You are on page 1of 12

March 1999

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESSM001
Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these
technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and
engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While
this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users,
individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take
precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and
particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering
situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The
use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of
preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the
same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All
Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and
regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines
should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or
regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or
acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team
and will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or
withdrawn. Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at
http://www.pipdocs.org.

© Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3208 Red River Street, Suite 300, Austin,
Texas 78705. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use.

PRINTING HISTORY

March 1999 Revision


June 2000 Reference Section Correction

Not printed with State funds


March 1999

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESSM001
Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions
Table of Contents

1. Introduction................................. 2 7. Fabrication.................................. 7
1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2 7.1 Butt Welds ......................................... 7
1.2 Scope................................................. 2 7.2 Formed Head-to-Shell Welds ............ 7
1.3 Alternative Design Proposals............. 3 7.3 Backing Strips.................................... 7
7.4 Liners ................................................. 7
2. References .................................. 3 7.5 Gasket Surfaces ................................ 7
2.1 Process Industry Practices ................ 3 7.6 Tolerances ......................................... 7
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards .......... 3 7.7 Postweld Heat Treatment .................. 7
2.3 Government Regulations ................... 3
8. Pressure Testing ........................ 7
3. Definitions ................................... 4
9. Purchaser Inspection................. 8
4. General ........................................ 4
4.1 Jurisdictional Compliance .................. 4 10. Manufacturer’s Nameplates ...... 8
4.2 National Board Registration............... 4
4.3 Units of Measurement ....................... 5 11. Cleaning, Painting, and
4.4 Language........................................... 5 Shipping Protection ................... 8
4.5 Documentation to be Provided to 11.1 Drying and Cleaning .......................... 8
the Manufacturer................................ 5 11.2 Painting.............................................. 8
4.6 Documentation to be Provided by 11.3 Protection of Machined Surfaces....... 9
the Manufacturer................................ 5

5. Materials...................................... 6
5.1 Materials of Construction ................... 6
5.2 Swing Bolts ........................................ 6
5.3 Pressure-Resisting Bolting ................ 6

6. Construction Responsibility...... 6

Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 10


PIP VESSM001
Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and March 1999
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose
This Practice describes the general materials, design, fabrication, examination,
inspection, testing, and documentation requirements for pressure vessels with limited
design conditions.

1.2 Scope
1.2.1 This Practice designates minimum general requirements for the construction
of three classes of small pressure vessels (including heat exchangers) with
the limited design conditions shown in Table 1. See Section 5.3 for material
of construction limitations. This Practice is intended to apply to the
Manufacturer’s standard, pre-designed pressure vessels and heat exchangers
supplied as part of pre-engineered package units (e.g., refrigeration and air-
compressor systems), “off-the-shelf” items and vessels (e.g., filters) built
from the Manufacturer’s standard parts. Use of this Practice for custom-
designed vessels is limited to applications that have been reviewed and
approved in writing by the Purchaser. Special requirements are covered in
the Vessel Specifications (see Section 3 for definition).
1.2.2 Vessels Not Included:
• Vessels intended for “Lethal Service” (as defined in the Code)
• Vessels for which design wall thickness would be governed by
loadings due to wind pressure or earthquake forces
• Vessels that exceed the limitations of Table 1
1.2.3 Vessels for which shock (thermal or mechanical) and/or cyclical loading is a
controlling design requirement and vessels in highly hazardous chemical
(e.g., ammonia) service are not permitted to be constructed under Class A
requirements (see Table 1).
1.2.4 Many recognized and generally accepted good engineering construction
practices are included herein. However, in light of the many diverse service
applications of vessels covered under this specification, these practices must
be employed with engineering judgment and supplemented as appropriate
with requirements related to specific materials of construction, service
fluids, operating environments, and vessel geometries. Accordingly,
provisions of this Practice may be overridden or supplemented by an Overlay
Specification (see Section 3 for definition).

Page 2 of 10 Process Industry Practices


PIP VESSM001
March 1999 Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

1.3 Alternative Design Proposals


The Manufacturer shall provide a base bid in full compliance with the purchase
request for quotation. The Manufacturer may submit an alternative design if, in the
Manufacturer’s judgment, economy and/or improved schedule can be realized
without loss of capability or shortening the anticipated life of the vessel. The
Manufacturer shall comply with the following requirements when submitting an
alternative bid:
a. Alternative design quotations shall be accompanied by the base quotation and
be clearly noted as an alternative design.
b. Alternative designs shall be fully and clearly described and substantiated by
sketches or drawings. Specific exceptions to the Vessel Specifications or this
Practice shall be identified as such.
c. An alternative design shall not be used unless approved in writing by the
Purchaser.

