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SPE 28641

**Some Theoretical Aspects of Gravity Drainage in Naturally Fractured
**

Reservoirs

Zhi-An Luan, University

SPE Member

of Petroleusn,Dong-Ying, China

E

Copyright

1994,

Society

ofPetroleum

Engisseem

Itsc.

‘lMs

paper

wasprepared

for

presentation

attlse

69th

Anneal

Technical

Conference

andExhibition

oftheSociety

ofPetroleum

Engineers

held

irr

NewOrlesns,Lmrisii,

September

25-28,1994.

This

paper

wasselected

for

presentation

byanSPEprogram

Committee

following

review

ofinformation

contained

inanabstract

submitted

bytheauthor(s).

Contents

ofthepaper,as

presented,

have

notbeenreviewed

bytheSociety

ofPetroleum

Engineers

andaresubject

to

cmrection

bytbeaurhor(s).

Thematerial,

aspresented,

does

notnecessarily

reflect

anyposition

oftheSociety

ofPettuleum

Engineers,

its

officers,

ormembers.

Papers

presented

atSPEmeetings

aresubject

topublication

review

byEdhorial

Committees

oftbeSociety

of

Petroleum

Engineers.

Permission

tocopyisrestricted

toart

abstract

ofnotmorethan

300words.

Illustrations

maynotbecopied.

The

abstract

should

contain

conspicuous

acknowledgement

ofwhere

andbywhomthepaper

ispresented.

Write

Librarian,

SPE,P.O.Box

833836,

Richardson,

TX 75083-3836

U.S.A.

Telex,

73Q989

SPEDAL.

(gravity,capillary, viscous,diffusive

and

relaxation) .

However, the

experimental

and

theoretical

research

on

gravity

drainage

mechanism

in naturally

fractured

reservoirs is limited. Bogomolova

and Glazova(1970)1° have observed the

end

effects

and

saturation

discontinuities on the boundaries of

unconsolidated

porous

media

with

some

different

permeability.

Hagoort(1980)12 used the classical

Buckley-Leverett theory to study the

gravity

drainage

in

homogeneous

media,and

indicated

that

oil

relative

permeability

is

a

key

factor

in

the

gravity-drainage

process.

Barenblatt’s

workl]

investigated

the end effects

in

heterogeneous media.

Recent experiments and observations

by Firoozabadi and his co-worker

(1992)5, Catalan and Dullien(1992)9

prompted us to reexamine the gravity

drainage mechanism. This study has

tried

to

examine

from

both

a

mathematical

and

a

physiical

viewpoint

the

key

features

of

gravity

drainage

in a stack of

matrix blocks. We present critical

analytical and numerical solutions

of

the

reimbibition

model

and

discuss the effect of nonequilibrium

phenomena

upon

the

saturation

Abstract

The

mathematical model of gravity

drainage

in

natural ly

fractured

reservoirs and singular perturbation

analyses are presented which explore

the ef feet of capillary, gravity, and

nettability

on

oil

saturation

distribution

and oil recovery in

reimbibition. This study shows that

wettebility

,capillary end effect

and fracture transmissibility appear

to be most important factors in oil

recovery. Numerical results are also

presented

which

summarize

and

compare the effective saturation in

nonequilibrium state with the actual

saturation

in equilibrium

state.

Based

on

work, we

this

believe

reimbibition or capillary continuity

in a stack of matrix blocks can not

provide higher oil recovery than in

continuity core.

