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__-CHI_iCAL

JOT_S

_A_0_AL

_HE

ADVISORY

I,,_P_

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CO_ITTEE

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FOR

AERON

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DURING

Aerodyn_._ical

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LANDING

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REPRODUCEDBY

NATIONAL TECHNICAL

INFORMATION

SERVICE

U. $. DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE

SPRINGFIELD,VA. 22161

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DOCUMENT

FROM

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THE

IS

ARE

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COPY

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INFORMATION

IT

OF

ALTHOUGH

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IS

US

BEING

MAKING

AS

PORTIONS

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BY

IT

NATIONAL

ADVISORY

C0_ITTEE

TECHI_ICAL

THE

IY_PACT

ON

_[0TE

SEAPLANE

By

Th.

FOR

l_0. Z21.

FLOATS

von

AERONAUTICS.

DURING

LANDING.

Karman.

Introduction

In

order

especially

lage,

to

of

it

is

the

great

the

acting

on

ments

have

been

found

_6

Recently

in

landing

located

in

different

of

these

I tried

to

develop

during

that

the

sults,

*As

to

yet

formula

_ud

present

unpublished.

of

model

on

reading

investigations

landing

so

b_dies

very

herewith

that

and

each

of

(Reference

last

a formula

for

different

with

development

cf

683

and

made

was

the

set

When

visit

at

I first

to

America,

maximum

might

be

I found

experimental

the

dur-

indicatcrs

results

of

be

occurring

velocities.

the

can

been

_).

my

experi-

pendulum.

which

experimental

well

the

impact

pressures

during

theoretically

583,

have

series

fuse-

full-scale

Nos.

and

pres-

of

experiments

maximum

float,

the

maximum

series

and

a large

of

floats,

with

the

Memoranda

means

the

pressure

checked

floats

investigations

actual

by

seaplane

determine

for

and

mounted

_btained

different

the

ea_d full-scale

_ermany,

the

bottom

learned

applied

In

of

landing.

both

Reports

America

maximum

pressures

out,

fioats,

the

to

during

model

I).

were

connecting

floats

English

full-size

analysis

importance

of

(Reference

with

ing

the

stress

carried

Results

in

members

of

sure

fl_ats.

make

re-

formula.

N.A.C.A.

Technical

_Tote No.

Derivation

The problem

manner.

the

Impact

as it

force

in the following

cylindrical

strikes

acting

........

Formula

approximately

a horizontal

surface

and calculate

of the

m_y be treated

We consider

shaped under

$21

body with

a wedge-

surface

of water,

a horizontal

between

"<...... * - 7-:W......

....... i ..........

I

Fig.l

Let

V_ =

inclination

y =

the

time

part

force

mentum

body

ferred

of

the

vertical

t,

of

this

by

of

and

to

Sx

of

2x

body

under

2y

in

the

the

body

water.

water

as

is

of

is

body

per

length,

angle

of

(Fig.

I),

with

the

through

which

the

body

travels

in

the

breadth

of

the

the

water.

the

That

the

corresponding

We

proceed

momentum

distributed

at

unit

surfaces

cot a

the

application

the

the

distance

and

approximated

width

weight

part

at

of

time

the

t

follows.

It

is

accelerated

in

a fluid,

calculate

theorem.

The

the

time

momentum

depends

knov_n

to

that

its

horizontal,

original

between

already

cn

if

is

mothe

trans-

and

a long

inertia

the

can

plate

be

of

increased

N.A.C.A.

by

Technical

the

amount

fluid.

the

In

plate

Note

f x_ _

other

is

equal

to

of

di_neter

the

case

of

the

ary

cylinder

and

half

will

be,

on

fore

it,

and

But

the

the

water,

of

the

real

We

equal

to

to

on

the

other

hand,

of

the

On

account

value

is

write,

air

width

of

assume

of

the

to

suck

trifle

for

the

the

in

water,

be

the

water

the

of

the

bottom

of

circular

But

the

in

im_inhell

of

the

of

float

particles

air

compared

half

the

mass

composed

effect

in

of

plate.

