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SoftWare Testing:

⇒ Project:

Project is some thing that is developed based on the particular customers requirements and used by that customer only

⇒Product: ⇒Quality:

It is some thing that is developed based on the companies specification and used by the multiple customers

Classical definition for quality: - Quality is defined as justification of all the
requirements of customer in a product. NOTE: Quality is not defined in the product; it is defined in the customers mind

Defect: - Defect is defined as deviation from the requirements Latest definition for quality: - quality is defined as not only the justification of
requirements but also the presence of value (User friendliness) ⇒ Testing: Testing is processes, in which the defects are identified, isolated, subjected for rectification & ensure that the product is defect free. In order to produce the quality product in the end and hence customer satisfaction.

⇒ Bidding The Project:

Bidding the project is defined as request for proposal, estimation and signing off (Official agreement).

⇒ Kick Off Meeting:

It is an initial meeting conducted in the soft ware company soon after the project is signed off. In order to discuss the overview of the project and to select a project manager for the project. Usually high level management, Project managers, team managers, quality managers, team leads and quality leads will be involved in this meeting.

⇒PIN (Project Initiation Note):-

It is a mail prepared by the project manager and sent to the CEO of the soft ware company in order to get the permission to start the project developments.

⇒ Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC):-

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SDLC contains six phases they are 1. Initial phase or requirements phase. 2. Analysis phase 3. Design phase 4. Coding Phase 5. Testing Phase 6. Delivery & Maintenance Phase.

I. Initial Phase or Requirements Phase : (a) Tasks: Interaction with the customer and gathering the requirements. (b) Roles: Business Analyst (B.A), Engagement Manager (E.M)
⇒Process: First of all the business analyst will take an appointment from the customer, collects the templates from the company, meets the customer on appointed day, gathers the requirements with the help of template and comes back to the company with the requirements documents. Once the requirement document has come to the company the engagement manager will check whether the customer gives any extra requirements or confused requirements. In case of extra requirements he deals the excess cost of the project. In case of confused requirements he is the responsible for prototype demonstration and gathering the clear requirements.

⇒Proof: The proof document of this phase is Requirements Document. This is called with
different names in different companies. 1. FRS (Functional Requirements Specification) 2. CRS (Customer Requirement Specification) 3. URS (User Requirement Specification) 4. BDD (Business Design Document) 5. BD (Business Document) 6. BRS (Business Requirement Specification) Some companies may maintain the over all business flow information in one document and the detailed functional requirement information in the other document

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⇒Templates: It is a pre defined format, which contains the predefined fields, and used
for preparing a document in an easy, comfort and perfect manner.

⇒Prototype: -Defined as a roughly & Rapidly developed model which is used for

demonstrating to the client, In order to gather the clear requirements and to win the confidence of a customer.

II.

Analysis Phase:

(a) Tasks:
1.Feasibility Study 2.Tentative planning 1. Technology Selection

(b) Roles:
Process

2. Requirement Analysis System Analyst, Project Manager, and Team Manager.

1. Feasibility Study: - It is detailed study of the requirements in order to check weather the requirements are possible or not. 2. Tentative Planning: In this section the resource planning and the time planning (scheduling) is done temporarily. 3. Technology Selection: - The list of all the technologies that are required to accomplish this project. Successfully will be analyzed and listed out in this section. 4. Requirement Analysis: - The list of all the requirements that are required to accomplish this project. Successfully will be analyzed and listed out here in this section. SRC- System requirement specification

Proof: - The proof of this phase is system Requirement specification. III. Design Phase: Tasks: 1. High level designing

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2. Low level designing

Roles: High-level designing is done by the chief Architect & Low level designing is
done by the Technical Lead

Process: The Chief architect will be drawing some diagrams using unified modeling
language in order to divide the whole project in to modules. The Technical lead will also draw some diagrams in order to divide the modules in to sub modules. The technical lead will also develop the PSEUDO code in order to make developers comfortable while de3veloping the actual code.

Proof: The proof document of this phase is Technical design document.

IV. Coding phase: (a) Task: Developing or Programming (b) Roles: Developers or Programmers Process: Developers will develop the actual code by using the technical design document
as well as following the coding standards like Proper indentation, color coding, proper commenting and etc..,

Proof: The proof document of this phase is source code Document.
E.g.: The programmer will develop some programs every one will develop his program in different colors but the soft ware companies will ask the developers to develop the program according to the company standards using proper color, coding, commenting. So as to understand it easily.

V.

Testing Phase: (a) Task: Testing (b) Roles: Test engineers Process:
1. First of all the test engineers will collect the requirements document and try to understand all the requirements

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2. While understanding it at all they get any doubts they will list out all of them in a review report. 3. They will send the review report to the author of the requirements document for clarifications. 4. Once the clarifications are given and after understanding all the requirements clearly, they will take the test case template and writes the test cases. 5. Once the first build is released then they will execute the test cases 6. If at all any defects are found. They will list out all of them in a defect profile template then 7. They will sent the defect profile document to the development department and then will be waiting for the next build to be released. 8. Once the next build is released then they re-execute the test cases. 9. If at all any defects are found they will update the profile document and sent it to the development department and will be waiting fro the next build to be released . 10. This process continuous till the product is defect free. Proof: The proof of the testing phase is Quality Product.

