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Hybrid Vehicle

A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power
sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid
electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion
engine and one or more electric motors. However, other mechanisms to
capture and utilize energy are included. The (HEV ‘S) system is a system
when it reach a limit level of the car,it will automatically change the
system of internal combustion to a hybrid eletric system. There were two


1 Power

2 Vehicle type

2.1 Two-wheeled and cycle-type vehicles


2.2 Heavy vehicles

2.2.1 Rail transport

2.2.2 Cranes

2.2.3 Road transport, commercial vehicles

2.2.4 Military off-road vehicles

2.2.5 Ships

2.2.6 Aircraft
3 Engine type


3.1 Hybrid electric-petroleum vehicles


3.2 Continuously outboard recharged electric vehicle (COREV)


3.3 Hybrid fuel (dual mode)


3.4 Fluid power hybrid

5 Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) o 4.4. 3.7 Road safety for cyclists.3 Power-split or series-parallel hybrid o 4.2 Mild parallel hybrid o 4.2 Petro-hydraulic hybrid 3.2 Hybrid vehicle emissions o 5.6 Fuel cell.1 Fuel consumption and emissions reductions o 5.3 Environmental impact of hybrid car battery o 5. pedestrians  5 Environmental issues o 5.4.4 Series hybrid o 4.1 Parallel hybrid o 4.4 Raw materials increasing costs  6 Alternative green vehicles  7 Peugeot/Citroën Hybrid Vehicle  8 Marketing  9 Adoption rate  10 European Union 2020 Regulation Standards  11 See also  12 References  13 External links Power[edit] Power sources for hybrid vehicles include: . electric hybrid o 4.1 Petro-air hybrid  3.5 Electric-human power hybrid vehicle o  4 Hybrid vehicle power train configurations o 4.

g. using a hub motor. as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid. Radio waves  Electric vehicle battery  Human powered e. Coal. Early prototypes of motorcycles in the late 19th century used the same principles to power it up. wood or other solid combustibles  Compressed or liquefied natural gas  Electricity  Electromagnetic fields.  In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel. pedaling or rowing  Hydrogen  On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS)  Petrol or Diesel fuel  Solar  Wind Vehicle type[edit] A biodiesel hybrid bus in Montreal Two-wheeled and cycle-type vehicles[edit] Mopeds. electric bicycles.g. a roller pressing onto a tire. e. or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element.[3] . Mopeds are of this type. Almost all manufactured Motorized bicycles. Human and motor torques are added together.

In 1999 Harald Kutzke described his concept of the "active bicycle": the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation. buses. In 1995 Thomas Muller designed a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" in his 1995 diploma thesis and built a functional vehicle. because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing. and ships. [4] The first known prototype and publication of an SH bicycle is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3'884'317) in 1975.[6] Heavy vehicles[edit] Bus Rapid Transit of Metz. Typically some form of heat . heavy goods vehicles. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite [5] SH lightweight vehicle which used power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SH bicycle and in 1998 mounted the system onto a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available. mobile hydraulic machinery. a diesel-electric hybrid driving system by Van Hool[7] Hybrid power trains use diesel-electric or turbo-electric to power railway locomotives. Until 2005 Fuchs and colleagues built several prototype SH tricycles andquadricycles.

It was a G12 locomotive that was converted to hybrid by using a 200KW diesel generator and batteries and also was equipped with 4 AC traction motors (out of 4) retrofited in the cover of the DC traction motors. Submarines are one of the oldest widespread applications of hybrid technology. auxiliary batteries and hydraulic accumulators—although this is now changing.g. the Netherlands with Railfeeding. With the exception of non-nuclear submarines. running on diesel engines while surfaced and switching to battery power when submerged.[8] The locomotive has been on trials in Rotterdam. There are advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements especially when multiple drives—e.engine (usually diesel) drives an electric generator or hydraulic pump which powers one or more electric or hydraulic motors. It utilizes battery packs of lithium ion batteries mounted on the roof to store recovered energy. e. Rail transport[edit] Main article: Hybrid train East Japan Railway Company HB-E300 series Europe The new Autorail à grande capacité (AGC or high-capacity railcar) built by the Canadian company Bombardier for service in France. driven wheels or propellers—are required. presently there is no or relatively little secondary energy storage capacity on most heavy vehicles. a Genesse and Wyoming company. With large vehicles the advantages often outweigh the disadvantages especially as the conversion losses typically decrease with size. Japan The first operational prototype of a hybrid train engine with significant energy storage and energy regeneration capability was introduced in Japan as the KiHa E200.g. There is power lost in the double conversion from typically diesel fuel to electricity to power an electric or hydraulic motor.[9] . China The First Hybrid Evaluating prototype locomotive was designed and contracted by rail research center MATRAI in 1999 and the sample was ready in 2000. This has dual mode (diesel and electric motors) and dual voltage capabilities (1500 and 25000 V) allowing it to be used on many different rail systems. Both series-hybrid and parallel hybrid drivetrains were used in the Second World War.

