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You are on page 1of 32

Chapter 9

Risk Management and Financial Institutions, 4e, Chapter 9, Copyright © John C. Hull 2015

1

**Management of Net Interest Income
**

(Table 9.1, page 159)

**Suppose that the market’s best guess is that future
**

short term rates will equal today’s rates

What would happen if a bank posted the following

rates?

Maturity (yrs)

Deposit Rate

Mortgage

Rate

1

3%

6%

5

3%

6%

How can the bank manage its risks?

Risk Management and Financial Institutions, 4e, Chapter 9, Copyright © John C. Hull 2015

2

**Management of Net Interest
**

Income

**Most banks have asset-liability
**

management groups to manage interest

rate risk

When long term loans are funded with

short term deposits interest rate swaps

can be used to hedge the interest rate risk

But this does not hedge the liquidity risk

Risk Management and Financial Institutions, 4e, Chapter 9, Copyright © John C. Hull 2015

3

Chapter 9. Copyright © John C. 4e. Hull 2015 4 .LIBOR Rates and Swap Rates LIBOR rates are rates with maturities up to one year for interbank transactions where the borrower has a AA-rating Swap Rates are the fixed rates exchanged for floating in an interest rate swap agreement Risk Management and Financial Institutions.

Copyright © John C. Chapter 9.Understanding Swap Rates A bank can Lend to a series AA-rated borrowers for ten successive six month periods Swap the LIBOR interest received for the five-year swap rate This shows that the swap rate has the credit risk corresponding to a series of short-term loans to AA-rated borrowers Risk Management and Financial Institutions. 4e. Hull 2015 5 .

2.Extending the LIBOR Curve Alternative 1: Create a term structure of interest rates showing the rate of interest at which a AA-rated company can borrow now for 1. Copyright © John C. 4e. Chapter 9. 3 … years Alternative 2: Use swap rates so that the term structure represents future short term AA borrowing rates Alternative 2 is the usual approach. Hull 2015 6 . It creates the LIBOR/swap term structure of interest rates Risk Management and Financial Institutions.

Hull 2015 7 .Risk-Free Rate Traders has traditionally assumed that the LIBOR/swap zero curve is the risk-free zero curve The Treasury curve is about 50 basis points below the LIBOR/swap zero curve Treasury rates are considered to be artificially low for a variety of regulatory and tax reasons Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Copyright © John C. Chapter 9. 4e.

S.OIS Rate LIBOR/swap rates were clearly not “risk-free” during the crisis As a result there has been a trend toward using overnight indexed swap (OIS) rates as proxies for the risk-free rate instead of LIBOR and swap rates The OIS rate is the rate swapped for the geometric average of overnight borrowing rates. Copyright © John C. Chapter 9. Hull 2015 8 . 4e. (In the U. the relevant overnight rate is the fed funds rate) Risk Management and Financial Institutions.

Copyright © John C. 4e.3-month LIBOR-OIS Spread 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Chapter 9. Hull 2015 9 .

Hull 2015 10 .Repo Rate A financial institution owning securities agrees to sell them today for a certain price and buy them back in the future for a slightly higher price It is obtaining a secured l.oan The interest on the loan is the difference between the two prices Risk Management and Financial Institutions. 4e. Chapter 9. Copyright © John C.

Hull 2015 11 . Copyright © John C. 4e. Chapter 9.Duration (page 164) Duration of a bond that provides cash flow ci at time ti is ci e yti ti i 1 B n where B is its price and y is its yield (continuously compounded) This leads to B Dy B Risk Management and Financial Institutions.

933 0.0 5 4.047 0. Chapter 9.066 2. page 166) Time (yrs) Cash Flow ($) PV ($) Weight Time × Weight 0.5 5 3.000 2.042 0.256 0. (Table 9. Copyright © John C.653 Risk Management and Financial Institutions.778 2.176 0.709 0.0 105 73.213 1.3.050 0. Hull 2015 12 .0 5 3.025 1.098 3.5 5 4.044 0.704 0.333 Total 130 94. 4e. Bond yield=12%.Calculation of Duration for a 3-year bond paying a coupon 10%.039 0.083 2.435 0.5 5 4.047 1.

Copyright © John C. 4e.Duration Continued When the yield y is expressed with compounding m times per year BDy B 1 y m The expression D 1 y m is referred to as the “modified duration” Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Chapter 9. Hull 2015 13 .

Copyright © John C. 4e. Chapter 9. Hull 2015 14 .Convexity (Page 168-169) The convexity of a bond is defined as n 2 yt i ci t i e 2 1 d B i 1 C 2 B dy B which leads to B 1 2 Dy C (y ) B 2 Risk Management and Financial Institutions.