⇒Test Case: (def) Test case is an idea of a test engineer based on the customer’s
requirements in order to test a particular feature or a function.

VI. Delivery & Maintenance Phase:

Delivery:
(a) Task: - Installing the application in the client’s environment

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(b) Rolls: -Deployment engineer or Senior test engineers.
Process: - The senior test engineer or deployment engineer will be going to the clients place and install the application in their environment with the help of the guidelines provide in the deployment document.

Maintenance:
After delivering the soft wate while using if at all any problem occurs then that problem becomes a task, based on that problem corresponding rolws will be appointed, the roles will defined the process and solve that problem. Some clients may request for the continuous maintenance in such situations a group of people from the software company will be continuously working on the clients place and taking care of the soft ware.

************************^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^************************ ⇒Where exactly the testing comes in to picture? ⇒Which sort of testing you are expecting? ⇒How many sorts of testing are there? ⇒ There are two sorts of testing….

1. Un-conventional testing 2. Conventional testing
1.Un-conventional Testing: -Unconventional testing is a sort of testing done by the quality assurance people, in which they test each and every out come document right from initial phase of the SDLC (Soft ware development life cycle) 2.Conventional Testing: It is sort of testing done by the test engineers on the application in the testing phase of SDLC.

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⇒Testing

Methodology or Testing techniques:
(a) Black-Box Testing (b) White-Box Testing (a) Grey-Box Testing

There are three methods of testing

(a) Black-Box Testing: If one performs testing only on the functional part of an application with out having any structural knowledge then that method of testing is known as Black-Box testing, usually the test engineers perform it. (b) White-Box Testing: If one performs testing on the structural part of an application then that method of testing is known as white box testing, usually the developers or white box testers perform it. (c) Grey-Box Testing: If one performs testing on both the functional part as well as the structural part of an application then that method of testing as known as gray box testing using the test engineers who have structural knowledge will perform gray- box testing.

⇒Levels of Testing:
There are five levels of testing 1. Unit Level Testing 2. Module Level Testing 3. Integration Level Testing 4. System Level Testing 5. User Acceptance Testing (U.A.B)

1.Unit Level Testing: It is a level of testing in which one will perform testing on the units. It is a white box testing and usually developers or white box testers will perform.

2.Module Level Testing: -

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Module: Module is defined as a group of related functionalities to perform a major task
It is a level of testing in which one will perform testing on the modules. It is a black box testing and usually test engineers perform it.

3.Integration Level Testing: It is a level of testing in which the developers will develop some interfaces to integrate the modules and test whether the interfaces are working fine or not. It is a white box testing usually developers or white box tasters perform. The developers may follow one of the following approaches while integrating the modules. 1.Top-down approach 2.Bottom –up approach 3.Hybrid or Sandwich approach 4.Bigbang approach 1.Top-down approach: - In this approach one will develop the parent modules first and then integrate them with the related child modules 2.Bottom-up approach: - In this approach one will develop the child modules first and integrate them to the parent modules 3.Hybrid approach Or Sandwich approach:- This is a mixed approach of both the top down and bottom up approaches

4.Big bang approach:-In this approach one will wait till all the modules are ready and
finally they will integrate all the modules at a time ⇒STUB: - While integrating the modules in top down approach if at all any mandatory module is missing then that module is replace with a temporary program known as STUB

⇒DRIVER: -While integrating the modules in bottom up approach. If at all any

mandatory module is missing then that module is replaced with a temporary program known as DRIVER

4.System Level Testing:

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It is a level of testing in which one will install the complete application in to the environment and then perform testing on it. At this level different types of testing will be done one among those is system integration testing.

5.System integration Testing: It is a type of testing in which once the complete application is developed one will perform an action at one module and checks for the reflections at the corresponding modules. It is a black box testing and usually test engineers perform.

6.User- Acceptance Testing: It is the level of testing in which one will perform the same system testing in the presence of the user in order to make him accept the application. It is a black box testing and usually Test engineer performs it. Environment: - Environment is a combination of three layers (e.g.: Yahoo) a. Presentation layer b. Business layer c. Data base Layer System: The application installed in to an environment combinable called as system. a. Presentation Logic: The logic that is used for viewing application is known as presentation logic b. Business Logic: - The logic that is used for performing the operations on the application is known as business logic. c. Data Base Logic: - The logic that is used for sharing and retrieving the data is known as database logic. Types of Environment: - There are Four types of environments a. Stand alone environment or One-tier environment b. Client –server environment or Two-tier Architecture c. Web environment or Three-tier Architecture d. Distributed environment or N-tier Architecture a.