[10] Variants of the typical diesel electric locomotive include the Green Goat (GG) and Green Kid (GK) switching/yard engines built by Canada's Railpower Technologies. The energy used to lift the containers can be partially regained when they are lowered.[12] First systems are expected to be operational in 2007. The same advantages that existing hybrid cars have for use with frequent starts and stops and idle periods apply to typical switching yard use. and Union Pacific Railroad among others. RTG cranes are typically used for loading and unloading shipping containers onto trains or trucks in ports and container storage yards. Cranes[edit] Railpower Technologies engineers working with TSI Terminal Systems are testing a hybrid diesel electric power unit with battery storage for use in Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) cranes.BNSF Railway. commercial vehicles[edit] 2008 GMC Yukon hybrid version . [13] Road transport.North America In the US. It is unclear if dynamic braking (regenerative) power is recaptured for reuse.[11] "Green Goat" locomotives have been purchased by Canadian Pacific Railway. Kansas City Southern Railway. Diesel fuel savings of 40–60% and up to 80% pollution reductions are claimed over that of a "typical" older switching/yard engine. No power or fuel are wasted for idling—typically 60–85% of the time for these type locomotives. General Electric introduced a prototype railroad engine with their "Ecomagination" technology in 2007. The existing motors and running gear are all rebuilt and reused. They expect at least a 10% reduction in fuel use with this system and are now spending no more than $2 billion/yr on hybrid research. but in principle it should be easily utilized. Diesel fuel and emission reductions of 50–70% are predicted by Railpower engineers. In addition the diesel generator and battery package are normally built on an existing "retired" "yard" locomotive's frame for significant additional cost savings. They utilize a large set of heavy duty long life (~10 yr) rechargeable lead acid (Pba) batteries and 1000 to 2000 HP electric motors as the primary motive sources and a new clean burning diesel generator (~160 Hp) for recharging the batteries that is used only as needed. Since these engines typical need extra weight for traction purposes anyway the battery pack's weight is a negligible penalty. They store energy in a large set of sodium nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries to capture and store energy normally dissipated in dynamic braking or coasting downhill.

The main obstacles seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are yet compensated for by fuel savings. which also carried out structural modifications to the aircraft. GM and others introduce hybrid pickups and SUVs. The demonstrator aircraft is a Dimona motor glider. Towing kites can fly at heights several times higher than the tallest ship masts. and greater fuel economy. a stealthmode with low thermal signature/ near silent operation. Ships[edit] Ships with both mast-mounted sails and steam engines were an early form of hybrid vehicle.[dated info] Advances in technology and lowered battery cost and higher capacity etc. Aircraft[edit] The Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator Airplane has a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell/lithium-ion battery hybrid system to power an electric motor. Newer hybrid ship-propulsion schemes include large towing kites manufactured by companies such as SkySails. Another example is the diesel-electric submarine. With a wing span of 16.[20] Hybrid FanWings have been designed. called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage seems to be competitive. capturing stronger and steadier winds. Kenworth Truck Company recently introduced a hybrid-electric truck. the system draws on lightweight lithium-ion batteries.Early hybrid systems are being investigated for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with some operational trucks and buses starting to come into use. the US military has been testing serial hybrid Humvees[18][19] and have found them to deliver faster acceleration. the tipping point may be reached by the end of 2015. Ford.[14] but with the price of oil set to continue on its upward trend. the flight segment that requires the most power. During takeoff and climb.[15][16] FedEx and others are starting to invest in hybrid delivery type vehicles— particularly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first. the airplane will be able to cruise at about 62 miles per hour (100 km/h) on power from the fuel cell. built by Diamond Aircraft Industries of Austria. A FanWing is created by two engines with the capability to autorotate and landing like a helicopter. [17] Military off-road vehicles[edit] Since 1985.3 meters (53 feet). developed in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota.[21] Engine type[edit] Hybrid electric-petroleum vehicles[edit] . This runs on batteries when submerged and the batteries can be re-charged by the diesel engine when the craft is on the surface. which is coupled to a conventional propeller. The fuel cell provides all power for the cruise phase of flight.

