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PLUMBING PRACTICAL

PowerHouse Review Center


Master Plumber Review

What is a plumbing system?


Plumbing includes all
the piping and fixtures
that provide water for
drinking, cooking,
bathing, and laundry; as
well as a means of
disposing of
wastewater. (Yuck!)

Putting in a plumbing system takes a lot of


thought.

When a house is being built, plumbers and


carpenters must work together so the
frame of the house is prepared for
plumbing to be put in.

Plumbing can be dangerous, so there are


codes that must be followed in order to
keep everyone safe.

A code is a set of rules that can be


enforced by law!!!

Some Common Colds Codes


1. UPC (Uniform Plumbing Code)
2. BOCA (Basic Builders Code)
3. IBOC (International Conference of Building
Officials)
4. NPC (National Plumbing Code)
5. SPCCI (Standard Plumbing Code)
**Local codes usually adopt all or parts of the UPC or
other plumbing codes. Once adopted, codes can be
enforced by law!!

In the plumbing
business, errors
cost money, so you
better know your
stuff!!!

There are 2 Types of Plumbing


Systems
1) Water Supply System
2) Drainage, Waste, and Venting (DWV)

Water Supply System


Distributes water under pressure throughout
the structure for drinking, bathing, cooking,
and laundry.
This is a 2 pipe system.
One pipe carries cold water, and the other hot
water.

DWV
Carries away wastewater and solid waste
from bathrooms, kitchens, and laundries.
This subsystem is not under pressure, and
must be properly vented to prevent
wastewater form entering the drinking water
supply.

What is the difference between a


valve, a fixture, and a faucet?

Valves
Devices that control the
flow of water in the
water supply system.
They are installed at
certain places on the
lines so that water can
be shut off easily.

Faucets
Valves that permit
controlled amounts of
water as needed for use
in a building.
They deliver water to
sinks, showers, and
bathtubs, but can also
deliver water to a hose
or bucket.

Fixtures
Water-using devices
such as sinks, bathtubs,
urinals, stools, or
showers.

They are attached to the


plumbing system and
receive water from the
supply system.

PLUMBING FIXTURES &


APPLIANCES

Plumbing Fixtures
Definition:
Receptacles which are used to provide, receive
and discharge water, liquid and water-carried
wastes into a drainage system with which they
are connected to

Classifications:
Soil
Water Closets
Urinals
Slop Sinks

Scullery
Kitchen Sinks
Laundry Tubs
Bar Sinks

Bathing
Lavatories

Bathtubs
Shower Baths

Bidets
Foot/Sitz Tub
Shower Receptors
Shower Compartments

Soil Fixtures
Setting:

WATER CLOSET

Water closet center to side wall: minimum of 0.375 m


Water closet center to WC center: minimum of 0.75 m

Types:
According to Type of Flushing
Flush Tank water closets
Direct Flush Valve
( DFV water closets)
-Flushing action can be obtained
directly from a flush valve
connected into the bowl

Soil Fixtures
According to Flush Tank Types
Integral Flush Tank
Close Coupled Flush Tank
Low Flush Tank
High Flush Tank

Soil Fixtures
According to Mounting
Floor Mounted

Wall Hung

Soil Fixtures
According to Flushing Action
Wash Down
-

Flushes through a simple


wash down action
-

Discharges waste into a


trapway located at the front
of the bowl

Has a bulge on the front

Has a small amount of


standing water
Cost less but is least
efficient and noisiest

Soil Fixtures
Reverse Trap
-

Flushes through a siphon


action created in the trapway

Siphon Jet
-

Has a larger trapway


making it less likely to clog

Quieter flushing action


Retains a large amount of
standing water

Soil Fixtures
Siphon Vortex
-

Less noisy and very


efficient
- Flushing action is started
by a whirlpool motion
followed by a complete
flush down
- Retains a large amount of
standing water

Direct Flush Valve

flushing action is obtained


directly from a flush valve
connected into the bowl

Soil Fixtures
Other Types of Water Closets
Squat Type

Washout

Soil Fixtures

Soil Fixtures

Soil Fixtures
Minimum Requirements for Water Closets
OCCUPANCY

MIN. WC

KIND & NO. OF USERS

Dwelling or Apartment

family

Elementary Schools

1
2
1

for 1-20 persons


For 21-50 persons
per additional 50 persons

Assembly Places
(Theaters and Auditoriums- for
public use)

1
2
3
3
4
8
1
2

per 1-100 males


per 101-200 males
per 201-400 males
per 1-50 females
per 51-100 females
per 101-200 females
per additional 500 males over 400
per additional 300 females over 400

Dormitories

1
1
1

per 10 males
per 8 females
per additional 25 males, 20 females

Industrial

1
2
3
4
5
1

per 1 - 10 persons
for 11 - 25 persons
for 26 - 50 persons
for 51 - 75 persons
for 76 - 100 persons
per additional 30 persons in excess of 100

Soil Fixtures
Types:
Wall Hung
Pedestal
Through
Stall

URINALS

Soil Fixtures
Setting:
Urinal center to side wall: minimum of 0.30 m
Urinal center to urinal center: minimum of 0.60 m

Flushing:
Flushing urinals shall be done through automatic flushing tanks.
(NPC 408.1)
Flushometer valves shall be self-closing type discharging a
predetermined quantity of water. No manually controlled
flushometer valve shall be used to flush group urinals. (NPC
408.2)

Soil Fixtures
Minimum Requirements for Urinals
OCCUPANCY
Schools:
Elementary
Secondary

MIN. #

KIND & NO. OF USERS

1
1

per 75 males
per 35 males

Office or Public Building

1
2
3
4
1

per 1-100 males


per 101-200 males
per 201-400 males
per 401-600 males
For each additional 300 males

Assembly Places
( Theaters and auditoriums)for public use)

1
2
3
4
1

per 1-100 males


per 101-200 males
per 201-400 males
per 401-600 males
For each additional 500 males

Dormitories

1
1

Per 25 males
per 50 males in excess of 150

Industrial and Commercial

Scullery Fixtures
Materials:
KITCHEN SINK
Stainless Steel

Cast Iron Enamel

Formed Steel Coated with Porcelain Enamel

Single, Double or Triple Well, Shallow and Deep well, etc.

Scullery Fixtures
LAUNDRY TUBS

Materials:
Cement or Cement with Tiles

Porcelain

SLOP SINKS
Where janitors clean & leave their mops

BAR SINKS

Scullery Fixtures
LAVATORIES

Types:

Pedestal

Wall Hung

Pullman or Counter

Through

Bathing Fixtures
BATHTUBS
WHIRLPOOL
BATHS
with removable panel of sufficient dimension to access pump
circulation pump shall be located above the crown weir of the
trap
pump and circulation piping shall be self draining
Brand Name of
luxury type bathtubs

JACUZZIS

Bathing Fixtures
BIDETS
Used for cleaning private parts
Sometimes referred to as
female urinals

Setting:
Bidet center to side wall: minimum of 0.375 m
Bidet center to bidet center: minimum of 0.75 m

Bathing Fixtures
FLOOR DRAINS
With approved-type hinged strainer plate
having the sum of the areas of the small
holes of the waterway equal to the crosssectional area of the tailpiece
Provided with integrally cast water stop outside flange around
the body at mid depth and with an inside caulk outlet to
provide a watertight joint in the floor

SHOWER RECEPTORS
Receptor floor shall drain not less than 2% or more than 4% slope.
Thresholds shall accommodate a minimum 559 mm wide door.
For wheelchair use, dam or curb may be eliminated.

Bathing Fixtures
SHOWER BATHS/
COMPARTMENTS
Metal enclosure containing
shower head, valves and faucets

Shall have a minimum interior area of 0.6 sqm and shall be


capable of encompassing a 762 mm diameter circle.
This area shall be maintained from a point above the shower drain
to a height of 1.78 m with no protrusions other than the fixture
valve, shower head and safety grab rails.
Drains for gang shower rooms shall be spaced not more than
4.9 m apart.

PLUMBING MATERIALS &


FITTINGS

PLUMBING PIPES
APPROVED MATERIALS marked for identification
Embossed/Stamped
brass/copper fittings
Molded
plastic fittings
Indelible Marking
colored stripe/indelible letters
RED STRIPE
type M Copper (Rigid)
BLUE STRIPE
type L Copper (Flexible/Rigid)
GREEN STRIPE type K Copper
YELLOW STRIPE Drain, Waste & Vent (DWV)Copper
NOTE:

Pipe and fittings for Potable Water lead content of not more than 8%
Solder (join pipe/fittings) may not contain 0.2% lead

WATER SERVICE MATERIALS


ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)
for pressure-rated potable water use
inexpensive
resists chemical attack

Asbestos Cement Pipe


water mains

Brass Pipe
metallic, threaded pipe (used for both Water Service and
Water Distribution)

Cast Iron Pipe


not used for individual water supplies
ductile pipe for water mains

Cast Iron
Most popular and generally specified material for drainage
installation. Extensively used in the 60s and 70s.
Durable, conveniently installed (<25 storey)

Commercial length: 600 cm


Diameters: 50-150mm

SPIGOT

HUB
Affected to some extent by corrosion by acid formed by Carbon
Dioxide, Sulphur Oxide, and Methane Gases that create rust

2 Types:
SV type -

generally used; for building installations

XV type -

extra duty; for underground installations

Cast Iron
4 Varieties:
Standard Pipe

Single Hub Pipe

Double Hub Pipe

Hubless Pipe

WATER SERVICE MATERIALS


Copper Pipe
copper tubing
copper pipe with or without threads
gray color code for water service use

Copper Tubing
soft copper or rolls (water-service)
rigid (water distribution)

Standard has a specific ID and OD


Extra Heavy and Double extra heavy have heavier walls,
although the OD remains the same the ID changes.