Introduction

In recent years, growing attention

has been focused on reimbibition and

capillary

cent inuity

in

gravity

process is

drainage. M Rei~ibition

closely related to various forces

357

S(z=li.gravity drainage in a stack of matrix blocks without forced gas injection can be gas described as if there is injection at the top of the core stack. Gravity drainage can be considered as a displacement process in which gas displaces oil. naturally Gravity drainage in fractured reservoirs is an important which recovery mechanism in and gravity.viscous diffusive are fundamental forces. profile that the saturation of oil phase is the following form oil and Model and Mathematical Solutions of Gravity Drainage So(z=o.cannot be =—–—— solved m a closed form. (4) (%) Using this notation. capillary.if gravity force and capillary force are taken into account.then the condition of a zero flow velocity of oil phase at 2=0 is satisfied (2) Uo=o (7) The continuity equation of oii phase is aso+auo=o $— at — az The boundary condition at the exit section of each matrix block depends on the wetting state of matrix medium (3) The capillary pressure is the pressure difference between the oil and gas phases in oil wetting case p==pg-po=aWJ S(z=li. This perturbation method breaks the problem into three parts. If phase.t)=so.5-7)~ingeneral.the equation of one-dimensional model of reimbibition in matrix blocks of naturally fractured reservoirs can be writt& in the following form (oil-wetting) The nonlinear convection-dominated nroblem(cBq.o+ ‘%+ g ‘“x +~. In other words. The gas potential can be written as12 t)=sol (6) It means that if oil is nonwetting phase.k=o+o t)=s. Since the gas mobility is relatively high the potential drop in the gas phase is negligible. L%. We shall use perturbation approach.then oil can move out of the matrix block by imbibition into the this above free space(zcO) .we can assume 358 . Relaxation is a more complicated combination of the above forces and actions.t So I 1.distribution recovery.1 t 1.1 I Zd DM Ia!llll (1) o~=p~-p~gz=constant Darcy’s flow law of oil phase given by the following form is mixed-wet semi-permeable membrane is oil is wetting installed.1 1. Using the method of matched asymptotic expansion we seek the solution of oil saturation distribution in a stack of matrix blocks . (non-oil-wetting) (5) At the entry section in the stack of matrix blocks(z=O).4 1. The method i?S Ap gkk.then condition can be satisfied only if a Flgil Saturation Profile I.for each of which the solution has either a regular perturbation series or a singular perturbation series holding in some sub-domain.

-— solution in the regzon oiitsid~ erxl simple effect layer.if the coefficient Ncg of capillary item in Eq. (zero) -?+. as. example. We shall restrict our attention to matching mu.s tkAs Ieadmg of imer and outer solutions. In the zero approximation.the outer find firstly is to .using Eq.the inner solution clearly satisfies the boundary condition(8) . ‘-$(%J’ (12) (s.5 as the Then we can write following form as.the numerical solution and steady state solution of Eq. and positively gravity proportional to the capillary force. But his object mainly was to overcome the end effect by a new centrifuge technique. It clearly shows the large gradient of oil saturation in gravity the layer. above two boundary conditions.the fracture zone can be considered as a constant which oil saturation zone in saturation only depends on the outer oil shows the solution.o-&=o -5E p. The question now is how to determine the unknown constants of integration of Eq.”7a (9) a(KroJf(So)~)=O (13) Prandtl’s matching condition avoids the need to choose an arbitrary the ‘edge’ of boundary layer. (5) can be considered as a small parameter.it is not difficult to determine the integration constant.13 in order to give the inner From the solution.. ds .. regular perturbation is Similarly. Eq. Applying this condition to our problem leads to ——-—. “. . Fig.Hagoort have presented the analytical solution of Eq.then we have implicit the solution as the following form (lo) The inner expansion associated with the end effect boundary layer is expressed in term of a stretched variable 359 .we obtain variable that.we obtain the inner solution equation %%? /SO+ApWgkk. 1 saturation profile in a stack of matrix blocks. (5) in dimensionless form.. A boundary Buckleydrainage solution of Leverett equation will be used as an to determine outer solution saturation in the flow zone away For from matrix boundaries. On other hand. Clearly the outer solution only fails to satisfy the boundary condition(8) . % ‘K.— .ue. expar. We introduce a capillary length scale The above outer expansion is from Buckley-Leverett obtained solution at Z=li.which is a series.i7siiig some special forms of ~~~ relative permeability and Leverett function. The outer expansion(BuckleyLeverett case) is not suited for the matrix bottom boundary nearest the fracture.—— ——. (9)._ ~ne (5) beccrles th equa~loii following Buckley-Leverett problem which can be solved by the classical characteristics method The above conception implies that the length of an end effect zone is the proportional to inversely force. as the stretched becomes zero ~+O.. On other hand. an inner solution found which holds in end effect layer..hence the oil saturation distribution in the boundary layer is in the quasi-steady state. Let us now consider inner solution or inner expansion.)+=O The inner and outer expansions are matched over a zone located at the edge of the boundary layer.ll.then -. The outer solution slowly varies in the inner solution time scale.