A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines (generally gasoline or Diesel engines. Continuously outboard recharged electric vehicle (COREV) [edit] Given suitable infrastructure. Lexus RX 400h and 450h and others. Honda Insight. which offer varying advantages and disadvantages. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to return as much as 75MPG with plans still sold to this original design. These encompass such vehicles as the Saturn Vue. an electrical engineer from Springdale. The BEV establishes contact with an electrified rail. [22][not in citation given] Henri Pieper in 1899 developed the first petro-electric hybrid automobile in the world.Hybrid New Flyer Metrobus Hybrid Optare Solo Main article: Hybrid electric vehicle When the term hybrid vehicle is used. the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains. permissions and vehicles. plate or overhead wires on the . as well being charged while the engine is running. Ford Escape Hybrid. Toyota Camry Hybrid. Toyota Yaris. The batteries can be plugged into house (mains) electricity for charging. from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid. Toyota Highlander Hybrid. In 1900. BEVs can be recharged while the user drives. Honda Civic Hybrid. Ferdinand Porsche developed a series-hybrid using two motor-in-wheel-hub arrangements with a combustion generator set providing the electric power. powered by a variety of fuels) and electric batteries to power the vehicle. it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. Arkansas in 1978–79.[citation needed] While liquid fuel/electric hybrids date back to the late 19th century.[23] The plug-in-electric-vehicle (PEV) is becoming more and more common.Toyota Prius. It has the range needed in locations where there are wide gaps with no services. and the "Mother Earth News" modified version on their website. setting two speed records.

gasoline or other taxes. . by toll revenue. in principle. The BEV's batteries are recharged by this process—on the highway—and can then be used normally on other roads until the battery is discharged. outside of some cities. can effortlessly switch between petroleum and natural gas.  Bi-fuel vehicle:Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the same tanks. although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use correctly the terms. in principle. [24] While the duplicated tanks cost space in some applications. trams. third rail). switching to battery power where the electricity supply is disconnected. The technology for such electrical infrastructure is old and. fuel systems feeding one engine. electric rail. is not widely distributed (see Conduit current collection. the increased range. or methanol. Power is picked up from the electtrified rails where possible. so it would be impossible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system.  Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels mixed in one tank — typically gasoline and ethanol. For example Chevys Silverado 2500 HD. of virtually unrestricted highway range as long as you stay where you have BEV infrastructure access. although as of 2006. Some of battery-electric locomotives used for maintenance trains on the London Underground are capable of this mode of operation. Updating the required electrical and infrastructure costs can be funded. parallel. this may reduce the need for expensive battery systems. and offers a range of over 650 miles. no such design seems to have been announced. this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus. Instead vehicles are built with two. trolleys. Hybrid fuel (dual mode)[edit] Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid with aflexible fuel capability to run on E85(ethanol) In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion. In principle.highway via an attached conducting wheel or other similar mechanism (see Conduit current collection). Unfortunately private use of the existing electrical system is nearly universally prohibited. or biobutanol. which is now on the road. some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy sources or input types ("fuels") using the same engine to be hybrids. Since many destinations are within 100 km of a major highway. these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles:  Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions (see dual mode bus). This provides the advantage.

[26] On a per unit of energy comparative basis.00. compared to natural gas's $4. While the US Natural gas infrastructure is partially incomplete. the price per MMBTU of gasoline is $28. Fluid power hybrid[edit] See also: Compressed air car Chrysler minivan.00 per MMBTU. serving solely to charge the energy accumulator. and already has 2600 CNG stations in place.00. such as cars modified to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.  Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included (see Motorized bicycle). [25] With a growing fueling station infrastructure. this makes natural gas much cheaper than gasoline. petro-hydraulic hybrid French MDI petro-air hybrid car developed with Tata Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles use an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels via hydraulic (liquid) orpneumatic (compressed air) drive units. it is increasing at a fast pace. In most cases the engine is detached from the drivetrain. The . All of these factors are making CNG-Gasoline bi-fuel vehicles very attractive.  Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available.decreased cost of fuel and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a significant incentive to purchase. When gas prices trade around $4. a large scale adoption of these bi-fuel vehicles could be seen in the near future. Rising gas prices may also push consumers to purchase these vehicles.