Stand Alone environment: -

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In this type of environment all the three layers that is presentation layer, Business layer& Database layer will be present in al single tier. This type of environment is suitable for single user application.

One-Tier Architecture
PL BL DBL ⇒One tier Architecture

b.

Client –server environment:
In this type of environments there will be two tiers, one tier is for clients and other tier is for database servers. The presentation layer and the business layer will be present in each and every client . The database layer will be present in the database server. This type of environment is suitable for multi user application in a single or a limited area.

Two tier Architecture
PL+BL PL+BL DBL

PL+BL

Clients

Server

c. Web environment: - In his type of environment three tiers will be there. One is for client’s the middle one is for application server and the other one is for database servers. Presentation layer will be present at clients, Business layer will be present in the application server, and database layer will be present at the database servers. This type of environment is suitable for the applications that are used all over the world by limited number users

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Three-tier Architecture:
PL DBL BL PL DBL PL

Clients

Appl Server

Database server

Web server: It is software, which provides web services to the clients. E.g.: - Internet Information service (IIS). Example for Application servers: Tom pact, Web logic, web sphere etc.., d. Distributed environment: It is similar to the web environment but the number of application servers are increased and represented in individual tiers in order to distribute the business logic so that the logic will be distributed.

N-tier Architecture: Ws PL BL PL BL BL DBL

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PL PL

Clients

Apl server1

Apl server2

Apl server2

Database server

******************^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^********************************

Software Development Models: 1.Water Falling Model
PHASE ACTIVITY OUTCOME

INITIAL

Req.gathering

BRS SRS

ANALYSIS

Sys.design

DESIGN

S/w design

TDD, GUI
UTR

CODING

Implementation

Unit test Int. test Mod Test Sys.Test. UAT

UTR UTR UTR UTR

TESTING

Black box testing

DEL&MAINT bandaru7778@gmail.com

Delivery to client

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Advantages: It is a simple model Project monitoring & maintenance is very easy Drawbacks: Con not accept the new requirements in the middle of the project

(b) Prototype Model: Unclear Req SRS Doc Base lined H/Wprototype S/WPrototepe BRS DOC Base Lined Client environment confirmation H/Wprototype H/Wprototype REQ.are Refined

Prototype

Advantages: Whenever the customer is not clear with the requirements this is the best suitable model for gathering the clear requirements.

Drawbacks: ⇒ It is not a complete model ⇒ Prototype has to be built on companies cost ⇒ User may limit his requirements by sticking to the prototype.

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(B)

Evolutionary Model:
Initial Req

-

N Dev.

Feed back with new Req.

Application

User validation

User

accept
Appl is Base lined

Y

Advantages: Whenever the customer is evolving the requirements this is the best Suitable model.

Drawbacks: • • • Cannot define the dead lines Project monitoring & maintenance is very difficult No Transparency (No clear)

Spiral Model: Defining the objectives/WA/Constraints

Refining & Planning for the next cycle bandaru7778@gmail.com

Implementation

Risk Root cause analysis Estimation Contingencies

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Advantages: This is the best suitable for developing the highly risk based project (scientific projects)

Drawbacks:    Risk analysis and estimation is not an easy task It is a costly model It is a time consuming model

(C)
Req. Gathering

Fish Model: Analysis • Design • Coding •
Sys testing

Delivery & Maintenance •

• SRS •
BRS Review

HLD LLD •
TDD Review

SCD
Black


SRS Review


White box

Box testing

• Test S/W Changes

testing

Advantages: This is the best suitable for developing the highly risk based project(scientific projects)

Drawbacks: o Time consuming Model

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Costly model

Verification: It is a process of checking conducted on each and every role of the organization in order to check whether they are working according to the guidelines or not right from the starting of the process till the ending of the process

Validation: It is a process of checking conducted on the developed product in order to check whether it is working according to the requirements or not.

(D)

V-Model: -

Verification Initial& design Phase Design & coding Test BRS SRS

Validation Preparing proj plan Preparing Test plan Req.Phase testing Design Phase testing Program phase testing

TDD SCD S/W Build

Testing

System testing Test management Process User acceptance testing Port Testing

S/W efficiency DRE=A/A+B Delivery & Maintenance

Test S/W changer

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Advantages; AS verification and validation as well as test management process is done the out come will be a quality product.

Drawbacks: o o Time consuming mode Costly model

DRE: Defects removal efficiency

End of the Basic part…

Testing part to be continued………….

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1.Build Acceptance Testing Or Build Verification Testing Or Sanity Testing: It is a types of testing in which one will conduct over all testing on the released build in order to check whether it is proper for further detailed testing or not. Even some companies call it as smoke testing, but some companies says that just before releasing the build the developers will conduct the overall testing on the build that is known as smoke testing and once the build is released what ever the test engineers do in order to accept the build is known as B.A.T or B.V.T or Sanity Testing.

