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1.howobjectorientedapplicationtestingisdifferentfromothertestingprocedure?
Ans:
Nosequentialproceduralexecutions
Nofunctionaldecomposition
Nostructurechartstodesignintegrationtesting
IterativeOOdevelopmentanditsimpactontestingandintegrationstrategies

2.whatareallstructurediagramsavailableexplainthembrief?
ClassDiagramsetofclassesandtheirrelationships.Describesinterfacetotheclass(setof
operationsdescribingservices)
ObjectDiagramsetofobjects(classinstances)andtheirrelationships
ComponentDiagramlogicalgroupingsofelementsandtheirrelationships
DeploymentDiagramsetofcomputationalresources(nodes)thathosteachcomponent.

3.ElaboratethestrategyoftestingOOAandOODmodel?
lThereviewofOOanalysisanddesignmodelsisespeciallyusefulbecausethesamesemantic
constructs(e.g.,classes,attributes,operations,messages)appearattheanalysis,design,and
codelevel.
lTherefore,aprobleminthedefinitionofclassattributesthatisuncoveredduringanalysiswill
circumventsideeffectsthatmightoccuriftheproblemwerenotdiscovereduntildesignor
code(oreventhenextiterationofanalysis).
lByfixingthenumberofattributesofaclassduringthefirstiterationofOOA,thefollowing
problemsmaybeavoided:
Creationofunnecessarysubclasses.
Incorrectclassrelationships.
Improperbehaviorofthesystemoritsclasses.
lIftheerrorisnotuncoveredduringanalysisandpropagatedfurthermoreeffortsneeded
duringdesignorcodingstages.
lAnalysisanddesignmodelscannotbetestedintheconventionalsense,becausetheycannot
beexecuted.

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4.Definestatebasedandattributebasedpartitioning?
Statebasedpartitioningcategorizesclassoperationsbasedonhowtheychangethestateofaclass
Attributebasedpartitionsaredefinedbyavalueofanattributeintheuserdirectory.Thepartitioncanbe
setupsothatiteithermatchesordoesn'tmatchtheattributevalue.Forexample,anattributebased
partitioncouldselectalluserswhodon'tbelongtoacertaindepartment(thosewhodon'thaveaparticular
DepartmentNumberattributeintheuserregistry)orwhobelongtoacertaindivision(thosewhohavea
particularOrganizationalUnitattribute).

5.explaintheoptimizationwhichweneedtotakeinordertoeffectiveuseofpatterns?
Donotrecasteverythingasapattern
Instead,developstrategicdomainpatternsandreuseexistingtacticalpatterns
Institutionalizerewardsfordevelopingpatterns
Directlyinvolvepatternauthorswithapplicationdevelopersanddomainexperts
Clearlydocumentwhenpatternsapplyanddonotapply
Manageexpectationscarefully.

6.whatarethechallengesofclasstesting?
lOOclassisthetargetfortestcasedesign.
lEncapsulation:
Difficulttoobtainasnapshotofaclasswithoutbuildingextramethodswhich
displaytheclassesstate
lInheritanceandpolymorphism:
Eachnewcontextofuse(subclass)requiresretestingbecauseamethodmaybe
implementeddifferently(polymorphism).
Otherunalteredmethodswithinthesubclassmayusetheredefinedmethodand
needtobetested
lHowisclasstestingdifferentfromconventionaltesting?
Conventionaltestingfocusesoninputprocessoutput,whereasclasstestingfocuseson
eachmethod,thendesigningsequencesofmethodstoexercisestatesofaclass
lWhiteboxtests:
Basispath,condition,dataflowandlooptestscanallapplytoindividualmethods,
butdonttestinteractionsbetweenmethods

7.explainstatetransactiontestingwithadiagram?
Statetransitiontestingisusedwheresomeaspectofthesystemcanbedescribedinwhatiscalleda
finitestatemachine.Thissimplymeansthatthesystemcanbeina(finite)numberofdifferent
states,andthetransitionsfromonestatetoanotheraredeterminedbytherulesofthemachine.
Thisisthemodelonwhichthesystemandthetestsarebased.Anysystemwhereyougetadifferent
outputforthesameinput,dependingonwhathashappenedbefore,isafinitestatesystem.

8.explainthemethodsforformingclusters?
lFunctionbasedclustering
Basedonrequirementsandusecases
Difficulttoperformifrequirementswerenotavailableduringthedesignphase
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lSubjectbasedclustering
Basedonsubjectareasthatneedtotestseparately
lProjectSchedulebasedclustering
lContractbasedclustering

9.Describetheimpactofobjectorientedprogrammingontesting?
Messagequiescence:
lAMethod/Messagepath(MMPath)isasequenceofmethodexecutionslinkedbymessages.
lAnMMPathstartswithamethodandendswhenitreachesamethodthatdoesnotissuea
messageofitsown,i.e.,reachesamessageQuiescence.
Eventquiescence:
lAninputporteventfollowedbyasetofMMPaths,andterminatedbyanoutputeventis
calledAtomicSystemFunction(ASF).

10.explainnewmethods.inheritedmethodsandredefinedmethods?
theinheritedclasshas(inherits)allmethodsoftheancestor.Ifyouwantonlxafewchangesyouhaveto
copythe
codingoftheoriginalmethodandmakeyourchanges.Thereasonthatyoustartwithanemptymethodist
thatyou
mightusethemethodinacompletelydifferentway.
Although,youareright:Itwouldbemorecomfortifthesystemwouldcopytheoriginalsourceandletyou
modifyit.
Butastheredefinedwilluseprivateattributesdefinedintheinheritedclassthismightleadtoconfusion.

11.whichproblemshouldbeavoidedduringthefirstiterationofOOA?
ByfixingthenumberofattributesofaclassduringthefirstiterationofOOA,thefollowingproblemsmay
be
avoided:
Creationofunnecessarysubclasses.
Incorrectclassrelationships.
Improperbehaviorofthesystemoritsclasses.

12.whatarethemodeltestingapproaches?
lTestingbycomparison
compareseachmodeltoitspredecessorortopreviousformsofthemodel
lTestingbyinspection
usescheckliststomakesurethatthemodelmeetscertaincriteria
lTestingbyverification
followscertainstepstoassurecompletenessandconsistencyofonepartofthemodelwithanother

13.whatmethodstotestwithinclassesandexplainthem?
lNewmethods:definedintheclassundertestandnotinheritedoroverloadedbymethodsina
superclass:Completetesting
lInheritedmethods:definedinasuperclassoftheclassundertest:Retestonlyifthemethods
interactswithneworredefinedmethod.
lRedefinedmethods:definedinasuperclassofbutredefinedintheclassundertest.
completeRetestreusingtestsfromthesuperclass.
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14.statethedifferenceb/wstatetransactiontestingandclustertesting?

15.explaindevelopmentprocessofUMLdiagrams?
StructuraldiagramsUsedtodescribethebuildingblocksofthesystemfeatures
thatdonotchangewithtime.
?BehavioraldiagramsUsedtoshowhowthesystemevolvesovertime
(respondstorequests,events,etc.)

