You are on page 1of 10

|

__-CHI_iCAL

JOT_S

_A_0_AL

_HE

ADVISORY

I,,_P_
_ _

0_

CO_ITTEE

_E__PLANE

FLOATS

FOR

AERON
_
TAU __ z CS

DURING

By Th. yon Kazman


Aerodyn_._ical
Institute
_ ecz_.Ic_"
_._ High
SchoOl,

LANDING

of the
Aachen

Waahi_ton

oot6 z,

REPRODUCEDBY

NATIONAL TECHNICAL
INFORMATION
SERVICE
U. $. DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE
SPRINGFIELD,VA. 22161

.o

NOTICE

THIS

DOCUMENT

FROM

THE

THE
IS
ARE

HAS
COPY

BEST

SPONSORING
RECOGNIZED

THE

AS

MUCH

REPRODUCED

FURNISHED

AGENCY.
THAT

ILLEGIBLE,

IN

BEEN

INTEREST
INFORMATION

IT
OF

ALTHOUGH
CERTAIN

IS

US

BEING
MAKING
AS

PORTIONS
RELEASED
AVAILABLE
POSSIBLE.

BY
IT

NATIONAL

ADVISORY

C0_ITTEE

TECHI_ICAL

THE

IY_PACT

ON

_[0TE

SEAPLANE
By

Th.

FOR

l_0. Z21.

FLOATS

von

AERONAUTICS.

DURING

LANDING.

Karman.

Introduction

In

order

especially
lage,

to

of

it

is

the

great
the

acting

on

ments

have

been

found
_6

Recently

in

landing

located

in

different
of

these

I tried

to

develop
during

that

the

sults,
*As

to

yet

formula

_ud

present

unpublished.

of

model

on

reading

investigations

landing

so

b_dies
very

herewith

that
and

each

of

(Reference
last

a formula

for

different
with

development

cf

683

and
made

was

the

set

When

visit

at

I first

to

America,

maximum
might

be

I found

experimental
the

dur-

indicatcrs

results

of

be

occurring

velocities.
the

can

been

_).

my

experi-

pendulum.

which

experimental

well
the

impact

pressures

during

theoretically

583,
have

series

fuse-

full-scale

Nos.

and

pres-

of

experiments

maximum

float,

the

maximum

series
and

a large

of

floats,

with

the

Memoranda

means

the

pressure

checked

floats

investigations

actual
by

seaplane

determine

for

and

mounted

_btained

different

the

ea_d full-scale

_ermany,

the

bottom

learned

applied

In

of

landing.

both

Reports

America

maximum

pressures

out,

fioats,

the

to

during

model

I).

were

connecting

floats

English

full-size

analysis

importance

of

(Reference

with

ing

the

stress

carried

Results
in

members

of

sure

fl_ats.

make

re-

formula.

N.A.C.A.

Technical

_Tote No.

Derivation
The problem
manner.

the

Impact

as it

force

in the following

cylindrical

strikes

acting

........

Formula

approximately

a horizontal

surface

and calculate

of the

m_y be treated

We consider

shaped under

$21

body with

a wedge-

surface

of water,

a horizontal

between

the body and the water.

"<...... * - 7-:W......
....... i ..........
I

Fig.l

Let

V_ =

inclination
y =

the

time
part
force
mentum
body
ferred

of

the

vertical

t,
of

this

by
of
and
to

Sx

of

2x
body

under

2y

in

the
the

body
water.
water
as

is

of
is

body

per

length,

angle

of

(Fig.

I),

with

the

through

which

the

body

travels

in

the

breadth

of

the

the

water.
the

That
the

corresponding

We

proceed

momentum

distributed

at

unit

surfaces

cot a

the

application
the

the

distance

and

approximated
width

weight

part

at
of

time

the
t

follows.

It

is

accelerated

in

a fluid,

calculate

theorem.

