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Milestones of Growth

Construction started

1962

Inauguration of Boiler Plant

1965

Commercial production commenced

1966

First 60 MW boiler order

1966

First 210 MW boiler order

1973

First 500 MW boiler order

1984

Crossing 1000 Cr turnover

1995-96

1500 Cr turnover

1997-98

2201 Cr turnover

2003-04

3536 Cr turnover

2005-06 (786Million US $)

4575 Cr turnover

2006-07 (1116 Million US $)

5554 Cr turnover

2007-08 (1322 Million US $)

7413 Cr turnover

2008-09 (1765 Million US $)

10009 Cr turnover

2009-10 (2383 Million US $)

12399 Cr turnover

2010-11 (2755Million US $)

BHELS Contribution to Indian Power Sector

Practically every 3 houses out of 4 in India


are supplied power, generated from BHEL sets
Over 1,15,000 MW added by BHEL in domestic and international segments

Steam Generators Exported


Customer

Unit

Size

No

EEA-Egypt

Al-Arish TPS

12 T/h

ECT-Libya

Tripoli West TPS

45 T/h

PT IBR-Indonesia

Bharat Rayon

75 / 80 T/h

PT IBR

Jawa bharat Indonesia

120 T/h

PT. ADARO

Indoesia

126 T/h

KONIAMBO-Nickel SAS

Koniambo Nickel SAS


New Caledonia

405 T/h

NEB-Malaysia

Sultan Ismail TPS

30 MW

EEA-Egypt

Al-Arish TPS

30 MW

NEB-Malaysia

Tuanku Jaafar TPS

60 MW

NEB-Malaysia

Tuanku Jaafar TPS

120 MW

NEB-Malaysia

Prai TPS

120 MW

NEB-Malaysia

Pasirgudang TPS

120 MW

ECT-Libya

Tripoli West TPS

120 MW

NEC-Sudan

Kosti TPS

125 MW

MAYLAN Intra Ltd

Senegal / Africa

125 MW

PEEGT

Tishreen,Syria

200 MW

3/3

Total 36

Trend in unit sizes & Cycle parameters


SHO Pressure
(kg/cm2(a)

SHO/RHO
Temperature
(Deg.C)

60 / 70 MW

96

540

1965

110 / 120 MW

139

540/540

1966

200 / 210 MW

137 / 156

540/540

1972

250 MW

156

540/540

1991

500 MW

179
179

540/540
540/568

1979
1985

600 MW

179

540/540
540/568

2008

660 MW

256

568/596

2008

700 MW

256

568/596

2010

800 MW

256

568/596

2008

Unit Size

Year of
Introduction

Technology Development Over The Years


1960s

Boiler design as per Czechoslovakian technology, 30 MW, 60 MW

1970s

Technology from Combustion Engineering,


110 MW, 210 MW Low Pressure Steam cycle

USA;

Unit

capacities

1980s
Pressure ratings increased to achieve higher plant efficiency;
Unitcapacity increased to 500 MW; Controlled circulation introduced
for very high pressures
Firing system design for Low NOx emission
Deteriorating coal properties led to increased tube erosion and
performance deviations; units redesigned for inferior coals. Tower type
boilers introduced for highly erosive coals

Technology Development Over The Years


1990s
250 MW units developed
130 MW unit firing Steel plant by- product gas
(Corex gas)
Boiler efficiency improvement by designing for
low exit gas temperatures

Technology Development Over The Years


2000s
Technology tied up for Super critical steam generators
with Alstom.
IT

based

Soot

Blowing

Optimisation

developed.
Designs for firing Washed Coals developed.

System

BASIC DATA FOR DESIGN


BOILER PARAMTERS
FUEL DATA
SITE DATA

Heat balance diagram (270 MW)


150.0

816.4

796.486

537.0

HPT

255.0

246.0

796.486

BOILER

IPT

39.56

736.6

35.62

844.4

717.87

345.1

717.87

537.0

LPT

0.1033

573.1

552.286

(0.9227)

D
HPH

LPH

HPH

LPH

LPH

LPH

CP

FP

ata

kCal/kg

t/h

deg. c (x)

Rankine cycle



The Carnot Cycle is theoretically most efficient, but it is having practical difficulties.
For steam power plant, practical thermal cycle was suggested by Rankine, called Ideal cycle or
Rankine cycle.

