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MASTER PLUMBER REVIEW

Plumbing Design and Installation

PowerHouse Review Center

PLUMBING CONCEPTS
Part 1: Fundamentals of Plumbing
Design and Installation
Part 2: Process, Design Criteria and
Computations

PLUMBING
the art and technique of installing pipes,
fixtures, and other apparatuses in buildings
for bringing in the supply of liquids, substances
and/or ingredients and removing them; and such

water, liquid and other carried-wastes


hazardous to health, sanitation, life and property;
also the
pipes and fixtures after installation
i.e., the plumbing system

PLUMBING
Plumber
title of the person who is skilled in plumbing
Plumbarius
who worked in the field of sanitation in
ancient Rome
Plumbum
means lead, the material the ancient
Rome used in plumbing

Components
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


PLUMBING FIXTURES
SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM
STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM
FUEL GAS PIPING SYSTEM

PLUMBING SYSTEM
Water Supply

Storm/Drainage System
Vent System
Sewer/Waste System
Fire Protection

PVC, GI, BI, PE,


HDPE, Steel,
BI Black Iron
PVC, GI/BI
PVC
PVC, CI
GI, BI

Components & Flow in Water


Systems:

THE PLUMBING CYCLE

SUPPLY
Water Mains,
Storage Tanks

DISTRIBUTION

USE

Pressure,
Piping
Networks

Plumbing
Fixtures

SOURCE
Lakes, Rivers,
Reservoirs
Treated water
returned to the
original source

COLLECTION

TREATMENT

DISPOSAL

Sewage Plants,
Natural
Purification

Sanitary and
Storm Sewers

Gravity,
Piping
Networks

NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE OF THE


PHILIPPINES
Book of Master Plumbers practicing their
profession in the Philippines
22 Basic Principles of the Plumbing Code

7 Code of Ethics

NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE OF THE


PHILIPPINES

Board Resolution No. 4, Series of 1999


History of Plumbing Practice
Basic Principles
Master Plumbers Code of Ethics
CHAPTERS:
1. Administration
2. Definitions
3. General Regulations
4. Plumbing Fixtures

NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE OF THE


PHILIPPINES
5. Inspections and Tests
6. Water Supply and Distribution
7. Excreta Drainage System
8. Indirect Waste Piping, Wet-Vented Systems, and Special
Wastes
9. Vents and Venting
10. Traps and Interceptors
11. Storm Drainage System
12. House Drains and House Sewers
13. Joints and Connections
14. Quality of Weight Materials, Plumbing Materials and
Referenced Standards

NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE OF THE


PHILIPPINES
Appendix A: Recommended Rules for Sizing
the Water Supply System
Appendix B: Private Sewage Disposal
Systems
Tables and Charts

OBJECTIVES OF PLUMBING IN BUILDINGS

1. To supply water to different parts of the


building
2. To remove and discharge human wastes and
other substances out of the building into the
public sewer or septic tank

CONDITIONS FOR AN EFFECTIVE WATER SUPPLY


IN BUILDINGS
1. Provide sufficient amount of water to supply
each fixture

2. Prevent back flow of used water into the


water supply system

WATER DISTRIBUTION IN
BUILDINGS
Part 1: Fundamentals of Plumbing
Design and Installation
Part 2: Process, Design Criteria and
Computations

THINGS TO CONSIDER IN THE PLANNING OF


WATER SYSTEM IN BUILDINGS
1.

System must provide adequate supply of water, with


adequate pressure up to the extremities of the system

2.

System should be provided with sufficient valves and blowoffs to allow repair work without undue interruption of
service

3.

There should be no unprotected open reservoir, or cross


connections with inferior water system to enter the system

4. Water system should be tight against leakage.


Branches or connections should not be submerged
in surface water or to any source of contamination

5. System design shall afford effective circulation of


water with minimum number of dead end mains
6. System shall be guarded against contamination
resulting from repair works, replacement or
extension of the mains

7.

When new are installed, or old mains repaired, they should


be filled with strong chlorine solution of 40-60 mg/L for at
least 24 hrs., and then flushed with water supplied normally
from the main.

8.