e. m4 variables (Eq.) ~o_oil-wet ~s ‘=/ K=O(SO)-K=O(SO.1. Solutions Integrll w-<----------------------------------- inwhich A=~=tlm ------------ (16) ------------ .an influence degree of end effect.the oil saturation profile ~s m+vnn ~~~~~ diffe~~~~ =----.2 Inner QC-8 i . t Bo U. Surfactant solutions provide a means of reducing the energy required to overcome oil retention layer.wettability.the will capillary retention effect gradually increase. permeability %(SJ increases at all oil saturation..s 0“ K=O(SO)J’ (SO) C=JK. capillary force.11) and the match to condition.O(SO)-IC=O(SO. ) .)-Kro(Sol) ‘“ oil-wet Computational results in Fig. +hst the hrnmdaw .1 —- *. From this soiution. the boundary . (ii).. It outer equal above .then saturation profile in the matrix blocks will be greatly distorted by capillary end effect.+-” --------—-—always is at forwardstream of all In the limiting case boundaries.2 are obtained Qy the explicit Romberg and stheme difference integration.then we conclude t~t the downstream saturation So(t>O) mustbe solution..~one.1. across any saturation discontinuity exist only on the matrix bottom boundaries. When length scales of matrix are blocks in reimbibition comparable the capillary with characteristic the scale.1 and Fig. respectively.iMnl+a. (iii) .) s: ‘ oil-wet ~s ‘ (15) We introduce a new variable &i.O(SO)J’ (S.” --------- 80.L=. tall The inner solution of the above form describes the relationship between the influence degree of end effect and the parameters as gravity force. -—J -- .of fracture medium is kf.~titching and condition so (t + ~) Eq.hf.) so ‘0 K. Note that there is saturation discontinuity But this fracture. (see Fig...f~~ which specific saturation values equate the inner and outer terms. The length of an end effect zone.1.1 88. 1 aver *.[&. & gravity energy during gravity drainage process decreases.1) To prove that this conclusion is valid. it is not difficult obtain the following form of inner solution kro(sy)] dSO_ I [l—-— k=O(Se) d~ J~(SO) (17) the Leverett The derivative of function is always positive for oil phase in the oil wet or non-oil wet The function of relative media. e.we conclude that (i). inversely proportional to the ~ravity force.et.i.2.4 —----- l. (!.&.-s” ‘rO(sO)J’(sO) ds ApWgli~: / Kro(S. the length of the oil retention zcine .12) tinner I Fig.18. In Fig. Reducing the surface tension of the liquid can decrease the end effect.which confirm that surfactant solutions increase oil recovery and drainage rateh.Using the inner solution model (Eq.then it is clear that ~’o at SOX3Ft 2<0 at S0430Wt dc (18) Taking into account the ..then the above solution rewritten as ~ ~~ ‘0” K=O(SO)J’(SO) ~s J Apoggli$ Kro(so)-K=o(sol) no:oil-wet A.we can think of gravity drainage across the boundary between fracture as a matrix and displacement process in which the of matrix medium is permeability k..al presented works on surfactant effects on flow through fractured porous media.