16.explainrandomintegrationtesting?
lMultipleClassRandomTesting
1.Foreachclientclass,usethelistofclassmethodstogenerateaseriesofrandomtest
sequences.
Methodswillsendmessagestootherserverclasses.
2.Foreachmessagethatisgenerated,determinethecollaboratingclassandthecorresponding
methodintheserverobject.
3.Foreachmethodintheserverobject(thathasbeeninvokedbymessagessentfromtheclient
object),determinethemessagesthatittransmits
4.Foreachofthemessages,determinethenextlevelofmethodsthatareinvokedand
incorporatetheseintothetestsequence

17.explainsystemtestingwithoneexample?
UseCase#1oftheTelephoneBankingSystem:
Task:Makingabalancetransfer
UserClass:Currentcustomer
Frequency:oneperweekpercustomer
UserAction
SystemResponse
UserdialsthenumberSystemplaysgreetingandaskforaccountnumber
UserentersinvalidaccountnumberSysteminformsuserandaskforaccountnumberagain
UserenteravalidaccountnumberSystemasksforPIN#

18.explaintheimplementationoftheturningmodels?
Theturningmodelisthebatthatthebatmakeriscopying.Thenewbatthentakesthesamemodel
number,suchasC243etc.Eachdifferentmodelwillhavedifferentdimensionssuchasbarreldiameter,
handlediameterandlength,andknobsizeandshape.AnymodelofLouisvilleSluggerwillbefinefor
college.Iwouldsuggestchoosingtheprogradebat,itcostsalittlemorebutisbetterwood.

19.explainthebridgepointdevelopmentsuit?

TheBridgePointDevelopmentSuiteacceleratesthedevelopmentofrealtime,
embedded,technical,andsimulationsystems.BridgePointprovidesthemost
completeandproductiveenvironmentforAgileMDA(ModelDrivenArchitecture)
andthedevelopmentofExecutableandTranslatableUMLmodels.Ithasbeen
usedtodevelophundredsofthemostdemandingsystemsincludingflightcritical
launchvehicles,lifecriticalmedicalsystems,largefaulttolerantdistributed
telecomsystems,highlyresourceconstrainedconsumerelectronics,andlarge
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scaledistributeddiscreteeventHLAsimulationsystems.

20.explaintherulesforthesynchronizationoftheobjects?

t3
Chapter7:WirelessLAN
1.HowmobilityisrestrictedusingWLANs?Whatadditionalelementsareneededforroamingbetween
networks,howandwherecanWLANssupportroaming?Inyouranswer,thinkofthecapabilitiesoflayer2
whereWLANsreside.
WithoutfurthermechanismsmobilityinWLANsisrestrictedtothecoverageofasingleaccesspoint.In
ordertosupportroamingadditionalinteraccesspointprotocolsareneeded.Theaccesspointshaveto
informeachotheraboutthecurrentactivestationswithintheircoverage.Thisapproachisonlyfeasiblefor
localareas,otherwiselocationregistersetc.similartoGSMarerequired.Theaccesspointssimply
operateastransparent,selflearningbridgesthatneedadditionalinformationtoforgetstationsfaster
comparedtotheagingmechanismsinfixednetworkbridges.StationidentificationisbasedonMAC
addresses.Roamingtypicallyrequiresaswitchedlayer2network.

2.WhatarethebasicdifferencesbetweenwirelessWANsandWLANs,andwhatarethecommon
features?Considermodeofoperation,administration,frequencies,capabilitiesofnodes,services,
national/internationalregulations.
Differences:
coverage(GSM70kmcells,WLAN100m),
datarates(GSM50kbit/s,WLAN50Mbit/s),
qualityofservice(WWANvoice/datarate,WLANnone/somewithHiperLAN2),
transmissionpower(powerfulbasestationsforWWANs,somehundredmWforWLANs),
operation(WWANlicensed,WLANlicenseexempt),
administration(WWANpublicoperators,WLANprivate),
frequencies(WWANmanydifferentnationalfrequencies,WLANalmostcommoninternationalISM
bands).
Commoncharacteristics:similarpropagationcharacteristics,similarproblems.

3.Withafocusonsecurity,whataretheproblemsofWLANs?WhatlevelofsecuritycanWLANsprovide,
whatisneededadditionallyandhowfardothestandardsgo?
WLANsintroducetheairinterfacewhichisverysimpletoeavesdrop.Thus,manyWLANstandards
introducemoreorlessstrongencryptionmechanisms.Themostfamousone,WEP,hasbeencracked
soonafterintroduction.Furthermore,themostprominentWLANfamily,802.11,doesnotprovidepowerful
authenticationmechanisms.Newstandardsintroducemoresecurity(802.11i),however,usersshould
alwaysuseanadditionalVPNontopoftheWLANtoprotectprivacyanddataintegrity.WLANsfollowing
BluetoothorHiperLAN2offermoreadvancedsecurityfunctionscomparedto802.11.

4.CompareIEEE802.11,HiperLAN2,andBluetoothwithregardtotheiradhoccapabilities.Whereisthe
focusofthesetechnologies?
Allthreestandardsofferadhocfunctionality,althoughonlyBluetoothwasdesignedwiththefocusonad
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hocnetworking.802.11heavilyreliesonanaccesspointformanyfunctions(e.g.,powercontrol,
frequencyselection,QoSinpollingmode,accesscontroletc.).Bluetoothontheotherhandimplementsall
functionsinallnodesenablingalldevicestosetupanetwork.MainfocusofHiperLAN2isthe
infrastructuremode,too.Roughly,itcanbesaidthat802.11coversallstandardofficeapplications,
Bluetoothfocusesoninterdeviceconnectivity,whileHiperLAN2wasdesignedforQoSsupport(no
productsyet).

5.IfBluetoothisacommercialsuccess,whatareremainingreasonsfortheuseofinfraredtransmission
forWLANs?
OnereasonforinfraredisstillcostIRdevicesareverycheapandverysimpletointegrate.Another
advantageisthesimpleprotectionfromeavesdropping.AttackerscanmuchmoreeasilytapBluetooth
communication,incautioususersevenlettheirBluetoothdevicesopenforpublicaccess(simplyscanfor
Bluetoothdevicesatpublicdevicesmanyaredetectable).IRcommunicationismuchmoresecureasthe
deviceshavetofaceeachother(directedIR).

6.WhyisthePHYlayerinIEEE802.11subdivided?WhataboutHiperLAN2andBluetooth?
802.11coversawholefamilyofWLANstandards.Dependingontransmissiontechnology,bandwidthetc.
differentPHYlayersexist.TheyallshareacommonMAC.Inordertoadaptthedifferentlowerpartsofthe
PHYlayerasublayerofferscommonfunctionsrequiredbyMAC,e.g.,carriersensing.TheHiperLAN
familyspecifiesseveralPHYlayers.However,currentlyitseemsthatonlyHiperLAN2hasachanceto
survivethisstandardspecifiesonlyonePHYlayer.AllBluetoothsystemsusethesamelayers.

7.ComparethepowersavingmechanismsinallthreeLANsintroducedinthischapter.Whatarethe
negativeeffectsofthepowersavingmechanisms,whatarethetradeoffsbetweenpowerconsumption
andtransmissionQoS?
Allsystemssavepowerbyperiodicsleepfunctions.InparticularBluetoothsystemsofferseverallow
powermodesastheyaretypicallybatteryoperated.Negativeeffectsofpowersavingaretheincreased
latencyforspontaneoustransmissionsthedeviceshavetowakeupfirst.Thus,theshorteraccessdelay
shouldbethelesspoweradevicecansave.Furthermore,highdataratesrequirehighpower.Ifthe
periodicsleepfunctionisnotsynchronisedwith,e.g.,periodicdatatransferheavyjitterwillresult.