2.Regression Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the already tested functionalities again and again. It is usually done in two scenarios. 1. Whenever the testers has raised the defects, rectified by the developers and next build is released to the testing department then the test engineer’s will test the defect functionality as well as the related functionality once again. 2. When ever some new features are incorporated by the developers, next build is released to the testing department then the test engineers will once again test the related functionalities of the new features in order to confirm that they are working same as previous.

Note: - Testing the new functionalities for the first time is known as new testing but not
Regression Testing.

3.Re-Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will test the same functionality again and again with different sets of values in order to come to a conclusion whether it is working or not.

4.α - Testing (Alpha Testing): It is a type of user acceptance testing in which the test engineers will test the application in our company, in the presence of the customer.

Advantage: - If at all any defects are found then there is a chance of rectifying them
immediately.

5. β -Testing (Beta): -

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It is a type of user acceptance testing done in the clients place either by the end-users or by the third party testing experts before actual implementation. Drawback: If at all any defects are found then there is no chance of rectifying them immediately.

6. Static Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the application or application related factors with out performing any action. Eg:- Documentary testing, GUI testing, Code reviews and etc.,

7. Dynamic Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will perform in the application or its related factors by doing some actions Eg: - Functionality testing.

8.Installation Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will install the application in to the environment by following the guide lines provided in the installation document and if the installation is successful then he will come a conclusion that the given guide lines are correct other wise he will come to a conclusion that the given guidelines are not correct.

9.Compatibility Testing: It is a type of testing in which one may have to deploy the application in to the multiple number of environments prepared with different combinations of environmental components in order to check whether the application is compatible with all that environments. This type of testing is usually done to products.

10. Monkey Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will perform abnormal action on the application intentionally in order to check the stability of the application.

11.Usability Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will check whether the application is user friendly or not and it can be comfortably used by the end user or not.

12. Exploratory Testing: -

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It is a type of testing in which one will (Domain Experts) will perform testing on the application with out having the knowledge of requirements but by exploring the functionality.

13.End-To- End Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on all the endto-end scenarios of the application.

14.Port Testing:It is a type of testing in which one will deploy the application in to the clients environment and check whether it is compatible with that environment or not.

15.Reliability Testing: It is a type of testing I which one will perform testing on the application continuously for long period of time in order to check the stability of the application

16.Security Testing: Its is a type of testing in which one will concentrate on the following areas of the application a. Authentication Testing b. Direct URL Testing (Uniform Resource Location) c. Fire Wall Leakage Testing.

(a) Authentication Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will enter different combinations of usernames and passwords and try to access the home page in order to check whether only the authorized persons are accessing the application or not.

(b) Direct URL Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will enter the URL of an unauthorized page directly in the browser and try to access that page in order to check whether it is been accessed or not.

(c) Firewall Leakage Testing :

-

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It is a type of testing in which one will enter as one level of user and try to access the other level of unauthorized pages in order to check whether the firewalls are working properly or not.

17. Mutation Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on some thing by doing some changes to it.

18. ADHOC Testing: It is a type of testing in which one will perform testing on the application in his own style after understanding the requirements clearly.

The Soft Ware Testing Life Cycle Contains Six Phases They are…

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• • • • • •

Test Planning Test Development Test Execution Result Analysis Bug Tracking Reporting

Plan: It is a strategic document, which describes how to perform a task in an effective, efficient and optimized way.

Test Plan: It is a strategic document, which describes how to perform testing on an application in an effective, efficient and optimized way.

Optimization: Optimization is a process of utilizing the available input resources to their max and getting maximum possible out put.

Introduction 1.1 Objective 1.2 Reference Document
1.0

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Coverage Of Testing Features To Be Testing Features Not To Be Testing 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Base criteria 4.1 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 Acceptance criteria 4.2 Suspension criteria Test Deliverable Test Environment Resource Planning Scheduling Staffing& Training Risks & Contingencies Assumptions Approval Information Test Strategy Levels Of Testing Types of testing Test design techniques Configuration management Test metrics Terminology Automation Plan List of automated tools

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1.0 Introduction: 1.1 Objective: The Purpose of the document is clearly described here in this section 1.2 Reference Document: The list of all the documents that are refereed to prepare the test plan will be listed out her in the section.

2.0 Coverage Of Testing: 2.1 Features to be tested: The list of all the features that are to be tested in this phase will be clearly mentioned here in this section. 2.2 Features not to be tested: The list of all the features that are not planned for testing based on the following criteria will be listed out here in this section a. Out of scope features b. Low risk features c. The functionalities that are planned to be incorporated in future d. The features that are to be skipped based on the time constraints.

3.0 Test Strategy: Test strategy is defined as an organizational level term, which is used for testing all the projects in the organization.

Test Plan: It is defined as a project level term, which is used for testing a particular project in the organization.