Disadvantages of Copper Tubing


High initial cost
High degree of expansion
Bad taste and green stains if the water is
slightly acidic

Classification of Copper Tubing


1. Type K

thickest/heaviest

2. Type L

middle

3. Type M

thinnest/lightest

Joining of Copper Tubing


Copper pipe may be joined in three ways:
1. Soldering
2. Flaring
3. Compression

WATER SERVICE MATERIALS


cPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride)
white or cream colored plastic pipe for water
distribution
buff colored thermoplastic
light, easy to handle, resists cracks
good for freezing conditions
suitable for piping hot water
Rating of 180 degrees Fahrenheit and 100 psi

WATER SERVICE MATERIALS


Galvanized Steel Pipe
with threaded fittings for water distribution
problem: rust

PB (Polybutylene)
rolled coils or straight lengths
flexible, allowing for easy installation
connections made with compression fittings
Blue color water service use
Gray color water service or water distribution

WATER SERVICE MATERIALS


PE (Polyethylene)
black or bluish for water services

PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)

drain or vent pipe


white
CWL (Cold Water Line) only
has lower thermal expansion that makes long runs
easier to control
Joined with a two-step primer/solvent and suitable
fittings

WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE


Minimum working pressure of 100 psi/temp. 180 F
Pressure-reducing valve at the water service to reduce
the pressure to no more than 80 psi

BRASS PIPE once popular


COPPER PIPE/TUBING (more common choice)
GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE subject to rust problems
POLYBUTYLENE (PB) ease of installation
resistance due to splitting caused by freezing conditions
low cost

DRAIN, WASTE & VENT PIPE


Range from 1 4 diameter
ABS
black or gray color
Schedule 40 (used above or below ground or joined by
solvent-weld cement)
extremely durable or can take hard abuse without
breaking or cracking

ALUMINUM TUBING
above-ground use only
joined by mechanical joints
coated to prevent corrosive action

DRAIN, WASTE & VENT PIPE


BOROSILICATE GLASS
used above or below ground or underground
heavy-schedule of pipe

BRASS PIPE
rarely used

CAST IRON PIPE (CIP)

hub and spigot style (joined by oakum/molten lead)


hubless (jointed with mechanical joints rubber coupling)
referred to as SOIL PIPE
service weight pipe
extra heavy pipe

DRAIN, WASTE & VENT PIPE


COPPER PIPE
thin-walled with yellow marking
time-consuming to install
used above or below ground

GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE


not to be installed closer than 6 to the earth

LEAD PIPE
limited to above-grade installations

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE
white with rating of Schedule 40
become brittle in cold weather

DRAIN, WASTE & VENT PIPE


Used for Building Sewer:

ABS
Cast Iron
Vitrified Clay
PVC
Concrete
Asbestos Cement

STORM-DRAINAGE MATERIALS
Interior or Underground (for storm sewer)
INSIDE STORM DRAINAGE

ABS
DWV Copper
Type L Copper
Asbestos Cement
Cast Iron
Vitrified Clay
Brass

STORM-DRAINAGE MATERIALS
INSIDE STORM DRAINAGE (continue)

Galvanized
PVC
Type M Copper
Type K Copper
Bituminized Fiber
Concrete
Aluminum
Lead
Black Steel

STORM-DRAINAGE MATERIALS
SUBSOIL DRAINS
Asbestos Cement
Vitrified Clay
Cast Iron
Bituminized Fiber
PVC
PE

SUMMARY

Copper
Cast Iron
Black Steel
Galvanized Steel

ABS
PVC

cPVC
Polyethylene Pipe

Hot and Cold water lines


Large sewage
Liquid not used very often
Zinc covered, used for water
outdoor lines
Underground application
Sewage in house, Cold water
outside
Hot water application
Black Plastic, Cold water only,
Pump installation, Surface and
Underground, Replaces copper
and PVC

METHOD OF JOINTING PIPES

Caulking
Threading
Flanging
Soldering
Welding

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


PIPE NIPPLE
piece of pipe lesser than 12 length
threaded on both ends
more than 12 Cut Pipe
a. Close when fittings or valves are to be joined very
close to each other
b. Short small amount of pipe exists (shoulder)
c. Long larger amount of bare pipe exists

PIPE COUPLING
materials: Wrought iron, Cast metal, Brass
Extension Piece male threaded at one end

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


RETURN BENDS
Back
Side

TEES
branch of 90 degrees or right angles

PLUG

closing end of a pipe or fitting having female thread


square head
four-sided counter-sunk head (small size)
hexagon-head (larger sizes)
1/8 12
Ground-joint union

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


BUSHINGS
connect the male end of a pipe to a fitting of a larger
size
reducing or enlarging fitting

ELBOWS

to change the direction of a pipe


45/90
gas, water, steam
22 /60
special angles
CI drainage fitting elbows: 5 5/8 22 60
11
45

90

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


CAPS
closing the end of a pipe or fitting male threaded
plain and flat band
beaded caps

FLANGE
for closing flanged fittings/flange pipe lines

WYE

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


90 degree
Slip Elbow

45 degree
Slip Elbow

PVC Slip
Tee

PVC Male
Adaptor

PVC
Threaded
Tee

Brass
Connector

COMMON JOINT MATERIALS


Teflon Tape used to wrap
around threads to prevent
leaking
Pipe Cement Solvent used to
assemble PVC, cPVC and ABS pipes

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


End Feed Fittings (E/F)
End feed fittings, are fittings where the solder is manually fed in from the end of the
fitting during soldering.
All pipes used must be cleaned and have flux applied to each joint before heating with a
blow torch and the application of solder
15mm End Feed Coupler

15mm End Feed Tee

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Integral Solder Ring (Yorkshire)

Yorkshire fittings (Yorkshire is a trade name) already contain a ring solder inside
them
All pipes used must be cleaned and have flux applied to each joint before
heating evenly with a blow torch until the solder is seen to melt
15mm Integral Solder Ring
Coupler

15mm x 15mm x 15mm Integral


Solder Ring Tee

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Compression Fittings (COMP)

Compression fittings use a nut and olive (copper, brass or rubber compression
ring) to make a water tight seal between the fitting and the pipe. All pipes used
must be clean and free from burrs before assembly. A suitable sealing paste
should also be applied before the joints are tightened using a wrench or spanner.
Do not over tighten as this can lead to problems should the fitting need to be
removed
15 millimetre Compression Tee

15 millimetre Compression
Service Valve

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Speed Fit, HEP2O, Copper/Brass Push Fit

There are many different types of push fit joints are now being marketed, they're
available in plastic, brass & copper. There's not much difference between them,
they all incorporate some form of grip ring which creates a seal between the
pipe and the fitting and prevents the pipe from pulling out. All pipes used must
be clean and free from burrs before assembly. Insert the cleaned pipe into the
fitting and push into place by hand.
Hep20 Straight Coupler

Speed Fit Straight Coupler

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Male Brass (MI) Fittings

Male Brass (MI) fittings have an external thread and are made as the name
suggests from brass.
These fittings are tightened using a wrench or spanner. Always use a suitable
sealing compound when assembling joints using these fittings. Do not over
tighten.
1/2" MI bsp x15mm Elbow

3/4" MI bsp x 22mm coupler

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Female Brass (FI) Fittings

Female Brass (FI) fittings have an internal thread and are made as the name
suggests from brass.
These fittings are tightened using a wrench or spanner. Always use a suitable
sealing compound when assembling joints using these fittings. Do not over
tighten.
1/2" FI BSP x 15mm Integral
Solder Ring Coupler

1/2" FI BSP x 15mm


Compression Elbow

1/2" FI BSP x 15mm Wall


Plate Elbow

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Fitting Sizes

Fittings are supplied in a variety of sizes ranging from 6mm through to what
ever size you require, although larger size fittings may have to be specially
ordered.
Generally the average plumber working in domestic properties will come into
contact with fittings ranging from 6mm to 28mm.
As a plumber you will continue to come into contact with fittings still measured
in old imperial (inches). Some merchants catalogues will have fittings still
measured in inches especially internally or externally threaded fittings as these
are to BSP (British Standard Pipe).
1/2 = 12.7 mm

3/4 = 19.05mm

1 = 25.4 mm

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Ordering Fittings 1

Ordering couplers is straight forward as they are the same size at both ends (eg
15mm coupler)
Ordering tees is slightly more complicated. State the largest size first then the
opposite side and then the centre size (eg 22mm x 15mm x 22mm or 22mm x
22mm x15mm see examples below)
22mm x 15mm x 22mm
Compression Tee

22mm x 22mm x15mm Hep2O


Tee

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Ordering Fittings 2

What if all the sides of a Tee fitting are the same?


The Tee would simply be called an Equal Tee.

15mm Equal Tee (York)

15mm Equal Tee (Hep2o)

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Other Fittings - Tap connectors:

These fittings are also known as swivel fittings and they come in either straights
or elbows.

15mm Straight Tap


Connector in Brass

15 mm Straight Tap
Connector (Speed Fit)

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Other Fittings - Tap connectors continued:

Further examples of tap connectors

15 mm Compression
Elbow Tap Connector

15 mm Hep2o Elbow Tap


Connector

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Other Fittings - Reducers

These are used when you need to reduce the pipe size e.g. 22mm cold feed to a
bath tap would then be reduced to 15mm to supply a basin tap, not only is this
more pleasing to the eye it is also more economical.
Integral Solder Ring
Copper Reducer

Push Fit Plastic Reducer

15 mm x 22mm End Feed


Reducer

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Other Fittings - Stop Ends

These fittings are used for capping off water supplies either temporally or when
permanently decommissioning.

22mm Integral Solder


Ring Stop End

22mm Compression Stop


End

15mm Speed Fit Stop End

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Other Fittings - Drain Off

The drain off is a valve located at the lowest point of any system and has a
serrated hose connection out-let.