A car rated at 32mpg was returning 75mpg with the 60HP engine replaced by 16HP engine. which is a compartment heating air via fuel doubling the energy output. The auto industry recently focused on this hybrid configuration as it now shows promise for introduction into smaller vehicles. MDI.4 L/100 km.[28] Tata Motors of India assessed the design phase towards full production for the Indian market and moved into "completing detailed development of the compressed air engine into specific vehicle and stationary applications". 26 mpg-imp) highway. Regenerative breaking can be used to recover some of the supplied drive energy back into the accumulator. demonstrating a 60% to 70% increase in energy economy in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) testing.[32][33] UPS currently has two trucks in service with this technology.[35] In the 1990s. Petro-air hybrid[edit] A French company.[31] The charging engine needs only to be sized for average usage with acceleration bursts using the stored energy in the hydraulic accumulator. the energy recovery rate is high and therefore the system is more efficient than battery charged hybrids using the current battery technology. a hydraulic hybrid Ford Expedition returned 32 miles per US gallon (7. No lightweight materials were used.[34] Although petro-hybrid technology has been known for decades. [27] A key aspect of the hybrid engine is the "active chamber". The test car achieved over 80 mpg on combined EPA city/highway driving cycles. using a 1. a team of engineers working at EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory succeeded in developing a revolutionary type of petro-hydraulic hybrid powertrain that would propel a typical American sedan car. and used in trains and very large construction vehicles. [33] While the petro-hydraulic system has faster and more efficient charge/discharge cycling and is cheaper than petro-electric hybrids. In petro-hydraulic hybrids. which is charged when in low energy demanding vehicle operation. has designed and has running models of a petro-air hybrid engine car. converted a Volkswagen Beetle car to run as a petro-hydraulic hybrid using off-the shelf components. Acceleration was 0-60 mph in 8 seconds. 38 mpg-imp) City. The engine uses a mixture of compressed air and gasoline injected into the cylinders. In the modern sense an experiment proved the viability of small petro-hybrid road vehicles in 1978. [29][30] Petro-hydraulic hybrid[edit] Petro-hydraulic configurations have been common in trains and heavy vehicles for decades.The EPA estimated that produced in high volumes the hydraulic components would add only $700 to the base cost of the vehicle. A group of students at Minneapolis. Under tests undertaken by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The experimental car reached 70 mph. The system does not use air motors to drive the vehicle.9 liter diesel engine. heavy costs of the equipment precluded the systems from lighter trucks and cars. and 22 miles per US gallon (11 L/100 km.transmission is seamless. Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center. the accumulator size dictates total energy storage capacity and may require more space than a battery set. . The charging engine runs at optimum speed and load for efficiency and longevity. being directly driven by a hybrid engine.

not peak power usage. and electric skateboards. to maximize the packaging of petro-hydraulic hybrid components in the vehicle. making small applications of petro-hydraulic hybrids feasible. Twike. A small fossil fuelled piston engine sized for average power use charges the accumulator. Energy created by shock absorbers and kinetic braking energy that normally would be wasted assists in charging the accumulator. The accumulator is sized at running the car for 15 minutes when fully charged.[38] The aim is 170mpg in average driving conditions.[33][42][43][44] PSA Peugeot Citroën exhibited an experimental "Hybrid Air" engine at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. Petro-hydraulic hybrids using well sized accumulators entails downsizing an engine to average power usage.[37] Current vehicle bodies are designed around the mechanicals of existing engine/transmission setups. In 2012 an existing production minvan will be adapted to the new hydraulic powertrain.[36] The company converted a BMW car as a test bed to prove viability. One research project's goal is to create a blank paper design new car. £17. Peak power is provided by the energy stored in the accumulator.000. are scheduled for 2015 or 2016. This test was using the standard 3. The hub motors eliminates the need for friction brakes.Research is underway in large corporations and small companies. Focus has now switched to smaller vehicles. The aim is a fully charged accumulator which will produce a 0-60 mph acceleration speed of under 5 seconds using four wheel drive.[39][40][41] In January 2011 industry giant Chrysler announced a partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design and develop an experimental petro-hydraulic hybrid powertrain suitable for use in large passenger cars. electric bicycles.000cc engine. Hydrostatic drive with no friction brakes are used in industrial vehicles. Production versions priced at about $25.[46] Electric-human power hybrid vehicle[edit] Another form of hybrid vehicle are human power-electric vehicles. The system components were expensive which precluded installation in smaller trucks and cars. gave double the mpg in city driving compared to the standard car.[45] The vehicle uses nitrogen gas compressed by energy harvested from braking or deceleration to power an hydraulic drive which supplements power from its conventional gasoline engine. Hybrid vehicle power train configurations[edit] . All bulky hydraulic components are integrated into the chassis of the car. the Digital Displacement motor/pump. It is restrictive and far from ideal to install petro-hydraulic mechanicals into existing bodies not designed for hydraulic setups. A drawback was that the power driving motors were not efficient enough at part load. mechanical transmissions. The small hydraulic driving motors are incorporated within the wheel hubs driving the wheels and reversing to claw-back kinetic braking energy. that is highly efficient at all speed ranges and loads. Mileage was estimated to be about 80 miles per gallon for city driving if installed in a Citroën C3. The hydraulic and electronic components were supplied byRobert Bosch GmbH. One design has claimed to return 130mpg in tests by using a large hydraulic accumulator which is also the structural chassis of the car.000. A smaller more efficient constant speed engine reduces weight and liberates space for a larger accumulator. The BMW 530i. reducing costs and weight. A British company (Artemis Intelligent Power) has made a breakthrough by introducing an electronically controlled hydraulic motor/pump. These include such vehicles as the Sinclair C5. drive shafts and U joints.