8.ComparetheQoSofferedinallthreeLANsinadhocmode.Whatadvantagesdoesanadditional
infrastructureoffer?HowisQoSprovidedinBluetooth?CanoneoftheLANtechnologiesofferhardQoS
(i.e.,notonlystatisticalguaranteesregardingaQoSparameter)?
802.11doesnotofferQoSintheadhocmodeasitneedstheaccesspointforpolling.HiperLAN2,onthe
contrary,establishesacentralcontrollerfortheadhocmode(calleddirectmode),whichcontrolsQoS.
Bluetoothalwaysworksadhoc,well,amastercontrolsuptosevenslavesand,thus,formsanadhoc
accesspoint.BluetooththereforecanofferQoSinitsadhocmode.QoSinBluetoothisprovidedby
periodicpollingthroughthemaster.Thisguaranteescertaindataratesandaccesslatencies.HiperLAN2
cangivehardQoSguaranteesasitcontrolsaccesslatency,bandwidthetc.Afteramasterhasbeen
found,BluetoothcangivehardguaranteesforSCOconnections.802.11cangiveguaranteesifno
contentionphaseisallowed(pollingonly).Assoonasthereisacontentionphase,thesystemcannot
guaranteeaccesslatencies.

9.HowdoIEEE802.11,HiperLAN2andBluetooth,respectively,solvethehiddenterminalproblem?
802.11usestheMACAmechanismsendingRTS/CTStosolvethehiddenterminalproblem.For
HiperLAN2thisproblemdoesnotexistastheaccesspointcontrolsallmediumaccess.Ifaterminalis
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hiddenitcannotcommunicateatalland,thus,doesnotinterfere.InBluetooth,too,arenohiddenterminals
asthemastercontrolsallvisibleslaves.Ifaterminaldoesnotseethemasteritcannotparticipatein
communication.Ifthisterminalsendsanywayitwillnotinterfereasthisterminalthenactsasmasterwith
adifferenthoppingsequence.

10.HowarefairnessproblemsregardingchannelaccesssolvedinIEEE802.11,HiperLAN2,and
Bluetoothrespectively?Howisthewaitingtimeofapacketreadytotransmitreflected?
802.11implementsabackoffmechanismthattriestoofferfairaccesstothemediuminthestandardcase
(nopollingfromtheaccesspoint).Ifallsystemsbehavewellthismechanismgivesafairshareofthe
overallbandwidthtoallstations.InHiperLAN2andBluetoothmediumaccessiscontrolledbyan
accesspointormaster,respectively.Fairnessthendependsonthesespecialnodes,whichalsodecide
uponthewaitingtimeofapacketwhenitwillbetransmitted.In802.11thewaitingtimedirectlyinfluences
thechancesfortransmissioninthenextcontentioncycle.

11.Whatdifferentsolutionsdoallthreenetworksofferregardinganincreasedreliabilityofdatatransfer?
802.11offersimmediateacknowledgement,BluetoothimplementsdifferentARQandFECschemes,as
wellaswhileHiperLAN2does.

12.Inwhatsituationscancollisionsoccurinallthreenetworks?DistinguishbetweencollisionsonPHY
andMAClayer.Howdothethreewirelessnetworkstrytosolvethecollisionsorminimizetheprobability
ofcollisions?
Duringpolling,therearenocollisionsontheMAClayersofHiperLAN2andBluetoothastheaccess
point/mastercontrolsthemedium.However,inordertoaccesstheaccesspoint,nodesmaytransmit
duringarandomaccessphaseinHiperLAN2(randomchannelwithfeedbackfromtheaccesspoint).At
thispointcollisionsmayoccurontheMAClayer.For802.11collisionsontheMAClayerarenothing
unusual.TheMACalgorithmwithbackoffsolvesthisproblem.CollisionsonthePHYlayermayoccurin
Bluetoothonlyifanotherpiconetrandomlyjumpstothesamefrequencyatthesametime.Thiswill
destroydataforthistimeslot.InHiperLAN2differentnetworksareseparatedinfrequency,thusthere
shouldbenotcollisionsbesidestheabovementionedduringtherandomaccessphase.In802.11
networksMACcollisionsarealsocollisionsatthePHYlayer.Importantpacketsin802.11havehigher
prioritiesimplementedviashorterwaitingtimes(SIFS,PIFS).

13.Comparetheoverheadintroducedbythethreemediumaccessschemesandtheresultingperformance
atzeroload,lightload,highloadofthemedium.Howdoesthenumberofcollisionsincreasewiththe
numberofstationstryingtoaccessthemedium,andhowdothethreenetworkstrytosolvetheproblems?
Whatistheoverallscalabilityoftheschemesinnumberofnodes?
802.11hasthelowestoverheadaseachnodecansimplyaccessthemediumifitisfree.Thus,802.11
offerstheshortestaccesslatencyatzeroloadandstilllowlatencyatlightload.Thesystembreaksdown
athighloadasthenonlycollisionswilloccurandnostationisabletosendanything.Therefore,802.11
hasarathersoftcapacity.HiperLAN2andBluetoothrequiresomekindofconnectionsetup.This
increasesaccesslatencyeveniftheloadislightorzero.Assoonasaconnectionexists,thequality
andaccesslatencyisalmostindependentoftheload.Bothsystemscanbeloadedtothemaximum
withoutasystembreakdown.ForBluetooththisistrueinapiconet,notwithinscatternets.Scalabilityis
lowingeneral(8nodeswithinapiconet).ForHiperLANthenumberofmaximumnodesdependsonthe
QoSrequirements.In802.11networksthenumberofsupportednodesdependsonthetrafficpatterns.

14.Howisroamingonlayer2achieved,andhowarechangesintopologyreflected?Whatarethe
differencesbetweeninfrastructurebasedandadhocnetworksregardingroaming?
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HiperLAN2and802.11needanIAPP,Bluetoothdoesnotsupportroamingatall.Nodeschanging
piconetshavetoresynchronisetothenewpiconet,thereisnosignallingbetweenmastersforroaming
nodes.Typically,interaccesspointprotocolsareavailableininfrastructurenetworksonly(therecouldbe
somethinglikeamastertomasterprotocolinBluetooth).Foradhocnetworkstheoverheadwouldbe
toomuch.Roamingsupportistypicallyviaselflearningbridgesexchangingtheirfilteringdatabases(which
MACaddressisvisibleatwhichbridge).HiperLAN2additionallyprovidessupportforkeyexchangeduring
roaming,sector/radio/networkhandoveretc.

15.WhatareadvantagesandproblemsofforwardingmechanismsinBluetoothnetworksregarding
security,powersaving,andnetworkstability?
ForwardingdatainBluetoothbetweenpiconetsrequireanodejumpingbackandforthbetweenthese
piconets.Thisalsorequiresauthenticationinbothnetworks,nodesthatare(almost)alwaysactiveand
synchronousclocksifthemasterjumpsintoanotherpiconet.Ifthemasterjumpsawayallnetworktraffic
inthepiconetstops,allslaveshavetowaituntilthemasterreturns.Allhoppingsequencesmuststay
synchronousduringthattime.Uptonownotmanydevicesarecapableofformingscatternetswithnodes
jumpingbackandforth.

16.NamereasonsforthedevelopmentofwirelessATM.WhatisoneofthemaindifferencestoInternet
technologiesfromthispointofview?WhydidWATMnotsucceedasstandalonetechnology,whatparts
ofWATMsucceeded?
WhenthedevelopmentofWATMstartedmuchhypecamewithATMinthefixednetworks.ATMwas
seenasthebigunifyingtechnologyhandlingalldifferenttypesoftrafficwithQoS.Well,inprinciplethisis
stilltrue,however,itturnedoutthatthistechnologyismuchtoocomplicatedformanyapplications(butit
isstilldominantinWANs).ATMoffershardQoS,endtoend.TheInternetoftodaydonotofferQoS
mostQoSarchitecturesfailedordidnotsucceeduntilnow(IntegratedServices,DifferentiatedServices).
However,therewerealmostnoapplicationsthatcouldusetheQoSofferedbyATMatthedesktop.Most
applicationsoftodaycanadapttothevaryingqualityoftheInternet.WATMnevermadeit,butmanyof
theideassurvivedaspeopleinvolvedinWATMalsodeveloped,e.g.,UMTS,HiperLAN2etc.(andagainit
isquestionableifHiperLAN2willmakeitintoanyproduct).

