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Harvard Referencing

Every word or image you write that isnt yours has to be referenced. There are
two forms of Harvard referencing, the long form and the short form. You only
write the long form in the bibliography at the end of your essay. The short form
goes in brackets directly after the quote/image.

Internet
Format
Author surname, author first name/s or initials. (Year) Title. online. Place of
publication, publisher. Available at URL. Page number if applicable.
(Accessed date)
Sometimes no author is mentioned, so write no author
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
Buchannan, Val. (2002) Web Guides: Fashion. [online] London. London
College of Fashion. Available at
http://www.lint.ac.uk/library/webguides/fashion.htm (Accessed 21/03/05)
In the text (short form)
(Buchannan, 2002, www.lint.ac.uk, p.23)

Blogs
A blog
Format
Surname, first name (the year the blog was last updated this is usually found at
the very top or bottom of the blog homepage). Name of Blog [online blog].
Accessed on: day month year. Available at: <insert web address here>
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
Fry, Stephen (2013). The New Adventures of Mr Stephen Fry [online blog].
Accessed on: 31st January 2013. Available at:
<http://www.stephenfry.com/blog/>.
In the text (short form)
(Fry, 2013, www.stephenfry.com)

A specific blog post


Format
Surname, First name (specific date of the blog post to which you are referring).
Title, Name of Blog [online blog]. Accessed on day month year. Available at:
<insert web address>
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
Fry, Stephen (22nd August 2012). Supporting Pussy Riot, The New Adventures
of Mr Stephen Fry [online blog]. Accessed on: 31st January 2013. Available at:
<http://www.stephenfry.com/2012/08/22/supporting-pussy-riot/>.
In the text (short form)
(Fry, 2012, www.stephen fry.com)

Twitter
1. Tweets by individuals
Format
Surname, first name (Day month year). Full text of tweet [Twitter]. Accessed on:
day month year. Available at: <insert web address here>.
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
Claus, Santa (2nd December 2012). Only 23 days to go until Christmas yipee! [Twitter]. Accessed on: 31st January 2013. Available at:
<http://www.twitter.com/santaclaus/>.
In the text (short form)
(Claus, 2012, www.twitter.com)
2. Tweets by companies or institutions
When referencing tweets written by companies, you just need to change the
format, so that rather than surname, first name, you just put the
company/institution name
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
The Guardian (1st November 2012). Literacy in London schools has
increased by 7% over the last 3 years [Twitter]. Accessed on: 31st January
2013. Available at: <http://www.twitter.com/theguardian/>.
In the text (short form)
(The Guardian, 2012, www.twitter.com)

Facebook
Posts by individuals on Facebook
When referencing an individual comment made on Facebook, you must
reference the quote in the following way:
Format
Surname, First name (Day Month Year of post written). Brief explanation of
quote. Full text of quote [Facebook]. Accessed on: day month year. Available
at: <insert web address here>
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
Time, Justin (2nd February 2010). Comment in response to Amnesty International
protest. The protest outside the Houses of Parliament was extremely popular
with a good turn out [Facebook]. Accessed on: 31st January 2013. Available at:
http://en-gb.facebook.com/amnestyinternationaluk/
In the text (short form)
(Justin, 2010, www.facebook.com)

Youtube
You will often find several different versions of the same video on You Tube,
uploaded by different people. This is why it is extremely important that you give
us much detail as possible when referencing a You Tube video.
Format
Surname, First Name (day month year You Tube video was uploaded). Name of
video [You Tube video]. (Specific time to which you are referring in the video).
Accessed on: day month year. Available at: <insert web address here>.
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
Jepson, Carly Rae (March 2012). Call Me Maybe [You Tube video]. (0:581:10/3:20). Accessed on: 31st January 2013. Available at: <
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fWNaR-rxAic>
In the text (short form)
(Jepson, 2012, www.youtube.com)
NB. Note the exact timing of the citation here shows that the section to which you
are referring is between 58 seconds to 1.10 minutes of a 3.20 minute video. If
you are referring to the video as a whole, you do NOT need to specify time.

Books
Format
Author surname/s, author first name/s or initials. (Year of publication in
brackets) Title [in bold or italics]. Place of publication. Publisher.
Book with one author.
Example
In your bibliography: (long form)
Spiller, Neil. (1998) Digital Dreams. London. Ellipsis.
In the essay (short form)
(Spiller, 1998, p. 62)
If there are two authors you use both in the order they are given and if there are
three or more you write the first one followed by et al

Interviews
List in alphabetical order of surname, followed by first name,
position/organisation, date of interview. You can also add a brief
description of the person for clarification.
Examples
Antoine, Karl and Brissett, Delaro .Dancers. Holland. 11 August 2013.
They are both leaders of the Nubian Step Dancers.
Davies, Wyn. Architect and Designer. Chislehurst, Kent. 25 November
2013.