the electric motor and gear box are coupled by automatically controlled clutches. Most commonly the internal combustion engine. a series-parallel drivetrain In a parallel hybrid vehicle.Main articles: Hybrid vehicle drivetrains and Micro HEV Parallel hybrid[edit] Honda Insight. Mild Parallel Hybrid Toyota Prius. While in combustion mode the engine and motor run at the same speed. . the single electric motor and the internal combustion engine are installed such that they can power the vehicle either individually or together. For electric driving the clutch between the internal combustion engine is open while the clutch to the gear box is engaged. In contrast to the power split configuration typically only one electric motor is installed. series-parallel hybrid Ford Escape Hybrid.

In cooperation with the "primary" motor/generator and the mechanical power-split this provides a continuously variable transmission. When maximum power is required. In most applications. giving the effect of having a larger engine than actually installed. the engine is switched off when the car is slow or stationary reducing curbside emissions. which is a simple planetary gear set. such as 40% for the electric motor and 60% for the combustion engine. Ford Escape and Fusion. as well as Lexus RX400h. and to generate on the deceleration phase (aka regenerative braking). Mild parallel hybrid[edit] These types use a generally compact electric motor (usually <20 kW) to provide auto-stop/start features and to provide extra power assist[47] during the acceleration. Honda CRZ. or anything in between. the electric motor is used to assist. GS450h. The power from these two motors can be shared to drive the wheels via a power splitter. Power-split or series-parallel hybrid[edit] Passenger car installations include Toyota Prius. for example to overtake. BMW 7-Series hybrids. Mercedes Benz S400 BlueHYBRID. On the open road. and Smart fortwo with micro hybrid drive.The first mass production parallel hybrid sold outside Japan was the 1st generation Honda Insight. and CT200h. LS600h. General Motors BAS Hybrids. The combustion engine can act as a generator charging the batteries. In a power-split hybrid electric drive train there are two motors: an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. Honda Insight 2nd generation. On-road examples include Honda Civic Hybrid. RX450h. Modern versions such as the Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive have a second electric motor/generator on the output shaft (connected to the wheels). Honda Accord Hybrid. The ratio can be from 0–100% for the combustion engine. the primary power source is the internal combustion engine. or 0–100% for the electric motor. This increases the available power for a short period. Series hybrid[edit] .

This arrangement is not new. setting speed records. . In 1997 Toyota released the first series-hybrid bus sold in Japan. The setup has never proved to be suitable for production cars. as the electric generator and driving motor replaced a mechanical transmission. effectively inventing the serieshybrid arrangement.000. Instead there is an engine tuned for running a generator when the battery pack energy supply isn't sufficient for demands. being common in diesel-electric locomotives and ships. This arrangement was sometimes referred to as an electric transmission. also called extended range electric vehicle (EREV).or serial-hybrid vehicle has also been referred to as an extended range electric vehicle or range-extended electric vehicle (EREV/REEV). Series-hybrid vehicles are driven by the electric motor with no mechanical connection to the engine.[49] and a price tag of around US$40. Using supercapacitors they claim up to 150 mpg in a series-hybrid arrangement. with a motor in each of the two front wheels was used. Ferdinand Porsche used this setup in the early 20th century in racing cars. Porsche named the arrangement "System Mixt". range extension can be accomplished with either series or parallel hybrid layouts.[50] Supercapacitors combined with a lithium ion battery bank have been used by AFS Trinity in a converted Saturn Vue SUV vehicle. aiming for an all-electric range of 40 mi (64 km). however it is currently being revisited by several manufacturers.[48] GM introduced the Chevy Volt series plug-in hybrid in 2010. A series. a series plug-in hybrid. The vehicle could not move unless the internal combustion engine was running. A wheel hub motor arrangement. however.Chevrolet Volt.[51] Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)[edit] The Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid has an all-electric range of 11 mi (18 km).