Chapter8:MobileNetworkLayer
1.RecallroutinginfixedIPnetworks(Kurose,2003).NametheconsequencesandproblemsofusingIP
togetherwiththestandardroutingprotocolsformobilecommunications.
MainproblemsarethehighdynamicityInternetroutingprotocols(likethestandardfixednetworkrouting
protocolsinclassicalphonenetworks)haveneverbeendesignedforroamingnodes,nottomentionmobile
routers.Withoutadditionalfunctionsaddressingfails,nodeswouldusetopologicalincorrectaddressesetc.
StandardroutingprotocolsfromtheInternet(e.g.,OSPFwithinautonomoussystems,BGPbetweenthese
systems)canhandlelinkandrouterfailures,overloadsituationsetc.iftheydonothappentoofrequently.

2.Whatcouldbequicksolutionsandwhydonttheywork?
QuicksolutionscouldbethepermanentadaptationofthecurrentIPaddressofamobilenodedepending
onthecurrentlocation.Butthennocorrespondentnodecanfindthemobilenode(oralotofsignallingthis
currentIPaddresswouldbenecessary).Alternatively,allrouterscouldchangeroutingtabletoreflectthe
currentlocationofthemobilenode.Thisobviouslydoesneitherscalenorisitsecurechangingrouting
entriesdestabilizesthewholenetwork.

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3.NametherequirementsforamobileIPandjustifythem.DoesmobileIPfulfillthemall?
Fordetailsread8.1.1.2pg306
Therequirementsare:
Compatibility
Transparency
Scalability&efficiency
Security
AlthoughmobileIPtriestoprovidetransparencyofmobilityitcannothide,e.g.,additionaldelaydueto
largerdistancesorloweredQoSduetoinferiorconnectionstothemobilenode.However,mobilityis
transparentifonlybestefforttransmissionisconsidered.Scalability,too,isaproblemassoonasmany
nodesmovebetweensubnets.MobileIPcausesabigoverheadduetoregistrationmessages.Thisisone
ofthereasonsformicromobilitysupportingapproaches.Securityisalsoproblematic,astopological
incorrectaddressesdonotworktogetherwithfirewallsandrouteoptimisationrevealslocation.

4.ListtheentitiesofmobileIPanddescribedatatransferfromamobilenodetoafixednodeandvice
versa.Whyandwhereisencapsulationneeded?
Read8.1.3inpg309inthetextbook.EncapsulationisrequiredbetweentheHAandtheCOA,which
couldbelocatedatanFAorattheMN.Thisisneededtomakemobilitytransparenttheinnerdata
packetshouldnotnoticedatatransferthroughthetunnel,thusTTLremainsuntouched.
5.Howdoesregistrationonlayer3ofamobilenodework?
RefertoFigure8.4pg313.Layer2registrationishandledby,e.g.,theWLANorfixedLAN.
6.Showthestepsrequiredforahandoverfromoneforeignagenttoanotherforeignagentincludinglayer2
andlayer3.
AssumethattheMNdetectsastrongersignalfromanaccesspointcomparedtothecurrentsignal.If
availableonlayer2theMNcoulddetachfromtheoldaccesspointafterattachingtothenewone.Itwould
firstsetupalayertwoassociationandlistenforagentadvertisements.Alternatively,itcouldsendagent
solicitations.AfterreceivingtheadvertisementandattachingtoanewFAauthenticationcouldstart.
Concurrently,theFAcouldinformtheoldFAaboutthenode.Seefigure8.13pluslayer2,e.g.,8.3.5.3for
802.11.

7.Explainpacketflowiftwomobilenodescommunicateandbothareinforeignnetworks.Whatadditional
routesdopacketstakeifreversetunnelingisrequired?
IfMNaandMNbarebothinforeignnetworksattachedtoFAaandFAbthepacketflowisasfollows.MNa
sendspacketstoMNbviatheInternettoHAb(actually,MNasendstoMNbsaddress,thepacketsare
onlyinterceptedbyHAb).HAbencapsulatesthepacketstoFAb,whichthenforwardsthepacketsto
MNb.Ifreversetunnellingisrequired,thepacketflowisasfollows:MNasendsitspacketsviaFAa
throughthereversetunnelviaHAaandtheInternettoHAb.HAbthenforwardsthepacketsthroughthe
tunneltoFAb,whichinturnforwardsthepacketstoMNb.

8.ExplainhowtunnelingworksingeneralandespeciallyformobileIPusingIPinIP,minimal,andgeneric
routingencapsulation,respectively.Discusstheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofthesethreemethods.
Tunnellingsimplymeansthatapacketisencapsulatedattunnelentryanddecapsulatedattunnelexit.
Thepacketisthuspayloadoftheouterpacketinsidethetunnel.IPinIPencapsulationisthesimplecase
ofusingIPforencapsulatingotherIPpackets.Thisissimplebecausealldevicesalreadyknowhowto
insertpayloadintoanIPpacket.Bandwidthiswastedbytransferringthesamefieldseveraltimes.
Minimalencapsulationtriestoavoidthiswasteofbandwidth,however,itcannotbeusedincaseof
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fragmentation.GREisamoregeneralscheme,notonlyforIPtrafficbutalso,e.g.,encapsulationof
EthernetpacketsintoIPpackets.Additionally,itmaycontrolthelevelofencapsulation.Severalversions
exist.

9.NametheinefficienciesofmobileIPregardingdataforwardingfromacorrespondentnodetoamobile
node.Whatareoptimizationsandwhatadditionalproblemsdotheycause?
TriangularroutingviaCNHAFAMNisinefficient.OneoptimisationisthebindingupdateattheCN.ACN
canentertheCOAofaMNinitsroutingtable.ThisletstheCNdirectlysenditsdatatotheMN.This
solutionrevealsthecurrentlocationoftheMNandisnottransparentanymore(theCNnowknowsthatthe
MNismobile,furthermore,itknowsthelocationviatheCOA).

10.WhatadvantagesdoestheuseofIPv6offerformobility?WherearetheentitiesofmobileIPnow?
ManymobilitysupportingfunctionarealreadyintegratedinIPv6.AnexplicitFAisnotneededanymore,all
routersarecapableofagentadvertisements,tunnelling,forwardingofdata,settingupsecurity
associations.Authenticationisbuiltinaswellasoptimisationfunctions.

11.WhataregeneralproblemsofmobileIPregardingsecurityandsupportofqualityofservice?
MobileIPdoesnotincreasesecuritycomparedtoIP,onthecontrary.Theonlyadditionalsecurityrelated
functionistheauthenticationofMNandHA.However,ifMNandHA,together,wanttoattackanFA,
nothingcanpreventthem.FirewallsandmobileIPdonotreallygotogether.Eitherreversetunnellingor
tunnellingingeneraldrillsaholeinthefirewallorMNscannotoperateinforeignnetworks.Thefirewall
hastobeintegratedintothesecuritysolution.IPdoesnotsupportQoS.IfQoSsupportingapproacheslike
DiffServorIntServareused,newfunctionsareneededformobileIPtosupportQoSduringandafter
handover.Furthermore,packetsrequiringcertainQoSmustbetreatedaccordingtotheserequirements
alsoinsidethetunnel.

