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ASME Y14.

5-2009
[Revision of ASME Y14.5M-1994 (R2004)]

Dimensioning and
Tolerancing
Engineering Drawing and Related
Documentation Practices

AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

CONTENTS
Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................................
Committee Roster ................................................................................................................................................................
Correspondence With the Y14 Committee ......................................................................................................................

vi
viii
ix

Section 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

Scope, Definitions, and General Dimensioning ......................................................................................


Scope ................................................................................................................................................................
References .......................................................................................................................................................
Definitions ......................................................................................................................................................
Fundamental Rules ........................................................................................................................................
Units of Measure ............................................................................................................................................
Types of Dimensioning .................................................................................................................................
Application of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................................
Dimensioning Features .................................................................................................................................
Location of Features ......................................................................................................................................

1
1
1
2
7
8
9
10
13
20

Section 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17

General Tolerancing and Related Principles ..........................................................................................


General ............................................................................................................................................................
Direct Tolerancing Methods .........................................................................................................................
Tolerance Expression .....................................................................................................................................
Interpretation of Limits .................................................................................................................................
Single Limits ...................................................................................................................................................
Tolerance Accumulation ...............................................................................................................................
Limits of Size ....................................................................................................................................................
Applicability of Modifiers on Geometric Tolerance Values and Datum Feature References .............
Screw Threads ................................................................................................................................................
Gears and Splines ..........................................................................................................................................
Boundary Conditions ....................................................................................................................................
Angular Surfaces ...........................................................................................................................................
Conical Tapers ................................................................................................................................................
Flat Tapers .......................................................................................................................................................
Radius ..............................................................................................................................................................
Tangent Plane .................................................................................................................................................
Statistical Tolerancing ...................................................................................................................................

24
24
24
25
26
26
26
27
29
31
31
31
31
35
35
36
36
36

Section 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

Symbology ..............................................................................................................................................
General ............................................................................................................................................................
Use of Notes to Supplement Symbols ........................................................................................................
Symbol Construction .....................................................................................................................................
Feature Control Frame Symbols ..................................................................................................................
Feature Control Frame Placement ...............................................................................................................
Definition of the Tolerance Zone .................................................................................................................
Tabulated Tolerances .....................................................................................................................................

38
38
38
38
44
46
46
46

Section 4
4.1
4.2
4.3

Datum Reference Frames ........................................................................................................................


General ............................................................................................................................................................
Degrees of Freedom .......................................................................................................................................
Degrees of Freedom Constrained by Primary Datum Features
Regardless of Material Boundary ............................................................................................................
Constraining Degrees of Freedom of a Part ...............................................................................................
Datum Feature Simulator .............................................................................................................................
Theoretical and Physical Application of Datum Feature Simulators .....................................................
Datum Reference Frame ...............................................................................................................................

48
48
48

4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

iii

48
48
53
53
53

4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23
4.24

Datum Features ..............................................................................................................................................


Datum Feature Controls ...............................................................................................................................
Specifying Datum Features in an Order of Precedence ...........................................................................
Establishing Datums .....................................................................................................................................
Multiple Datum Features .............................................................................................................................
Mathematically Defined Surface .................................................................................................................
Multiple Datum Reference Frames .............................................................................................................
Functional Datum Features ..........................................................................................................................
Rotational Constraint About a Datum Axis or Point ................................................................................
Application of MMB, LMB, and RMB to Irregular Features of Size ......................................................
Datum Feature Selection Practical Application .........................................................................................
Simultaneous Requirements ........................................................................................................................
Restrained Condition ....................................................................................................................................
Datum Reference Frame Identification ......................................................................................................
Customized Datum Reference Frame Construction .................................................................................
Application of a Customized Datum Reference Frame ...........................................................................
Datum Targets ................................................................................................................................................

57
58
58
59
65
69
69
69
70
74
75
76
79
79
81
81
83

Section 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

Tolerances of Form ..................................................................................................................................


General ............................................................................................................................................................
Form Control ..................................................................................................................................................
Specifying Form Tolerances .........................................................................................................................
Form Tolerances .............................................................................................................................................
Application of Free-State Symbol ................................................................................................................

91
91
91
91
91
95

Section 6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

Tolerances of Orientation .......................................................................................................................


General ............................................................................................................................................................
Orientation Control .......................................................................................................................................
Orientation Symbols ......................................................................................................................................
Specifying Orientation Tolerances ..............................................................................................................
Tangent Plane .................................................................................................................................................
Alternative Practice .......................................................................................................................................

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99
99
99
99
103
103

Section 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7

Tolerances of Location ............................................................................................................................


General ............................................................................................................................................................
Positional Tolerancing ...................................................................................................................................
Positional Tolerancing Fundamentals: I .....................................................................................................
Positional Tolerancing Fundamentals: II ....................................................................................................
Pattern Location .............................................................................................................................................
Coaxial Feature Controls ..............................................................................................................................
Tolerancing for Symmetrical Relationships ...............................................................................................

108
108
108
108
119
127
148
156

Section 8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

158
158
158
158
165

8.6
8.7
8.8

Tolerances of Profile ...............................................................................................................................


General ............................................................................................................................................................
Profile ..............................................................................................................................................................
Tolerance Zone Boundaries ..........................................................................................................................
Profile Applications .......................................................................................................................................
Material Condition and Boundary Condition Modifiers as
Related to Profile Controls .......................................................................................................................
Composite Profile ..........................................................................................................................................
Multiple Single-Segment Profile Tolerancing ............................................................................................
Combined Controls .........................................................................................................................................

Section 9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6

Tolerances of Runout ..............................................................................................................................


General ............................................................................................................................................................
Runout .............................................................................................................................................................
Runout Tolerance ...........................................................................................................................................
Types of Runout Tolerances .........................................................................................................................
Application .....................................................................................................................................................
Specification ...................................................................................................................................................

180
180
180
180
180
182
182

iv

167
167
175
175

Nonmandatory Appendices
A
Principal Changes and Improvements .................................................................................................
B
Formulas for Positional Tolerancing .....................................................................................................
C
Form, Proportion, and Comparison of Symbols ..................................................................................
D
Former Practices ......................................................................................................................................
E
Decision Diagrams for Geometric Control ..........................................................................................

185
191
194
199
200

Index .....................................................................................................................................................................

207