As much as possible water main should be laid above the


elevation of concrete sanitary sewers, or crossover points,
and at least 3m horizontally from such sanitary sewer when
they are parallel. Otherwise, the sewer main must be
encased in concrete

CLASSIFICATION OF PUBLIC WATER DISTRIBUTION


SYSTEM
1. DIRECT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION
2. INDIRECT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION

DIRECT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION


Obtain its water supply through a large intake pipe,
installed in the lake basin extended down the water;
Water is then drawn from the lake to a receiving well by
force of gravity, passing through the filtration plant
The water inside the reservoir is pumped by a centrifugal,
or piston pump into the water main with sufficient
pressure to serve specific needs

INDIRECT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION


Water drawn from a drilled distribution is done by indirect
pressure using a turbine pump mounted on top of the
standpipe extended down the well below the water table

HOUSEHOLD WATER SUPPLY


Water is conveyed from the main to the
household or buildings through:
1. House Service
2. Riser
3. Branches

House Service
pipe connection from the water main to any source
of water supply to the building served

Riser
Vertical supply pipe which extend upward from one
floor to the next.
Branches
Horizontal pipes that serve the faucets or fixtures

Water Supply

Water
Meter

Stop Box
Corporation Stop

Meter
Stop

House Service Pipe

Water Main

Corporation Stop or Cock


Curb Stop
Meter Stop

Curb Stop

Water Main
refers to the public water connection which are laid underground
along the streets where the house service is connected

Corporation Stop
serves as a control of the water service, and a shut-off
when service is disconnected
Curb Stop
installed between the curb & the sidewalk line to serve
as control stop of the service between the curb and the
building

Meter Stop
controlling stop of the entire water supply of
the building

Water Meter
device used to measure the amount of water
that passes through the water service

TYPES OF COLD WATER SYTEM


1. NORMAL PRESSURE FROM THE PUBLIC MAIN
2. OVERHEAD FEED SYSTEM

3. AIR PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Overhead Feed Distribution System

Overhead Feed System


This supplies water to plumbing fixtures by
means of gravity.
Advantages:
1. Water supply distribution is not affected by the peak
load hour even if pressure at water main is low.
2. Power interruptions doesnt affect water supply
3. During break down of pumps and their repairs, water
supply is not affected.

Disadvantages:
1. Water inside tank is exposed to the natural elements of
weather, subject to contamination
2. Water distribution unit has many working parts that
require higher maintenance cost

3. Pumping unit and the entire installation throughout


the building occupies valuable spaces.
4. Requires stronger foundation and other structures to
sustain heavy load of the tank and its water content

Direct Upfeed System

Direct Upfeed System

Direct Upfeed System


Used on tall buildings that could not be served by the street
main
Operates in sequence according to the volume of demand:
When water demand is small, small (jockey) pump
operates;
As water demand increases, the 2nd larger pump starts
automatically to replace operation of the small pump
For peak demands, the largest pump operates with full
capacity to supply the entire building
Only one pump operates at a time depending on the
volume of water demand

Advantages
1. Eliminate the construction of large house water
tank
2. Avoid cost of heavy structures to carry the house
tank
3. Eliminate periodic cost

Air Pressured Water Distribution System

Air Pressured Water Distribution System


Distribution system where compressed air is used
as the delivery agent
Advantages:
1. Has compact pumping system requiring limited
space
2. Water chamber being air-tight makes the system as
sanitary one
3. Oxygen in the CA serves as purifying agent making
water more palatable

Advantages
4
5

Economical because it uses small pipe & fitting


sizes; less maintenance/construction cost
Acceptable to small and tall buildings

Disadvantage:
1 Power interruption cuts water supply

4 Mechanical Devices used in Air Pressurized


Water Supply System
1.
2.
3.
4.

Storage Tank
Single or Duplex centrifugal pump
Air compressor
Automatic pressure control switch

Friction in Water Supply


the resistance produced by the flowing water
with the fittings and interior surface of the pipe

How to minimize friction:


1. Pipes should be installed straight and direct
2. Use of fittings, stops, turns, offset and traps
should be minimized
3. Pipes with plain and smooth surface should be
used
4. Fittings and joints must connected properly

Normal Pressure
refers to the pressure range measured over 24 hours

Normal Pressure
30-40 psi

Pressure Lower than Normal Pressure


results to insufficient flow of water

Pressure greater than 50 psi


may cause pipe hammering or even bursting of pipes
Pressure Reducing Valve
valve used to avoid excessive water pressure by
keeping pressure constant at 40 psi or can be reset to
other pressure desired
Critical Pressure
maximum and minimum pressure at which proper
function of the water supply can be maintained

MAXIMUM PROBABLE DEMAND


Refers to the MAXIMUM WATER DISCHARGE OF
FIXTURES in terms of Fixture units
THE MAXIMUM DEMAND OF WATER is equal to the
TOTAL FIXTURES UNITS in the plumbing system
One unit is valued at 8 gals of water discharge per
minute interval

Illustration:
A residential house has 3 water closets, 3
lavatories, 1 kitchen sink, and 3 shower baths.
Determine the maximum demand.

PROBABLE DEMAND
OR PEAK LOAD
The fewer the number of fixtures installed,
the higher the percentage of probability of their
simultaneous use;
The greater the number of fixtures installed,
the lower the percentage of probable simultaneous
use.