For these conditions the phase permeability for the wetting phase is temporarily higher. Phenomena Nonequilibrium Gravity Drainage pg-p. nO=0.—.—L . Let us assume the nonlinear coefficients have the following form and constants w=O.~ay [re~axac~onj !cf establishing a new equilibrium state are most important.. in contrast..equa~~on cunLMmLLy In some gravity drainage processes.JA. Barenblatt constructs a general theoretical framework for nonequilibrium phenomena in waterflooding processes and discusses technique specific for counterblow capillary imbibition”.i.the strongly wetting phase (oil) along narrower channels and nonwetting phase (gas) along wider channels.---L J--\ *:-LA1lle ue. This is partly due to characteristic that the imbibition time of low-permeability matrix blocks in gravity drainage can be comparable to the time required to capillary establish is eouilibriurn.a typical case occurs when oil and gas flow through the fracture between matrix blocks. Then the displaced oil will come to the wider channels.19rthe —-— 3 ?hefi can be express as (22) The simplest algorithm for this nonlinear convection-dominated equation is the FTCS scheme.it partly a reflection of a great difference in the permeability between fracture and matrix systems. . nonequilibrium phenomena caused by J1-l_. It implies that there is an increased saturation of the wetting phase.=&(K)=a~J(%) (21) in With equations _—.5L ‘z (24) ‘6=A:2 Then we have the following implicit finite difference expression —— --ii?r-_d -ajS~~!l+bjS~~l+cjSOj+lj (25) where Generalized written as ‘i- Darcy’s --~krj(30)VPJ lJ:2__ (l=Q.At ‘-Aza. Also.and pressure —=-—————— . The corresponding forward time. It is apparent that for gravity drainagertwo move phases along different channels.25+$./J +p(sojJP6) Cjo=(m+no) a(S$)+n6P(SOj+112) (20) and the right item in the implicit scheme is 361 .The pressure difference of between the two phases is given by the followincJ when the permeability of the approaches an downstream medium infinite permeability:the capillary end effect in the (fracture) medium will be neglected(see Fig.18.e.-— ---LJ-.g.centred finite space difference representation for Eq.for non-wetting phase is lower than that in the equilibrium state... It will be assumed that the difference between the effective saturation and the actual saturation only depends on the local rate of variation of the actual saturation and the relaxation time for the nonequilibrium 17.---. ..1) .22 is constructed by locally freezing the nonlinear coefficients. law can ajo=(~+nO) a(S$)+%’P(SOj-l/2) be bjo=l+t[p(s$+.

3 in which the time value td=0....t 4 1... .2 -----------------------..initial gravitycapillary potential should be represented by the profile with an approximate constant gradient shown in Fig.. But the capillary pressure discontinuity associated with end effects is possible.... .. It is apparent that the gravity potential at any point in porous/fractured system only is a function of height...<Aa . .4 —— --- 1 . =-:zz:-. Cu.- Jt !l.density and gravity acceleration.1 .. For the same liquid the potential depends oniy on the height. energy at the top of any fracture always is greater than that at the bottom. in connective closed porous/frac&re system or practical oil reservoirs.+ --—— be reevaluated at every time step..3 Nonequillbrium Nco=D.~ drainage simulation can be used to determine the oil distribution profile. The relaxation parameters are r=le4.. Effect Td=D..= . -------.. E xf+...GravitylCapillary Reimbibition Potential Much simulation work has presented that initial gravity-capillary potential profile of matrix discontinuity in hydrostatic state case and that in the “capillary continuity! The potential case... The case T=O is degenerate and corresponds to the simple gravity drainage case which do not take account of non equilibrium effects../.4 la#. Cj.-e.= [1-(%’-n~) (13j+l/2+i3j-l/2) 1Z (no-w) a+ (m--m) 13j+112) 1so~+l .21 permits direct use of the Thomas algorithm.u.there is not any difference significant initial potential between the profiles of matrix biOckS in the called “capillary discontinuity” -----.. The computational results “ dimensionless form obtained from t% above program is shown in Fig.m” MI% 994 .the liquid bridge or the liquid the permeable film in vertical fracture totally can pressureprovide a good transmissibility channel between the matrix blocks. ./2) 1 Sj-I +[ (27) clear that the coefficients al ...j = -- conditions encountered in gravi.. In fact. tie. ‘Zd CQllltbrlm W. The gravity potential clearly is independent on contact property between two matrix blocks.le. respectively... so 1.. .5e-4 and 10e-4.. . . .the .. tal..m-%. ..kl . However the form of Eq.03 are used.4(b). In oil-wetting case. The liquid column... The contact property only can affect hydrodynamic transmissibility between matrix blocks. .. Certainly.UG -----.Ga...-::-l ---------------- - becomes a discontinuous tooth form as shown in Fig..4(a) .. .. The solution profile is characterized by a relaxation process. On other hand.la.. The FORTRAN program applicable over a ..=-=i. are function for So and must It is Flg./--------------------------------------:1X ‘“1‘---------- -7<. It is not true...d... and capillary number Ncg=O. Some Aspects Mechenism of l.[ (no-%) a..then fluid flow across the fracture occurs only by this potential difference....cau..=-~---”---~ ---= ------I 1 —..(w’-nj ) Pj-.there always exists some overburden pressure which also does not permit the existence of any gravity potential discontinuity.1 03.bj.2.. ’”’” t*l.... .