2. References
Applicable requirements of the following industry standards and references shall be
considered an integral part of this Practice, except as modified herein or in the Vessel
Specifications. Short titles will be used herein when appropriate.

2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)


The latest edition issued at the date of contract award shall be used.
– PIP VEDV1003 - Vessel Drawing/Data Sheet and Instructions
– PIP VEFV1100 - Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Standard Details
PIP VEFV1101 - Vessel Nameplate Bracket

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards


The latest edition or addenda issued at the date of the contract award, but which may
not yet be mandatory, shall be used.

• American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


– ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII, Division 1 - Pressure Vessels

2.3 Government Regulations

• US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration


(OSHA)
– OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous
Chemicals

Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 10


PIP VESSM001
Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and March 1999
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

3. Definitions
For the purposes of this Practice, the following definitions apply:

Code: Section VIII, Division 1 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

Construction: An all-inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, examination,


inspection, testing, certification, and pressure relief

Designer: The party responsible for defining and specifying the mechanical design
requirements (e.g., Vessel Drawing/Data Sheet) consistent with the Vessel Specifications or
User criteria for use by the Manufacturer. The Designer is frequently an engineering
contractor, but could be the User, third party consultant, or the Manufacturer.

Highly Hazardous Chemicals: See Appendix A of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 for list

Manufacturer: The party entering into a contract with the Purchaser to construct a vessel in
accordance with the purchase order. The Manufacturer shall possess an ASME Certificate of
Authorization to construct “U”-stamped vessels.

Overlay Specification: Technical requirements that supplement or override the provisions of


this document, such as Vessel Specifications or a project specification

Purchaser: The party actually placing the order for the vessel or vessel components. This
may be the User or the User’s designated agent.

User: The party responsible for establishing construction criteria consistent with the Code
philosophy and service hazards as described in the Purpose and Scope statements. This term
refers to the owner and/or operator of the equipment.

Vessel Specifications: This term shall be understood to include any drawings, specifications,
or service-specific data designated by Purchaser for a particular vessel or group of vessels.
The Manufacturer is responsible for notifying the Purchaser in writing of any apparent
conflicts between the Vessel Specifications and this Practice.

4. General

4.1 Jurisdictional Compliance


All aspects of the work shall comply with applicable local, county, state, and federal
rules and regulations. This includes, but is not limited to, the rules and standards
established by EPA and OSHA, if applicable.

4.2 National Board Registration


All Code “U”-stamped vessels shall be registered with the National Board of Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NB).

Page 4 of 10 Process Industry Practices


PIP VESSM001
March 1999 Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

4.3 Units of Measurement


U.S. customary (English) units shall be regarded as standard; metric (SI) units may
be included for reference only and shall not be interpreted as a precise conversion.

4.4 Language
The language of all documents shall either be English or include the English
translation.

4.5 Documentation to be Provided to the Manufacturer


Purchaser shall provide the Design Data information per PIP VEDV1003.

4.6 Documentation to be Provided by the Manufacturer


4.6.1 Manufacturer’s Standard Vessels
Manufacturer’s detailed fabrication drawings and certified design
calculations are preferred and shall be furnished when practicable. For
vessels supplied as part of pre-engineered package units (e.g., air compressor
and refrigeration systems, ION exchange systems, etc.), “off-the-shelf” items
and vessels fabricated from Manufacturer’s standard parts, Manufacturer
shall provide certified outline drawings only if detailed drawings are not
available. Outline drawings shall be legible and shall contain all dimensional
and other data necessary for complete assembly, installation, proper
operation and maintenance of the vessel. These data shall include pressure
bolting and gasket information.
4.6.2 Custom-Designed Vessels (see Section 1.2.1)
Manufacturer shall provide detailed assembly and working drawings and
certified design calculations for all vessels furnished as custom-designed
items. Manufacturer’s drawings and calculations provided in accordance
with this Section shall be reviewed by Purchaser prior to the start of
fabrication unless a release to proceed is obtained from Purchaser in writing.
Drawings shall be complete and shall include all relevant design, materials,
fabrication, examination, and test requirements. Manufacturer’s drawings
shall also include the following special notes as applicable:
1. All vessels - “Chlorides or substances that contain chlorine that will
decompose to form chlorides (e.g., coatings to prevent adhesion of weld
spatter) shall not be applied to any part of the vessel.”
2. Stainless steel vessels - “Zinc-coated (galvanized or painted)
components shall not be in contact (welded, bolted, or loose) with any
alloy parts of the vessel.”

Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 10


PIP VESSM001
Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and March 1999
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

3. All postweld heat-treated (PWHT) vessels shall have the following


notice painted on two sides of the shell and insulation covering, if
present, in 3-inch high letters visible in the shipping position from
grade:
POSTWELD HEAT TREATED - DO NOT BURN OR WELD
4. All vessels with nonmetallic linings shall have the following notice
painted on two sides of the shell and insulation covering, if present, in
3-inch high letters visible in the shipping position from grade:
LINED VESSEL - DO NOT BURN OR WELD
4.6.3 A copy of the Manufacturer’s Data Report (Code Form U-1 or U-1A) shall
be furnished to Purchaser for all Code “U”-stamped vessels. For all Code
“UM”-stamped vessels, a copy of the Manufacturer’s Certificate of
Compliance (Code Form U-3) shall be furnished.

5. Materials

5.1 Materials of Construction


Materials of construction are limited to carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel,
except for tubing for heat exchangers which may be copper or copper alloy. The use
of other materials shall be approved by Purchaser and noted on the Data Sheet.

5.2 Swing Bolts


Swing bolts (eye bolts) shall be of one-piece construction without welding. Hinge
pins shall be solid (not rolled) and of the same material as the swing bolts.

5.3 Pressure-Resisting Bolting


Pressure resisting bolting for Class A (except as otherwise permitted in this Section),
B, and C vessels shall be either low- or high-alloy steel. Carbon steel SA-307, Grade
B bolting is permitted on Class A vessels only and is limited to nameplate
temperatures not hotter than 450° F (232° C) and not colder than -20° F (-29° C).

6. Construction Responsibility
Manufacturer shall be responsible for the construction of vessels in accordance with this
Practice. Mechanical design provided in the Vessel Specifications by Purchaser shall not
relieve Manufacturer of this responsibility.

Page 6 of 10 Process Industry Practices


PIP VESSM001
March 1999 Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

7. Fabrication

7.1 Butt Welds


Except as permitted in Section 7.2, all longitudinal and circumferential welded joints
in pressure-resisting components (Code Categories A, B, and when used, butt-types
C and D) shall be full penetration butt welds.

7.2 Formed Head-to-Shell Welds


For vessels in non-corrosive service not larger than NPS 12, welded joints attaching
formed heads to shells may be any fillet-welded lap joint per Code Figure UW-13.1
and Code Table UW-12.

7.3 Backing Strips


For vessels larger than NPS 12 or any vessel in corrosive or cyclic service,
permanent weld-joint backing strips, including butt welds with one plate edge offset
[Code Figure UW-13.1, Sketch (k)], are not permitted.

7.4 Liners
Loose liners shall not be used.

7.5 Gasket Surfaces


All gasket seating surfaces shall be plane and true. Gasket seating surfaces of
fabricated flanges, fabricated lap rings, and bolted tubesheet joints (including pass-
ribs) shall be machined after welding and other fabrication steps that can result in
warpage or distortion from a plane and true surface.

7.6 Tolerances
Dimensional tolerances shall be in accordance with Manufacturer’s standard practice
and the applicable requirements of the codes and standards designated in Table 1 and
the notes thereto.

7.7 Postweld Heat Treatment


7.7.1 Carbon steel vessels in ammonia service, permitted for Table 1 Class B and
C vessels only, shall be postweld heat-treated.
7.7.2 Alternative PWHT requirements of Code Table UCS-56.1 shall not be
employed.

8. Hydrostatic Testing
All vessels constructed to this Practice shall be hydrostatically tested in accordance with the
provisions of Paragraph UG-99(b) of the Code. See Section 11.2.

Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 10


PIP VESSM001
Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and March 1999
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

9. Purchaser Access
Purchaser shall have free entry to those parts of the Manufacturer’s plant concerned with
fabrication, examination, and testing of the vessel.