12.WhatisthebasicpurposeofDHCP?NametheentitiesofDHCP.
DHCPisamechanismforconfiguringnodes.ParametersacquiredviaDHCPare,e.g.,IPaddress,
defaultgateway,DNSserver,subnetmasketc.WithoutDHCPallparametersmustbeconfigured
manually.ADHCPserverprovidesDHCPinformation,arelaycanforwarddataintodifferentLANs

13.HowcanDHCPbeusedformobilityandsupportofmobileIP?
Ifusersonlywanttoaccessotherserver,e.g.,forWWWbrowsing,mobileIPisnotneeded.After
obtaininganewIPaddressviaDHCPanodecanactasclient.However,assoonasanodewantsto
offeraservice,itshouldkeepitsIPaddress.Otherwiseitisdifficulttofinditorotheradditional
mechanisms(DDNS)arerequiredtomap,e.g.,anodenametothenodesaddress.DHCPcanactas
sourceofCOAsinmobileIP.

14.Namethemaindifferencesbetweenmultihopadhocnetworksandothernetworks.Whatadvantages
dotheseadhocnetworksoffer?
Adhocnetworksingeneraldonotrequireaninfrastructuretooperate(theycanbeconnectedtoan
infrastructure).Multihopadhocnetworksadditionallydonotrequirethatallnodescanreceiveeachother.
Nodesmayforwardtransmissionsforothernodes.Advantagesarethelowerrequiredtransmissionpower
(itsjustlikewhisperingintotheneighboursearinsteadofshoutingoutloud)andtheincreasedrobustness
(failureofsinglenodescanbetolerated).
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15.Whyisroutinginmultihopadhocnetworkscomplicated,whatarethespecialchallenges?
Routingiscomplicatedbecauseoffrequenttopologychanges,differentcapabilitiesofthenodes,varying
propagationcharacteristics.Furthermore,nocentralinstancecansupportrouting.

16.Recallthedistancevectorandlinkstateroutingalgorithmsforfixednetworks.Whyarebothdifficultto
useinmultihopadhocnetworks?
Bothalgorithmsassumeamoreorlessstablenetworkatleastchangesareveryinfrequentcomparedto
routingdataexchange.Furthermore,bothalgorithmsestablishroutingtablesindependentofthenecessity
forcommunication.Thisnotonlycausesalotofunnecessarybandwidth,butmayrenderuselessifthe
topologychangedrightbeforecommunicationshouldtakeplace.

17.WhatarethedifferencesbetweenAODVandthestandarddistancevectoralgorithm?Whyare
extensionsneeded?
AODVisareactiveprotocol.Routecalculationisonlyperformedifnecessary.Thisimprovesscalability
underlightload,butcausesahigherinitiallatency.

18.Howdoesdynamicsourceroutinghandlerouting?Whatisthemotivationbehinddynamicsource
routingcomparedtootherroutingalgorithmsfromfixednetworks?
DSRseparatesfindingarouteandkeepingtherouteworking.IfnocommunicationisrequiredDSRdoes
nottrytoestablishanyroute.Assoonasarouteisneeded,DSRtriestofindone.Aslongasthe
communicationkeepsongoingDSRtriestomaintaintheroute.Infixednetworksroutesarealways
calculatedinadvance.

19.Howdoesthesymmetryofwirelesslinksinfluencetheroutingalgorithmsproposed?
Mostalgorithmsfailifthelinksareasymmetric(uptotheextremecaseofunidirectionallinks).Thinkof
DSRthealgorithmstatesthatthereceiversimplesendsthepacketcollectingroutersontheway
betweensourceanddestinationbacktothesourcebychoosingtheroutersinthereverseorder.Butwhat
issomereverselinksdonotexist?ThenDSRhastofindawaytheotherwayround,too.Nowsource
anddestinationbothgotawaybutinthewrongdirection!Somehowthisinformationmustreachthe
othersidewithoutaroutequitedifficult(broadcastisalwaysasolution).

20.Whyarespecialprotocolsforthesupportofmicromobilityonthenetworklayerneeded?
MobileIPcausestoomuchoverheadduringregistrationifusedforverymobilenodes(nodes,changing
networksquitefrequently).Furthermore,allregistrationmessagescrosstheInternetfromtheforeigntothe
homenetwork(plusregistrationsrevealthecurrentlocation).Micromobilitysupportingapproaches
basicallyinsertanotherlayerofhierarchytooffloadsomeofthecomplexityfromtheHA(comparewith
HLR,VLR).

21.Whatarethebenefitsoflocationinformationforroutinginadhocnetworks,whichproblemsarise?
Locationinformationmayhelprouting(georouting)byoptimisingtheroute.Ifonealreadyknowsthe
locationitissimplertochoosetherightroutertowardsthedestination.However,againprivacyproblems
mayarise.Nottoomanypeoplewanttorevealtheirlocationtoeveryone.
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22.Thinkofadhocnetworkswithfastmovingnodes,e.g.,carsinacity.Whatproblemsariseevenfor
theroutingalgorithmsadaptedtoadhocnetworks?Whatisthesituationonhighways?
Forfastmovingcarsincitiesefficientroutingisverydifficultasthetopologychangesveryfast.Flooding
withsomeoptimisationsmaybetheonlywaytogo.However,ifthecarsareonahighway,itissimpler:
carstypicallyformclustersperdirection.Oncaroftheclustercouldbetheclusterhead,allothercars
routeviathiscar.Routingcangoalongthelanesofthehighway.

Chapter9:MobileTransportLayer
1.Comparethedifferenttypesoftransmissionerrorsthatcanoccurinwirelessandwirednetworks.What
additionalroledoesmobilityplay?
Packetlossduetotransmissionerrors:Relativelylowinfixednetworks(10101012),quitehighin
wirelessnetworks(102104)/largevariation/typicallycompensatedbyFEC/ARQpacketlossdueto
congestion:nodifferencebetweenfixedandwirelessnetworkspacketlossduetomobility:happensonly
inmobilenetworks

2.WhatisthereactionofstandardTCPincaseofpacketloss?Inwhatsituationdoesthisreactionmake
senseandwhyisitquiteoftenproblematicinthecaseofwirelessnetworksandmobility?
TCPtypicallyassumescongestionincaseofpacketloss.Thisisthecorrectassumptioninfixed
networks,notinwirelessnetworks(transmissionerrorsduetointerferenceandmobilityaremore
frequent).InwirednetworksTCPhelpsstabilizingtheInternet,inwirelessandmobilenetworksstandard
TCPperformsverypoorly.

3.CantheproblemsusingTCPbesolvedbyreplacingTCPwithUDP?Wherecouldthisbeusefuland
whyisitquiteoftendangerousfornetworkstability?
IfonlysomeusersreplacedTCPbyUDPtheymightexperiencehigherthroughput.However,themissing
congestionavoidancemechanismswouldsoonleadtohugepacketlossintheInternet.Additionally,
reliabilityhastobeaddedasUDPdoesnotguaranteepackettransmission.Alotofresearchexistfor
TCPfriendlyprotocols,reliableUDPetc.

4.HowandwhydoesITCPisolateproblemsonthewirelesslink?Whatarethemaindrawbacksofthis
solution?
ITCPsplitstheconnectionintotwopartsawired/fixedandawireless/mobilepart.Thisisolates
problemsonthewirelesslinkfromthefixednetwork.However,thisalsorequiresthatintermediate
systemsareabletolookintoIPpacketstosplittheconnection.ThispreventstheusageofIPsecend
toendsecurityandITCP(orproxysolutionsingeneral)donotgotogether.