’s experiments rate of demonstrate that the drainage across a stack of matrix blocks is governed by the fracture liquid transmissibility which is very sensitive to the fracture aperture. It implies that contact and contact area are not a main governed factor in reimbibition. Without of generality. Ki->O and Kic~.as showed in Fig. average conditions .=———-. ~~dver=b-l[K~b~+K#P+~#fl(28) 2. The presented simulation conclusions are seemly lacking in support of fundamental laboratory studies.of this fractured system: initial cfravity-capillary potential profile ‘is a smooth line because capillary continuity is established Even in no-oilfor oil phase.5.the wetting phase is concentrated in a less permeable zone and nonwetting phase in a more permeable zone! when EWQ phases flow crosses the boundary as showed in Fig.’ In order to study this mechanical continuity.Nettability . some (29) The above simple equation shows that the conception of fracture system permeability in double porosity and permeability theoryll generally is Hence tin naturally correct . and that there is dramatically higher recovery for the with-contact case than for the without contact case.1. Conversely.the In these width b~ of a pure fracture can take as the same order of magnitude average width bi of impermeable rock obtain the then we bridge.the capillary pressure curves depend on the permeability. In heterogeneous media.it generally is true that I$>=&. & >> %.5.the contact area of an impermeable or permeable rock bridge between two matrix blocks can the influence not strongly transmissibility of the fracture system.& be the permeability of a “pure” fracture with width b~ .the 363 . Using width as the weight parameter. wetting case. 3.we can give an average permeability kf.at least mechanically. Firoozabadi et.there always exist some contacts between matrix blocks. fractured media.it is enough to improve our understanding of reimbibition. discontinuity can only influence the fractures(see Fig.—4 continuity . Let & be the matrix permeability . In Catalan and Dullien’s presented connate brine experiments .we loss suppose that the stack includes two types of mechanical medium between two matrix blocks: (i) an impermeable rock bridge with the permeability value 1$ (near zero value) and its average contact width bi. They have indicated that transmissibility may not be sensitive to the number of contact points or the contact area. ‘permeable matrix contacts’ do not ensure complete capillary continuity since in a matrix blocks the stack of of establishment capillary continuity strongly is governed by capillary end effect in matrix blocks .and following result: simulation researches indicate that key of effects on the reimbibition is the with-contact or the without-contact. In fact.let us consider a stack of matrix blocks as showed in Fig.-.w.(ii) a permeable rock bridge with the permeability value ~ and its average contact width bP.gravity profile is a capillary smooth The 1ine.al. The capll~ary continuity or the capillary discontinuity has a far more narrowly specified physical discontinuity meaning. Though only a few experimental researches have touched with the physical mechanism of gravity drainage in fractured reservoirs. Capillary pressure means that capillary sections of disappears at some medium. AS many researchers recognize that matrix blocks can not just remain suspended in the fluids existing in the fractures and that a certain degree of continuity must exist across the fractures. Catalan and Dullien’s experiments also shows that permeable contacts and even closed contacts not ensure can canillarv .Contact Area property and Contact fractured For practical reservoirs..4 parts near (a)) ..