10. Manufacturer’s Nameplates


All vessels shall be furnished with the Manufacturer’s nameplate. The nameplate shall be
made of austenitic stainless steel and attached by an austenitic stainless steel nameplate
bracket in accordance with PIP VEFV1101. Nameplates for Class B and C vessels shall
satisfy Code requirements. Nameplates for Class A vessels shall include:

• Maximum and minimum design temperatures and the coincident maximum allowable
design pressures
• Manufacturer’s serial number
• Year built
• Manufacturer’s name

11. Cleaning, Painting, and Shipping Protection

11.1 Drying and Cleaning


11.1.1 After completion of the hydrostatic test, the vessel interior shall be
completely drained, thoroughly dried, and cleaned of foreign matter.
11.1.2 All PWHT vessels shall have the following notice painted on two sides of
the shell and insulation covering, if present, in 3-inch high letters visible in
the shipping position from grade:
POSTWELD HEAT TREATED - DO NOT BURN OR WELD
11.1.3 All vessels with nonmetallic linings shall have the following notice painted
on two sides of the shell and insulation covering, if present, in 3-inch high
letters visible in the shipping position from grade:
LINED VESSEL - DO NOT BURN OR WELD

11.2 Painting
All required coatings shall be as indicated in the Design Data information. Only
surfaces that are required by the Design Data information to be painted and that will
be inaccessible after assembly (e.g., mating surfaces between lap-joint flanges and
associated nozzle necks, shells, lap rings, or stub ends, bolt holes, and welded joints)
shall be painted prior to assembly and hydrostatic testing. Otherwise, all painting
shall be performed after hydrostatic tests.

Page 8 of 10 Process Industry Practices


PIP VESSM001
March 1999 Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

11.3 Protection of Machined Surfaces


11.3.1 All gasket seating, threaded, or other machined surfaces shall be protected
for shipment as follows:
11.3.1.1 Assembled Joints - Bolted flanged joints, plugged couplings, and
other connections specified to be furnished with service covers
shall be shipped assembled, if practicable.
11.3.1.2 Exposed Surfaces - For carbon and low-alloy steels, all exposed
machined or threaded surfaces shall be cleaned with solvent and
coated with temporary rust-preventative grease. The following
products are acceptable: Ashland Oil-Tectyl 858C, Sanchem No-
Ox-Id-A, Exxon-Beacon 325, Houghton-Rust Veto Heavy. Other
equivalent products are acceptable. Shipping covers shall be
furnished per Section 11.3.2.
11.3.2 All flange faces other than those furnished with permanent blinds shall be
covered with 1/2 inch thick wood or 1/8 inch thick steel plate no smaller
than the flange OD. These covers shall be secured with a minimum 25%
complement of carbon steel bolts, but no fewer than four.
11.3.3 Welding stub ends shall be provided with bevel protectors.

Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 10


PIP VESSM001
Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and March 1999
Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions

Table 1

Specification Requirements for Each Class of Vessels

(1)
Vessel Class
(2)(3) (4)
Class A Class B Class C
Maximum Size 6 inches ID 5 cu ft in volume and 250 psig 24 inches OD
3 cu ft in volume and 350 psig
MAWP 300 psig 1.5 cu ft in volume and 600 psig 300 psig
Straight-line interpolation is permitted
Maximum External Pressure 15 psi (Full Vacuum)
Maximum Temperature 650° F (See Section 5.3 for additional limitations.)
Carbon Steel Minus 20° F
Minimum Austenitic
Design Stainless
Metal (5)
Steel , Minus 155° F
Temperature Copper, and
Copper Alloy
Manufacturer’s (6)(7)
Construction Standard (6) ASME Code Section VIII, Division 1
Standard
“U” Stamp
ASME Code Stamp Not Required “U” or “UM” Stamp Required
Required

NOTES:
1. When the Vessel Specifications do not designate the Vessel Class, the Manufacturer shall select the Class that covers
all of the design parameters and minimum construction requirements included in the Vessel Specifications.
2. Plate coil type heat exchangers are included in this Class without size limitations.
3. See Section 1.2.2.
4. Filter presses and plate-and-frame, spiral-plate, and spiral-tube heat exchangers, without size limitations, are included in
this Class.
5. Carbon content shall not exceed 0.10% and thermal treatments are not performed (see Code Paragraph UHA-51).
6. See Sections 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3 for weld joint requirements.
7. Applicable requirements of the Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA), Class B, shall
also apply for custom-designed tubular heat exchangers. For Manufacturer's standard exchangers, requirements for
compliance with TEMA Standards shall be as specified in the Vessel Specifications.

Page 10 of 10 Process Industry Practices