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PCB1043

Tutorial 2
ENERGY TRANSFER BY HEAT, WORK & MASS
1. Electric power is to be generated by installing a hydraulic turbine-generator at
a site 160 m below the free surface of a large water reservoir that can supply
water at a rate of 3500 kg/s steadily. Determine the power generation potential.
Assumptions 1 The elevation of the reservoir remains constant. 2 The mechanical energy of
water at the turbine exit is negligible.
Analysis The total mechanical energy water in a reservoir possesses is equivalent to the
potential energy of water at the free surface, and it can be converted to work entirely.
Therefore, the power potential of water is its potential energy, which is gz per unit mass, and
for a given mass flow rate.

m
1kJ/kg
emech pe gz 9.8 2 160m
1.574 kJ/kg
2
2
s
1000 m / s
Wmax m emech 3500kg/s 1.574 kJ/kg 5509 kW

2. At a certain location, wind is blowing steadily at 10 m/s. Determine the mechanical energy of
air per unit mass and the power generation potential of a wind turbine with 60-m-diameter
blades at that location. Take the air density to be 1.25 kg/m3.
Assumptions The wind is blowing steadily at a constant uniform velocity.
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Properties The density of air is given to be = 1.25 kg/m .


Analysis Kinetic energy is the only form of mechanical energy the wind possesses,
and it can be converted to work entirely. Therefore, the power potential of the wind
is its kinetic energy, which is V2/2 per unit mass, and V2/2 for a given mass flow,
rate:

emech ke

2
V 2 100m/s 1 kJ/kg


1000 m 2 / s 2 0.05 kJ/kg
2
2

m VA V

Wmax m emech

D 2
602 m 2
1.25kg/m 3 10m/s
35,340 kg/s
4
4
0.05 kJ/kg 35,340kg/s 1,770 kW

Therefore, 1770 kW of actual power can be generated by this wind turbine at the stated conditions.
Discussion The power generation of a wind turbine is proportional to the cube of the wind velocity, and thus the
power generation will change strongly with the wind conditions.

3. Consider a river flowing toward a lake at an average velocity of 3 m/s at a rate of 500 m3/s at
a location 90 m above the lake surface. Determine the total mechanical energy of the river
water per unit mass and the power generation potential of the entire river at that location.
Assumptions 1 The elevation given is the elevation of the free surface of the
river. 2 The velocity given is the average velocity. 3 The mechanical energy
of water at the turbine exit is negligible.

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Properties We take the density of water to be = 1000 kg/m .


Analysis Noting that the sum of the flow energy and the potential energy is constant for a given fluid body, we
can take the elevation of the entire river water to be the elevation of the free surface, and ignore the flow
energy. Then the total mechanical energy of the river water per unit mass becomes

emech

3 m/s 2 1 kJ/kg
V 2
m

pe ke
9.81 2 90m
1000 m 2 / s 2 0.887 kJ/kg
2
2
s

The power generation potential of the river water is obtained by multiplying the total mechanical energy by the
mass flow rate,

m V 1000 kg/m 3 500 m 3 /s 500,000 kg/s

Wmax m emech 500,000kg/s 0.887 kJ/kg 444 MW


Therefore, 444 MW of power can be generated from this river as it discharges into the lake if its power potential
can be recovered completely.
Discussion Note that the kinetic energy of water is negligible compared to the potential energy, and it can be
ignored in the analysis. Also, the power output of an actual turbine will be less than 444 MW because of losses
and inefficiencies.

4. A. In what forms can energy cross the boundaries of a closed system?


Energy can cross the boundaries of a closed system in two forms: heat and work.

B. When is the energy crossing the boundaries of a closed system heat and when is it work?
The form of energy that crosses the boundary of a closed system because of a temperature difference is heat; all
other forms are work.

C. What is an adiabatic process? What is an adiabatic system?


An adiabatic process is a process during which there is no heat transfer. A system that does not exchange any
heat with its surroundings is an adiabatic system.

D.A gas in a pistoncylinder device is compressed, and as a result its temperature rises. Is
this a heat or work interaction?
This is a work interaction, as the energy given to the system is through the compression work. Increment of
temperature is a result of converting work into internal energy of gas.