making the vehicle a hybrid. which may further increase the attractiveness of the plug-in option for commuters and urban motorists. Ford Edge Hyseries Drive and Honda FCX are examples of a fuel cell/electric hybrid. The plug-in hybrid is usually a general fuel-electric (parallel or serial) hybrid with increased energy storage capacity. It may be connected to mains electricity supply at the end of the journey to avoid charging using the onboard internal combustion engine. this type of vehicle may also be financially attractive so long as the electrical energy being used is cheaper than the petrol/diesel that they would have otherwise used. the total emissions saving. which allows the vehicle to drive on all-electric mode a distance that depends on the battery size and its mechanical layout (series or parallel). The fuel cell as well as the electric battery are both power sources. For some users. Some electricity suppliers also offer price benefits for offpeak night users.The Ford Fusion Energi is a plug-in hybrid with an all-electric range of 21 mi (34 km). . is dependent upon the energy source of the electricity generating company. usually through a li-ion battery. which is taxed uniformly for the domestic customer. electric hybrid[edit] The fuel cell hybrid is generally an electric vehicle equipped with a fuel cell. for example in CO2 terms. however that person uses it. pedestrians[edit] The 2011 Nissan Leaf was the firstplug-in electric car equipped withNissan's Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians. Current tax systems in many European countries use mineral oil taxation as a major income source. Road safety for cyclists. Fuel cell.[52][53] This concept is attractive to those seeking to minimize on-road emissions by avoiding – or at least minimizing – the use of ICE during daily driving. As with pure electric vehicles. The Chevrolet Equinox FCEV. Main article: Plug-in hybrid See also: Plug-in electric vehicle Another subtype of hybrid vehicles is the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). This is generally not the case for electricity. Fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel and power the electric battery when it is depleted.

Environmental issues[edit] Fuel consumption and emissions reductions[edit] The hybrid vehicle typically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). theToyota Prius v. 2 having significant battery storage capacity to store and reuse recaptured energy. in certain road situations. the blind. including the standard 2012 model year Prius. there was a higher incident rate for HEVs than ICEVs when a vehicle was turning a corner. especially in stop-and-go traffic typical of the city driving cycle. Chevrolet Volt. A smaller engine can have less internal losses and lower weight. The findings showed that. plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all-electric vehicles (EVs) travelling at low speeds.[54] Several automakers developed electric vehicle warning sounds designed to alert pedestrians to the presence of electric drive vehiclessuch as hybrid electric vehicle.Main article: Electric vehicle warning sounds A 2009 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration report examined hybrid electric vehicle accidents that involved pedestrians and cyclists and compared them to accidents involving internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). Other techniques that are not necessarily 'hybrid' features. but that are frequently found on hybrid vehicles include: 1 using Atkinson cycle engines instead of Otto cycle engines for improved fuel economy. resulting in fewer emissions being generated. entering or leaving a parking space (when the sound difference between HEVs and ICEVs is most pronounced). resulting in a smaller engine sized more for average usage rather than peak power usage. and others aware of the vehicle's presence while operating in allelectric mode. HEVs were twice as likely to be involved in a pedestrian crash than ICEVs. backing up. 3 recapturing significant amounts of energy during braking that are normally wasted as heat. HEVs are more dangerous for those on foot or bicycle. 2012 Lexus CT200h. depending upon the power rating of the motor/generator.[55][56][57][58] Vehicles in the market with such safety devices include the Nissan Leaf. the 2012 Toyota Camry Hybrid. For crashes involving cyclists or pedestrians. Their purpose is to make pedestrians. Nissan Fuga Hybrid/Infiniti M35. Honda FCX Clarity. But there was no statistically significant difference between the types of vehicles when they were driving straight. 2012 Honda Fit EV. This regenerative braking reduces vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into electricity. Hyundai Sonata Hybrid. cyclists. . and all Prius family cars recently introduced. and the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. Fisker Karma. These savings are primarily achieved by three elements of a typical hybrid design: 1 relying on both the engine and the electric motors for peak power needs. For accidents where a vehicle was slowing or stopping.