T
4

T1

p1

3
T2

p2 2

3-3 BFP raises pressure from p2 to


p1
3-4 Heating In feed heaters &
economizer
4 -1 Heating In boiler
1-2 Work done in Turbine from p1
S2
to p
2-3 Heat reduction in condenser

FUEL ANALYSIS COAL

Fuels Handled
Coal / Oil / Natural Gas in any combination
Lignite
Blast Furnace Gas / Coke Oven Gas / Corex Gas
Carbon Monoxide / Tail gas
Asphalt
Black Liquor
Bagasse
Rice Husk
Washery Rejects
Wheat / Rice straw

COAL PROPERTIES AFFECTING BOILER DESIGN


TYPE OF COAL ( ANTHRACITE, BITUMINOUS, LIGNITE)
HIGHER HEATING VALUE
VOLATILE MATTER
MOISTURE CONTENT
ASH CONTENT
ASH CHARACTERISTICS
HARD GROVE INDEX ( HGI )

CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL INDIAN COAL


HIGH ASH

(35 50%)

HIGHLY ABRASIVE

(55 65%)

MEDIUM MOISTURE

(10 15%)

MEDIUM VOLATILE MATTER

(18 24%)

LOW HEATING VALUE (HHV kcal / kg)

(3000 3500)

LOW SULPHUR

(0.2 0.5%)

FURNACE HEAT LOADINGS


 EPRS LOADING
 PLAN AREA LOADING
 VOLUMETRIC LOADING
 BURNER ZONE HEAT RELEASE RATE

Salient Details of
Select Steam
Generators

http://www.bhel.com/

September 5, 2012

Vijayawada Thermal Power Station 2x210 MW


Customer

Andhra pradesh
Electric Company,
India

Parameters at SHO/RHO
Steam flow
Pressure
Temperature

http://www.bhel.com/

t/h

700/580

Kg/Sq.cm(g) 137/24.5
Deg.C

540/540

Fuel

Coal

Date of commissioning

November 1979

Salient features

Two Pass, Natural


Circulation, Balanced Draft ,
Tilting Tangential Firing

September 5, 2012

Pasirgudang TPS 2 x 120 MW


Customer

National Electricity Board,


Malaysia

Parameters at
SHO/RHO
Steam flow
Pressure
Temperature

t/h

389.9/329.4

Kg/Sq.cm(g) 130.9/31.55

Fuel

Deg.C
Oil / gas

540/540

Date of commg.

January 1982

Salient features

Box Type
Natural Circulation
Balanced Draft
Tilting Tangential Firing

http://www.bhel.com/

September 5, 2012

Tripoli (W) TPS 2 x 120 MW


Customer
Parameters at
SHO/RHO
Steam flow
Pressure
Temperature
Fuel

Electricity Corporation, Tripoli,


Libya
t/h

375 / 325

Kg/Sq.cm(g) 132 / 25
Deg.C

540/ 540

Oil / Gas

Date of
Commissioning

March 1980

Salient features

Box Type
Natural Circulation
Pressurised Furnace
Tilting Tangential Firing

http://www.bhel.com/

September 5, 2012

Kosti Power Project, Sudan - 4 x 125 MW


Customer
Parameters at
SHO/RHO
Steam flow
Pressure
Temperature
Fuel
Date of
Commissioning
Salient features

National Electricity
Corporation, Sudan

t/h
Kg/Sq.cm(g)
Deg.C
Crude Oil

415 / 329
131 / 31
540 / 540

Under Engineering
Box Type
Natural Circulation
Pressurised Furnace
Tilting Tangential Firing

CONTROLLED CIRCULATION
STEAM GENERATORS

Trombay TPS Unit 5 - 500 MW


Customer

Tata Electric Company,


India

Parameters at
SHO/RHO
Steam flow
Pressure
Temp.
Fuel

t/h

1672/1423

Kg/sq.Cm(g) 178 / 38.5


Deg.C
541 / 541
Coal / Oil / Gas

Date of
commg.

January 1984

Salient
features

Two Pass
Controlled Circulation
Balanced Draft
Tilting Tangential Firing

http://www.bhel.com/

September 5, 2012

Trombay TPS Unit 6 - 500 MW


CUSTOMER
PARAMETERS AT
SHO/RHO
Steam flow
Pressure

Tata Electric Company, India

t/h

1614 / 1490

Kg/sq.Cm(g) 178 / 41.7


Deg.C

541 / 568

Temperature
FUEL

Oil / Gas Coal (Future)

DATE OF
COMMISSIONING

March 1990

SALIENT
FEATURES

Two Pass
Controlled Circulation With
Rifle Water Wall Tubes
Balanced Draft
Tilting Tangential Firing

http://www.bhel.com/

September 5, 2012

500 MW Oil & Gas fired Boiler - Typical Arrangement


Parameters at
SHO / RHO
Steam flow

t/h

1700 / 1455

Pressure

Kg/Cm2(g)

178 / 37.4

Temperature

540 / 540

Fuel

Oil / Gas

Salient Features

Close coupled
Controlled Circulation With
Rifle Water Wall Tubes
Pressurised Furnace
Tilting Tangential Firing

http://www.bhel.com/

September 5, 2012

Once -thru Boiler-Furnace Wall

500 MW TALCHER NTPC


(Sub critical once-through)

IMPLICATIONS OF HIGHER STEAM PAREMTERS ON


BOILER DESIGN
BOILER TYPE
MATERIALS
RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY

NEED FOR PROPER MATERIAL SELECTION

PROPER SELECTION ENSURE SAFE - METAL TEMPERATURE


UNDER ALL - OPERATING CONDITIONS
PROPER SELECTION HELPS IN REDUCING THE INSTALLATION
COST.


