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Training & Development

Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour.

It improves the employee’s performance on the current job and
prepares them for an intended job.

Development not only improves job performance but also brings

about the growth of the personality. Individuals not only mature
regarding their potential capacities but also become better individuals.

Difference between Training & Development:


1. It’s a short term process.

2. Refers to instruction in technical and mechanical problems
3. Targeted in most cases for non-managerial personnel
4. Specific job related purpose


1. It is a long term educational process.

2. Refers to philosophical and theoretical educational concepts
3. Managerial personnel
4. General knowledge purpose

Purpose of Training:

1. To improve Productivity: Training leads to increased operational productivity

and increased company profit.
2. To improve Quality: Better trained workers are less likely to make operational
3. To improve Organizational Climate: Training leads to improved production
and product quality which enhances financial incentives. This in turn increases the
overall morale of the organization.
4. To increase Health and Safety: Proper training prevents industrial accidents.
5. Personal Growth: Training gives employees a wider awareness, an enlarged skill
base and that leads to enhanced personal growth.

Steps in Training Process:

1. Discovering or Identifying Training needs: A training program is designed to

assist in providing solutions for specific operational problems or to improve
performance of a trainee.
o Organizational determination and Analysis: Allocation of resources
that relate to organizational goal.
o Operational Analysis: Determination of a specific employee behaviour
required for a particular task.
o Man Analysis: Knowledge, attitude and skill one must possess for
attainment of organizational objectives

2. Getting ready for the job: The trainer has to be prepared for the job. And also
who needs to be trained - the newcomer or the existing employee or the
supervisory staff.
3. Preparation of the learner:
o Putting the learner at ease
o Stating the importance and ingredients of the job
o Creating interest
o Placing the learner as close to his normal working position
o Familiarizing him with the equipment, materials and trade terms
4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge: The trainer should clearly tell,
show, illustrate and question in order to convey the new knowledge and
operations. The trainee should be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate
that he really knows and understands the job.
5. Performance Try out: The trainee is asked to go through the job several times.
This gradually builds up his skill, speed and confidence.
6. Follow-up: This evaluates the effectiveness of the entire training effort

The Sequence of Training Program can be put in a Flowchart as below:

Discovering or Identifying Training Needs -> Getting Ready for
the job -> Preparation of Learner (Creating desire) ->
Presentation of Operation & Knowledge -> Performance Try
out -> Follow up and Evaluation
Training Techniques:
An effective training fulfills the following criteria:

1. Adaptation of the technique/method to the learner and the job

2. Provides motivation to the trainee to improve job performance
3. Creates trainee’s active participation in the learning process
4. Provide knowledge of results about attempts to improve

Management development attempts to improve managerial performance by

1. Knowledge
2. Changing attitudes
3. Increasing skills
The major objective of development is managerial effectiveness
through a planned and a deliberate process of learning. This provides
for a planned growth of managers to meet the future organizational
Development Process:

1. Setting Development Objectives: It develops a framework from which executive

need can be determined.
2. Ascertaining Development Needs: It aims at organizational planning & forecast
the present and future growth.
3. Determining Development Needs: This consists of
o Appraisal of present management talent
o Management Manpower Inventory

The above two processes will determine the skill deficiencies that are
relative to the future needs of the organization.

1. Conducting Development Programs: It is carried out on the basis of needs of

different individuals, differences in their attitudes and behaviour, also their
physical, intellectual and emotional qualities. Thus a comprehensive and well
conceived program is prepared depending on the organizational needs and the
time & cost involved.
2. Program Evaluation: It is an attempt to assess the value of training in order to
achieve organizational objectives.


Sound human resource planning
needs to be based on the principles and actions highlighted in the article below. In the
practical world, an external human resource consultant or employment agency plays an
important role in planning the basic requirements for human resource.

1. Human Resource Planning has to be finally integrated into the other areas of the
organizations strategy and planning.
2. Senior management must give a lead in stressing its importance throughout the

3. In larger organizations a central human resource planning unit responsible to senior

management needs to be established . The main objectives of this are to co-ordinate ans
reconcile the demands for human resources from different departments, to standardize
and supervise departmental assessments of requirements and to produce a comprehensive
organizational plan. In practice, the Human Resource and Development department
would normally play a leading role in the task . In smaller organizations these
responsibilities would probably be carried out by a senior manager or even the managing

4. The time span to be covered by the plan needs to be defined. Because of the abiding
problem of making forecasts involving imponderable factors, a compromise is often
adopted in which a general human resource plan is produced to cover a period of several
years. If the system is operated as a continuous, rolling plan, the five year period of
general forecasting is maintained and each first year is used in turn for purpose of review
and revision for the future.

5. The scope and details of the plan have to be determined. For large organizations
separate human resource plans and forecasts may well be needed for various subsidiary
units and functions. In smaller organizations one comprehensive plan will probably
suffice for all employees. Where particular skills or occupations may pose future
problems in recruitment or training, special provisions will be required in human resource

6. Human resource planning must be based on the most comprehensive and accurate
information that is possible. Such personal information is essential in any case for the
effective management of the organization. Details of format and contents will naturally
vary, but they will normally need to include details of age, sex, qualifications and
experience and of trends likely to effect future forecasts, such as labor wastage, charges
in jobs, salaries, etc. Apart from the routine collection of data for personnel records,
special analyses may sometimes be necessary to provide particular information.