Drain Off (Male Iron)

Drain Off (end feed)

Drain Off (Hep20 or Speed


Fit)

COMMON PLUMBING FITTINGS


Other Fittings - Couplers
Couplers are used to connect pipes together to form longer pipe runs.
15 mm Straight Coupler
Compression

15mm End Feed Coupler

15mm Integral Solder Ring


Coupler

15mm Speed Fit Coupler

VALVES
GATE VALVE
full open valves or stop valve
Wedged Shaped or Tapered Disc
Double Disc Valve

GLOBE VALVE
Plug Type Disc Valve
Conventional Disc Valve
Composition Disc Valve

VALVES
CHECK VALVES
Swing Check Valve
Horizontal or Vertical
Lift Check Valve

ANGLE VALVES
FOOT VALVE
SAFETY VALVE
BALL VALVE
CUT-OFF VALVES

VALVES
VALVES (PRESSURE)
Pressure Reducing Valves
Temperature and Pressure Relief Valves

VALVES (DRAINAGE SYSTEM)


Balance Valve
Unbalanced Valve

Drains

Sink Faucet

Tub Faucet

Globe Valve

PLUMBING TOOLS

Plumbing Tools
Plumbing tools fall under one of two
categories:
Hand tools

Power tools

87

Hand Tools
Manually operated.
Not as expensive as power tools.
Equally important in completing a task or
project.
Most employers expect a plumber to have
basic hand tools when being considered for
employment.

88

New Residential
Plumbers Tool List
Quantity Tool

89

Quantity

Tool

Retractable tape measure

12 claw hammer

Medium Phillips screwdriver

Cats paw nail remover

Medium slotted screwdriver

Allen wrench kit

Multi-type screwdriver

Wood chisel kit

10 angled jaw pliers

12 concrete chisel

6 combination pliers

5/16 nut driver

7 locking pliers

1/8 to 1-1/8 copper tubing cutters

8 or 10 adjustable wrench

Copper midget tubing cutters

18 pipe wrench

Copper tubing cutter up to 2 pipe size

24 pipe wrench

Copper flaring tool

Smooth jaw pipe wrench

Copper tubing bending tool

Basin wrench

Plastic pipe saw

Hacksaw

New Residential
Plumbers Tool List
(Varies Based on Employer)

Quantity

90

Description

Quantity

Description

Mini-hacksaw

Torpedo type level

Flexible tubing cutter

24 level

Inside PVC pipe cutter

Torch regulator assembly

Utility blade knife

Torch striker

Straight cut type aviation snips or


set of three

1/2 Flexible pipe crimping tool

3/4 Flexible pipe crimping tool

Plumb bob

Chalk box

Adjustable angle jaw pliers

Smooth jaw adjustable wrench

Pipe wrenches (18 or 24)

Pencil

Magic marker

Carpenters speed square

Basket strainer tool or internal


wrench

The Plumbers Tool Belt


Includes wrenches
and other tools used to:

Measure
Align
Mark
Cut
Ream and Thread

Marking Tools
Pencils, chalk lines, compasses, and dividers.

Pencil

Compass

Levels
A level is one of the most important tools in a
plumbers toolbox.
A level has tubes partially filled with colored liquid
leaving a trapped air bubble.
Some levels have a dimensional feature that can be
used for measuring distances.

93

Tape Measures
There are numerous
maker and models of
tape measures.
They vary in blade width
and length.
The retractable type
with a pocket clip is the
most common.

94

Squares
The framing square is a tool for laying out
angles.
It has two edges that form a 90 angle.

95

Screwdrivers
Screwdrivers are available in many lengths and shank
diameters.
Phillips and slotted head types are two used by
plumbers.

96

Pliers
Pliers are available in various
styles.
The most common type has
angled and grooved jaws.
Most pliers used in the
plumbing trade have cushion
grip handles.

97

Adjustable Wrenches
Adjustable wrenches are available in various sizes.
Some have a cushioned grip.
Their jaw opening is adjustable and smooth.

98

Pipe Wrenches
Pipe wrenches have grooved jaws designed to
provide grip for working with metal piping systems.
The two most common sizes are 18 and 24.
All pipe wrenches have an adjustment range for
various pipe or fitting sizes.

99

Hammers
Numerous hammer types are available with different
heads, claws, and weights.
For a plumber, the type of claw is the most important
factor regarding the selection of a hammer.

100

Plastic Pipe Saw


Can be used to cut both ABS and PVC pipe.
Available in short and long blade styles.
Their cutting teeth are closer together than a
wood-cutting saw and farther apart than a
metal-cutting saw.

101

Plastic Pipe Cutter


Various designs available.
Range in pricing and size.

102

Metal-Cutting Saw
This versatile tool is designed to cut
through metal.
Numerous blade types are available
with various numbers of teeth per
inch.

103

Hacksaw
Used to cut PVC, cPVC and ABS Pipe

104

Wallboard Saws
Two types commonly used are the compass
saw and the wallboard saw.
A compass saw is designed to cut circular holes,
but is capable of making square cuts
The wallboard saw is shorter and more rigid than
the compass saw

105

Aviation Snips
The most common
are offered in three
different styles that
cut in three different
directions straight,
left, and right.
Their cushioned grip
handles are colorcoded, indicating
their direction of
cut.

106

Knives
Commonly used for cutting wallboard, boxes,
or tape

107

Chisels
Wood chisels are typically used for notching and
splitting pieces of wood boards.
Chisels used for chipping concrete have a blunter
cutting edge than wood chisels and are called cold
chisels.

108

Basin Wrench
Has a spring-loaded swivel head.
Used to install and remove securing nuts of a faucet
and water supply connections in confined spaces.

109

Basket Strainer Tools


Strainer forks are used for strainers and tub drains.
An internal wrench is a multi-purpose tool that
allows an installer to tighten or remove parts to a
plumbing fixture.
The internal wrench has a range from 1 to 2 internal use.

110

Copper Pipe Cutters (Tubing Cutters)


Copper cutters use metal rollers and a cutting wheel
to rotate around the pipe as a manual handle is
turned clockwise to advance the cutting wheel
through the pipe.

111

Copper Flaring Tool


A flaring tool flares the end of soft copper tubing,
creating a 45-degree angle to mate with a
compatible brass flared fitting.

112

Copper Tubing Bender


A copper tubing
bender is used to
create bends in
copper tube.
It is useful for tight
spaces and for
achieving a
professional
appearance.
113

Torch Regulator Assembly


A typical torch assembly consists
of:
A regulator that controls the amount
of flammable gas to be ignited
A torch-tip with an orifice specifically
designed for the type of gas and the
specific torch assembly

114

Flexible Pipe Crimping Tool


Offered in several sizes.
Most commonly used are for
1/2 and 3/4 pipe.
A dual-size tool and a
compact version for 1/2 and
3/4 pipe sizes available.
Requires calibration to
ensure an adequate crimp is
achieved.
A crimp gauge is sold with
each tool.
115

Plumb Bob
Provides an accurate method of establishing a
vertical point of reference to a lower work
area from an upper work area.

116

Chalk Box
Houses string (called a
chalk line) and chalk
powder.
Used to mark a
straight line for layout
or to cut plywood
boards.

117

Torque Wrench
Used to tighten clamps used in installing cast iron
pipe and for rubber transition connectors for
dissimilar piping.
Has a 5/16 socket end.

118

Other Plumbing Tools


Sand paper helps in smoothing the end of
the pipe after cutting it
Clean Cloth wipe off excess solvent cement

Tri-Square helps in cutting the pipe square

Personal Safety Equipment


Recommended personal protection equipment:

120

Eye protection
Face protection
Hand protection
Knee protection
Foot protection
Inhalation protection
First aid kit
Head protection

Summary
Hand tools are required to install various
aspects of a plumbing system.
A plumber may be responsible for purchasing
hand tools.
Specialty hand tools are required more for
repair than for new installation work.
Everyone on a job site is responsible for safety.

121

Summary
Personal protection equipment (PPE) is usually
provided by an employer.
Material safety data sheet (MSDS) lists all
safety hazards and medical attention
requirements for a specific product.
MSDS must be available for all products and
kept on file on the jobsite.

122

PLUMBING SYMBOLS &


COLOR CODING
Symbols and Drawings
Pipe Color Coding
Fire Extinguisher Color Coding

Pipe & Fitting Symbols

Pipe & Fitting Symbols

Pipe & Fitting Symbols

Pipe & Fitting Symbols

PIPE COLOR CODING

ANSI/ASME A13.1 - 2007 Standard for


the Identification of Pipes
MATERIAL

PROPERTIES

Fluids which are a vapor or produce


vapors that can ignite and continue to
FLAMMABLE
burn in air
Fluids that may burn but are not
COMBUSTIBLE
flammable
TOXIC &
Fluids which are corrosive or toxic or will
CORROSIVE
produce corrosive or toxic substances
Water and other substances used in
FIRE QUENCHING
sprinkler fire-fighting piping systems
Any other water, except for water used in
OTHER WATER
sprinkler and fire-fighting piping systems
Any vapor or gas under pressure that does
COMPRESSED AIR
not fit a category above

BACKGROUND &
LETTERING COLORS
YELLOW BACKGROUND,
BLACK LETTERING

BROWN BACKGROUND,
WHITE LETTERING
ORANGE BACKGROUND,
BLACK LETTERING
RED BACKGROUND,
WHITE LETTERING
GREEN BACKGROUND,
WHITE LETTERING
BLUE BACKGROUND,
WHITE LETTERING

Philippine Pipe Color Code


COLOR
RED

ORANGE

MATERIAL PIPED
Carbon Dioxide
Water (Fire Service)
Acetylene
Blast Furnace Gas
Gasoline
Grease
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Oil
Tar
Producer Gas
Liquid Petroleum Gas
Oil and Water
Vacuum-High

PIPE IDENTIFICATION
Carbon Dioxide
Fire Service Water
Acetylene
B.F. Gas
Gasoline
Grease
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Oil
Tar
Producer Gas
LPG
Oil and Water
High Vacuum

Philippine Pipe Color Code


COLOR

YELLOW

GREEN

MATERIAL PIPED
Acid
Air-High Pressure
Ammonia
Steam-High Pressure
Steam-Low Pressure
Water-Boiler Feed
Water-Hot
Water-High Pressure
Air-Low Pressure
Argon-Low Pressure
Helium-Low Pressure
Nitrogen-Low Pressure
Water-Cold
Water-Distilled
Water-Low Pressure
Water-Treated
Oil and Water

PIPE IDENTIFICATION
Acid
H.P. Air
Ammonia
H.P. Steam
L.P. Steam
Boiler Feed Water
Hot Water
H.P. Water
L.P. Air
L.P. Argon
L.P. Helium
L.P. Nitrogen
Cold Water
Distilled Water
L.P. Water
Treated Water
Oil and Water

