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Jeremy Martin J. Pagdagdagan


Confidentiality came from the root word confidential which means

something that should be spoken, written or acted on to limited or
authorized persons only.

Civil Engineers might be tempted to disclose confidential information

without the consent of the client. At the same time, given that
engineers are mostly employees, using ideas one developed while
working for a former employer can be questionable, particularly if
those ideas involve trade secrets, patents or licensing.

According to section II.1.c of the NSPE code, Engineers shall not reveal
facts, data, or information obtained in a professional capacity without
the prior consent of the client or employer except as authorized by law
or this Code.


It is a property that results from mental labor. It can be protected in

several ways:
Trade secrets
- formulas, patterns, devices or compilations of information that
are used in business to gain an advantage over competitors who
do not possess the trade secrets.

Example: The formula for Cola-cola, building plan/s of

house model/s of Crown Asia.

- are documents issued by the government that allow the owner
of the patent to exclude others from making use of the patented
information for 20 years from the date of filing.
Example: puncture-proof tire
- are words, phrases, designs, sounds, or symbols associated
with good or services.
Example: Names of companies like: Coca-Cola, Ayala Land,
Crown Asia
-are rights to creative products such as books, pictures, graphics,
sculptures, music, movies, and computer programs.
Example: An authors estate or heirs retain the copyright for 50
years after his or her death.


There are three things that an engineer/expert must show to make a

credible presentation to the jury:
That the defect was recognizable by the designer
That there were means available to correct the defect when the
product was designed
That the corrective features would not price the product out of
the market or interfere with the products effectiveness.

There are several rules that an expert must follow to avoid problems
regarding expert witnessing:
One should not take a case if he/she does not have adequate
time for a thorough investigation.
One should not accept a case if he/she cannot do so with good
An engineer should consult extensively with the lawyer so that
the lawyer is as familiar as possible with the technical details of
the case and can prepare the expert for cross-examination.
The witness should maintain an objective and unbiased
demeanor on the witness stand.
The witness should always be open to new information, even
during the course of the trial.


The obligation of engineers to protect the health and safety of the

public requires more than refraining from telling lies or simply refusing
to withhold information.

This obligation may require engineers to do what is necessary to either

eliminate the unusual risks, or at the very least, inform those who use
the technology of its danger.


Conflicts of interest can strike at the heart of professionalism.

There are several points that must be kept in mind regarding this kind
of issue.

A conflict of interest is not just any set of conflicting interests.

Simply having more commitments than one can satisfy in a given
period of time is not a conflict of interest.
The interests of the client, employer, or public that the engineer
must protect are restricted to those that are morally legitimate.
A distinction is sometimes made between actual and potential
conflicts of interest.


Reliability came from the root word reliable which means, can be
Being reliable means consistency with their actions.
Having consistency in keeping their words or promises
The public must place their trust in the reliable performance of
engineers, both as individuals and as members of teams of
engineer who work together.