Chapter 9.Portfolios Duration and convexity can be defined similarly for portfolios of bonds and other interest-rate dependent securities The duration of a portfolio is the weighted average of the durations of the components of the portfolio. 4e. Hull 2015 15 . Similarly for convexity. Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Copyright © John C.

they do not measure the effect of non-parallel shifts Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Hull 2015 16 . 4e. Copyright © John C. Chapter 9.What Duration and Convexity Measure Duration measures the effect of a small parallel shift in the yield curve Duration plus convexity measure the effect of a larger parallel shift in the yield curve However.

4e. Chapter 9.Other Measures Dollar Duration: Product of the portfolio value and its duration Dollar Convexity: Product of convexity and value of the portfolio Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Copyright © John C. Hull 2015 17 .

Starting Zero Curve (Figure 8.3. Hull 2015 18 . page 173) 6 5 Zero Rate (%) 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Maturity (yrs) Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Chapter 9. 4e. Copyright © John C.

4e.Parallel Shift 6 5 Zero Rate (%) 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Maturity (yrs) Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Chapter 9. Hull 2015 19 . Copyright © John C.

Partial Duration A partial duration calculates the effect on a portfolio of a change to just one point on the zero curve Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Chapter 9. 4e. Hull 2015 20 . Copyright © John C.

4e. Hull 2015 21 . Copyright © John C. Chapter 9.4. page 173) 6 5 Zero Rate (%) 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Maturity (yrs) Risk Management and Financial Institutions.Partial Duration continued (Figure 9.

9 1.2 0. 4e.5. page 173) Maturity yrs 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 Total Partial duration 0. Hull 2015 22 .1 −3.2 Risk Management and Financial Institutions.6 2.0 0.6 0. Copyright © John C.0 −2. Chapter 9.Example (Table 9.

4e. to define a rotation we could change the 1-. − e. and 10-year maturities by −3e. 7. 2-. e. Chapter 9. 5-.Partial Durations Can Be Used to Investigate the Impact of Any Yield Curve Change Any yield curve change can be defined in terms of changes to individual points on the yield curve For example. − 2e. 3e. 6e Risk Management and Financial Institutions. 4-. Copyright © John C. 0. 3-. Hull 2015 23 .

5. page 174) 7 6 Zero Rate (%) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Maturity (yrs) Risk Management and Financial Institutions. 4e. Copyright © John C.Combining Partial Durations to Create Rotation in the Yield Curve (Figure 9. Chapter 9. Hull 2015 24 .

Chapter 9. Hull 2015 25 .2 (3e) 0. Copyright © John C.0e Risk Management and Financial Institutions.Impact of Rotation The impact of the rotation on the proportional change in the value of the portfolio in the example is [0. 4e.0) (6e)] 25.6 (2e) (3.

Hull 2015 26 . page 175) Bucket the yield curve and investigate the effect of a small change to each bucket 6 5 Zero Rate (%) 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Maturity (yrs) Risk Management and Financial Institutions.Alternative approach (Figure 9. 4e. Copyright © John C. Chapter 9.6.

Hull 2015 27 . 4e. Copyright © John C. Chapter 9.Principal Components Analysis Attempts to identify standard shifts (or factors) for the yield curve so that most of the movements that are observed in practice are combinations of the standard shifts Risk Management and Financial Institutions.

8% of variance explained) The third factor is a bowing (1.3% of variance explained) Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Copyright © John C. Chapter 9.8 on page 176) The first factor is a roughly parallel shift (90.9% of variance explained) The second factor is a twist 6.Results (Tables 9.7 and 9. Hull 2015 28 . 4e.

Copyright © John C.7 page 178) 0.2 Maturity (years) 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -0.4 PC2 -0. Chapter 9.The Three Factors (Figure 9. 4e.6 0.2 PC1 -0.8 Factor Loading 0.4 0. Hull 2015 29 .6 PC3 Risk Management and Financial Institutions.

Copyright © John C.Alternatives for Calculating Multiple Deltas to Reflect Non-Parallel Shifts in Yield Curve Shift individual points on the yield curve by one basis point (the partial duration approach) Shift segments of the yield curve by one basis point (the bucketing approach) Shift quotes on instruments used to calculate the yield curve Calculate deltas with respect to the shifts given by a principal components analysis. Hull 2015 30 . Chapter 9. Risk Management and Financial Institutions. 4e.

Gamma for Interest Rates Gamma has the form 2P xi x j where xi and xj are yield curve shifts considered for delta To avoid information overload one possibility is consider only i = j Another is to consider only parallel shifts in the yield curve and calculate convexity Another is to consider the first two or three types of shift given by a principal components analysis Risk Management and Financial Institutions. Chapter 9. Copyright © John C. 4e. Hull 2015 31 .

(However implied volatilities for long-dated options change by less than those for short-dated options. Hull 2015 32 . 4e.Vega for Interest Rates One possibility is to make the same change to all interest rate implied volatilities. Copyright © John C. Chapter 9.) Another is to do a principal components analysis on implied volatility changes for the instruments that are traded Risk Management and Financial Institutions.

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