ANSI Color Codes


COLOR

STD

MEANING

EXAMPLE

Red

APWA

Electric Power Lines, Cables,


Conduit and Lighting Cables

Buried High Voltage


Line

Yellow

APWA

Gas, Oil, Steam, Petroleum or


Gaseous Materials

Natural Gas
Distribution Line

Orange

APWA

Communication, Alarm or Signal


Lines, Cables or Conduit

Buried Fiber Optic


Cable

Blue

APWA

Water, Irrigation and Slurry Lines

Buried Water Line

Green

APWA

Sewers, Drain Line

Buried Storm Sewer


Line

Red

Traffic

Prohibition

STOP, Yield

Orange

Traffic

Temporary Work Zone

Construction Zone
Ahead

Yellow

Traffic

Caution

Merge Ahead, Slow

ANSI Color Codes


COLOR

STD

MEANING

EXAMPLE

Blue

Traffic

Information Signs

Hospital

Brown

Traffic

Historical or Park

Picnic Area Ahead

Green

Traffic

Directional Signs

Exit 1 Mile, Go

Red

ANSI Sign

Danger Signs, Highest Hazard

Hazardous Voltage
Will Cause Death

Orange

ANSI Sign

Warning Signs, Medium Hazard

Hazardous Voltage
May Cause Death

Yellow

ANSI Sign

Caution Signs, Lowest Hazard

Turn Machine Off


When Not In Use

Blue

ANSI Sign

Notice Signs

Employees Only

Green

ANSI Sign

Safety First Signs

Wear Ear Plugs

ANSI Color Codes


COLOR

STD

Red

ANSI Pipe

Fire Quenching Materials

Fire Protection Water

Yellow

ANSI Pipe

Materials Inherently Hazardous

Chlorine

Blue

ANSI Pipe

Materials of Inherently Low


Hazard, Gas

Compressed Air

Green

ANSI Pipe

Materials of Inherently Low


Hazard, Liquid

Storm Drain

NFPA 701

Blue is used for Health Hazards,


Red for Flammability and Yellow
for reactivity

Blue/ Red/
Yellow

MEANING

EXAMPLE

NFPA Standards for


Medical Facilities
SERVICE

COLOR

BACKGROUND COLOR

Carbon Dioxide

White

Gray

Helium

White

Brown

Medical Air

White

Blue

Medical Air

Black

Yellow

Medical Air 50-55 psi

Black

Yellow

Medical Vacuum

White

Blue

Medical Vacuum

Black

White

Nitrogen

White

Black

Nitrogen 180-200 psi

White

Black

Nitrous Oxide

White

Blue

Nitrous Oxide 50-55 psi

White

Blue

Oxygen

White

Green

Oxygen 50-55 psi

White

Green

FIRE EXTINGUISHER

FIRE CLASSIFICATION
Fire Class

Geometric
Symbol

Green Triangle

Pictogram

Intended Use

Mnemonic

Ordinary solid
combustibles

A for "Ash"

Red Square

Flammable liquids and


gases

B for
Barrel"

Blue Circle

Energized electrical
equipment

C for
"Current"

Yellow Decagon
(Star)

Combustible metals

D for
"Dynamite"

Black Hexagon

Oils and fats

K for
"Kitchen"

PLUMBING INSTALLATION

Pipe Selection
Each kind of pipe has advantages and
disadvantages. When making repairs it is
generally easier to repair systems with the
kind of pipe used in the original installation.

New Installations
When planning a new system, it is important
to consider the relative merits of each kind of
pipe.

Soldering Copper

Gluing
Plastic

All drains can become clogged.


It is important to know different
ways to unclog a drain so that you
may avoid overflows or future
problems!!

For a slow drain.


Use chemical cleaners,
such as Drano to solve
the problem.
Be careful, these kind of
chemicals are
dangerous and can
make you very sick or
even kill you if they are
not used properly!

For more serious clogs..


You may use a plunger, a snake, or a closet auger.

Plungers apply
pressure to the clog

Augers and snakes


reach and dislodge the
obstruction.

SOIL, WASTE AND VENT PRINCIPLES


Principle 1: Minimum requirement for a waste and vent pipe
installation:
Installation consisting of a WC, LAV, SINK, a BT on first floor, and LT in
basement with a drain, soil waste, and vent pipe arrangement

House drain: 3 4
Cleanouts extended at least 1 above floor line
Basements/public washrooms: provide floor drain; should be vented
(but not required if drain is not more than 5 away)
Waste pipe not less than 1 for Bathroom, BT 7 LAV
Waste stack serving the LT and Sink is with a 1 pipe
Branch of the drain is extended 4 above floor level
4 x 2 tapped cross for laundry tub connection
Sink waste discharged to a 4 x 2 reducer in the top opening of the tee
Vent for Sink: 1 ; connected to main soil pipe

SOIL, WASTE AND VENT PRINCIPLES


Principle 2: Maximum requirements:
Layout of a drain, soil waste, and vent pipe installation
All fixtures are trapped
Each trap is vented except the floor drain (supplied with water
from the laundry tub
4-line installed from the floor drain intersection to the wall to
accommodate 4 C.O.
Pipe size is reduced above 4 Y
2 soil line extended up to the Sink
1 vent extends through the roof
Laundry vent intersects at a point 3 above sink floor line
WC, LAV and Bath served with 4 soil pipe; 2 soil laterals

SOIL, WASTE AND VENT PRINCIPLES


Principle 3: Individual Ventilation:
Layout consisting of a WC, LAV, & Sink on first floor;
WC, LAV & BT on 2nd floor; LT located in basement
House drain/soil pipe same as Principles 1 & 2
LAV (1st Flr): 1 waste pipe into the closet bend
WC individually vented with 2 pipe extended to a
point in the soil pipe 3 above the closet connection
LAV & Bt fixture traps are individually ventilated with
1 and 1 pipe
LT and Sink waste and vent (same as Principle 1)

SOIL, WASTE AND VENT PRINCIPLES


Principle 4: Plumbing installation for a duplex residence:
WC, LAV, (2) LT in basement, toiletrooms on 1st and 2nd Flr, in which a WC, LAV
and BT are installed. Sink is provided in each kitchen
Soil Pipe is 4 ; has toiletroom branch connections on 3 levels installed in the
partition directly in back of WC
Basement toilet with 2 wet vent into which the basin is wasted.
Main vent: extended from basement toiletroom vertically to a point 3 above
the 2nd Flr toiletroom branch
BT waste (1st Flr toiletroom) with 1 pipe increased at LAV branch to 2 pipe
then discharged to closet bend
Bathroom group is wet vented through LAV waste increased to 2 pipe,
reconnected into the main vent
2nd Flr bathroom identical with the 1st except that a 1 LAV waste is ample
LTs connected to unit waste of 2 , vented by the unit method with 1 pipe
connected to the waste vent of sink stack
Both sinks discharge into a common waste pipe increased to 2 at 1st Flr sink
connection, each individually vented

SOIL, WASTE AND VENT PRINCIPLES


Principle 5: Typical installation of a soil and waste
stack in a 3 storey apartment building:
wet ventilation of the bathroom groups is employed
Main vent of the soil-pipe installation increased to 2 ,
reconnected full size into the base of the soil pipe to
relieve back-pressure
Sink waste stack increased to accommodate number of
fixture units it serves
Each fixture is individually vented with 1 pipe,
reconnected to a main vent , extended through the roof
Roof terminal has been increased to 4

SOIL, WASTE AND VENT PRINCIPLES


Principle 6: Fixtures discharging into sanitary crosses
wasted and vented:
Installation consists of a soil pipe serving 4 complete bathrooms
and a sink waste on which 4 sinks are installed for two-storey
apartment buildings
Soil pipe is 4 pipe provided with (2) sanitary crosses for WC
connections
1st Flr bath waste increased to 2 (ventilation of WC essential)
1st Flr toilet rooms with wet vent method through LAV waste,
also increased to 2
Main vent increased to 2 as per number of fixture units
served, reconnected into base of the soil pipe.
Sinks discharged into a unit waste pipe and ventilated

SOIL, WASTE AND VENT PRINCIPLES


Principle 7: Unit waste and vent applied to bathroom fixture
groups on opposite sides of a partition typical of hotel and
apartment house layouts:

Soil-pipe stack accommodates 4 complete bathrooms (WC, LAV, BT)


WCs connected to 4 sanitary cross, top opening serving as vent connection
WCs traps ventilated with 2 unit vent
LAV and BT wastes discharged to 2 common waste pipe
Both groups are connected into the waste by 90 drainage cross, top
opening serving as unit vent.
LAV and BT traps ventilated with 1 pipe.
Vents from 1st Flr extended with 2 pipe to a point 3 above topmost branch
of soil pipe, where main vent is increased to 2 accommodating 2 nd Flr
bathroom
Sinks are with independent 2 vertical waste pipe, fixtures are unit vented

SOIL, WASTE AND VENT PRINCIPLES


Principle 8: Installation common to multistorey apartment and hotel buildings
Bathroom waste and vent pipe connections typical
to small residence
Main vent with 3 pipe based on number of
fixture units served
Provided with a 3 yoke or by-pass vent between
4th and 5th Flr

FIRE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES


OF 2008
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9514

RULE 2. COVERAGE
A.
B.