the

wedge-shaped

a

time

will

words,

but

the

the

negligible

we

therefore,

at

the

accelerate

is

probably

velocity

contained

other

hand,

of

fluid

entering

one

density

increase

mentioned

In

the

of

float

first

therefore

downward

represents

the

effect

mass.

mass

air.

apparent

the

fluid

of

the

seaplane

of

$21

where

words,

cylinder

water

No.

be-

behind

with

that

apparent

of

it.

the

of

increase

float,

smaller.

total

momentum,

where

v =

t,

M=Wv+x

which

must

be

equal

to

the

original

g=Wv

momentum

o

g

vo

To

serves

faces

be

to

not

velocity

sure,

there

decrease

too

the

shazply

at

is

moment

also

momentum;

inclined,

of

the

effect

but

the

first

for

effect

contact.

of

buoyancy,

floats

may

with

be

which

under

neglected.

sur-

N.A.C.A.

Technical

1;_t

.

_ L_.

\I"

321

Sett in_

dy

dt

we

d___xx

dt

tan m

_bt ain

W dx

tabu m

_i + P

\

g dt

w g x_

_

2 W

/

W vc '

g

wh_re

_=

Pg

or

d_xx{I + _w

k

dt

as

the

law

giving

the

x2h

= v o c_ta

./

relation

between

sinking

velocity

and

depth,

Writing

this

in

the

form

v 0

dx_

dt

it

is

easy

to

I +

d

dx

! /dxh

_.dt / 2]

cot2

2 W

we

easily

obtain

the

p = W

d__

dt2

Vo_

t'l

the

average

pressure

7 n xh

(

/

expzession

and

'

gives

Vo2

Now

w x_

2W

cal_ulat_

d2x

dt _

which

cot

for

oct

_2%

the

fcrce

of

impact,

p_x

x_3

/

as

Q

as

N.A.C.A.

Technical

Note

No.

321

P v_ a

2x

_ cot

(I + _ _ x_h3

_,

The

float

pressure

stud at

is

the

evidently

moment

of

Pmax

The

term

to

the

impact

theoretioal

of

ing

velocity

of

of

the

the

of

middle

the

therefore

w cot a

O vc s

2

re,

increase.

under

the

dynmzic

and

the

For

different

surfaces

pressure

term

a,

correspond-

w cota

is

values

we

of

obtain

the

the

the

angle

fol!_w-

table.

32.

O0

I0 o

15 o

17.22

11.72

Comparison

The

20;

vo

in

contact,

represents

factor

inclination

VO_

2

ing

a maximum

first

2W

value

this

2,

7

w cot

gives

3,

4,

of

the

for

angle

several

8.63

6.64

45

30

i 5.44

3.14

Experiments

in

the

values

of

American

the

measurements

sinking

was

velocity

3 m/_

4 m/s

0.02

0.045

0.08

arm.

0.173

0.388

0.69

arm.

2 m/s

v_

2 g

7

25o

m/s.

vo

with

20

Voe

,,,g

The

atm.

actual

measurements

Unfortunately,

however,

gave

the

a maximum

downward

value

velocity

of

about

was

not

0.5

N.A.C.A.

Technical

_ooe'"

_

17c. 381

measured

directly,

therefore

value

frcm

ing

s_ugle.

gle

about

4.1

m/s.

with

" 6,

is

seen,

through

about

For

m/s,

was

of

probable

20-2S

and

velocity

the

approximate

value

m/s

that

notice

that

inst_omce,

if

50-80

givim_

an

of

the

of

the

gliding

about

formula

glidan-

3.3

checks

well

experiments.

to

a height

3-4

the

therefore,

interesting

calculate

a downwai'd

these

stone order.

must

and

speed

giving

of

we

speed

l_udin_

results

is

the

wave

ef

the

landin_

The

It

It

_f

the

rise

cm,

to

waves

a

it

may

cause

seaplane

will

is

pressure

lifted

by

fsll

with

a velocity

of

0.4-0.7

atmos-

a pressure

phere..