consuming more fuel. power steering.5. 5 powering the a/c. Today most hybrid car batteries are one of two types: 1) nickel metal hydride. A box shaped car or truck has to exert more force to move through the air causing more stress on the engine making it work harder).2 shutting down the engine during traffic stops or while coasting or during other idle periods. 3. both are regarded as more environmentally friendly than lead-based batteries which constitute the bulk of petrol car starter batteries today. particularly at idling and low operating speeds. once again making the engine work harder..[60] . 3 improving aerodynamics. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Lithium ion is the least toxic of the two mentioned above. Some are far more toxic than others. The three most popular hybrid vehicles. 4 using low rolling resistance tires (tires were often made to give a quiet.5 tons showing a major improvement in carbon dioxide emissions. and so improving fuel economy whatever the power source. These features make a hybrid vehicle particularly efficient for city traffic where there are frequent stops. there is still an issue regarding the environmental damage of the hybrid car battery. and other auxiliary pumps electrically as and when needed. (part of the reason that SUVs get such bad fuel economy is the drag on the car. high grip. coasting and idling periods. Hybrid cars may use special tires that are more inflated than regular tires and stiffer or by choice of carcass structure and rubber compound have lower rolling resistance while retaining acceptable grip. The recommended levels they suggest for a typical passenger vehicle should be equated to 5. Honda Civic.1. Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a good way to help better the fuel economy and also improve handling at the same time. (July 2008) Though hybrid cars consume less fuel than conventional cars. and 3. Hybrid vehicles can reduce air emissions of smog-forming pollutants by up to 90% and cut carbon dioxide emissions in half. in comparison to conventional engine vehicles. Tires cause mechanical drag. set the standards even higher by producing 4. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. this reduces mechanical losses when compared with driving them continuously with traditional engine belts.5 metric tons of carbon dioxide. Hybrid vehicle emissions[edit] Hybrid vehicle emissions today are getting close to or even lower than the recommended level set by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For continuous high speed highway use these features are much less useful in reducing emissions. In addition noise emissions are reduced. etc. or 2) lithium ion. There are many types of batteries. Honda Insight and Toyota Prius.[59] Environmental impact of hybrid car battery[edit] Main article: Electric vehicle battery This section needs additional citations for verification. smooth ride. but efficiency was a lower priority).

biofuels) in conventional fossil fuel-based vehicles. . The batteries also produce higher output (boosting vehicle power).[66] In addition. The lithium-ion batteries are appealing because they have the highest energy density of any rechargeable batteries and can produce a voltage more than three times that of nickel–metal hydride battery cell while simultaneously storing large quantities of electricity as well. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.[69] and many analysts believe that an overall increase in Chinese electronics manufacturing will consume this entire supply by 2012. lithium-ion batteries deliver performance that helps to protect the environment with features such as improved charge efficiency without memory effect. [61] In general various soluble and insoluble nickel compounds. and provides excellent durability.The toxicity levels and environmental impact of nickel metal hydride batteries—the type currently used in hybrids—are much lower than batteries like lead acid or nickel cadmium.[62][63][64] The main nickel compound in NiMH batteries is nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH). (February 2014) There is an impending increase in the costs of many rare materials used in the manufacture of hybrid cars. [68] Nearly all the rare earth elements in the world come from China. such as nickel chloride and nickel oxide.[66] [67] Neodymium is another rare earth metal which is a crucial ingredient in high-strength magnets that are found in permanent magnet electric motors.[citation needed] In addition to its smaller size and lighter weight. making them go partly on renewable energy sources.[66] For example. the rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors and battery systems in hybrid propulsion systems. have known carcinogenic effects in chick embryos and rats. use of lithium-ion batteries reduces the overall weight of the vehicle and also achieves improved fuel economy of 30% better than petro-powered vehicles with a consequent reduction in CO2 emissions helping to prevent global warming. [65] Raw materials increasing costs[edit] This article is outdated.e. which is used as the positive electrode.[70] however. compared with the life of the battery being roughly equivalent to the life of the vehicle. higher efficiency (avoiding wasteful use of electricity). Hitachi is a leader in its development. Additionally. Another option is to use alternative fuel composition (i. export quotas on Chinese rare earth elements have resulted in an unknown amount of supply. Alternative green vehicles[edit] Main article: Green vehicle § Types Other types of green vehicles include other vehicles that go fully or partly on alternative energy sources than fossil fuel. the barriers to entry are high[71] and require years to go online.[67][70] A few non-Chinese sources such as the advanced Hoidas Lake project in northern Canada as well as Mount Weld in Australia are currently under development. The lithium-ion battery has attracted attention due to its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles.