All persons;
All private or public buildings, facilities or structures and their
premises erected or constructed before and after the effectivity
hereof;
C. Design and installation of mechanical, electronics and electrical
systems relative to fire protection;
D. Manufacturing, storage, handling and/or use, and transportation
of explosives and/or combustible, flammable liquids and gases,
toxic and other hazardous materials and operations, and their
wastes;
E. Fire safety planning, design, construction, repair, maintenance,
rehabilitation and demolition;
F. Fire protective and warning equipment or systems;

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Abatement. Any act that would remove or neutralize a
fire hazard.
Building Administrator. Any person who acts as agent
of the owner and manages the use of a building for the
latter.
Anesthetics Gas. A medical gas used as anesthetic
agents for surgical procedures that could either be
flammable or non-flammable. Examples of flammable
anesthetics are cyclopropane and ethylene. Examples
of non-flammable anesthetic gases are nitrous oxides
and halothane.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Automatic Fire Suppression System. An integrated system
of underground or overhead piping or both connected to a
source of extinguishing agent or medium and designed in
accordance with fire protection engineering standards
which, when actuated by its automatic detecting device,
suppresses fires within the area protected.
Automotive Service Station. That portion of property
where liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed
from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles
and shall include any facilities available for the sale and
service of tires, batteries and accessories, and for minor
automotive maintenance work.
Baffle. A non liquid-tight transverse partition in a cargo
tank.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Blasting Agent. Any material or mixture consisting of a
fuel and oxidizer used to set off explosives.
Blowout. A sudden release of oil and gas from a well.
Boiling point. The temperature at which the vapor
pressure of a liquid equals the surrounding atmospheric
pressure. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable
for the material in question, or for mixture which do not
have a constant boiling point, for purposes of this
classification the ten percent (10%) point of distillation
performed in accordance with the Standard Method of
Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products ASTM D-86-62,
may be used as the boiling point of the liquid

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Class A Fires. Fires involving ordinary combustible
materials such as wood, cloth, rubber and plastics.
Class B Fires. Fires involving flammable liquids and
gases.
Class C Fires. Fires involving energized electrical
equipment.
Class D Fire. Fires involving combustible materials,
such as sodium, magnesium, potassium, and other
similar materials.
Class K Fires. Fires in cooking appliances that involve
combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils
and fats).

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Closed Container. Any container so sealed by
means of a lid or other device that neither liquid
nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary
temperatures.
Combination Standpipe. A pipeline system filled
with water and connected to a constant water
supply for the use of the BFP and the occupants
of the buildings solely for fire suppression
purposes.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Combustible Liquid. Any liquid having a flash point at
or above thirty seven and eight tenths degrees Celsius
(37.8C), and classified as follows:
Class II Liquid. Any liquid that has a flash point at or
above thirty seven and eight tenths degrees Celsius
(37.8C) and below sixty degrees Celsius (60C).
Class IIIA Liquid. Any liquid that has a flash point at or
above sixty degrees Celsius (60C), but below ninety
three degrees Celsius (93C).
Class IIIB Liquid. Any liquid that has a flash point at or
above ninety three degrees Celsius (93C).

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Combustible Waste. Also known as loose waste
material, are those generated by an
establishment or process and, being salvageable,
are retained for scrap or reprocessing on the
premises where generated. These include, but
not limited to, all combustible fibers, hay, straw,
hair, feathers, down, wood shavings, turnings,
styropor, all types of plastics, all types of paper
products, soiled cloth trimmings and cuttings,
rubber trimmings and buffings, metal fines, used
oil and any mixture of the above items, or any
other salvageable combustible waste material.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Compressed Gas. One that exists solely in the gaseous state under
pressure in the range of two hundred seventy three kilopascal (273
KPa) to twenty four thousand nine hundred twenty three kilopascal
(24,923 KPa) at all normal atmospheric temperature ranging from
twenty degrees Celsius (20C) to thirty seven and eight tenths
degrees Celsius (37.8C) inside its container.
Compressed Gas Mixture. A mixture of two or more compressed
gases contained in a single packaging, the hazard properties of
which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.
Compressed Gas System. An assembly of components, such as
containers, reactors, pumps, compressors and connecting piping
and tubing, designed to contain, distribute or transport compressed
gases.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Corrosive Liquid. Any liquid which causes fire
when in contact with organic matter or with
certain chemicals.
Crude Oil. Any naturally-occurring, unrefined
petroleum liquid.
Cryogenic. Is descriptive of any material which,
by its nature or as a result of its reaction with
other elements, produces a rapid drop in
temperature of the immediate surroundings.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Curtain Board. A vertical panel of non-combustible or fire
resistive materials attached to and extending below the
bottom chord of the roof trusses to divide the underside of
the roof into separate compartments so that heat and
smoke will be directed upwards to a roof vent.
Damper. A normally open device installed inside air duct
systems which automatically closes to restrict the passage
of smoke or fire.
Distillation. The process of first raising the temperature to
separate the more volatile from the less volatile parts and
then cooling and condensing the resulting vapor so as to
produce a nearly purified substance.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Dry Standpipe. A type of standpipe system in which the pipes
are normally not filled with water. Water is introduced into
the system thru fire service connections when needed.
Duct System. A continuous passageway for the transmission
of air.
Dust. Any finely divided solid, four millimeters (4 mm) or less
in diameter (that is, material capable of passing through a U.S.
No. 40 standard sieve) which, if mixed with air in the proper
proportion, becomes explosive and may be ignited by a flame
or spark or other source of Ignition.
Ember. A hot piece or lump that remains after a material has
partially burned, and is still oxidizing without the
manifestation of flames.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Explosive. Includes any chemical compound or
mechanical mixture that is commonly used or intended
for the purpose of producing an explosion.
Fire Alarm. Any visual or audible signal produced by a
device or system to warn the occupants of the building
or fire fighting elements of the presence or danger of
fire.
Fire Alerting System. A fire alarm system activated by
the presence of fire, where the signal is transmitted to
designated locations instead of sounding a general
alarm.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Fire Door. A fire resistive door prescribed for openings
in fire separation walls or partitions.
Fire Exit Drill. A practice drill for the orderly and safe
evacuation of occupants in the buildings.
Fire Hazard. Any condition or act which increases or
may cause an increase in the probability of the
occurrence of fire, or which may obstruct, delay, hinder
or interfere with fire fighting operations and the
safeguarding of life and property.
Fire Lane. The portion of a roadway or public way that
should be kept opened and unobstructed at all times
for the expedient conduct of fire fighting operations.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Fire Protective Assembly. An assembly
incorporated in the structure designed to prevent
the spread of fire, such as dampers, curtain
boards, fire stoppers and the like.
Fire Resistance Rating. The time duration that a
material or construction can withstand the effect
of a standard fire test.
Fire Trap. A building unsafe in case of fire
because it will burn easily or because it lacks
adequate exits or fire escapes.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Fire Wall. A wall designed to prevent the spread of fire,
having a fire resistance rating of not less than four (4) hours
with sufficient structural stability to remain standing even if
construction on either side collapses under fire conditions.
Fire. The active principle of burning, characterized by the
heat and light of combustion.
Flame Retardant. Any compound or mixture which when
applied properly improves the resistivity or fire resistance
quality of fabrics and other materials.
Flame Spread Rating. The time in which flame will spread
over the surface of a burning material.
Flammability. The characteristic of a material on how easily
it will burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Flammable Liquids. Are liquids having flash points below thirty seven and
eight tenths degrees Celsius (37.8C) except any mixture having
components with flash points of seven and eight tenths degrees
Celsius(37.8C) or higher, the total of which make up 99% or more of the
total volume of the mixture. Flammable liquids are classified as follows:

Class I-A Liquids include those liquids having flash points below twenty
two and eight tenths degrees Celsius (22.8C), and having a boiling point
below thirty seven and eight tenths degrees Celsius (37.8C).
Class I-B Liquids include those liquids having flash points below twenty
two and eight tenths degrees Celsius (22.8C), and having a boiling point
at or above thirty seven and eight tenths degrees Celsius (37.8C).
Class I-C Liquids include those liquids having flash points at or above
twenty two and eight tenths degrees Celsius (22.8C), and below thirty
seven and eight tenths degrees Celsius (37.8C).

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Flash Point of a Liquid. The lowest temperature a liquid at which sufficient


vapor is given off to form an ignitable mixture with air, near the surface of
the liquid or within the vessel used, as determined by appropriate
laboratory test, as follows:
The flash point of liquids having a flash point at or below seventy nine
degrees Celsius (79C), except for fuel oils and certain viscous
materials shall be determined in accordance with the Standard
Method of Test for Flash Point by the Tag Closed Tester, ASTM D 56-61.
The flash point of liquids having a flash point above seventy nine
degrees Celsius (79C), except for fuel oils, shall be determined in
accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by the
Cleveland open Cup Tester, ASTM D 92-57.
The flash point of fuel oil, and certain viscous materials having a flash
point at or below seventy nine degrees Celsius (79C), shall be
determined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Flash
Point by the Pensky-Martens Closed Tester, ASTM 93-62.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Fumigation. The utilization within an enclosed space of a
fumigant in concentrations that is hazardous or acutely toxic
to humans.
High Rise Buildings. Buildings, structures or facilities fifteen
(15) meters or more in height.
Hose Box. A box or cabinet where fire hoses, valves and other
equipment are stored and arranged for fire fighting.
Hose Reel. A cylindrical device turning on an axis around
which a fire hose is wound and connected.
Hypergolic Fuel. A rocket or liquid propellant which consists
of combinations of fuels and oxidizers which ignite
spontaneously on contact with each other.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Any flammable gas
liquefied through pressure. The liquid vaporizes under
normal atmospheric pressure.
Magnesium. A highly flammable metal which burns to over
two thousand nine hundred eighty degree Celsius (2,980
C). It is used as a principal element of aluminum alloy for
the manufacture of mobile phones, laptop computers,
cameras, and other electronic components, beverage cans,
flashlight photography, flares, pyrotechnics, fireworks
sparklers, automotive and truck components.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Is a form that contains
data and information regarding the properties of a
particular substance.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Means of Egress. Is a continuous and unobstructed
route of exit from one point in a building, structure or
facility to a public way.
Medical Air. A type of air product produced through
the blending of compressed nitrogen and oxygen and
used in variety of patients application. It is also used
during anesthesia as a substitute for nitrous oxide to
reduce the high concentration of oxygen exposure.
Medical Gas. A type of gas used in medical and similar
facilities, including oxygen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen,
carbon dioxide, helium, medical air and mixtures of
these gases.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Occupancy. The purpose for which a building or
portion thereof is used or intended to be used.
Occupant Load. The maximum number of persons that
may be allowed to occupy a particular building,
structure, or facility, or portions hereof.
Occupant. Any person actually occupying and using a
building or portions thereof by virtue of a lease
contract with the owner or administrator or by
permission or sufferance of the latter.
Owner. The person who holds the legal right of
possession or title to a building or real property.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Oxidizing Material. A material that readily
yields oxygen in quantities sufficient to
stimulate or support combustion.
Ozone Depleting Refrigerant/Substance. Any
group of halogenated hydrocarbon chemicals
which photo-chemically reacts in the
stratosphere in a way which destroys the
ozone layer.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Plastics:
Group A Plastics.
Group B Plastics.
Group C Plastics

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Group A Plastics. Plastic materials having heat of
combustion much higher than that of ordinary
combustibles and burning rate higher than that of Group B
plastics. Examples of Group A plastics include, but are not
limited to, the following:

ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer)


Acetal (polyformaldehyde)
Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate)
Butyl rubber
EPDM (ethylene propylene rubber)
FRP (fiberglass-reinforced polyester)
Natural rubber (expanded)
Nitrile rubber (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber)

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Group A Plastics.

PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate)


Polybutadiene
Polycarbonate
Polyester elastomer
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Polystyrene (expanded and unexpanded)
Polyurethane (expanded and unexpanded)
PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than fifteen (15%) percent
plasticized, e.g., coated fabric unsupported film)
SAN (styrene acrylonitrile)
SBRr (styrene butadiene rubber)

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Group B Plastics. Plastic materials having heat of
combustion and burning rate higher than that of ordinary
combustibles, but not as high as those of Group A plastics.
Examples of Group B plastics include, but are not limited to,
the following:
Cellulosics (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, ethyl Cellulose)
Chloroprene rubber
Fluoroplastics (ECTFE, ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer; ETFE,
ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer; FEP, fluorinated ethylenepropylene
copolymer)
Natural rubber (nonexpanded)
Nylon (nylon 6, nylon 6/6)
PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 5-percent, but not exceeding fifteen (15)percent plasticized)
Silicone rubber

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Group C Plastics. Plastic materials having heat of
combustion and burning rate similar to those of ordinary
combustibles. Examples of Group C plastics include, but are
not limited to, the following:
Fluoroplastics (PCTFE, Polychlorotrifluoroethylene; PTFE,
polytetrafluoroethylene)
Melamine (melamine formaldehyde)
Phenol
PVC (polyvinyl chloride, rigid or plasticized less than five percent (5%),
e.g., pipe, pipe fittings)
PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride)
PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride)
PVF (polyvinyl fluoride)
Urea (urea formaldehyde)

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Propeller. An inclusive term for all parts,
appurtenances, and accessories of a propeller.
Public Way. Any street, alley or other strip of land
unobstructed from the ground to the sky, deeded,
dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated for
public use.
Safety Factor. Is the ratio of the design burst pressure
to the maximum working pressure and shall not be less
than four (4).
Smelting. Refers to the process of melting or fusing
metallic ores or compounds so as to separate
impurities from pure metals.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Solvents or Liquid Classifications. A method of classifying solvents
or liquids according to the following:
Class I Solvents. Liquids having a flash point below thirty seven and
eight tenths degrees Celsius (37.8C).
Class II Solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above thirty
seven and eight tenths degrees Celsius (37.8C) and below sixty
degrees Celsius (60C).
Class IIIA Solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above sixty
degrees Celsius (60C) and below ninety three and three-tenths
degrees Celsius (93.3C).
Class IIIB Solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above ninety
three and three-tenths degrees Celsius (93.3C).
Class IV Solvents. Liquids classified as non-flammable.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Sprinkler System. An integrated network of hydraulically
designed piping system installed in a building, structure or
area with outlets arranged in a systematic pattern which
automatically discharges water when activated by heat or
combustion products from a fire.
Standpipe System. A system of vertical pipes in a building
to which fire hoses can be attached on each floor, including
a system by which water is made available to water outlets
as needed.
Sump Pit. The lowest part of a mine, vault, tank or a hole in
the ground used to collect water, waste water and sludge
for purposes of draining through a submersible pump.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Toxicity. The degree to which a substance is able to damage
an exposed organism.
Used Water. Liquid waste generated by treatment plants,
housekeeping, operation and maintenance, and laboratory
activities, including but not limited to washing, flushing,
and cleaning activities. It also includes the cleaning,
flushing and draining water that bear dirt and sludge from
sedimentation basin, settling tank, and other treatment
processes and unit operation facilities, and backwash water
generated in the backwashing, cleaning and flushing of
filter media or beds.
Ventilation. The process of supplying or removing air by
natural or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air
may or may not have been conditioned.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


Vertical Shaft. An enclosed vertical space of passage
that extends from floor to floor, as well as from the
base to the top of a building.
Vestibule. A passage hall or antechamber between the
outer doors and the interior parts of a house or
building.
Waste Water. Liquid waste generated by human
activities that use water and/or those water that come
from residential, commercial, institutional,
recreational, industrial, agricultural and other facilities,
similar occupancies and related activities.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Supplying Water for
Fire Protection Systems:
The Elevated Water Tank

The Underground Water Reservoir

Types of
Fire Protection Systems:
Automatic / Sprinkler System
Dry Standpipe System

Wet Standpipe System


Wet Standpipe System with Siamese Connection

FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM


A system used to control or to extinguish a fire
in a building
Fire suppression systems are especially
important because their purpose is to protect
both life and property.
The most common types of fire suppression
systems are fire sprinkler system and
standpipe system.

FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM


A fire sprinkler system is an integrated system
of underground and overhead piping, with
one or more automatic water supplies, to
which fire sprinklers are attached in a
systematic pattern

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Automatic / Sprinkler System
There are two general types of Automatic Sprinkler Systems:
the Automatic Wet and Automatic Dry

TYPES OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS


Wet-Pipe Sprinkler Systems
Dry-Pipe Sprinkler Systems
Deluge Sprinkler Systems

Pre-Action Sprinkler Systems

Wet-Pipe Sprinkler Systems


are installed more often than all other types of
fire sprinkler systems
Operation: When an automatic sprinkler is
exposed to sufficient heat, the heat sensitive
element (glass bulb or fusible link) releases,
allowing water to flow from that sprinkler.
Sprinklers are manufactured to react to a specific
range of temperatures. Only sprinklers subjected
to a temperature at or above their specific
temperature rating will operate.

Dry-Pipe Sprinkler Systems


are second most common sprinkler system type
Operation: When one or more of the automatic
sprinklers is exposed to sufficient heat, it opens,
allowing the maintenance air to vent from the
sprinkler. Each sprinkler operates individually. As
their air pressure in the piping drops, the
pressure differential across the dry pipe valve
changes, allowing water to enter the piping
system. Water flow from sprinklers needed to
control the fire is delayed until the air is vented
from the sprinklers.

Deluge Sprinkler Systems


are system that have open sprinklers, i.e. the
heat sensing operating element is removed
during installation, so that all sprinklers
connected to the water piping system are
open. These systems are used for special
hazards where rapid fire spread is a concern,
as they provide a simultaneous application of
water over the entire hazard

Deluge Sprinkler Systems


Operation: Activation of a fire alarm initiating
device, or a manual pull station, signals the
fire alarm panel, which in turn signals the
deluge valve to open, allowing water to enter
the piping system. Water flows from all
sprinklers simultaneously.

Pre-Action Sprinkler Systems


similar to deluge sprinkler system except that
automatic sprinklers are used, rather than
open sprinklers

COMPONENTS OF FIRE
SPRINKLER SYSTEM
Fire Sprinkler
is a nozzle which distributes water in a specific spray pattern.

Automatic Sprinkler
is a fire sprinkler with a normally closed nozzle which can be
individually opened by heat, by either melting a fusible element or
rupturing a liquid-filled glass bulb.

Main
is a principal artery of a system of continuous piping to which branch
lines are connected.

Branch line
a part of the piping to which fire sprinklers are connected.

Riser
is a water main which extends vertically one full storey or more to
convey water to individual floor mains and branch lines.

Smoke Detectors & Sprinkler Heads


Types of Sprinkler Heads
Upright- used above piping
when piping is exposed

Pendent- projects through


a finished ceiling when
piping is exposed

TEMPERATURE RATINGS
Ordinary-temperature sprinklers
are sprinklers rated between 135 to 170F. They are
intended for use in areas where the maximum ceiling
temperature is not to exceed 100F.

Intermediate-temperature sprinklers
are sprinklers rated between 175 and 225F. They are
intended for use in areas where the maximum ceiling
temperature does not exceed 150F.

High-temperature sprinklers
are sprinklers rated between 250 and 300F. They are
intended for use in areas where the maximum ceiling
temperature does not exceed 225F.

Smoke Detectors & Sprinkler Heads


Spacing of Sprinkler Heads:

Spacing of Sprinkler Heads


KIND OF BUILDING
Light Hazard Occupancy
Extra hazard Occupancy

COVERAGE OF ONE
SPRINKLER HEAD
20 square meters
10 square meters

Special Installation Requirements


At least one fire department connection on each frontage
A master alarm system valve control for all water supplies other
than fire department connections
Special fire walls between protected areas
Sloping water proof floors with drains or scupper to carry away
waste water

SPRINKLER SPACING DESIGN


S design spacing of sprinklers on range pipes
D distance between rows of sprinklers
S or D

maximum 4.60 m., extra light hazard


maximum 4.0 m., ordinary hazard
maximum 3.7 m., extra high hazard

SxD

21 sq. m. or less, extra light hazard


12 sq. m. or less, ordinary hazard
9 sq. m. or less, extra high hazard

CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARD
Light (Low) Hazard
locations where the total amount of Class A
combustible materials, including furnishing,
decorations and other contents is of minor quantity.

Ordinary (Moderate) Hazard


locations where the total amount of Class A
combustibles and Class B flammables are present in
greater amounts than expected under light hazard
occupancies.

