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Hamid Farid

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Cinematographers remain virtually unknown outside the motion-picture industry (11)
___________ their contribution sometimes matches that of the director (12) ___________.
Although the director has ultimate control over the visual image, the cinematographer actually
records that image on film, (13) _________ the director's ideas and creating the atmosphere
and the look of the film. The association between the cinematographers and the processing
laboratory is also of highest importance because the cinematographer often spends hours (14)
__________ after shooting, checking the negative. On most feature films a camera team, (15)
___________ of a director of photography, cameraman, and assistant cameraman, shares the
11- 1) despite
2) since
3) even though
4) such as
12- 1) with importance 2) and Its importance 3) is Important
4) of importance
5) in importance
13- 1) he translates
2) translating
3) translates
4) to translate
14- 1) there
2) and
3) for them
4) and right
15- 1) often consisting
2) it often consists
3) that consisting often
4) which is often consisted

The extensive fossil record of genera and species is testimony that dinosaurs were diverse
animals, (11) ---------- lifestyles and adaptations. Their remains (12) ---------- in sedimentary rock
layers (strata) dating to the Late Triassic Period (227 million to 206 million years ago). The
abundance of their fossilized bones is substantive proof (13) ---------- dinosaurs were the
dominant form of terrestrial animal life during the Mesozoic Era (248 million to 65 million years
ago). It is likely that the known remains (14) --------- a very' small fraction (probably less than
0.0001 percent) of all the individual dinosaurs (15) ----------.

(1) and widely various

(3) with wide varieties
(1) found
(2) have found
(1) whether
(2) that
(1) representing
(3) a representation of
(1) were living once
(3) that lived once

(2) and varying with wide

(4) with widely varying
(3) are found
(4) that are found
(3) when
(4) if
(2) represent
(4) representative of
(2) once that they lived
(4) that once lived

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Football is (11) __________ ball game in the world and the most popular as a spectator sport.
The simplicity of the rules and the fact that it can be played practically everywhere (12)
__________ to this popularity. It is played on all continents and in more than 200 countries. At
the 2000 census (13) __________ by the world governing body, the Federation Internationale
de Football Association (FIFA), (14) __________ some 30 million registered players at all levels.
In addition, there are (15) __________ casual players involved in pickup games in streets, on
parking lots, on school playgrounds, in parks, and even, as in Brazil, on beaches.
11- 1) the widely most played
2) the most widely played
3) played most widely
4) played the most widely
12- 1)
be contributing
2) will
its importance
4) will
of importance
4) has
2) had
such as
13- 1)
2) was taken
4) to be taken
2) taken
4) that
and right
14- 1) were
2) there were
3) they were
4) which were
15- 1) many million
2) many of millions
3) many millions of
4) many millions

Later moralists, however-for instance, the 18th and 19th-century British utilitarians Jeremy
Bentham and John Stuart Mill-defined happiness (11) ---------- pleasure and the absence of pain.
Others, still (12) ---------- happiness as a state of mind, have tried to distinguish it from pleasure
on (13) ---------- that it is mental, not bodily; enduring, not transitory; (14) ---------- rational, not
emotional. But these distinctions are open to question. A temporal dimension was added to
eudaemonism in ancient times by Solon, who said, Call no man happy till he is dead, (15) --------- that happiness and its opposite pertain, in their broadest sense, to the full course of ones
life. The contemporary moralists have tended to avoid the term.

(1) such as
(1) regarding
(1) the ground
(1) but
(1) and suggesting

(2) like
(2) have regarded
(2) the grounds
(2) neither
(2) who suggested

(3) for example

(3) regard
(3) a ground
(3) and
(3) suggesting

(4) as
(4) who regards
(4) grounds
(4) then
(4) by suggesting

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The ancient Romans built an extensive and (11) ---------- to serve their needs. The Roman
road-building era began in 312 BC. The roads provided economic and military access from Rome
to distant parts of its far-flung empire. The first road (12) ---------- the Appian Way, which led,
from Rome to Brundisium (now Brindisi), a port (13) ---------- is now southern Italy. The Appian
Way was the main route to Greece, and it ran over 560 km (350 mi). A second road, from Rome
to Naples, provided the first stage of the route (14) ---------- by troops headed to Africa. Roman
advances in road-building techniques included preparation of foundation soils and base
courses, brick paving, and, (15) ----------, provision for adequate drainage.

(1) durable road of systems

(3) durable system of roads
(1) constructed was
(3) that was constructed
(1) which it is
(2) in what
(1) was used
(2) using
(1) most importantly
(3) the most important

(2) system of durable roads

(4) roads of durable system
(2) was to construct
(4) was constructed
(3) where is
(4) in which it
(3) be used
(4) used
(2) most important
(4) the more important


Deficiency diseases are usually associated with lack of vitamins or minerals. The effects of a
vitamin or mineral deficiency on the body depend on the function of the particular nutrient (11)
----------. For example, vitamin A is important for good vision, and severe deficiency of this
vitamin may cause blindness. (12) ---------- some vitamins and minerals have many functions,
(13) ---------- nutritional deficiencies can therefore have wide-ranging effects on health.
Diets that lack a wide variety of foods may result in vitamin deficiency diseases. For example,
in countries (14) ---------- eat maize as the staple food and only few other foods, diets may lack
niacin, a B vitamin. Such diets may cause pellagra, a deficiency disease (15) ---------- by
dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia.