Questionnaires
In the main body of the text
If you wish to reference a questionnaire in the main body of your essay, you must
refer the reader to the place where you have put it usually, material such as
this is filed in an appendix at the end of your dissertation. For example:
Many students claimed they were inspired by the S/S collections this year (see
Questionnaire on Fashion Design, Appendix 1).
1. A quoted response
If you wish to quote a response to a question you asked in your questionnaire,
then the person you are interviewing is the author.
Format
Surname, first name of respondee (Date and Year). Title of Questionnaire.

Example
In your bibliography: (long form)
Jenkins, Tracy (30th January, 2013). Questionnaire on Fashion Design.
In the essay (short form)
(Jenkins, 2013, questionnaire)
Unlike other resources, questionnaires are usually unpublished material, so you
will not be expected to write down the name of the publisher or the place of
publication.
2. Quoting a question you have asked someone else
If you wish to cite a question you have asked someone else, then you must be
quoted as the author:
Example
Deanus, Carley (30th January, 2013). Questionnaire on Fashion Designers.

Films, DVDs, TV Programmes etc


Format:
Title of film or programme. (Year of distribution)
Producer/director.[medium] Place of distribution. Distribution/Production
company.
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. (2001) Directed by Ang Lee. [Motion
picture] California. Columbia Tri-Star Home Entertainment
In the text (short form)
(Crouching Tiger, 2001, film)

Exhibitions/Visits
List in alphabetical order with the date of when you made the visit.
Tate Modern 14:09:13
V&A Museum 12:09:13

Tutors notes/Handouts/Lecture notes


Format: (long form)
Author or tutor, (year of publication), title of item/ title of lecture name of
academic module.
(Note: If the notes are online state where they are available and when
accessed)
Example
In the bibliography (short form)
Cooke, Sian. (2003). Dissertation preparation materials. BA Graphics
Level 3 Handout 10th March
If citing an online copy add, for example: Available at learn@rave
Accessed 06.08.13
In the text
(Cooke, 2003, Lecture handout, p.2)

Journals/ Magazine articles


(hard copies)
Format:
Author surname/s, author first name/s of article. (year of publication in
brackets). Title of article in quotation marks. Journal Name [or in italics],
issue information (volume number, part number, month or season) page
number/s.
Example
In the bibliography (long form)
Burgoyne, Patrick. (May 2012) The Chosen Ones. Creative Review.
Vol.22, no.5, p.7.
In the text (short form)
(Burgoyne, 2012)

Newspaper articles (hard copies)


Format:
Author surname, author first name/s. (Date) Title of Article in quotation
marks. Newspaper Name [or in italics], (Location). Date, page number/s.
Example
In the bibliography (short form)
Donachy, Jacqueline. (2012) Mix Retro Furniture with Modern Design.
Evening Times (Glasgow). 20th March, p.32.
In the text (short form)
(Donachy, 2012)

Images
Above/below/beside the insert of your illustration you write:
1. The figure number
2. The caption relating to the illustration
3. In brackets put the author, year and page number of the book or
journal, like you do with quotations in the text.
Example
Fig. 1 Chair and Dinner by Kate Millett. Examples to show mixed media.
(Simpson, 1968, p.86)
If the image is your own you just write Authors own and the date

The Bibliography
Your bibliography should be on a separate page at the end of the essay.
All entries should be in alphabetical order according to the surnames and it
should look like this
Bibliography
Books
Davis, R. (1997) The Gift of Dyslexia. London. Souvenir Press
Gilroy, D.E. & Miles, T.R. (2003) Dyslexia at College. London & New York.
Routledge
Goodwin, V & Thomson, B. (2004) Making Dyslexia Work for You. UK. David
Fulton Publishers
Grant, D. (2005) Thats the Way I Think. UK. David Fulton Publishers
Interviews
Anon Ravensbourne College interview 10:02:12
BA Product Design student, Ravensbourne, email interview 15:02:12
Product Design student, Ravensbourne interview 29:03:12
Questionnaire
Jenkins, T. March 2012 Design and Dyslexia. Unpublished internal document,
Ravensbourne.
Handouts
Sumner, Pauline. (2012) Emotional Support Crossing the Line Module C
Journals (online)
Fernette & Eide. (2012) Architects with Dyslexia. (Journal). [online] UK.
Available at www.dyslexicadvantage.com/video/achitects-with-dyslexia
(Accessed 22:03:12)
No author. (2012) Dyslexic Teaching Today. (Journal). [online] UK. Available at
http://www.dyslexia-teacher.co.uk/t13.html (Accessed 03:04:12)
Websites
Anon. (2012) Dyslexia is an Advantage Dyslexic Designers at Nomad RC.
[online] UK. Available at.http://dyslexicadvantage.com/photo/dyslexic-designersat-nomad-rc?context=user (Accessed 22:03:12)
Bedell Geraldine. (2006) The Observer. [online] UK. Available at
http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2006/feb/12/architecture.communities
(Accessed 22:03:12)