Extra (High) Hazard


locations where the total amount of Classes A and B
materials are in storage, production or other use.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM
A standpipe system is a arrangement of
piping, valves and hose connection installed in
a such manner that water can be discharge
through attached hose and nozzles for the
purpose of extinguishing a fire

TYPES OF STANDPIPE SYSTEMS


Wet Standpipe Systems
Dry Standpipe Systems
Wet Standpipe System with Siamese
Connection

Wet Standpipe Systems


is a standpipe system in which the piping is
filled with water and water pressure is
maintained in the system at all times by the
water supply. This is the most common type of
standpipe system

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Wet Standpipe System
How it works: a piping network (line is directly connected to
the main water line) connects to all levels of a building (at least
1 standpipe on each level)
Wet standpipes shall be constructed of wrought iron or galvanized
steel
The number of wet standpipes shall be determined so that all
portions of the building are within 6.00 meters of a nozzle
attached to a hose 23 meters long
The minimum diameter for a wet standpipe is 51mm for those
less than 15 meters form the fire service connection. For those
more than 15 meters from the fire service connection, the
minimum diameter is 63mm

Dry Standpipe Systems


is a standpipe system in which the piping is
not normally filled with water.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Dry Standpipe System
No longer being utilized in new
buildings, provided other systems
are employed (otherwise must
be installed in buildings 4 levels
or more)

CONNECT TO
FIRE HOSE

The standpipe is a pipe installed in buildings not as part of the


water supply or waste disposal system but primarily for use as
water conveyor in case of fire

How it works: a standpipe is connected to the building exterior


(max ht.= 1.20M) for connection to fire department
As much as possible, standpipes should be located in stairway
landings

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Wet Standpipe System with Siamese Connection
How it works: a piping
network directly connected to
the main water line, connects
to all levels of a building;
additionally, a Siamese
Connection is located outside
the building for additional
water supply

HOT - WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS


TYPES OF WATER HEATER
Direct-Fired Water Heaters
Indirect Water Heaters

Direct-Fired Water Heaters


the source of heat is located where the water
is heated
Gas-Fired Heaters
Oil-Fired Heaters
Electric Water Heaters

Indirect Water Heaters


are one in which the water is heated by a heat
source that is remotely located from the water
heating equipment
Storage-Type Water Heaters
Instantaneous-Type Heaters
Semi-Instantaneous-Type Water Heaters

COMPONENTS OF
HOT-WATER SYSTEMS

Hot-Water Storage Tank


Safety Devices
Pressure Gages
Thermometers
Circulation Pump
Isolating Valves and Drain Valves
Deliming Tees
Operating Controls
Water Hammer Arresters

GAS PIPING SYSTEM


Fuel Gas Piping System
Medical Gas & Vacuum System

FUEL GAS PIPING SYSTEM

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


Liquefied Petroleum Gas saturated hydrocarbons found in
petroleum (i.e. butane, propane, isobutane, etc.)
a.k.a. Bottled Gas
for Home, Commercial and Industrial Use

Typical LP Gas service installation:


CYLINDER
- where gas is stored
PIGTAIL
- where high pressure
vapor flows through when
cylinder valve is opened
REGULATOR
-reduces the high pressure
-of gas to the proper
operating gas pressure of
the appliance

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


Safety Precautions for installation of LP Gas Cylinders & Gas
Appliances:
Do not place cylinders below ground level; maintain at least a 3 ft.
distance from drains, culverts, or entrances and openings leading to
cellars & other depressions (where gas might accumulate)

Do not place close to steam pipes or any other source of heat


When pipes pass thru floors, walls or partitions, no joints should be
allowed at these places to minimize danger of leaks.
Piping should not be run in or through elevator shafts, air or
ventilation ducts, chimneys or flues.
Ends of piping should not be plugged with cork, wood, paper,
etc., the correct terminal fitting should be used. *

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


Safety Precautions for installation of LP Gas Cylinders & Gas
Appliances:
Location of Cylinders
Install out of doors or in a building or section of a building having
good floor and ceiling level ventilation directly to the open;
(outdoors) in areas with no (combustible materials) vegetation
(i.e. Grass, weeds) waste paper, garbage, etc. within 19 feet of a
cylinder
Locate in a place where it is accessible to LP Gas deliverymen
Install on a firm, dry, level foundation (cement or cement blocks)
to prevent damage to the bottom ring from soil corrosion
Do not place below ground level; maintain at least a 3 ft. distance
from drains, culverts, or entrances and openings leading to cellars
& other depressions (where gas might accumulate)

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


Locate in a place safe from accidental damage from vehicles &
tampering by children or unauthorized persons; should be
protected by cylinder hoods (if located in driveways or alleys)
Use in the upright position, with the valves uppermost.
Do not place close to steam pipes or any other source of heat
When cylinders are being connected/disconnected there should
be no open flame or similar source of ignition in the vicinity
Close the cylinder valves before disconnecting
Replace cylinder cap when the cylinder is disconnected to protect
the cylinder valve in transit and prevent the cylinder valve from
being used as a handle

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


Safety Precautions for installation of LP Gas Cylinders & Gas
Appliances:
Pressure Regulators & Other Service Equipment
Pressure regulators, copper tube pigtails, throw-over- valves and
manifolds which are connected to the cylinders should be rigidly
supported
The vent in the regulator should be facing downward (to prevent
entry of rain)
All safety valve outlets in the service equipment should be vented
to the open air & not choked with dust or other foreign matter

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


Gas Piping & Shut-Off Valves
Piping should be adequately supported to the well, beyond the
reach of people passing by.

When pipes pass thru floors, walls or partitions, no joints should


be allowed at these places to minimize danger of leaks.
Piping should not be run in or through elevator shafts, air or
ventilation ducts, chimneys or flues.
Ends of piping should not be plugged with cork, wood, paper,
etc., the correct terminal fitting should be used.
Suitable gas line shut-off valve should be fitted for every
appliance.
Both ends of the connection to portable appliances should be
securely attached by means of clips. Hose should be of a type
resistant to LP gas.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


Location of Appliance
The location of the gas appliance in the kitchen should be
decided before the piping is laid out. Appliances should be set
where conditions for ventilations and air circulation are met.

A permanent and adequate air supply should be provided for the


appliance. This source of air for combustion and ventilation
should not be subject to accidental interruption or curtailment.
Appliance should be installed in a way to allow ease of repair and
adjustment of appliance burners and parts
A water heater should be installed in a place with adequate
ventilation and with a sufficient clearance between ceiling and
top of heater.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


Testing for Leaks
Before any system of gas piping is finally put into service, it
should be carefully tested to ensure that it is gastight. Where any
part of the system is to be enclosed or concealed, this test should
precede the work of closing in.

Matches, candles, or other sources of ignition should not be used


to check for gas leakage. The position of a leak may be detected
by using soap solution.
Leaking or otherwise defective pipes or fittings should be
replaced. No attempt should be made to affect temporary repair.

UNIFORM PLUMBING CODE


CHAPTER 12: FUEL PIPING

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Appliance Fuel Connector An assembly of listed semirigid or flexible tubing and fittings to carry fuel between a
fuel piping outlet and a fuel burning appliance.
Fuel Gas Natural, manufactured, liquefied petroleum, or
a mixture of these.
Gas Piping Any installation of pipe, valves, or fittings that
is used to convey fuel gas, installed on any premises or in
any building, but shall not include:
(1) Any portion of the service piping.
(2) Any approved piping connection six (6) feet (1829 mm) or
less in length between an existing gas outlet and a gas appliance
in the same room with the outlet.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Gas Piping System Any arrangement of gas piping
supplied by one (1) meter and each arrangement of gas
piping serving a building, structure, or premises, whether
individually metered or not.
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Facilities Liquified
petroleum gas (LPG) facilities means tanks, containers,
container valves, regulating equipment, meters, and/or
appurtenances for the storage and supply of liquified
petroleum gas for any building, structure or premises.
Quick-Disconnect Device A hand-operated device which
provides a means for connecting and disconnecting an
appliance or an appliance connector to a gas supply and
which is equipped with an automatic means to shut off the
gas supply when the device is disconnected

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Service Piping The piping and equipment
between the street gas main and the gas piping
system inlet, which is installed by and is under
the control and maintenance of the serving gas
supplier.
Transition Gas Riser Any listed or approved
section or sections of pipe and fittings used to
convey fuel gas and installed in a gas piping
system for the purpose of providing a transition
from below ground to above ground.

Rough Piping Inspection


This inspection shall be made after all gas
piping authorized by the permit has been
installed, and before any such piping has been
covered or concealed, or any fixture or
appliance has been attached thereto. This
inspection shall include a determination that
the gas piping size, material, and installation
meet the requirements of this Code.

Final Piping Inspection


This inspection shall be made after all piping
authorized by the permit has been installed
and after all portions thereof which are to be
covered or concealed are so concealed and
before any fixtures, appliance, or shutoff valve
has been attached thereto.

Final Piping Inspection


This inspection shall include an air, CO2 or nitrogen
pressure test, at which time the gas piping shall stand a
pressure of not less than ten (10) pounds per square
inch (68.9 kPa) gauge pressure, or at the discretion of
the Administrative Authority, the piping and valves may
be tested at a pressure of at least six (6) inches (152
mm) of mercury, measured with a manometer or slope
gauge. Test pressures shall be held for a length of time
satisfactory to the Administrative Authority, but in no
case for less than fifteen (15) minutes, with no
perceptible drop in pressure.

Final Piping Inspection


For welded piping, and for piping carrying gas
at pressures in excess of fourteen (14) inches
(356 mm) water column pressure, the test
pressure shall not be less than sixty (60)
pounds per square inch (413.4 kPa) and shall
be continued for a length of time satisfactory
to the Administrative Authority, but in no case
for less than thirty (30) minutes.

Certificate of Inspection
If, upon final piping inspection, the installation
is found to comply with the provisions of this
Code, a certificate of inspection may be issued
by the Administrative Authority.