PROBABILITY OF SIMULTANEOUS OF FIXTURES


Number of Fixtures
1 to 5
6 to 50
51 or more

% of Simultaneous Use
50% to 100%
25% to 50%
10% to 25%

PROBABLE DEMAND does not exceed 25% of the


Maximum Water Demand

Illustration:
Determine the probable demand of the following
Fixtures installed: 2 water closets, 1 lavatory, 1
bathtub, 1 shower valve, 1 kitchen sink.

TYPES OF HOT WATER SYTEM


1. UPFEED AND GRAVITY RETURN SYSTEM
2. DOWNFEED AND GRAVITY RETURN SYSTEM

3. PUMP CIRCUIT SYSTEM

Upfeed and Gravity Return System


With a continuing network of
pipes to provide constant
circulation of water
Hot water rises on its own &
does not need any pump for
circulation
Hot water is immediately
drawn form the fixture any time
Provided economical circulating
return of unused hot water
Larger pipe is installed at the
top of the riser & the diminishing
sizes passes through the lower
floors of the building

Downfeed and Gravity Return System


Hot water rises on to
the highest point of
the plumbing system
and travels to the
fixtures via gravity
(closed pipe system)
Water distribution is
dependent on the
expansion of hot
water & gravity.
Larger pipe is installed
at the bottom of the
riser & the diminishing
sizes passes
through the upper
floors of the building

Pump Circuit System


For a more efficient circulation of hot water to the upper floor levels
of multi-storey buildings

Water Tanks & Cisterns


Hot Water Consumption
KIND OF
BUILDING
Office Buildings
School Buildings
Apartment Buildings

GALLONS PER
PERSONS PER HOUR
4 to 5
2 to 3
8

Hotels

8 to 10

Factories

4 to 6

Residential

10

Working Load of Hot Water Systems


KIND OF BUILDING

AVERAGE WORKING
LOAD

School, Office & Industrial types


Apartments & Residences

25%
35%

Hotels & Restaurants

50%

TYPES OF WATER HEATING SYSTEM


Hot Water Space Heating System
Water is confined within a system at low temperature

Hot Water Supply System


Not a closed system which operate on much higher
temperature

Protection of Hot Water Tank:


System Relief Valve
Used for Hot Water Space
Heating System

Temperature & Pressure Relief


Used for Hot Water Supply System

FLUID COMPUTATIONS
Part 1: Fundamentals of Plumbing
Design and Installation
Part 2: Process, Design Criteria and
Computations

Water / Wastewater
Conversion

Example:
Convert cubic feet to gallons.
Gallons = Cubic Feet (ft3) x gal/ft3
Problem
How many gallons of biosolids can be pumped to a
digester that has 3600 cubic feet of volume available?

Example:
Convert gallons to pounds.
pounds ( lb ) = Gallons (gal) x 8.34 lb/gal

Problem
If 1650 gallons of solids are removed from the primary
settling tank, how many pounds of solids are removed?

Convert milligrams/liter to pounds.


key point: For plant operations, concentrations in milligrams
per liter (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm) determined by
laboratory testing must be converted to quantities of pounds,
kilograms, pounds per day, or kilograms per day.

Pounds = Concentration (mg/L) x volume (MG)


x 8.34 lb/mg/L/MG

Example:
Problem
The solids concentration in an aeration tank is 2580 mg/L. The
aeration tank volume is 0.95 MG. How many pounds of solids are
in the tank?

Example:
Convert milligrams per liter to pounds per day.
Pounds/day = Concentration (mg/L) x flow (MGD)

x 8.34 lb/mg/L/MG
Problem
How many pounds of solids are discharged per day when the plant
effluent flow rate is 4.75 MGD and the effluent solids concentration
is 26 mg/L?

Example:
Convert milligrams per liter to kilograms per day.
kg/day = Concentration (mg/L) x volume (MG)
x 3.785 kg/mg/L/MG

Problem
The effluent contains 26 mg/L of BOD5. How many kilograms per day
of BOD5 are discharged when the effluent flow rate is 9.5 MGD?

Example:
Convert million gallons per day (MGD) to
gallons per minute (gpm).
Flow =

Flow (MGD) x 1,000,000 gal/MG


1440 min/day

Problem
The current flow rate is 5.55 MGD. What is the flow rate in gallons
per minute?

Example:
Convert million gallons per day (MGD) to gallons per day (gpd)
Flow = Flow (MGD) x 1,000,000 gal/MG

Problem
The influent meter reads 28.8 MGD. What is the current flow rate
in gallons per day?

Example:
Convert million gallons per day (MGD) to cubic feet per
second (cfs)
Flow (cfs) = Flow (MGD) x 1.55 cfs/MGD

Problem
The flow rate entering grit channel is 2.89 MGD. What is the flow
rate in cubic feet per second?