(1) lacking
(2) to lack
(1) Hence
(2) However
(1) which prolonged
(3) to be prolonging
(1) where people
(3) that their people
(1) characterizing
(3) is characterized

(3) is lacking
(3) Because
(2) they prolong
(4) prolonged
(2) in those people
(4) there people
(2) characterized
(4) they characterize

(4) lacked
(4) Then

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Mass communication is the sending of messages through the mass media of television, radio,
newspapers, and the cinema. Mass communication (11) ---------- a mass of people, that is, a
large number of "receivers". It is an expensive business (12) ---------- can usually only be
undertaken by large companies with large amounts of money (13) ----------, such as television
and radio companies, publishing houses, and film studios. The technology used is costly and
complex, and can rapidly become (14) ---------- date. Mass communication has arisen mainly in
the 20th century. It depends upon (15) ---------- a certain degree of education. This century has
seen the invention of radio and television, and the growth of newspaper and magazine

(1) aims to
(1) so
(1) spends
(1) to
(1) public having

(2) has aim at

(2) and
(2) spending it
(2) out for a
(2) public to have

(3) is aimed at
(3) that it
(3) to spend
(3) for the
(3) the public to have

(4) has aim to

(4) which it
(4) for spending
(4) out of
(4) the public having

Supercomputers are the largest, fastest, and most powerful computers. There are only a few
hundred of them in the world. They consist of several processors, (11) ---------- can work on a
different part of a task (12) ---------- same time and at the rate of millions of instructions (13) --------- second. They are used for extremely complicated calculations. Weather forecasting, where
a mass of data has (14) ---------- quickly, is a good example of where a supercomputer can be
helpful. Data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, rainfall, and cloud cover is
collected from (15) ---------- sites, and the computer sorts it, compares it with data in its
memory, and makes predictions.

(1) that each

(1) at
(1) in
(1) to process
(1) a large number of
(2) large number

(2) which each

(2) for
(2) per
(2) processed

(3) each of which

(4) each of those
(3) at the
(4) for the
(3) at
(4) via
(3) being processed
(4) to be processed
(2) great number
(4) the large number of

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A map is always smaller than the real world which it represents. The difference (11) ---------between the map and the Earth's surface (12) ---------- a scale ratio. For example, the scale ratio
1:50,000 states that one unit of measurement on the map is (13) ---------- fifty thousand such
units on the ground. Therefore, one centimeter on the map amounts to 50,000 centimeters
(500 meters) (14) -------- the ground.
A map at a large scale, (15) ---------- 1:10,000, will show a small area of the Earth's surface in
considerable detail. A small-scale map, will show a much larger area, but in much less detail.

(1) in size
(1) expresses
(3) is expressed by
(1) equally to
(1) in
(1) similar

(2) as size

(2) equally with

(2) on
(2) such as

(3) from sizes

(4) for sizes
(2) is expressing
(4) will be expressed by
(3) equal with
(4) equal to
(3) over
(4) under
(3) being like
(4) the same as

Diet is the daily amount of food and drink that one eats. In order to grow and function
properly, the body needs certain essential nutrients. These nutrients are supplied through the
diet, and a nutritionally adequate diet (11) ---------- provides these nutrients in the specific
amounts required by the individual. An adequate diet (12) ---------- a variety of foods, for there
is no single food, nor even any combination of a few foods, (13) ---------- adequate amounts of
all the essential nutrients. One of the basic principles of diet therapy is that any modification of
the normal diet should relate to a specific physiological condition. (14) ---------- a single diet may
then be used to treat any disease in which the same physiological condition exists. A diet
restricted in sodium, for example, may be prescribed for a person with any disease (15) ---------there is an abnormal retention of fluid in the body, since sodium normally aids in the retention
of fluid in the body tissues.

(1) that
(1) makes up
(1) supply
(1) Accordingly
(1) which

(2) which
(2) is made up
(2) that supplies
(2) Afterwards
(2) that

(3) is one that

(3) makes up of
(3) that supply
(3) By contrast
(3) in which

(4) is the one which

it is made up of
(4) for supplying
(4) Despite that
(4) in that

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Water which has fallen as rain is disposed of in three ways. Some of it evaporates, with the
help of the sun and wind, and returns to the atmosphere. Some gathers to form a stream. (11) --------- sinks into the soil, but much of it appears again in springs and finds its way to the
surface streams. (12) ---------- is this water from springs that keeps rivers flowing long after the
rain has stopped. Melting snow and glaciers are other sources of river water. The streams
formed in all these ways join to form rivers (13) ---------- they are the tributaries. The area of
land from which the water of a river and its tributaries is drawn (14) ---------- the basin of the
river. Some rivers have very large basins while others of (15) ---------- drain much smaller basins.
Thus although the Nile and the Amazon are about the same length, the basin of the Amazon is
more than twice as big as that of the Nile.

(1) Water
(1) it
(1) that
(1) calling
(1) lengthy equal

(2) Another
(2) there
(2) which
(2) to call
(2) equal length

(3) The rest

(3) what
(3) in that
(3) is called
(3) lengthy equally

(4) The other

(4) if this
(4) of which
(4) being called
(4) equally lengthy

The job of the scientist has always been to search out explanations for things that happen in the
Universe. Such (11) ---------- events or happenings are often known as phenomena. The simplest
science arose from observing phenomena (12) ---------- questions to find out why they occurred.
Before the 17th century scientists generally sought answers to these questions by reading what
somebody (13) ---------- about them, or by consulting some known and respected man of
learning. Explanations of phenomena gained (14) ---------- way were usually just guesses,
although occasionally the guesses were right. (15) ---------- a few exceptions, scientists did not
try things out to see what happened. One major exception was the Greek mathematician
Archimedes, who in the 3rd century BC discovered the famous principle relating to relative

(1) natural occurring

(3) natural occurrence
(1) to ask
(2) and asked
(1) has written
(2) would write
(1) on this
(2) on the
(1) With only
(2) Only by

(2) naturally occurring

(4) naturally occurrence
(3) and asking
(4) by asking
(3) was writing
(4) had written
(3) in the
(4) in this
(3) In only
(4) Only for