5.ShowtheinteractionofmobileIPwithstandardTCP.Drawthepacketflowfromafixedhosttoa
mobilehostviaaforeignagent.Thenahandovertakesplace.WhatarethefollowingactionsofmobileIP
andhowdoesTCPreact?
Seefigure8.2forthepacketflow.TCPdoesnotdirectlyinteractwithIPasmobileIPkeepsmobility
transparent.TCPmayonlyexperiencehigherlossratesduringhandover.MobileIPhandlesthehandover
oldFAsmayormaynotforwardpackets.Ifacknowledgementsarrivetoolate,TCPassumescongestion,
goesintocongestionavoidanceandentersslowstart.However,slowstartisabsolutely
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counterproductive.Sendingwiththesamedatarateasbeforewouldmakesense.

6.NowshowtherequiredstepsduringhandoverforasolutionwithaPEP.Whatarethestateandfunction
offoreignagents,homeagents,correspondenthost,mobilehost,PEPandcareofaddressbefore,during,
andafterhandover?Whatinformationhastobetransferredtowhichentitytomaintainconsistencyforthe
TCPconnection?
Comparewithfigure9.2.FA,CN,HA,MHshouldworkasMobileIPspecifies.WithoutanyPEPTCP
wouldexperiencepacketlossduetothechangeofthesubnetiftheoldFAdoesnotforwardpackets.If
PEPsareusedtheoldPEPmusttransferthewholestate(buffersforretransmissions,sockets,)tothe
newPEP.TheCNandtheMHshouldnotnoticetheexistenceofPEPs.OneplacetoputaPEPisthe
FA.However,thePEPcouldalsobelocatedattheedgeofthefixednetwork.PEPsworkonlayer4(in
thisexample),whiletheMobileIPcomponentsworkonlayer3theymightinteract,buttheydonothave
to.

7.Whataretheinfluencesofencryptionontheproposedschemes?ConsiderforexampleIPsecuritythat
canencryptthepayload,i.e.,theTCPpacket.
Usingendtoendencryptionprohibitstheuseofanyproxyschemesunlesstheproxyisincludedinthe
securityassociation.Thisisquiteoftennotpossibleastheforeignnetworktogetherwiththeproxy
belongstoanotherorganisation.AssoonasIPsecwithencryptionisused,noproxycanlookinsidethe
packetandexaminetheTCPheaderforfurtherprocessing.

8.NamefurtheroptimizationsofTCPregardingtheprotocoloverheadwhichareimportantespeciallyfor
narrowbandconnections.Whichproblemsmayoccur?
Selectiveretransmissionisalwaysagoodidea.Mostoftheotheroptimizationsexhibitdrawbacks:
comparewith9.3.Thereisnosinglesolutionandeventhestandards/draftsareinconsistentwitheach
other.

9.Assumeafixedinternetconnectionwitharoundtriptimeof20msandanerrorrateof1010.
CalculatetheupperboundonTCPsbandwidthforamaximumsegmentsizeof1,000byte.Nowtwo
differentwirelessaccessnetworksareadded.AWLANwith2msadditionalonewaydelayandanerror
rateof103,andaGPRSnetworkwithanadditionalRTTof2sandanerrorrateof107.Redothe
calculationignoringthefixednetworkserrorrate.Comparetheseresultswiththeonesderivedfromthe
secondformula(useRTO=5RTT).Whyaresomeresultsnotrealistic?
Firstofallthetrickypart.Errorratesonlinks,asgiveninthequestion,arealwaysbiterrorrates.Under
theassumptionthattheseerrorsareindependent(andonlyunderthisassumption!),thepacketloss
probabilitypusedintheformulaecanbecalculatedas:p=1((1biterrorrate)packetsize).Usingthis
formula,youcancalculatethepacketlossrates(thisignoresallFECandARQefforts!).
Fixednetwork:BER=1010,MSS=1000byte=8000bit,thusthepacketlossratep=1((110
10)8000)8*107.RTT=20ms:Usingthesimpleformula,thisyieldsamax.bandwidthof0.93*8000/
(0.02*(8*107))bit/s416Mbit/s.
WLAN:ThesamecalculationwiththeWLANerrorrate103andadditional2msdelayresultsinapacket
lossrateof0.99966andabandwidthof0.93*8000/(0.022*0.99966)bit/s338kbit/s.Thisisagood
exampleshowingwhybigpacketscauseproblemsinWLANsandwhyFEC/ARQisdefinitively
neededReallifethroughputinWLANsisabout6Mbit/sfor802.11bWLANs(iftherearenootherusers).
GPRS:UsingGPRSwithanadditional2sRTTandaBERof107(i.e.,apacketlossrateof8*104)
resultsinonly0.93*8000/(2.02*(8*104))bit/s130kbit/s.Well,currentlyGPRSoffersonly50kbit/s,
butthatisalimitationthesimpleformuladoesnottakeintoaccount.
Inpractice,theperformancedependsverymuchontheerrorcorrectioncapabilitiesoftheunderlying
layers.IfFECandARQonlayer2doagoodjob,TCPwillnotnoticemuchfromthehighererrorrate.
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However,thedelayintroducedbyARQandinterleavingwilldecreasebandwidth.Additionally,the
slowstartmechanismsmustbeconsideredforshortlivingconnections.Nevertheless,itiseasytosee
fromthesesimplecalculationsthatofferinghigherdatarates,e.g.,forGPRS,doesnotnecessarilyresult
inhigherdataratesforacustomerusingTCP.

10.WhydoesthelinkspeednotappearintheformulaspresentedtoestimateTCPsthroughput?Whatis
wrongiftheestimatedbandwidthishigherthanthelinkspeed?
Nomatterwhattheestimationis,itisnotpossibletogetaTCPbandwidthhigherthanthelinkspeed.The
linkspeeditselfdoesnotappearintheformulaasattemptingtosendfasterthantheslowestlinkinthe
pathcausesthequeuetogrowatthetransmitterdrivingthebottleneck.ThisincreasestheRTT,whichin
turnreducestheachievablethroughput.

Chapter10:SupportforMobility
1.Whyisstrongconsistencyoffilesystemsproblematicinawirelessandmobileenvironment?Whatare
thealternatives?
Itissimplytooexpensivetomaintainstrongconsistency.Continuousupdatesrequirepermanent
connectivity,withoutconnectivityallaccessmustbeblocked.Alternativesalwaysincludeweakeningthe
strongconsistency.Manyschemesincludeperiodicupdates,reintegrationschemesor,ifnothingelse
works,manualreintegration.

2.Howdoconventionalfilesystemsreacttodisconnectedsystems?Tryunpluggingacomputerthathas
mountedafilesystemviaanetwork.
Eitherthefilesystemstogetherwiththecomputercrashorthecomputersimplyindicatesthatthe
directoryisnotaccessible.Justtryitwithdifferentsystems(pleasesaveeverythingbefore).

3.WhatadvantageshasthestatelessnessofHTTP?Inwhatsituationsisstateusefulandhowisit
providedtoday?Whereislongtermstatestored,whereisshortterm?
Nostatemeansnocomplexstatemanagement.Breakingconnectionsdoesnotmatterallnecessary
stateistransferredwiththenextrequest.However,stateisusefulifoverheadshouldbeavoidedorusers
shouldbeenabledtoresumesessions.Today,allstatenecessaryforHTTParrivestogetherwiththe
resultofthegetrequest.Longtermstatecanbestoredincookiesthestateexistsaslongasthecookie
exists.Shorttermstateisstoredinthebrowser.InparticularHTTP/1.1allowsforbrowsersthatutilisethe
historyofasession(partialtransferofcontent,settingoflanguages,cachehandlingtechnologies).