Example:
Problem
A liquid chemical with a specific gravity (SG) of 1.22 is pumped at a
rate of 40 gpm. How many pounds per day are being delivered by the
pump?

Temperature Conversions
Most water/wastewater operators are familiar with the formulae
used for Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature conversions:
oC

= 5/9 (oF 32)


oF = 9/5 (oC) + 32
The difficulty arises when one tries to recall these formulae from
memory. Probably the easiest way to recall these important formulae
is to remember three basic steps for both Fahrenheit and Celsius
conversions:

Add 40o
Multiply by the appropriate fraction (5/9 or 9/5)
Subtract 40o

Example:
Suppose that we wish to convert 240oF to Celsius. Using the threestep process, we proceed as follows:
Step 1 : add 40o
240o + 40o = 280o
Step 2 : multiply 280o by either 5/9 or 9/5.
Because the conversion is to the Celsius scale, we will be moving to a
number smaller than 280. Through reason and observation, obviously, if 280 were
multiplied by 9/5, the result would be almost the same as multiplying by 2, which
would double 280 rather than make it smaller. If we multiply by 5/9, the result will
be about he same as multiplying by . Because in this problem we wish to move to
a smaller number, we should multiply by 5/9:

(5/9) (280o) = 156.0oC

Step 3 : now subtract 40o.


156.0o - 40o = 116.0oC

Thus, 240oF = 116.0oC

Example:
Convert 22oC to Fahrenheit.

FLOW
Flow is expressed in many different terms in the English system of
measurement. The most commonly used flow terms are as follows:
gpm gallons per minute
cfs cubic feet per second
gpd gallons per day
MGD million gallons per day
In converting flow rates, the most common flow conversions are 1 cfs = 448
gpm and 1 gpm = 1440 gpd. To convert gallons per day to MGD, divide the gpd
by 1,000,000. For example, convert 150,000 gallons to MGD:
150,000 gpd = 0.150 MGD
1,000,000

In some instances, flow is given in MGD but is needed in gpm.


To make the conversion (MGD to gpm), two steps are required.
Step 1: convert the gpd by multiplying by 1,000,000.
Step 2: convert to gpm by dividing by the number of minutes in
a day (1440 min/day).

Example:
Problem
Convert 0.135 MGD to gpm.

In determining flow through a pipeline, channel, or stream, we


use the following equation:
where

Q = cubic feet per second (cfs)


V = velocity in feet per second (ft/second)
A = area in square feet (ft2)

Example:
Problem
Find the flow in cubic feet per second (cfs) in an 8-inch line if the velocity is 3
feet per second.

Example:
Problem
Find the flow in gpm when the total flow for the day is 75,000 gpd.

Example:
Problem
Find the flow in gpm when the flow is 0.45 cfs.

DETENTION TIME
Detention time is the length of time water is retained in a vessel
or the period from the time the water enters a settling basin until
it flows out the other end. When calculating unit process
detention times, we are calculating the length of time it takes the
water to flow through that unit process. Detention times are
normally calculated for the following basins or tanks:
Flash mix chambers (seconds)
Flocculation basins (minutes)
Sedimentation tanks or clarifiers (hours)
Wastewater ponds (days)
Oxidation ditch (hours)

To calculate the detention period of a basin, the volume of the


basin must first be obtained. Using a basin 70 ft long (L), 25 ft wide
(W), and 12 ft deep (D), the volume (V) would be:

V=LxWxD
V = 70 ft x 25 ft x 12 ft
V = 21,000 ft3
Gallons = V x 7.48 gal/f2
Gallons = 21,000 x 7.48 = 157,080 gallons
If we assume that the plant filters 300 gpm, then we have
157,080 / 300 = 524 minutes, or roughly 9 hours, of detention
time. Stated another way, the detention time is the length of time
theoretically required for the coagulated water to flow through the
basin.

Key point: If the detention time is desired in minutes, then the flow rate used in
the calculation should have the same time frame (cfm or gpm, depending on
whether tank volume is expressed as cubic feet or gallons). If detention time is
desired in hours, then the flow rate used in the calculation should be cfh or gph.
If chlorine is added to the water as it enters the basin, the chlorine contact time
(CT) would be 9 hours. That is, to determine the CT (concentration of free chlorine
residual x disinfectant contact time [in minutes] used to determine the
effectiveness of chlorine), we must calculate detention time.
Key point: True detention time is the T portion of the CT value.