Note: - Test strategy is common for all the projects but the test plan is
specific for a particular project 3.1 Levels of Testing: The list of all the levels of testing that are followed by that company are listed out here in this section

3.2 Types of Testing: -

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The list of all the types of testing that are followed in that company will be listed out here in this section.

3.3 Test Design Techniques: Technique: Technique is some thing i.e., used for accomplishing a complex task in an easy manner. A list of all the techniques that are used by that company while developing the test cases will be listed out here in this section.
Eg: - BVA (Banded value analysis) ECP (Equivalence Class Partition) 3.4

Configuration Management:- To be discussed later……

3.5 Test Metrics: The list of all the metrics that are maintained in that company will be listed out here in this section

3.6 Terminology: The list of all the terms and the meaning that are used in that company will be listed out here in this section

3.7 Automation Plan: The list of all the areas that are plan for automation in that company will be listed out here in this section.

3.8 List Of Automated Tools: The list of all the automated tools that are used in that company will be listed out here in this section.

4.0 Base Criteria: 4.1 Acceptance Criteria: When to stop testing feeling that enough testing has been done on the application is clearly described here in this section.

4.1 Suspension Criteria: When to suspend testing suddenly (abruptly) will be clearly mentioned here in this section.

5.0 Test Deliverable: -

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The list of all the documents that are to be prepared during the testing phase will be listed out here in this section. Eg: Test case, defects profile document.

6.0 Test Environment: The customer specified environment would be clearly described here in this section. The same environment will be simulated in the company and will be used for testing purpose.

7.0 Resource Planning: Who has to do what is clearly described here in this section.

8.0 Scheduling: The starting dates and the ending data of the each and every tasks is clearly planned here in this section.

9.0 Staffing& Training: How much staff is to be recruited and what kind of training is to be provided is clearly described here in this section.

10.0 Risks & contingencies (Solution Plans): The list of all the potential risks and the corresponding solution plans will be listed out here in this section.
Example:

Risks:
i. Unable to deliver the soft ware with in dead lines. ii. Employees may leave the organization in the middle of the project iii. Customer may impose the dead lines. iv. Unable to test all the features with in the time. v. Lack of expertisation

Contingencies (solution Plans):
i. Proper plan ensurance.

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ii. Employees need to be maintained on the bench. iii. What not to be tested has to be planned in case of imposed dead lines. iv. Severity & Priority based testing. v. Proper Training needs to be provided.

11.0 Assumptions: The list of all the assumptions that are to be assumed by the test engineer will be listed out here in this section.

12.0 Approval Information: Who has to approve what is clearly described here in this section.

FRS (Functional Requirement Specification)

HLI (High level Information) LLI (Low-level Information) Screen Shots

USE CASES

Use Cases:

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Use case is a description of functionality of certain features of an application in terms of actors, actions& responses Input information required for preparing the use case Document: i. Screen shot ii. Functional requirements iii. Special requirement/Business rules/Validation iv. Template

i.

Screen Shot: User name Password Connect to
Login Clear Cancel

ii. Functional Requirements: a. Login screen should contain username, password, Connects To fields and
login, clear, cancel buttons. b. Connect to is not a mandatory field but when ever user requires it should allow him to select a data base option. c. Up on entering valid username, valid password and clicking on login button corresponding page must be displayed. d. Up on clicking on the clear button the information present in all the fields must be cleared and the cursor must be available in the user name field e. Up on clicking on the cancel button login screen must be closed.

iii. Special requirement/Business ruled/Validation: a. b. c. d.
Initially whenever the login screen is Invoked Login, clear buttons must be disabled. Cancels Button must be always enable. Up on entering user name and password the login button must be enabled. Up on entering some information in to any of the fields the clear button must be enabled

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e.

The Tabbing order must be user name, Password, Connect to, Login, clear, cancel. : : : : : : :

iv. Use Case Template:
Name Of The Use Case Brief Description of Use Case Actor’s Involved Special Requirements Pre Condition Post-Conditions Flow of Events

v. Use Case Document:
Name of the use case:
Login use case.

Brief Description of use case: It Describes the
functionalities of all the login screen. features present in the

Actors Involved:

Normal user, Admin User.

Special Requirements: There are two types of special requirements
1.Explicit requirements 2.Implicit requirements

1.Explicit Requirements: The Requirements that are directly given by the customer are known as explicit requirement.

2.Implicit Requirement: The requirements that are analyzed by the business analyst feeling that they will add the value (user friendliness) to the application are known as implicit requirements.

List of Explicit requirements: • • • • Initially whenever the login screen is Invoked Login, clear buttons must be disabled. Cancels Button must be always enable. Up on entering user name and password the login button must be enabled. Up on entering some information in to any of the fields the clear button must be enabled

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The Tabbing order must be user name, Password, Connect to, Login, clear, cancel.