The

the

time

momentum

depends

knov_n

to

that
its

horizontal,

original
between

already
cn

if

is

mothe

trans-

and

a long

inertia

the

can

plate

be
of

increased

N.A.C.A.

by

Technical

the

amount

fluid.
the

In

plate

Note

f x_ _

other
is

equal

to

of

di_neter

the

case

of

the

ary

cylinder
and

half

will

be,

on

fore

it,

and

But

the

the

water,

of
the

real
We

equal

to

to

on

the

other

hand,

of

the

On

account

value

is

write,

air

width

of

assume

of

the

to

suck

trifle

for

the

the
in

water,
be

the

water
the

of

the

bottom

of

circular
But

the

in

im_inhell

of

the

of

float

particles

air

compared

half

the

mass

composed

effect

in

of

plate.

the

wedge-shaped
a

time

will

words,

but

the

the

negligible

we

therefore,
at

the

accelerate

is

probably

velocity

contained

other

hand,

of

fluid

entering

one

density

increase

mentioned

In

the

of

float

first

therefore

downward

represents

the

effect

mass.

mass

air.

apparent

the

fluid
of

the

seaplane

of

$21

where

words,

cylinder

water

No.

be-

behind

with

that

apparent
of

it.

the

of

increase
float,

smaller.
total

momentum,

where

v =

t,

M=Wv+x

which

must

be

equal

to

the

original

g=Wv

momentum

o
g

vo

To
serves
faces

be
to

not

velocity

sure,

there

decrease
too

the

shazply

at

is

moment

also

momentum;
inclined,

of

the

effect

but
the

first

for
effect

contact.

of

buoyancy,

floats
may

with
be

which
under

neglected.

sur-

N.A.C.A.

Technical

1;_t
.
_ L_.
\I"

321

Sett in_
dy
dt

we

d___xx
dt

tan m

_bt ain
W dx

tabu m

_i + P
\

g dt

w g x_
_
2 W
/

W vc '
g

wh_re

_=

Pg

or

d_xx{I + _w
k

dt

as

the

law

giving

the

x2h

= v o c_ta

./

relation

between

sinking

velocity

and

depth,
Writing

this

in

the

form
v 0

dx_
dt

it

is

easy

to

I +

d
dx

! /dxh
_.dt / 2]

cot2

2 W

we

easily

obtain

the

p = W

d__

dt2

Vo_
t'l

the

average

pressure

7 n xh

(
/

expzession

and

'

gives

Vo2

Now

w x_
2W

cal_ulat_

d2x
dt _

which

cot

for

oct
_2%

the

fcrce

of

impact,

p_x

x_3
/

as
Q

as

N.A.C.A.

Technical

Note

No.

321

P v_ a

2x

_ cot

(I + _ _ x_h3
_,

The
float

pressure

stud at

is

the

evidently

moment

of

Pmax

The

term

to

the

impact

theoretioal
of
ing

velocity
of

of

the

the

of

middle

the

therefore

w cot a

O vc s
2

re,

increase.
under

the

dynmzic

and

the

For

different

surfaces

pressure

term

a,

correspond-

w cota

is

values

we

of

obtain

the

the

the

angle

fol!_w-

table.

32.

O0

I0 o

15 o

17.22

11.72

Comparison

The
20;
vo

in

contact,

represents

factor

inclination

VO_

2
ing

a maximum

first

2W

value

this
2,

7
w cot

gives
3,

4,

of

the

for

angle

several

8.63

6.64

45

30

i 5.44

3.14

Experiments

in

the

values

of

American
the

measurements

sinking

was

velocity

3 m/_

4 m/s

0.02

0.045

0.08

arm.

0.173

0.388

0.69

arm.

2 m/s

v_
2 g
7

25o

m/s.

vo

with

20

Voe

,,,g

The
atm.

actual

measurements

Unfortunately,

however,

gave
the

a maximum
downward

value
velocity

of

about
was

not

0.5

N.A.C.A.