Detention time, of course, is calculated in units of time. The most common are
seconds, minutes, hours, and days. Examples of detention time equations where
time and volume units match include:
Detention time (sec) = volume of tank (cu ft)
flow rate (cfs)

Detention time (days) = volume of tank (gal)


flow rate (gph)

The simplest way to calculate detention time is to divide the volume of the
container by the flow rate into the container. The theoretical detention time of
a container is the same as the amount of time it would take to fill the
container if it were empty. For volume, the most common units used are
gallons; however, on occasion, cubic feet may also be used. Time units will be
in whatever units are used to express the flow. For example, if the flow is in
gpm, the detention time will be in days, If, in the final result, the detention
time is in the wrong time unit, simply convert to the appropriate units.

Example:
Problem
The reservoir for the community holds 110,000 gallons. The well
will produce 60 gpm. What is the detention time in the reservoir in
hours?

Example:
Problem
Find the detention time in a 55,000-gallon reservoir if the flow rate
is 75 gpm.

HORSEPOWER AND ENERGY COSTS


In water/wastewater treatment and ancillaries, horsepower is a
common expression for power. One horsepower is equal to 33,000
foot pounds (ft-lb) of work per minute. This value is determined,
for example, for selecting the pump or combination of pumps to
ensure an adequate pumping capacity (a major use of calculating
horsepower in water/wastewater treatment). Pumping capacity
depends upon the flow rate desired and the feet of head against
which the pump must pump (also referred to as effective height).
Calculations of horsepower are made in conjunction with many
treatment plant operations. The basic concept from which the
horsepower calculation is derived is the concept of work, which
involves the operation of a force (lb) over a specific distance (ft).
The amount of work accomplished is measured in foot-pounds:
ft x lb = ft-lb

The rate of doing work (power) involves a time factor. Originally,


the rate of doing work or power compared the power of a horse to
that of a steam engine. The rate at which a horse could work was
determined to be about 550 ft-lb/sec (or 33,000 ft-lb/min). This
rate has become the definition of the standard unit called
horsepower.

Horsepower (hp)
Horsepower (hp) = power (ft-lb/min)

33,000 ft-lb/min/hp
As mentioned, in water/wastewater treatment the major use of horsepower
calculation is in pumping stations. When used for this purpose, the horsepower
calculation can be modified as shown below.

Water Horsepower (whp)


The amount of power required to move a given volume of water a specified
total head is known as water horsepower.

whp = pump rate (gpm) x total head (ft) x 8.34 lb/gal


33,000 ft-lb/min/hp

Example:
Problem
A pump must deliver 1210 gpm to a total head of 130 feet. What is the
required water horsepower?

Brake Horsepower (bhp)


Brake horsepower (bhp) refers to the horsepower supplied to the pump from
the motor. As power moves through the pump, additional horsepower is lost
from slippage and friction of the shaft and other factors; thus, pump efficiencies
range from about 50% to 85%, and pump efficiency must be taken into account.

bhp =

whp
pump efficiency (%)

Example:
Problem
Under the specified conditions, the pump efficiency is 73%. If the
required water horsepower is 40 hp, what is the required brake
horsepower?

Motor Horsepower (mhp)


Motor horsepower (mhp) is the horsepower the motor must generate to
produce the desired brake and water horsepower.

mhp = brake horsepower


motor efficiency (%)

Example:
Problem
The motor is 93% efficient. What is the required motor
horsepower when the required brake horsepower is 49.0 bhp?

ELECTRICAL POWER
On occasion, water/wastewater operators (especially senior
operators) must make electrical power calculations especially
regarding electrical energy required/consumed during a period of
time. To accomplish this, horsepower is converted to electrical
energy (kilowatts), then multiplied by the hours of operation to
obtain kilowatt-hours.

Kilowatt-hours = hp x 0.746 kW/hp x operating time (hr)

Example:
Problem
A 60-horsepower motor operates at full load 12 hours per day, 7
days a week. How many kilowatts of energy does it consume per
day?

Given the cost per kilowatt-hour, the operator (or anyone else) may calculate the
cost of power for any given period of operation.

Cost = power required/day x kW-hr/day x days/period x cost/kW-hr

PD 856
Chapter 17 - Sewage Collection and
Disposal, Excreta Disposal and
Drainage
Part 1: Fundamentals of Plumbing
Design and Installation
Part 2: Process, Design Criteria and
Computations

Section 3: Individual Excreta and


Sewage Disposal System
3.1 Individual Excreta Disposal System
Every plan and specifications for excreta disposal
system approved by the local health authority prior
to construction.
The City/Municipal Building Official shall refer all
applications for Sanitary (Plumbing) Permit to the
Local Health Authority prior to issuance of building
permit.
The privy recommended for use is the sanitary
privy.
The sanitary privy shall be atleast one (1) meter
square.