The

It

remains

bottomed

an

to

float,

infinite

consider

where

impact

therefore

consideration.

It

for

pressure

against

maximum

the

surface

is

possible

of

the

momentary

takes

at

the

speed

@ F

c dt,

body.

to

the

Since

v_

in

mass

where

the

velocity

time

.dt,

this

since

the

of

case

case

in

sound

the

water

obtain

when

the

in

surface

of

of

mass

this

force

been

fluid,

the

is

acting

assumed

be

body

taken

the

fluid

is

strikes

in

The

a fluid

d@signated

time

dt

struck

increased

p F

into

value

manner.

pressure

in

_ives

approximate

foll_wing

the

flat-

formula

has

a flat

of

the

must

an

accelerated

the

of

compressibility

increase

fluid

F = the

the

In

to

a fluid

Float

limiting

occurring

of

Therefore

O.

the

propagation

place

the

pressure,

incompressible;

the

Flat-Bottomed

by

from

c vo

by

o.

is

the

zero

and

the

_

_J.A.C.A.

Technical

pressure

is

_o_e

_ _

No.

321

Thus

the

pressure

appears

as

a faotcr

2_q

times

the

stag-

V o

nation

pressure.

eral

downward

Following

are

velocities,

values

with

Vo

c =

1450

Zc

of

the

pressure

m/s

for

1450

967

72_

29

45.5

for

sev-

water.

VO,,

(atm.)

58

}

I

These

would

values

arise

in

of

an

whole

construction

ter

under

compression,

in

flout

connecting

and

the

are

airplane,

is

it

is

since

magnitudes

higher

the

greater

evident,

is

the

doubtless

since

probably

construction

members,

stressed,

pressure

actu[_l

the

bottom

the

elastic

than

however,

unfavorable,

struts

of

the

and

than

yielding

that

of

the

that

flat-

especially

bracings

stresses

are

are

of

wa-

for

the

highly

difficult

to

estimate.

Further

These

For

one

studied

the

could

true

thing,

as

bottom

be

calculations

well

of

more

shape

the

of

as

the

variation

the

much

of

float,

and

the

for

pressure

of

iioreover,

calculated,

room

the

distribution

float,

exactly

the

leave

Investigation

further

with

maximtun

the

taking

pressure

apparent

into

development.

time

could

pressure

over

increase

<_onsideration

distribution

over

of

be

mass

the

the

length

of

of

subject

the

great

t=e

value

Yore

float

obtained.

together

in

Z_o. 321

with

improvin_

A thorough

oyo_ematlc

_

_+_-

seaplane

theoretical

experiments

treatment

would

ke

design.

Translation

by

Frank

L. War

_

Aachen

University.

References

I.

Bottomley,

Baker,

G.

t_qd

Ke_y,

E.

G.

Experiments

(2d series).

m:Ld i.:emoranda

S.

_

Wm. Froude

Nat'l

Tank & Xarine

m_d

Armsment

Experimented

E_o

Io_

t,

Roya_l Air Force

Thompson,

F.

The Impact

of

on Water

(18th

A.C.A.

Reports

191D.

L.

a iodei

Seapl_ne

Float

series).

British

and Her_oranda

.'To. 583,

with

Full-Sized

British

A.R.C.

No.

G83,

1920.

l,lachines

Reports

_

E .86, Imoact

Tests.

P.5 _lyzng

_oat

Experiments

with

Full-Size

l,iachines

3d series).

British

A.R.C.

Reports

and _emora!_da

No. 988,

1924.

Water

plrme

Report

Pressure

Distribution

on

Float.

N.A.C.A.

Technical

No, 290,

1928.

a Sea-

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