List of Implicit Requirements: • • • • Initially whenever the login screen is invoked the cursor must be available in the user name field Upon entering in valid username, valid password and clicking on log in button an error message should be displayed “Invalid username Please try again” Upon entering valid username, In valid password and clicking on login button an error message should be displayed “Invalid Password Please Try again” Upon entering Invalid username, Invalid password and clicking on login button an error message should be displayed “Invalid user name and password Please try again”

Pre-Conditions: Login screen must be available Post-Conditions: Either home page or admin page for the valid user and error message
for the invalid users

Flow of Events: There are three flows for the application

1. Main

Flow 2.Alternative Flow 3.Exceptional Flow

1.Main Flow:
Action
1.Actor invokes the application.

Response
1.Login Screen is displayed with the following fields Username, Password, Connect to, Login, Clear& cancel. 2.Either home page or admin page is displayed depending up on the actor entered by authenticating. 3.Authenticates,Either home page or admin page is displayed depending up on the action entered with mentioned data base connection.

2.Actor enters valid user name, Valid password and clicks on login button. 3.Actor enters valid user name, valid password, selects a database option and clicks on login button.

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4.Actor enters invalid user name Valid password and clicks on login button. 5.Actor enters valid user name, Invalid password and clicks on login button. 6.Actor enters both username and password invalid and clicks on login button. 7.Actor enters some information in to any of the fields and clicks on clear button. 8.Actor clicks on the cancel button.

4.Go to Alternative flow table 1 5.Go to Alternative flow table 2 6.Go to Alternative flow table 3

7.Go to Alternative glow table 4 8.Go to Alternative flow table 5.

1.Alternative flow table 1: -(Invalid User name) Action
Actor enters invalid user name, valid password and clicks on login button

Response

Authenticates an error message is displayed “Invalid User name Please Try again”.

2.Alternative Flow Table 2: -(Invalid Password) Action
Actor enters valid user name, invalid password and clicks on login button

Response

Authenticates an error message is displayed “Invalid User Password Please Try again”.

3.Alternative Flow Table 3: - (Invalid username & Password) Action Response
Actor enters invalid user name, invalid password and clicks on login button Authenticates an error message is displayed “Invalid User name and password Please Try again”.

4.Alternative Flow Table 4: - (Clear Click)
Action
Actor enters some information in any of the fields and clicks on clear button

Response
All the fields are cleared and cursor is placed in the user name fields

5.Alternative Flow Table 4: -(Cancel click).
Action
Actor Clicks on the cancel button.

Response
Login screen is close

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Identify the module to which the use case belongs. Security module. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Identify the functionality of the use case with respect to the total functionality Authentication Identify the functional points and prepare the functional point document. Identify the input required to perform testing Valid & invalid Inputs Identify the actors involved in the used case Normal user & Admin user. Identify whether the use case is linked with any other use case. Home page and Admin page use cases Identify the pre conditions Login Screen mist be available Identify the post conditions Either home page or admin page for valid users and error message for invalid users Understand the main flow of the application Understand the alternative flow of the application Understand the special requirements Document the test cases for the main flow Document the test cases for the alternative flow Document the test cases for the special requirements Prepare the cross-reference matrix.

Functional Point: The point where an user can perform some action is known as functional point.

Testing Process: FRS VLD FPD UN-Entry PW-Entry Login Click Cancel Click Clear Click MTCD Validate Login check Validate Cancel Check Validate Clear Check DTCD 1 DPD 2 3 4 5 6 7 3

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FRS- Functional Requirement Specification FPD-Functional port Document MTCD-Master Test Case Document DTCD-Detailed Test Case Document DPD-Defect Profile Document

Cross Reference Document: -( Traceability Document)
It is a document, which contains a table of linking information used for tracing back for the reference in any kind of ambiguous (confusion) or questionable situation.

Common Traceability Matrix
VLD 2 8 7 22 FPD 3 5 47 MTCD DTCD 28 DPD 1 5

Requirement Tracebility Matrix
TCID REQ ID

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2

Defects Tracebility Document
DID 1 TCID 28

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2 3 4 5 6

32 65 96 48 52

Types Of Test Cases:
There are Two types of test cases if we see broadly they are: 1. GUI Test Cases 2. Functional Test Cases The Functional cases are further divided in to Two types (a) Positive Test Cases, (b) Negative Test Cases.

Guide Lines fro developing the GUI Test Cases:

• • • • •

Check for the availability of all the objects Check for the alignments of all the objects up on customer requirements Check for the consistency of all the objects Check for the spellings and grammar Apart from the above guide lines any thing else that can be tested just by looking with out doing any actions will fall under GUI test cases

Guide Lines for Positive Test Cases:
• • • A test engineer should have positive mind set up He should consider the positive flow of the application He should use only the valid Input

Guidelines for developing Negative Test Cases:
• • • A test engineer should have negative mind set up He should consider the negative flow of the application He should use at least one invalid input per a set of data

Test Case Template: -

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(a) Test Objective (b) Test scenario (c) Test procedure (d) Test Data (e) Test Cases
(a) (b) Test Objective: The main purpose of the document is described here in this section

Test Scenarios: The list of all the scenarios that are to be tested will be listed out here in this section.