Section 3: Individual Excreta and


Sewage Disposal System
3.2 Individual Sewage Disposal System
3.2.1 Installation Requirements
When a public sanitary sewer is not available,
wastewater piping shall be provided with individual
sewage disposal system of approve type and
design.
The public sanitary sewer may be considered as
not being available when such public sanitary
sewer is located more than 100 meters from any
proposed building on any lot or premises.

Section 3: Individual Excreta and


Sewage Disposal System
3.2 Individual Sewage Disposal System
3.2.2 Approval

The Local Health Authority may require any or all of the


following information before Sanitary (Plumbing) Permit is
issued.

Plot plan drawn to scale completely dimensioned, showing direction


and approx slope of surface
Location of all present and proposed retaining walls, drainage
channels, water supply lines and wells
Number of plumbing fixtures
Location of building sanitary sewer and individual sewage disposal
system
A log of soil formations and ground water levels, together with a
statement of water absorption characteristics of the soil

Section 3: Individual Excreta and


Sewage Disposal System
3.2 Individual Sewage Disposal System
3.2.2 Disposal of Sewage

Individual sewage disposal system utilizing leaching fields,


leaching beds, or leaching wells shall not be permitted where
the depth to normal ground water or rock strata is less than
1.20 meters

A leaching system shall not be installed in an area where the


texture, structure, and porosity of soil are not suitable as
determined by a percolation test performed by a registered
Civil/Sanitary Engineer.

No leaching tile file or bed shall be installed where percolation


rate is less than 2.54 cm fall in water level in test holes in 60
minutes.

No seepage pit or leaching well shall be installed where


percolation rate is less than 2.54 cm fall in water level in test
holes in 30 minutes.

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers
4.1 Septic Tank
4.1.1 Design Capacity
May be determined from the quantities of Sewage
Flow, based on adequate detention time interval
resulting in efficient sedimentation.
For building with occupants, the number of
persons to be served shall be computed based on
the number of rooms and considering each room
as occupied by two persons or on basis of the
actual number of persons served by the tank,
whichever is greater.

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers
4.1 Septic Tank
4.1.2 Inlet and Outlet

The invert level of the inlet shall not be less than 5 cm


above the liquid level of the septic tank.

A vented inlet baffle or sanitary tee shall be provided to


divert the incoming sewage downward. The baffle or tee
shall penetrate at least 15 cm below the liquid level, but the
penetration shall not be greater than that allowed for the
outlets baffle or sanitary tee.

The outlet baffle or sanitary device shall extend through the


scum layer above the liquid level of the tank to
approximately 2.5 cm from the inside top of the tank.

The invert of the inlet pipes shall be at a level not less than
5 cm above the invert of the outlet pipe

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers
4.1 Septic Tank
4.1.3 Tank Proportions
If two or more compartments are used, the first
compartment shall have the capacity from one-half
to two-thirds of the total volume of the tank.
The septic tank shall have a liquid drawing depth
not less than 1.20 meters (4 feet).
The vertical distance from the liquid level to the
inside top of the tank shall be at least 20 cm (8in).

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers
4.1 Septic Tank
4.1.4 Inspection Manholes
Shall be provided with an inspection manhole 0.36
sq.m. (4 sq.ft.) in minimum area or by equivalent
removable cover slab to provide access to the inlet
and outlet devices and to the compartment of the
tank for inspection and cleaning.
Septic tanks installed under concrete or block top
paving shall have the required manholes accessible
by extending the manhole openings to grade.

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers

4.1 Septic Tank


4.1.5 Construction of Septic Tank
4.1.6 Location
Shall be located not less than 25 meters
from any well, spring, cistern, or other
sources of drinking water supply; not less
than 1.5 m from any water service line; and
not less than 3.0 meters away from water
main.
Shall not be located under the building.

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers
4.1 Septic Tank
4.1.7 Maintenance
Shall be inspected at least once a year and be
cleaned when the bottom of the scum mat is
within 3 inches of the bottom of the outlet device
or the sludge and scum has reduced the liquid
capacity by 50%.
Tanks shall not be washed or disinfected after
cleaning. A small residual of sludge shall be left in
the tank for seeding.

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers

4.2 Leaching Tile Field


4.2.1 Design
A leaching tile system utilizing trenches 0.450.90 m wide is considered to be a leaching
tile field.
A leaching tile system utilizing trenches
more than 0.90 m wide is considered to be a
leaching bed.

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers

4.2 Leaching Tile Field


4.2.2 Construction
The leaching tile field or leaching bed shall
be located not less than 25 meters from any
well, spring, cistern, or other source of
drinking water supply; not less than 3 meters
from an occupied building; and not less than
1.5 meters from any lot line.