gravity drainage in a stack of 364 . But in the absence of overburden pressure the core stack given lower recovery factor since a significant capillary end effect in each of matrix blocks exists.if the capillary end effect can be eliminated or largely reduced using continuity some agent.its primary recovery appears to be aided by the presence of natural fractures which act as important drainage channels. In Exp. for continuous core) . It shows that capillary continuity was established for wetting the phase(water) .and that recovery waterflooding in efficiency of naturally fractured reservoirs is matrix LIumld lrlmmloslblllty bloct! IIII . } Id blocks.3 and Exp.if the length of matrix is comparable with the characteristic length scale of capillary(see Eq. In fact.and nonequilibrium effect can not be neglected.and resulting ~r=~~-age r~~e and recovery were essentially that of the continuous core. for exampie.and layer of mixed-wet paste was inserted between the two plugs. Catalan and Dullien9. 1’ 4. In fracture reservoirs.Recovery Efficiency As we have indicated. Our point of view is that reimbibition phenomena can not increase oil recovery in stack of matrix blocks. blocks was only.then called reimbibition phenomenon itself will have not any n .the waterflooding residual oil recovered of a stack of matrix C2 7s.a contacted directly.7 that..the gas saturation was relatively high at FIJ. In some fractured reservoirs .4..Decauge the fracture capillary continuity was not established for no-wetting oil phase.even with some capillary continuity. . continuity It means that reimbibition mechanism not can provide same oil recovery efficiency waterflooding in of naturally fractured reservoirs in as homogeneous porous media.La!AL ““ “a’~+ is VA.w”nicn generally is called as the capillary discontinuity. The capillary pressure in the fracture region may become a little or zero vaiue. It is not an accepted fact.however.4. Waterflooding recovery in practical fractured reservoirs also shows that the presence of natural fractures which become potential avenues for the water to bypass large volumes of the oil contained in the matrix total failures in often causes conventional waterflooding. In a mixed/wet paste experiment.some simulation works considered that reimbibition or called ‘block to block’ process in fractured reservoirs can greatly increase oil recovery efficiency.*.found that though the contact faces of the matrix blocks were polished and contacted directlytafter 52 days of gravity drainage. in the limiting case when the permeability of the downstream fracture region may increase infinitely(fracture or freedom space). When the oil flow is directed from the less permeable matrix into a more permeable f r a c tur e region.the faces of the core plugs were polished and in Exp.10) .>0. the then saturation distribution will be considerably distorted by this capillary discontinuity effect. Howeverjin same case if a layer of mixed-wet paste was inserted between the two matrix blocks one can reproduce the with results obtained continuous cores because the paste eliminated capillary end effects.specially. But in Exp. secondary recovery operations are not effective because frackwes frequently act as channels the for early breakthrough of injected water.mixed-wet semi-permeable membranes.the oil saturation discontinuity in nonwetting media may appear on the boundaries. Suffridge and Renner’s experiments show another interesting fact that addition of 6895 Kpa net over-burden pressure to fractured the core appeared to Ilhealll fractures.can not give a higher oil recovery than that in the core.3.3.-Dw .saturations after gravity drainage were very close in their Exp.for We consider the core analysis of fractured reservoirs.