"you must adapt to consumer expectations and anticipation of future desires. Peugeot/Citroën Hybrid Vehicle[edit] Peugeot and Citroën have announced that they too are building a car that uses compressed air as an energy source. as well as the convenience of fewer fill ups. the Hybrid industry has sold millions of Hybrids. or when the compressed air tank has been depleted. Researchers and analysts say people are drawn to the new technology.000 gallons per day — a tiny fraction of the 360 million gallons used per day. but in retrospect that only reduced the global use for gasoline consumption by 200. Honda. [citation needed] Hybrid car companies like Toyota. This made the new technology of Hybrids a status to obtain for many people and a must to be cool or even the practical choice for the time. With the many benefits and status of owning a Hybrid it is easy to think it's the right thing to do. by using top celebrities. Please help improve this section if you can.[citation needed] According to Bradley Berman author of Driving Change—One Hybrid at a time. gas prices have remained remarkably steady and cheap. Ford and BMW have pulled together to create a movement of Hybrid vehicle sales pushed by Washington lobbyist to lower the worlds emissions and become less reliant on our petroleum consumption.000 Hybrids. on a network of specially built guideways. and popular TV shows to market Hybrids. No cleanup reason has been specified. According to Harvard business professor Theodore Levitt states "managing products" and "meeting customers' needs". a public transportation concept that offers automated on-demand non-stop transportation. fails because marketers focus on the greenness of the product and not on the actual effectiveness. sales went beyond 200. flashier." [74] Temma Ehrenfeld explained in an article by Newsweek. and so called greener car.Other approaches include personal rapid transit. people find it rewarding to own the better. Secondly. Fuel continues to represent a small part of the overall cost of owning and operating a personal vehicle". the car they are designing uses a hybrid system which also uses a gasoline engine (which is used for propelling the car over 70 km/h. "Cold economics shows that in real dollars. With combined effort from many car companies. (September 2010) .[72] Marketing[edit] Automakers spend around $US8 million in marketing Hybrid vehicles each year.[citation needed] Adoption rate[edit] This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. However. This "Green Myopia" as Ottman calls it. Hybrid car companies have a long time to go if they expect to really go green. but in fact may not be as green as it appears. if they want a fuel efficient car they buy a Hybrid without thinking about the actual efficiency of the product. newer. except for a brief spike in the 1970s. [citation needed] In 2005. Hybrids may be more efficient than many other gasoline motors as far as gasoline consumption is concerned but as far as being green and good for the environment is completely inaccurate. In the beginning of the Hybrid movement car companies reached out to the young people. astronauts."[75] This means people buy what they want.[73] Other marketing tactics include greenwashing which is the "unjustified appropriation of environmental virtue.

These supercredits will help manufacturers further reduce the average emissions of their new car fleet. Each of these vehicles will be counted as two vehicles in 2020. and 4) e-bike purchases in China over the past few years. Council and European Commission has reached an agreement which is aimed at reducing the average CO2 passenger car emissions to 95g/km by 2020. [83] European Union 2020 Regulation Standards[edit] The European Parliament. the key details of the agreement are as follows: Emissions target: The agreement will reduce average CO2 emissions from new cars to 95 g/km from 2020.67 in 2021. According to the release. [77] and it has the potential to be very large over time as more models are offered and incremental costs decline due to learning and scale benefits.5 g/km cap per manufacturer on the contribution that supercredits can make to their target in any year. However. indicated he expects hybrids "will never comprise more than 10% of the US auto market.[79][80][81] More optimistic views include predictions that hybrids would dominate new car sales in the US and elsewhere over the next 10 to 20 years. 1.33 in 2022 and then as one vehicle from 2023 onwards. However. Supercredits for low-emission vehicles: The Regulation will give manufacturers additional incentives to produce cars with CO2 emissions of 50 g/km or less (which will be electric or plugin hybrid cars)."[78] Other sources also expect hybrid penetration rates in the US will remain under 10% for many years. These analogs collectively suggest it would take at least 30 years for hybrid and electric vehicles to capture 80% of the US passenger vehicle stock. (2) diesel electric locomotives on US railways in the 1920–1945 period. a long-time skeptic of hybrids. according to a European Commission press release. Bob Lutz. This is a 40% reduction from the mandatory 2015 target of 130 g/km. (3) a range of new automotive features/technologies introduced in the US over the past fifty years. as proposed by the Commission. This target will be in line with the EU's long-term climate goals. [76] this compares with a 17. For instance. to prevent the scheme from undermining the environmental integrity of the legislation. it allows OEMs to build some vehicles that emit less than the average and some that emit more.2% of new car sales in 2011). there will be a 2. 2025 target: The Commission is required to propose a further emissions reduction target by end-2015 to take effect in 2025. The analogs are (1) the electric motors in US factories in the early 20th century. 1. The target is an average for each manufacturer's new car fleet.[82] Another approach examines the penetration rates (or S-curves) of four analogs (historical and current) to hybrid and electrical vehicles in an attempt to gauge how quickly the vehicle stock could be hybridized and/or electrified in the United States.While the adoption rate for hybrids in the US is small today (2.[ . forecasts vary widely.1% share of new car sales in Japan in 2011.