Section 4: Design and Construction of Septic


Tanks, Leaching Tile Field and House Sewers

4.3 House Sewers


4.3.1 Design
Minimum size shall not be less than 100mm
(4 inches) in diameter

Section 5: Public Sewerage System


5.2 Provision of Sewerage System
5.2.2 Operation of Sewage Treatment Plants
a. The sewage treatment plant shall be capable of
treating the flow of sewage discharged by the
community in the area.
b. The type of sewage treatment plant shall be approved
by the Secretary or his duly authorized representative
and the effluent from such treatment plants shall meet
the standards formulated by the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources.
c. The sewage treatment plant shall provide laboratory
facilities for control tests and other examinations
needed.

Section 5: Public Sewerage System


5.2 Provision of Sewerage System
5.2.2 Operation of Sewage Treatment Plants
d. Operating data, control tests and such other
records as may be required shall be forwarded to
the local health authority.
e. The local health authority shall be informed in case
of breakdown or improper functioning of the
treatment works.
f. Where sewage treatment plant is provided, no
sewage shall be allowed to by-pass the plant.
g. The sewage treatment plant shall be managed by a
registered sanitary engineer.

Section 6: Damage to Public Sewer or


Sewage Disposal System
6.1 It is unlawful for any person to discharge
anything which would cause damage to the
public sewage disposal system, whether the
system is government or privately-owned.

Effectivity
IRR of the Chapter 17 of PD 856 was approved
on December 21, 1995
Date of Publication: February 22, 1996

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


DISPOSAL PHASE- the final stage of the plumbing process; where
used water and water-carried wastes are brought to various
disposal outlets

Definition: (SEPTIC TANK)


A watertight covered receptacle designed and constructed to
receive the discharge of sewage from a building sewer,
separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter and
store digested solids through a period of detention, and allow
the clarified liquids to discharge for final disposal

SLUDGE- solid organic matter that are denser than water and
settle at the bottom of the septic tank

SCUM- lighter organic material that rise to the surface of the


water

EFFLUENT- liquid content of sewage

SEPTIC TANK

Bacteria in septic tank


to encourage decomposition:
Aerobic bacteria- relies on oxygen to survive
Anaerobic bacteria- can survive in places without oxygen

SEPTIC TANK

Minimum
Dimensions:
L= 1500mm
W=900mm
D=1200mm

SEPTIC TANK
SINGLE CHAMBER SEPTIC TANK:

SEPTIC TANK
DESIGN CRITERIA:

PLANS:
should show all dimensions, reinforcing, structural calculations,
and such other pertinent data as needed.

QUALITY OF DESIGN:
shall be such as to produce a clarified effluent of acceptable
standards and shall provide adequate space for sludge and scum
accumulations.

MATERIALS:
constructed of durable materials, not subject to excessive
corrosion or decay, shall be watertight.
Material: cement (most common) or pre-fabricated cast iron

SEPTIC TANK
COMPARTMENTS:
have a minimum of 2 compartments:
First compartment: not less than 2/3 capacity of the total
capacity of tank; not less than 2 cum liquid capacity; shall be
at least 0.9 m width and 1.5 m long; Liquid depth not less
than 0.6 m nor more than 1.8 m.
Secondary compartment: maximum capacity of 1/3 total
capacity of tank; minimum of 1 cum liquid capacity
In septic tanks having over 6 cum capacity, the secondary
compartment should be not less than 1.5 m in length.
maintain a slope of 1:10 at the bottom of the digestion chamber
to collect the sludge and make it easily accessible from the
manhole

MANHOLES:
with at least two (2) manholes, 508 mm in min dimension; one
over inlet, other over outlet. Wherever first compartment
exceeds 3.7 m in length, an additional manhole required over the
baffle wall.

SEPTIC TANK
SIZES OF PIPE INLET & OUTLET & THEIR VERTICAL LEGS:
Inlet and Outlet pipes diameter size not less than the sewer
pipe
Vertical legs of inlet and outlet pipes diameter size not less than
the sewer pipe nor less than 104.6 mm.

LENGTH AND LOCATION OF INLET & OUTLET:


Shall extend 101.6 mm above and at least 304.8 mm below the
water surface
Invert of the inlet pipe shall be at a level not less than 50.8 mm
above the invert of the outlet pipe.

VENT DIAMETER:
equal to the cross sectional area of the house sewer.

SEPTIC TANK
AIR SPACE:
Side walls shall extend 228.6 mm above liquid depth.
Cover of septic tank shall be at least 50.8 mm above the back
vent openings.

PARTITION (between compartments):


An inverted fitting equivalent in size to the tank inlet, but in no
case less than 104.6 mm in diameter, shall be installed in the inlet
compartment side of the baffle with the bottom of the fitting
placed midway in the depth of the liquid. Wooden baffles are
prohibited.