(c)Test Procedure: DEF: It is a functional level term, which describes how to perform testing on the functionalities of the application. The plan for testing the functionalities is briefly described here in this section

(d) (e)

Test Data: The date that is required for testing is made available here in this section

Test Cases: Reference

The format of a test case template is given below TCID TC DESCRIPTION EV AV Result Severity Priorit TYPE y

Test case Table

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TC ID

TYPE

Description
Check for the availability of all the objects as per the Login Obj Tab

Expected Value

Actual Value

Result Severity Priority Reference

1

GUI

All the objects must be All the objects are available as available as per the per the login obj login obj tab Pass tab All the objects must be All the objects consistent with each are consistent other with each other

2

GUI

3

GUI

Check for the constancy of all the objects Check for the spellings of all the objects as per the All the objects must be All the objects spelled properly as per Login obj TabLogin Obj are spelled the login obj tab Tab.xls properly Check for the enable property of login, clear and cancel buttons

Pass

Pass

4

GUI

Initially login, clear must be disabled and Login, clear and cancel button must be cancel buttons enabled Fail are enabled Initially the cursor must Initially the cursor is present be positioned in the in the username user name field Pass field

5

6

Check for the initial position of the cursor Enter some information in to user name and Login button must be password field and check enabled for the enabled property of Positive login button GUI Enter some info in to any of the fields and check for Clear button must be enabled the enabled property of Positive clear button

Login button is enabled

Pass

7

8

9

10

Clear button is enabled Corresponding Corresponding page pages are Enter user name, must be displayed as displayed as per Password as per the VIT per the VIT valid in puts Positive and click on login button table Corresponding Corresponding page pages are must be displayed as Enter username, displayed as per per the VIT With the Password as per the VIT the VIT with the mentioned data base and select a data base mentioned data connection Positive option and click on login base connection All the fields are All the fields must be cleared but the cleared and the Cursor Enter some information in cursor is not should be placed in the to any of the fields and placed in the user name fields Positive clear button user name field. Login screen should be closed Login screens Positive Click on the cancel button closed

Pass

Pass

Pass

Fail

11

Pass

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12

Check for the tabbing Positive order of all the objects Enter username, Password as per the IVIT Negative and click on login button Enter some information only in to the user name field and check for the enabled property of login Negative button Enter some information only in to the password field and check for the enabled property of login Negative button

Tabbing order is as follows Tabbing order must be Username, as follows User name, Password, Password, Connect to, Connect to Login, Clear, Cancel Login, clear, Pass Cancel Corresponding messages should be displayed as per IVIT Corresponding error messages are not displayed Fail as per IVIT

13

Login button must be disabled

14

Login button is enabled

Fail

Login button must be disabled

15

Login button is enabled

Fail

LOGIN OBJ TAB
Sno Obj Name 1 User name 2 Password 3 Connect To 4 Login 5 Clear 6 Cancel Type Text Box Text Box Combo box Button Button Button

Valid Inputs Table
Sno User Name 1 2 3 Suresh Raja Chiru Password qtp rani mbbs Expected Page Admin Home page Home page Actual value Admin Home page Home page Result Pass Pass Pass

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4 5 6

Praveen NTR Admin

puppy illu Admin

Home page Home page Admin

Home page Home page Admin

Pass Pass Pass

Valid Inputs Table (IVIT)
Sno User Name Password Expected Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 Suresh1 Raja2 Chiru Praveen NTR1 Admin5 qtp rani DADA TOPI illu4 Admin6
Invalid User name Plz try again Invalid User name Plz try again

Actual value Admin
Invalid User name Plz try again

Result Fail Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass

Invalid password Plz try again Invalid password Plz try again Invalid user name & password Plz try again Invalid user name & password Plz try again

Invalid password Plz try again Invalid password Plz try again Invalid user name & password Plz try again Invalid user name & password Plz try again

A test Engineer will do the following during the test execution 1. He will perform the action that is described in the description column 2. He will observe the actual behavior under the actual value column. 3. He will document the observed value under the actual value column.

In this phase the test engineer will compare the expected values with the actual values and if both are matched they will document the result as pass other wise they will document the result as fail.

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Bug Tracking is a process in which the defects are identified, Isolated and managed

Defect –ID: -

The lists of defect numbers are mentioned here in this section. Defect Description: What exactly the defect is clearly described here in this section. Steps for reproducibility: The list of all the steps that are followed by the test engineer to identify the defect will be listed out here in this section. Submitter: The name of the test engineer who has submitted the defect will be mentioned here in this section. Date Submission: The date on which the defect is submitted is mentioned here in this section. Version No: Corresponding Version number is mentioned here in this section. Build No: Corresponding build number is mentioned here in this section. Assigned To: The development lead will fill the developers name for whom the defect is assigned.