4.WhichpropertiesofHTTPwastebandwidth?WhatistheadditionalproblemusingHTTP/1.0together
withTCP?HowdoesHTTP/1.1improvethesituation?
HTTPistextorientedandhumanreadable.Thismakesparsingforhumansquitesimple,however,it
wastesbandwidthcomparedtobinaryrepresentations.UsingHTTP/1.0additionallywastesbandwidthas
eachrequestusesaseparateTCPconnection.Thisrequiresconnectionsetup,datatransfer,and
connectionreleaseforeachsimpleelementonawebpage.HTTP/1.1usespersistentconnections,i.e.,
oneTCPconnectioncantransferseveralrequests.

5.Howdoescachingimproveaccesstimeandreducebandwidthrequirements?Whatarelocationsfora
cacheandtheirspecificadvantages?
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Thecloseracacheislocatedtoabrowserthebetteritcanserverequestswithminimumdelay.
Furthermore,ifcachesarelocatedwithinmobiledevices,manyrequestcanbehandledlocallythus
avoidingunnecessarytransmissionoverwirelesslinks.Ifacacheislocatedattheborderofthefixed
networktowardsthewirelessnetworkthecachecanisolatethefixednetworkfromproblemsinthe
wirelessnetwork.Cachesinthefixednetworkmayalsofollowtheuser.

6.Whatareproblemsofcachesinreallife?Whattypeofcontentcanbecached,whichcontentcauses
problems?Whataretheadditionalproblemswithclientmobility?
Cachescanonlystorecontentthatdoesnotchangeovertime.However,todayswebpagescontain
manyindividualisedcomponents:counters,advertisements,browseradaptedcontentetc.Furthermore,
contentprovidesoftenwantuserstodirectlyaccesscontentfromtheservertoestablishusageprofiles.
Cacheswithoutadditionalmechanismsmakeaccesscountersandprofilinguseless.Iftheclientismobile
cachesmustfollowtheclient.

7.WhatdiscrepanciesexistbetweenthepossibilitiesofHTMLandtherealitiesofwirelesshandheld
devices?Whataretheproposedsolutions?Whatistheroleofpluginstodayandhowdotheyinfluence
theusabilityofwebpages?
HTMLtodayisnotonlyusedtodescribecontentbuttodefinelayout.TheoriginalideaofHTMLwasto
supportthedescriptionoftextstructure(headings,bullets,etc.).NowHTMLisusedforformatting
purposes.Mostscreendesignsassume1024x768pixels,truecolour.Wirelessdevicesstillhavelow
resolutiondisplays,4096colours,320x240pixelsetc.Therefore,manypagesdonotfitontothesmall
displays.Solutionsincludedownscalingofpictures,contentextractionorthedescriptionofthesame
contentwithspeciallanguages(WML,cHTML).Manypagesadditionallycontaincontentthatrequires
specialplugins:flash,3Danimations,streamingmediaetc.Typicallytheysimplywillnotworkonmany
mobiledevices.

8.Namemechanismstoimprovewebaccessforhandhelddevices.Whatistheircommonproblemand
whatledfinallytothedevelopmentofWAP?
Caching,contenttransformation,picturedownscaling,contentextraction,textualdescriptionsofpictures.
Manyoftheproposedsolutionsduringtheninetieswereproprietary.WAPisthefirststandardised
commonsolutionsupportedbymanynetworkprovidersanddevicemanufacturers.Itisadifferentstory
whyWAPwasnosuccessfromthebeginning(wrongmarketing,wrongunderlyingtransportsystem).

9.Whataretypicalenhancementstothebasicclient/serverarchitectureoftheweb?Reconsiderthese
enhancementsforamobilewirelessuserwithwebaccessoveramobilephonenetwork.Whatare
efficientlocationsfortheenhancements?
Proxies.Proxiescanbelocatedatdifferentplacesseethefiguresandproxiescanevenbedivided
intotwohalveswithspecialprotocolsbetweenthosehalves.Proxiesbehavelikeclientstowardsservers,
likeserverstowardsclients.Goodlocationsforproxiesareclosetothemobile/wirelessuser,butstillin
thefixednetwork.ExamplescouldbeforeignagentsinmobileIPorroutersinaGPRSnetwork.

10.WhataretheprimarygoalsoftheWAPForumeffortsandhowaretheyreflectedintheinitialWAP
protocolarchitecture?
Seesection10.3.Generalgoalsare:veryefficientdatatransfer(binaryrepresentation),avoidanceof
redundantdatatransfer(statefulprotocols),supportofheterogeneous,simpledevices(WML),accessto
telephonyfunctions(WTAI),builtinsecurity(WTLS),supportofalmostalltransportplatforms.
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11.WhatmigrationpathsdoesWAP1.xofferforInternetandtelephonyapplicationsandtheirprotocols?
ComparewithWAP2.0.
TelephonyapplicationsaresupportedviaspecialinterfacesinWAP1.x(WTAI).Specialgatewaysare
requiredtoaccessInternetcontent.WAP2.0combinesInternetprotocolswithWAP1.x.Thisallows
directaccessofInternetcontent.

12.IsWDPafixedprotocolandwhydoesWAPnotdefineaSAPwhichWDPcanuse?
WDPisnotafixedprotocol.TheinterfacetoWDPisspecified,WDPitselfdependsontheunderlying
network.TheWDPinterfaceprovidesanunreliabledatagramtransfer.Iftheunderlyingnetwork
alreadyprovidesIPtransferWDPissimplytheUDPprotocolknownfromtheInternet.Thus,thereisno
SAPWDPcoulduse.

13.WhydoesWAPdefineitsownsecuritylayeranddoesnotrelyonthesecurityprovidedbythemobile
phonenetwork?WhatproblemsdoestheWAPsecuritylayercause?Thinkofendtoendsecurity.
Notallmobilephonenetworksprovidethesamelevelofsecurity.GSM,forexample,providesonly
encryptionovertheair.WAPaddssecurityfromtheenddevicetotheWAPgateway.Butthisisalsoa
problem.WAPdoesnotguaranteeendtoendsecurity.Thesecurityrelationisbrokenatthegateway.This
isthereasonforbankstoimplementtheiradditionalsecurityfunctions.Thisisalsoadifferencetothe
usageofSSL/TLSintheInternet.

14.NametheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofuseracknowledgementsinWTP.Whataretypical
applicationsforbothcases?
Advantage:userscancontroltheacknowledgementprocess,usersmaywanttoknowifsomethingwent
wrong,sometimesitisalsopossibletoslowdownasenderbyinsertingartificialdelaysinthe
acknowledgementprocess,theacknowledgementofauserisstrongerasitshowsthesenderthatthe
intendedreceiverandnottheWTPprocessactuallygotthemessage.Disadvantages:usershaveto
interact,thismaytakesomemoretime.Classicaltransactionalservicestypicallybenefitfromuser
acknowledgements,formostpushserviceuseracknowledgementsarenotnecessary,stillWTP
acknowledgementscanimprovereliability.

15.WhichWTPclassreflectsthetypicalwebaccessbest?Howisunnecessaryoverheadavoidedwhen
usingWSPontopofthisclassforwebbrowsing?
WSP/Btogetherwithaclass2transactionwouldbeagoodchoiceforstandardwebrequest/response
schemes.Thewebexpectsareliableprotocol(thatiswhytypicallyTCPisused)andworkswith
transactions.