Technical

_ooe'"
_
17c. 381

measured

directly,

therefore

value

frcm

ing

s_ugle.

gle

about

4.1

m/s.

with

" 6,
is

seen,

through
about

For

m/s,

was

of

probable

20-2S

and

velocity
the

approximate

value

m/s

that

notice

that

inst_omce,

if

50-80

givim_

an

of

the

of

the

gliding

about

formula

glidan-

3.3

checks

well

experiments.

to

a height

3-4

the

therefore,

interesting

calculate

a downwai'd

these

stone order.

must

and

speed

giving

of

we

speed

l_udin_

results
is

the

wave
ef

the

landin_

The

It

It
_f

the

rise

cm,
to

waves
a

it

may

cause

seaplane
will

is

pressure

lifted

by

fsll

with

a velocity

of

0.4-0.7

atmos-

a pressure

phere..
The

It

remains

bottomed
an

to

float,

infinite

consider

where

impact

therefore

consideration.

It

for

pressure

against

maximum
the

surface

is

possible

of

the

momentary

takes

at

the

speed

@ F

c dt,

body.
to

the

Since
v_

in

mass

where

the

velocity

time

.dt,

this

since

the

of

case
case

in

sound

the

water

obtain
when
the

in

surface

of

of

mass

this
force

been

fluid,

the
is

acting

assumed

be

body

taken

the

fluid

is

strikes

in

The

a fluid

d@signated
time

dt

struck

increased
p F

into

value

manner.

pressure

in

_ives

approximate

foll_wing

the

flat-

formula

has

a flat

of

the

must

an

accelerated

the

of

compressibility

increase

fluid

F = the

the

In

to

a fluid

Float

limiting

occurring

of

Therefore

O.

the

propagation
place

the

pressure,

incompressible;

the

Flat-Bottomed

by
from

c vo

by

o.

is
the
zero
and

the

_
_J.A.C.A.

Technical

pressure

is

_o_e
_ _

No.

321

Thus

the

pressure

appears

as

a faotcr

2_q

times

the

stag-

V o

nation

pressure.

eral

downward

Following

are

velocities,

values

with

Vo

c =

1450

Zc

of

the

pressure

m/s

for

1450

967

72_

29

45.5

for

sev-

water.

VO,,

(atm.)

58

}
I

These
would

values

arise

in

of

an

whole

construction

ter

under

compression,

in

flout

connecting

and

the

are

airplane,

is
it

is

since
magnitudes

higher

the

greater

evident,
is

the

doubtless

since

probably

construction

members,

stressed,

pressure

actu[_l

the

bottom

the

elastic

than

however,

unfavorable,

struts
of

the

and

than
yielding

that

of

the

that

flat-

especially
bracings

stresses

are

are

of
wa-

for

the

highly

difficult

to

estimate.
Further

These
For

one

studied
the
could
true

thing,
as

bottom
be

calculations

well
of

more

shape

the

of

as
the

variation
the

much
of

float,

and

the

for

pressure
of

iioreover,

calculated,

room

the

distribution

float,

exactly
the

leave

Investigation

further
with

maximtun

the
taking

pressure

apparent
into

development.
time

could

pressure

over

increase

<_onsideration

distribution

over

of

be

mass
the
the

N.A. ,_.A. __m_ _al


length

of

of

subject

the

great

t=e

value

Yore

float

obtained.

together

in

Z_o. 321

with

improvin_

A thorough
oyo_ematlc
_
_+_-

seaplane

theoretical
experiments

treatment
would

ke

design.

Translation
by
Frank
L. War
_
Aachen

University.

References

I.

Bottomley,

Baker,
G.
t_qd
Ke_y,
E.

G.

Experiments
(2d series).
m:Ld i.:emoranda

S.
_

Wm. Froude
Nat'l
Tank & Xarine
m_d
Armsment
Experimented
E_o
Io_
t,
Roya_l Air Force
Thompson,

F.

The Impact
of
on Water
(18th
A.C.A.
Reports
191D.

L.

a iodei
Seapl_ne
Float
series).
British
and Her_oranda
.'To. 583,

with
Full-Sized
British
A.R.C.
No.
G83,
1920.

l,lachines
Reports

_
E .86, Imoact
Tests.
P.5 _lyzng
_oat
Experiments
with
Full-Size
l,iachines
3d series).
British
A.R.C.
Reports
and _emora!_da
No. 988,
1924.

Water
plrme
Report

Pressure
Distribution
on
Float.
N.A.C.A.
Technical
No, 290,
1928.

a Sea-

of