1991 4’77-84.– @ = porosity References “Simulation of 1.Stones.—. :’’TheEffeCt of Connectivity Capillary Across Fractures on Gravity Horizontal From Fractured Porous Drainage Media.D. total contact width b~ contact width of Dure fracture b~= contact width of i-~ermeable rock bjo = coefficient of jth space item b. 16-18.= pressure of oil phase ajo= * a = nonlinear coefficient function f3= nonlinear coefficient function A%= density difference of oil-gas 6= small parameter ~= influence degree of end effect p~= gas viscosity pO. : Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.October 4-7. : Reservoir Engineering of Fractured Resenoirs.wasnington DC. interracial tension ~ = relaxation parameter *O = oil potential z~ .= oil relative permeability li= length of i-th matrix block lP= capillary length scale ~. The new model of reimbibition and singular perturbation analyses are presented. Then it becomes oil possible to determine the saturation profile in a stack of matrix blocks. . .E. 4. Saidi. oil density ~.--—-_——.M. 2. The more number of contact points. Fung:’’Simulation of Processes in Block-to-Block Fractured Reservoirs.” SPE 24919 presented Technical 1992 SPE Annual the Conference & Exhibition. Firoozabadi.K. The nettability. 2. gas density o . -. oil viscosity ~ = inner variable (a . .~’= constant PC= capillary pressure P~= Pressure of gas phase p.A. and Marsden. : f!~ Experimental Study of the GasLiquidTransmissibility in Fractured Porous Media.Zimmerman.--a: UL IllCUAa ki= p2i31WFd3ilit-ypermeability of permeable media ~= k. The numerical results in this when the paper confirms that the characteristic time of matrix saturation variation in L.M. 6.Chien.Amsterdam(1982). . Saidi.Total. t’ SPE 24920 presented the 1992 SPE Annual Technical Conference & Exhibition.and liquid transmissibility govern flow in a stack of matrix blocks.[llpe?I1lleaLJAe J—.and Markeset. Some important mechanisms in reimbibition processes fully is revealed.San Francisco. capillary fracture end effect.T.contact area or capillary continuity —-. It is not true that reimbibition may be greatly increase oil recovery efficiency of waterflooding— in naturally fractured reservoirs.Washington DC.October 4-7.A.can not give a higher Oil recovery than that in the continuity core.is WALU tk tiRE D1OCJCS ~~iilj?~~~bk “-2’L required to establish capillary equilibrium nonequilibrium the phenomena in gravity drainage must be considered. -—.T. J.S.V.~’= constant NC~ = capillary number ~. 3.”. Larry S.A.S. 4. Paris (1988) . 3. ” SPE 12270 presented the 1983 SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium. Van Golf-Rachat.J. C. gas notential = _ –-. Naturally SPE RE Nov. Elsevier Publishing Co.A. Nomenclature coefficient of j-lth space item b. 5.-.lower than reservoirs. that in homogeneous SO= actual oil saturation effective oil saturation SO* = high oil saturation s& = low oil saturation Sfl= inner solution saturation Soalt = outer solution saturation t = time td = dimensionless time At= time step ~= oil flow velocity z= vertical distance Az= space step zd= dimensionless distance s. : Fundamental of Fractured Reservoir Scientific Engineering. .-&l . = contact width of matrix block bP = contact width of permeable rock Cjo =coefficient of j+lth space item dj= right item of difference scheme fO= fractional flow for oil g= acceleration of gravity J= Leverett’s capillary function k= absolute permeability kp permeability of pure fracture average permeability of system %er= . S. Conclusions 1.Nov.

: Theory of Fluid Flows Trough Natural 7. 12.V.M.A. Hagoort.V.1991. : llDiff~~i~n and drainage Gravity Tests to support the Development of a Dual Porosity Simulation. Formulation fOr B.Meyer: “Improved in Naturally Gravity Segregation Fractured Reservoirs. ” JCPT.Eng. F. ” Soc. May 1992. 11.9.L: “Applications of Mixed-Wet Pastes in Gravity Drainage Experiments.A.E. European IOR-Symposium in Stavanger.Renner. NeftepromyslovOye Delo.” the 6th.Suffridge.5-9. : and gas ‘t The influence of oil reservoirs heterogeneity on residual water distribution.M. 10.Norway 21-23. 9.J. T.and Dullien. .” the 6th. : “Oil Recovery by Gravity Drainage.V.F. Rocks.da 8. “ (in Russian). (June.and Glazova.28-30.M.N0. Barenblatt.1980) 366 .1990.Entov.F. and Ryzhik. 139-150.Norway 21-23. Kluwer Academic Publishers.. I. Bogomolova. European IOR-Symposium in Stavanger.Pet.V.G.J. 1970.L. Catalan.A.1991. Silva and F.

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