131 for this flow.

3.19. In order to reduce the flow velocity at a section, a fisheries biologist

tied a 6-in diameter tree log at the bottom of a stream. The flow velocity

and the flow depth prior to the installation of the log were 2 ft/sec and 4 ft

respectively. Determine the change in the flow velocity and flow depth just

downstream of the log.

3.20. For the channel of Problem 3-8, what is the minimum channel width

without affecting the upstream water level.

3.21. The reservoir level upstream of an overflow spillway is at El. 400 ft. The

downstream water level for the design flow of 80,000 cfs is at El. 220 ft. If the

spillway width at the entrance to the stilling basin is 200 ft, determine the

invert level of the basin so that a hydraulic jump is formed in the basin at

design flow. No baffle piers, chute blocks, or end sill is to be provided.

3.22. Write a computer program to determine the critical depth in a channel

with circular cross section. Use the bisection and the Newton methods.

3.23. The flow velocity and flow depth in a 5-m wide rectangular channel are

1.5 m/s and 4 m respectively. Design a converging transition so that the flow

is critical in the transition. Assume the channel bottom to be horizontal, and

losses in the transition to be negligible.

References

Black, R. G., 1982, Discussion of Blalock and Sturm [1981], Jour. Hyd. Div.,

Amer. Soc. Civ. Engrs., vol. 108, pp. 798-800.

Blalock, M. E. and Sturm, T. W., 1981, Minimum Specific Energy in Compound Channel, Jour. Hyd. Div., Amer. Soc. Civ. Engrs., vol. 107, pp.

699-717 (see also closure, vol. 109, 1983, pp. 483-486).

Chapra, S. C. and Canale, R. P., 2006, Numerical Methods for Engineers, 5th

ed., McGraw Hill, New York, NY.

Chaudhry, M. H., and Bhallamudi, S. M., 1988, Computation of Critical Depth

in Compound Channels, Jour., Hydraulic Research , Inter. Assoc. for Hydraulic Research., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 377-395.

Chow, V. T., 1959, Open-Channel Hydraulics , McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York, N. Y.

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