STRUCTURE:
Shall be capable of supporting an earth load of not
less than 14.4 kPa

SEPTIC TANK
CAPACITY:
The capacity of septic tanks is determined by the number of
bedrooms or apartment units in dwelling occupancies; by the
estimated waste/sewage design flow rate for various building
occupancies; or by the number of fixture units of all plumbing
fixtures; whichever is greater.
The capacity of any one septic tank and its drainage system shall
also be limited by the soil structure classification in its drainage
field.

LOCATION:
Should not be located underneath the house
At least 15 meters from the water distribution system

Isometric View
of a Typical
Drainage
System with
Septic Tank
System

DISPOSAL FIELD

Private sewage disposal system common in rural areas for


structures with large adjacent open fields

DISPOSAL FIELD
AREA:
dependent on the required septic tank capacity or estimated
sewage flow rate, whichever is greater, and;
the type of soil found in the excavation.

DISTANCE FROM WATER TABLE:


No excavation for leach bed shall extend within 1.5 m of the
water table.

WITH SEEPAGE PIT:


Filter material in the trenches shall terminate 1.5 m from pit
excavation and the pipe extending from such points to the
seepage pit shall be watertight.

SEEPAGE PITS

a loosely lined excavation in the ground, which receives the


discharge of a septic tank; designed to permit effluent to seep
through pit bottom and sides

CAPACITY:
based on the quantity of liquid waste and on the character and
porosity of the surrounding soil.

SIZE OF SEEPAGE PIT:


Circular in shape with excavated diameter of not less than 2.2 m
and to be lined with clay or concrete brick.

SEEPAGE PITS
STRENGTH:
Brick lining shall have a minimum
compressive strength of 17225 kPa.

MULTIPLE SEEPAGE PITS:


served through a distribution
box or shall be connected in
series by means of a watertight
connection. The outlet shall
have a vented leg fitting extending
304.8 mm below the inlet fitting.

CEESPOOLS

a non-watertight lined
excavation in the ground
which receives the discharge
of a sanitary drainage system,
designed to retain the organic
matter but permitting the liquid
to seep through the pit bottom
and sides

CEESPOOLS

TEMPORARY PERMITS:
Temporary expedient pending the construction of a public sewer,
so long as it is established that a public sewer will be available in
less than 2 years and the soil and ground water conditions are
favorable;
As an overflow facility when installed in conjunction with an
existing cesspool;
As a means of sewage disposal for limited, minor, or temporary
uses.

PRIVIES

Outside Privy- oldest form of disposal of


organic waste. Consists of a vault constructed
of concrete for the collection of raw sewage
and a wooden shelter

COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL SPECIAL LIQUID


WASTE DISPOSAL

REQUIREMENTS:
When liquid wastes containing excessive amounts of grease,
garbage, flammable wastes, sand, or other ingredients which may
affect the operation of a private sewage disposal system, an
interceptor for such waste shall be installed.

DISPOSAL:
Waste from interceptors may be discharged to a septic tank or
other primary system or into a separate disposal system.

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL
SYSTEMS
Location of Sewage Disposal System
MIN. HORIZONTAL
DISTANCE IN CLEAR
REQUIRED FROM

BLDG
SEWER
0.6 m

SEPTIC
TANK

DISPOSAL
FIELD

SEEPAGE
PIT OR
CESSPOOL

1.5 m

2.4 m

2.4 m

Buildings or
structures*

Property line
Adjoining private
Property

Clear**

1.5 m

1.5 m

2.4 m

Water supply
wells

15.2 m

15.2 m

30.5 m

45.7 m

Streams

15.2 m

15.2 m

15.2 m

30.5 m

Trees

3m

3m

Private Sewage Disposal Systems


GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL
SYSTEMS
Location of Sewage Disposal System
MIN. HORIZONTAL
DISTANCE IN CLEAR
REQUIRED FROM
6

Seepage pits or
Cesspools

Disposal field

On site domestic
Water service line

Pressure public
Water main

SEPTIC
TANK

DISPOSAL
FIELD

SEEPAGE
PIT OR
CESSPOOL

1.5 m

1.5 m

3.7 m

1.5 m

1.2 m

1.5 m

0.3 m

1.5 m

1.5 m

1.5 m

3m

3m

3m

3m

BLDG
SEWER
-

Sewage Treatment Plan (STP)


Some features of STP:
An aeration system within the tank;
A submersible mixer to mix the waste;
A sludge waste pump that aids in clarifying;
A decanter;
Blowers;
A fully electronic control system, etc.

DESIGN OF GREASE TRAP


Part 1: Fundamentals of Plumbing
Design and Installation
Part 2: Process, Design Criteria and
Computations

MASTER PLUMBER REVIEW


Plumbing Design and Installation

Thank You.