5. A man with a mass of 80 kg is pushing a cart that has a mass of 45 kg with its contents up a
ramp that is inclined at an angle of 10 from the horizontal. Determine the work needed to
move along this ramp a distance of 30 m considering (a) the man (b) the cart and its contents
as the system. Express your answer in both N.m and kJ.
Analysis (a) Considering the man as the system, letting l be the displacement along the ramp, and letting be
the inclination angle of the ramp,

W Fl sin mgl sin 80 45( kg ) 9.81 m/s2 30m sin(10) 6388 N.m 6.388 kJ
This is work that the man must do to raise the weight of the cart and contents, plus his own weight, a distance of
l sin.
(b) Applying the same logic to the cart and its contents gives

W Fl sin mgl sin 45( kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 30m sin(10) 2300 N.m 2.3 kJ

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6. The force F required to compress a spring a distance x is given by F F0


= kx, where k is the spring constant and F0 is the preload. Determine the
work required to compress a spring whose spring constant is k =
3.5kN/cm a distance of one cm starting from its free length where F0= 0
kN. Express answer in both N.m and kJ.
Analysis Since there is no preload, F = kx. Substituting this into the work expression
gives
2

W Fds kxds k xds


1

k 2
2
( x2 x12 ) 3.5kN / cm 1cm 0
2

1001mcm 35 N.m 0.35 kJ

7. A damaged 1200-kg car is being towed by a truck. Neglecting the friction, air drag, and
rolling resistance, determine the extra power required (a) for constant velocity on a level
road, (b) for constant velocity of 50 km/h on a 30 (from horizontal) uphill road, and (c) to
accelerate on a level road from stop to 90 km/h in 12 s.
Assumptions Air drag, friction, and rolling resistance are negligible.
Analysis The total power required for each case is the sum of the rates of
changes in potential and kinetic energies. That is,

Wtotal W a W g
a) Zero
=0, Thus:
b)

Wtotal W g mg ( z2 z1 ) / t mg z t mgVz mgV sin

1hr
Wtotal 1200kg 9.81 m/s 2 50km/hr
sin30 81.7kW
3600s

c)

=0, Thus:

90,000 m 2

2
2

Wtotal Wg 1 2 m V2 V1 / t 1 2 1200kg
0 / 12 s 31.3kW
3600 s

8. An adiabatic closed system is raised 100 m at a location where the gravitational acceleration
is 9 m/s2. Determine the energy change of this system, in kJ/kg.
Analysis Since the only property that changes for this system is the elevation; only the potential energy will
change. The change in the specific energy is then

m
1 kJ/kg
pe gz 9. 2 100m 0
0.9 kJ/kg
2
2
s
1000 m / s
9. A classroom that normally contains 40 people is to be air-conditioned with window airconditioning units of 5-kW cooling capacity. A person at rest may be assumed to dissipate
heat at a rate of about 360 kJ/h. There are 10 light bulbs in the room, each with a rating of
100 W. The rate of heat transfer to the classroom through the walls and the windows is
estimated to be 15,000 kJ/h. If the room air is to be maintained at a constant temperature of
21C, determine the number of window air-conditioning units required.

PCB1043
Assumptions There are no heat dissipating equipment (such as computers, TVs, or ranges) in the room.
Analysis The total cooling load of the room is determined from
Q cooling Qlights Q people Q heat gain

Where:
Q
10 100 W 1 kW
lights

hr
Q people 40 360 kJ/hr
4 kW
3600 s
hr
Q heat gain 15,000 kJ/hr
4.17 kW
3600 s
Substituting,
Q
1 4 4.17 9.17 kW
cooling

Thus the number of air-conditioning units required is


9.17 kW
1.83 2 units
5 kW/unit

10. An automobile moving through the air causes the air velocity (measured with respect to the
car) to decrease and fill a larger flow channel. The automobile has an effective flow channel
area of 3 m2. The car is traveling at 90 km/h on a day when the barometric pressure is 70 cm
of mercury and the temperature is 20C. Behind the car, the air velocity (with respect to the
car) is measured to be 82 km/h, and the temperature is 20C. Determine the power required
to move this car through the air and the area of the effective flow channel behind the car.
Properties Gas constant for air is R = 0.287 kPa.m3/kg.K
Analysis: The absolute pressure of the air is,
0.1333 kPa
93.31 kPa
P 700 mmHg
1 mmHg
And the specific volume of the air is,

RT 0.287 kPa.m 3 /kg.K 293 K

0.9012 m 3 /kg
P
93.31 kPa

The mass flow rate through the control volume is,


1km/hr
3m 2 90 km/hr

AV
3.6m/s 83.22 kg/s
m

0.9012 m 3 /kg
The power requirement is,
2

V 2 V22
90 / 3.6 m/s 82 / 3.6 m/s
W m 1
83.22 kg/s
2
2

1 kJ/kg

4.42 kW
2 2
1000 m /s

The outlet area is,


m

A2V2
m 83.22 kg/s 0.9012 m 3 /kg
A2

3.29 m 2

V2
1km/hr
82 km/hr

3.6m/s