16.WhatproblemsofHTTPcanWSPsolve?Whyarethesesolutionsespeciallyneededinwireless
mobileenvironments?
WSPofferssessionmanagement,capabilitynegotiation,pushandpull,asynchronousrequest,and
efficientcontentencoding.SomeofthesefeaturesalsocomewithHTTP/1.1.However,inmobileand
wirelessenvironmentsefficientcodingdirectlyresultsincheaperwebusage.

17.WhydoesWSP/Bnotputresponsesintothesameorderastherequests?Think,forexample,of
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requestsfordifferentitemsonawebpage.
Userexperienceistypicallymuchbetterifsomethinghappensonthescreen.Waitingforallresponsesto
arriveinordermightcausetoolongpausesirritatingusers.Assoonasaresponsearrives,thebrowser
shoulddisplayittosignalprogress.Additionally,quiteoftenuserscancontinuewithbrowsingalthough
onlypartsofthepagearevisible.

18.Whatadvantagesdoesaconnectionlesssessionserviceoffercomparedtoasimpledatagram
service?
Connectionlessservicestypicallyhavealoweroverheadcomparedtoconnectionsetup,datatransferand
release.Comparedtoapuredatagramservicetheconnectionlesssessionserviceadditionallyoffers
transactionidentifiersandfunctionscomparabletothoseoftheotherWSPservices.

19.WhataretheenhancementsofWAEtotheclassicclient/servermodeloftheweb?Whatarefunctions
ofthisenhancement?
BesideslanguagesandcontentformatstheWAEdefinesgatewaysbetweenclientsandservers.As
mobiledevicescanoftennotusethestandardformatsandprotocolsofservers(TCP,HTTP,SSLetc.),
gatewaystranslatebetweentheclassicalfixedandthenewmobileandwirelessworld.

20.WhatisthefundamentaldifferenceofWMLcomparedtoHTML?Whycanthisdifferencebeimportant
forhandhelddevices?Whatisspecifiedinadditiontosavebandwidth?
WMLoffersonlyafewformattinginstructions.Itratherdefinestheintentionoftheauthorofapage.Ifthe
deviceshouldpresentdatatoauserthiscouldbedoneviatextofsynthesisedvoice.Thisapproachis
moreflexiblecomparedtoHTMLrelyingonpowerfuldisplays.Surethedifferencebetweenhandheld
devicesandPCscontinuouslyshrink.Additionally,commoncommandsarebinaryencoded.Insteadof
transferringtextstringslikehttp://www.asinglebytecanexpressthesame.

21.WhyhasascriptinglanguagebeenaddedtoWML?Howcanthislanguagehelpsavingbandwidthand
reducingdelay?
Scriptingcanhelptoreducetrafficbycheckinginputonthemobiledevice.Withoutscriptingsupportthe
devicemusttransferallinputforcheckingtoaserver.Furthermore,scriptingcanaccessmanydevice
functions.

22.WhataretypicaltelephonyeventsandhowaretheyintegratedintoWAP?Howcanauseraccess
featuresofmobilephonesviathewebbrowser?
Callindication,callaccept,callsetup,WTAIoffersspecialURLsandWTAscriptfunctionsfor
telephonyfeatures.AURLcannowsetupacall,WTAscriptfunctionscanchangephonebookentriesetc.

23.WhatistheroleofaWTAserver?WhatarethedifferentwaysofintegratingWTAserversintothe
WAParchitecture?
WTAserverscanmuchbettercontrolQoSastheytypicallybelongtothemobilenetworkoperator.
StandardserversintheInternetmightexperiencemanyproblemsprovidingQoSthereisnotevena
widespreadQoSarchitectureintheInternet.InprincipaltherearemanyplacesforWTAservers:the
operatorsnetwork,otheroperatorsnetworks,eventheInternet(butthenwiththeabovementionedQoS
problems).
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24.WhatisthedifferencebetweenWAPserviceindicationandserviceloading?Whatapplicationscould
usetheseservices?Whatisapushgoodforanyway?
Pushsareusefulforindicatingunexpectedevents.Pullingwouldwastebandwidthandrequiretoomuch
energyfromthemobiledevice.ThedifferencebetweenSIandSListhatinthecaseofSLtheclientsuser
agentdecideswhentosubmittheURI(thisthenisapull,butnotnoticedbytheuser).SIsareindicated
anditisuptotheusertousetheservice.

25.NamekeydifferencesbetweenWAP1.xandimode.WhatwereproblemsintheearlyWAPdaysand
whywasimodethatsuccessfulinJapan?
WAP1.xwascreatedbyaconsortiumbackedbynetworkoperatorsandmanydevicemanufacturerswhile
imodeisaproprietarydevelopmentbyNTTDoCoMo/Japan.Imodewasusedfromthebeginningover
packetorientedtransportplusitcomprisesacertainbusinessmodel:contentprovidersgetabout80%of
therevenueacustomergenerates,thenetworkoperatorhandlesbilling.WAPhadproblemsinitsearly
daysasitwasmarketedasInternetonthemobilephone,whichitisnot.Additionally,itstartedona
connectionorientedtransportsystem.However,webusageishighlyinteractive.Thesetwofacts
causedthefailureofWAPinitsearlydays.Transferringthesuccessofimodetoothercountriesisnot
easy.NTTDoCoMotriedthisinEuropebutdidnothavethesamesuccess.ReasonsarethePC
penetrationinEurope:manypeoplehavealreadyfastInternetconnections.Furthermore,notallproviders
choseimode.Otherservices,suchasMMS,attractmanypeople.

26.Whyisacommonsynchronizationframeworkuseful?Whatproblemsremain?
Synchronisationisofmajorimportanceformanyapplications.Severalincompatibleapproachesexist
(evenapplicationshavetheirownmechanisms).However,thebasicproblemsofsynchronisationarestill
unsolved:howtosynchronisetwoupdatedobjects?Withoutapplicationorientedknowledge
synchronisationisnotpossible.

27.WhataremajordifferencesbetweenWAP2.0andWAP1.x?WhatinfluencedtheWAP2.0
development?
WAP2.0includesimodeandInternetcomponents.Thedevelopmentwasheavilyinfluencedbythe
successofInternetapplicationsandtheeverincreasingpowerofmobiledevices.

28.ComparethepresentedprotocolstacksforWAP2.0andgiveapplicationexamples.
Seefigure10.38.
WAP1.xstack:ThisstacksupportsallclassicalWAPphonesandapplications.Asdiscussedinthis
section,therearemanyreasonsforsessionservicesandmoreefficienttransactionalservices.Thus,this
stackwillremainausefulpartofWAP.
WAPwithprofiledTCP:ThisimodelikescenariooffersoptimisedHTTPandTCP.Thismightbemore
efficientthenusingpureInternetsolutions,butreqireschangesinHTTPandTCPandtheproxyto
translate.
WAPwithTLStunnelling:Ifendtoendsecurityisamust,thearchitecturemustnotbreakthe
connection.ThereforethisstackoffersendtoendTLS,butcanstillbenefitfromanoptimisedTCP.
WAPdirect:Ifthedevicesarepowerfulenoughanddelaysarenottoohigh,thestandardInternet
protocolstackcanbeused.Thiswouldbethesimplestsolution,whichdoesnotrequireanyspecialWAP
protocolsanymore.Whilethedevicesmightbepowerfulenoughinthefuture,thedelayproblemswill
remain.

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