MATERIALS
All piping used for the installation, extension,
alteration, or repair of any gas piping shall be standard
weight wrought iron or steel (galvanized or black),
yellow brass (containing not more than seventy-five
(75) percent copper), or copper tube or Types K, L or
ACR.
Approved PE pipe may be used in exterior buried
piping systems.
Copper alloy tubing shall not be used if the gas
contains more than an average of 0.3 grains of
hydrogen sulfide per 100 standard cubic feet of gas (0.7
milligrams per 100 liters)

MATERIALS
All fittings used in connection with the above
piping shall be of malleable iron, yellow brass
(containing not more than seventy-five (75)
percent copper), or approved plastic fittings.
All valves and appurtenances used in connection
with the above piping shall be of a type designed
and approved for use with fuel gas.
Valves up to and including two (2) inches (50 mm)
shall be brass or other approved material.

UNIFORM PLUMBING CODE


CHAPTER 13: HEALTH CARE
FACILITIES AND MEDICAL GAS AND
VACUUM SYSTEMS

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Building Supply The pipe from the source of
supply to a building or structure.
Critical Care Area An area in a medical facility
where special care is provided, including
intensive care units, coronary care units, recovery
rooms, and respiratory care units.
Manifold A device for connecting outlets of one
or more gas cylinders to the central piping system
for that specific gas.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Medical Air Compressed air used in a medical
facility.
Medical Gas Gases used in a medical facility,
including oxygen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, carbon
dioxide, helium, medical air, and mixtures of
these gases. Standards of purity apply.
Medical Gas System A system consisting of a
central supply system (manifold, bulk, or
compressors), including control equipment and
piping extending to station outlets in the facility
where medical gases may be required.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Medical Vacuum System A system consisting of
central vacuum-producing equipment with vacuum
switches and operating controls, shutoff valves, alarm
warning systems, gauges, and a network of piping
extending to and terminating with station inlets at
locations where patient suction may be required.
Includes surgical vacuum systems, waste anesthesia gas
disposal (gas scavenging systems), and bedside suction
systems.
Purge, Flow The removal of oxygen from a system by
oil-free dry nitrogen during brazing.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Purge, System The removal of nitrogen from a
system with the medical gas required for that system.
SCFM Standard cubic feet per minute, the unit
measure for a volume of gas at standard conditions
(68F [20C] and 1 atmosphere of pressure).
Special Hazard Area An area, such as a kitchen or
electrical switchgear room.
Station Inlet An inlet in a vacuum piping system at
which the user makes connections and
disconnections.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Station Outlet An outlet point in a medical gas
piping system at which the user makes
connections and disconnections.
Use Point A room or area within a room, where
medical gases are dispensed to a patient for
medical purposes.
Valve, Isolation A valve which isolates one
piece of equipment from another.
Valve, Riser A valve at the base of a vertical
riser, which isolates that riser.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Valve, Service A valve serving horizontal
piping extending from a riser to a station
outlet or inlet.
Valve, Source A single valve at the source
which controls a number of units that make
up the total source.
Valve, Zone A valve which controls the gas
or vacuum service to a particular area.

MATERIALS
Piping for medical gas systems shall be listed Type
"K" or "L" medical gas tube.
Fittings for medical gas systems used for
connecting copper tubing shall be listed wrought
copper suitable for making brazed connections.
Valves, manifolds, terminal connections, and
other such devices installed in medical gas
systems shall be bronze, brass, or of other
materials that meet the requirements of Section
301.0.

MATERIALS
Piping for medical gas systems shall be suitable
for and compatible with oxygen service.
Piping for medical vacuum systems shall be listed
seamless Type K or L copper tubing, or other
approved or listed materials.
All ball valves used in medical gas and medical
vacuum systems shall be full-way.
Piping for medical nitrogen systems in excess of
200 psig (1.36 MPa gauge) and not exceeding 300
psig (2.07 MPa gauge) shall be type K copper.

MARKINGS
Gas
Medical Air
Nitrogen
Nitrous Oxide
Oxygen
Vacuum
Helium
Carbon Dioxide

Marking Colors
Yellow background with black letters
Black background with white letters
Blue background with white letters
Green background with white letters
White background with black letters
Brown background with white letters
Gray background with black or white
letters

PHILIPPINE ECOLOGICAL SOLID


WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT OF
2000
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9003

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Agricultural waste" shall refer to waste generated
from planting or harvesting of crops, trimming or
pruning of plants and wastes or run-off materials from
farms or fields.
"Bulky wastes" shall refer to waste materials which
cannot be appropriately placed in separate containers
because of either its bulky size, shape or other physical
attributes. These include large worn-out or broken
household, commercial, and industrial items such as
furniture, lamps, bookcases, filing cabinets, and other
similar items.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Buy-back center" shall refer to a recycling center that
purchases or otherwise accepts recyclable materials
from the public for the purpose of recycling such
materials.
"Collection" shall refer to the act of removing solid
waste from the source or from a communal storage
point.
"Composting" shall refer to the controlled
decomposition of organic matter by micro-organisms,
mainly bacteria and fungi, into a humus-like product.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Consumer electronics" shall refer to special wastes
that include worn-out, broken, and other discarded
items such as radios, stereos, and TV sets.
"Controlled dump" shall refer to a disposal site at which
solid waste is deposited in accordance with the
minimum prescribed standards of site operation.
"Disposal site" shall refer to a site where solid waste is
finally discharged and deposited.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Ecological solid waste management" shall refer to the
systematic administration of activities which provide for
segregation at source, segregated transportation, storage,
transfer, processing, treatment, and disposal of solid waste
and all other waste management activities which do not
harm the environment.
"Generation" shall refer to the act or process of producing
solid waste.

"Generator" shall refer to a person, natural or juridical, who


last uses a material and makes it available for disposal or
recycling.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Hazardous waste" shall refer to solid waste or combination
of solid waste which because of its quantity, concentration, or
physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may: cause, or
significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an
increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible,
illness; or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to
human health or the environment when improperly treated,
stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.
"Leachate" shall refer to the liquid produced when waste
undergo decomposition, and when water percolate through
solid waste undergoing decomposition. It is a contaminated
liquid that contains dissolved and suspended materials.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Materials recovery facility" shall include solid waste
transfer station or sorting station, drop-off center, a
composting facility, and a recycling facility.
"Municipal wastes" shall refer to wastes produced from
activities within local government units which include a
combination of domestic, commercial, institutional and
industrial wastes and street litters.
"Open burning" shall refer to the thermal destruction of
wastes by means of direct exposure to fire. Furthermore,
this definition shall apply to traditional small-scale methods
of community sanitation "siga".

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Open dump" shall refer to a disposal area wherein the
solid wastes are indiscriminately thrown or disposed of
without due planning and consideration for environmental
and health standards.
"Receptacles" shall refer to individual containers used for
the source separation and the collection of recyclable
materials.
"Recovered material" shall refer to material and byproducts that have been recovered or diverted from solid
waste for the purpose of being collected, processed and
used as a raw material in the manufacture of a recycled
product.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Recyclable material" shall refer to any waste material
retrieved from the waste stream and free from
contamination that can still be converted into suitable
beneficial use or for other purposes, including, but not
limited to, newspaper, ferrous scrap metal, non-ferrous
scrap metal, used oil, corrugated cardboard, aluminum,
glass, office paper, tin cans, plastics and other
materials as may be determined by the Commission.
"Recycled material" shall refer to post-consumer
material that has been recycled and returned to the
economy.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Recycling" shall refer to the treating of used or
waste materials through a process of making
them suitable for beneficial use and for other
purposes, and includes any process by which
solid waste materials are transformed into new
products in such a manner that the original
products may lose their identity, and which may
be used as raw materials for the production of
other goods or services: Provided, that the
collection, segregation and re-use of previously
used packaging material shall be deemed
recycling under the Act.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Re-use" shall refer to the process of recovering materials
intended for the same or different purpose without the
alteration of physical and chemical characteristics.
"Sanitary landfill" shall refer to a waste disposal site
designed, constructed, operated and maintained in a
manner that exerts engineering control over significant
potential environmental impacts arising from the
development and operation of the facility.
"Segregation" shall refer to sorting and segregation of
different materials found in solid waste in order to promote
recycling and re-use of resources and to reduce the volume
of waste for collection and disposal.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Solid waste" shall refer to all discarded household,
commercial waste, non-hazardous institutional, ports /
harbour and industrial waste, street sweepings, construction
debris, agriculture waste, and other non-hazardous/non-toxic
solid waste. Unless specifically noted otherwise, the term
"solid waste" as used in the Act shall not include:
waste identified or listed as hazardous waste of a solid, liquid,
contained gaseous or semisolid form which may cause or
contribute to an increase in mortality or in serious or
incapacitating reversible illness, or acute/chronic effect on the
health of persons and other organisms;

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


infectious waste from hospitals such as equipment, instruments,
utensils, and fomites of a disposable nature from patients who
are suspected to have or have been diagnosed as having
communicable diseases and must therefore be isolated as
required by public health agencies, laboratory wastes such as
pathological specimens (i.e., all tissues, specimens of blood
elements, excreta, and secretions obtained from patients or
laboratory animals), and disposable fomites that may harbor or
transmit pathogenic organisms, and surgical operating room
pathologic specimens and disposable fomites attendant thereto,
and similar disposable materials from outpatient areas and
emergency rooms; and
waste resulting from mining activities, including contaminated
soil and debris.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"Special wastes" shall refer to household hazardous
wastes such as paints, thinners, household batteries,
lead-acid batteries, spray canisters and the like. These
include wastes from residential and commercial
sources that comprise of bulky wastes, consumer
electronics, white goods, yard wastes that are collected
separately, batteries, oil, and tires. These wastes are
usually handled separately from other residential and
commercial wastes.
"Waste diversion" shall refer to activities which reduce
or eliminate the amount of solid wastes from waste
disposal facilities.

RULE 3. DEFINITION OF TERMS


"White goods" shall refer to large worn-out or broken
household, commercial, and industrial appliances such
as stoves, refrigerators, dishwaters, and clothes
washers and dryers collected separately. White goods
are usually dismantled for the recovery of specific
materials (e.g., copper, aluminum, etc.).
"Yard waste" shall refer to wood, small or chipped
branches, leaves, grass clippings, garden debris,
vegetables residue that is recognizable as part of a
plant or vegetable and other materials identified by the
Commission.

PLUMBING PRACTICAL
Thank You.