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Defect Id

Defect Description
Initially Login, cear buttons are enabled instead of being disabled

Steps for Date Of Version Build Reproducibility Submitter Submission NO No
Not Applicable Sri Balaji
11-Feb-08

Assign to SeverityPriority Status

1

1.0.0 1

1.Enter some information in to any Upon Clicking on of the fields clear button all the 2.Click on clear fields are cleared button but the cursor is not3.Observe that the placed in the user cursor is not placed name field in the username fields after clearing all the fields 2 1.Enter Suresh1 in to the user name Upon entering field 2.Enter Suresh1 as qtp in to the username and qtp password field as password and 3.Click on login clicking on login button button admin page 4.Observe admin is displayed instead page is displayed of error message instead of error message. 1.Enter some information in to username field 2.Check for the enabled property of login button. 3.Observe that login button is enabled instead of being disabled. 1.Enter some information in tho password field 2.Check for the enabled property of login button 3.Observe that login button to enable instead of being disabled Sri Balaji
11-Feb-08

1.0.0 1

3

Sri Balaji

11-Feb-08

1.0.0 1

Up on entering the information only in to the user name field login button is enabled instead of being disabled 4

Sri Balaji

14-Feb-08

1.0.0 1

Upon entering the information only in to the password field login button is enabled instead being disabled 5

Sri Balaji

11-Feb-08

1.0.0 1

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Defect- Id: The list of defect numbers are mentioned here in this section Defect Description: What exactly the defect is clearly described here in this section Steps for reproducibility: The list of all the steps that are followed by the test engineer to identify the defect will be listed out here in this section Submitter: The name of the test engineer who has submitted the defect will be mentioned here in this section. Date Of Submission: The date on which the defect is submitted is mentioned here in this section. Version No: Corresponding Version number is mentioned here in this section. Build No: Corresponding build number is mentioned here in this section. Assigned To: The development lead will fill the developers name for whomthe defect is assigned. Severity: How serious the defect is defined in terms of severity, Severity is classified in to four types: 1.Fatal 2.Major 3.Minor 4.Suggestion (Sev1) or S1 or 1 (Sev2) or S2 or 2 (Sev3) or S3 or 3 (Sev4) or S4 or 4

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1.Fatal:
If at all the problems are related to the navigational blocks or unavailability of functionality then such type of defects are treated to be fatal defect. Val1 Val2 Result ADD Next Next UN AVAILABL E

Main Menu

Next

2.Major: If at all the problems are related to the working of major functionalities then such types of defects are treated to be major defects. 10 20 -10 ADD

Val1 Val2 Result

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3.Minor: If at all the problems are related to the Look & Feel of the application then such type of defects are treated to be minor defects

Val1 Val2 Result BAD

4.Suggestions: If at all the problems are related to the value of the application then such type defects are treated to be suggestions. +Ve integer Box Some alphabets Invalid Entry Plz Try again

Priority: -

Priority defines the sequence in which the sequence in which defects has to be rectified. It is classified in to four types 1.Critical (Pri1) or P1 or 1 2.High (Pri2) or P2 or 2 3.Medium (Pri3) or P3 or 3 4.Low (Pri4) or P4 or 4 Usually the Fatal defects are given critical priority, Major defects are given High priority, Minor defects are given Medium Priority and suggestions are given Low Priority, But depending up on the situations the priority will be changing. I - Case: Low severity-High Priority Case: Up on customer visit to the company all the look and feel defects are given highest priority. II - Case: High severity –Low Priority Case: -

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When ever 80% of the application is released to testing department as 20% is missing the test engineers will treat them as Fatal defect but the development lead will give least priority for those defects as features are under development. Bug Life Cycle: HOL D Testers error

REQ No Is it Reall y Defe ct

As per design

DEV

OP EN

Rectific ation

M1

Build #1 Build #2

Fixed for verification

TESTING

Yes Ne w No
If Def ect

STOP TESTING

RE

ope n

No

Is defect is really verifie d

Yes

Clos ed

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Status: New: - When ever the defect is found for the first time the test engineer will set the status as New. Open: -When ever the developer accepts the raised defect then he will set the status as open. Fixed for verification Or Fixed for rectified: - When ever the developer rectifies the raised defect then he will change the status to fixed. Re open and Closed: -When ever the defects are rectified, next build is released to the testing dept then the test engineers will check whether the defects are rectified properly or not. If the defect is rectified properly then the test engineer will set the status as “Closed”. If the defect is not rectified properly then the test engineer will set the status as “Re open”. Hold: - When ever the developer is confused to accept or reject the defect then he will set the status of the defect as hold. Testers Error or Testers Mistake Or Rejected: - When ever the developer is confirmed it is not at all a defect hen he will set the status of the defect as “ Rejected”. As Per Design: - When ever the test engineer is not aware of new requirements and if he raises defects related to the new features then the developer will set the status “ As Per Design”. Note: This is a rare case not usually Occurs

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