SELECTION OF AUXILIARIES
AIRHEATERS
FANS
MILLS
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

AIRHEATER PERFORMANCE VARIATIONS


Fuel moisture
Airheater leakage
Airheater seals
Gas temperature leaving the airheater

MILL PERFORMANCE VARIATIONS

MILL OUTLET / INLET

TEMPERTURE

FUEL QUALITY LIKE MOISTURE /

HGI / HHV

FAN PERFORMANCE
LOADING OF FANS
POWER CONSUMPTION

ESP PERFORMANCE VARIATIONS

DUE TO AIR HEATER LEAKAGE


DUE TO HIGHER GAS TEMPERATURE LEAVING AIR HEATERS

MAJOR VARIABLES AFFECTING THE BOILER


PERFORMANCE
EFFECT OF BOILER PARAMETERS
FUEL ANALYSIS VARIATIONS
VARIATIONS IN AUXILIARY
EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE VIZ .,
MILLS, AH,FANS

OPERATING VARIABLES AFFECTING SLAGGING


EXCESS AIR
DISTRIBUTION OF AIR
DISTRIBUTION OF COAL
FINENESS OF COAL
NUMBER OF OPERATING BURNER ELEVATIONS
FREQUENCY OF WALL BLOWER OPERATION
LOADING OF BLOWER

OPERATING CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE


PERFORMANCE
LOW PRESSURE OPERATION
HIGHER EXCESS AIR
HP HEATER NOT IN SERVICE
GRID FLUCTUATIONS

FUEL QUALITY AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE


SLAGGING
FOT VARIATION
SH / RH SPRAY VARIATION
FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE LEAVING BOILER
MILL LOADING
AUX .POWER CONSUMPTION
BOILER EFFICIENCY

TYPICAL STEAM & WATER


CIRCUIT

DRUM

R4

S1
S2
R3

S3
S4
S5

S5
S6
S8

S7
S9

S11

S17

R2

S7
S11

R1

S9
S18

S18

DESH

S6

S19

S12

S20

S20

S13
S14
S15

S14
S15

RH SYSTEM

S10
S16
S21
LOW TEMP SH

S22
S23

E7

S24

E7
E6

S25

S17

E5

E5

S26
E4

S27
S28

E4

PLATEN SH
S29
E3
S30

E2
E1

S31
S32

E3

FINAL SH
S33

SH SYSTEM

ECO SYSTEM

TYPICAL SCHEME OF AIR & GAS DUCTS / CIRCUITS


COLD PA SYSTEM

Once Through Supercritical


Steam Generators

NTPC/ BARH II STPP 2 x 660 MW


Customer

National Thermal Power Corporation

Project

BARH II 2 x 660 MW

Contract No.

U6/1700 & U6/1701

Zero Date

31.03.2008

Parameters at SHO / RHO


Steam Flow
Pressure
Temperature
Fuel

2120/1708.2 t/h.
255/54.65 kg/cm2 (g)
568 / 596 oC
Coal

Major Auxiliaries
Mill
Airheater

9 Nos. Bowl Mill, HP 1103


PAH - 2 Nos. 28.5 VI 58 (70)MR,2NOS 31.5 VI
70 (82)MR ALSTOM Supply

FD Fan

2 Nos. FAF 25/11.2 1, Axial Reaction-TLT

PA Fan

2 Nos. PAF 19/10.6 2, Axial Reaction-TLT

ID Fan

2 Nos. SAF 42.5/26.6-1, Axial Reaction-TLT

Dust Collector

Not in SG Package

Heat Rate Improvement


Parameters at Turbine Inlet (bar/oC / oC)

% Improvement In Station Heat Rate

170 / 538 / 538

Base

170 / 538 / 565

0.5%

170 / 565 / 565

1.3%

246 / 538 / 538

1.6%

246 / 538 / 565

2.1%

246 / 565 / 565

3.0%

246 / 565 / 598

3.6%

306 / 598 / 598

5.0%

Reduction in Coal consumption and CO2 emissions


Unit

500 MW
(Typical)

660 MW
(Typical)

800 MW
(Typical)

Cycle parameters

bar/ 0C/ 0C

170/538/538

246/538/565

246/565/598

Approximate Heat rate


improvement

Base

2.1

3.6

tons

Base

56000

96000

Base

61600

105600

Approximate Savings in
annual coal
consumption
Approximate Reduction
in annual CO2
emissions

tons

Growth of unit sizes in India


Rating

Year of Introduction

60/70MW

1965

110/120MW

1966

200/210MW

1972

250MW

1991

500MW

1979

660MW

2004

800 MW

2006

Steam generation process

Types of Circulation

3
Critical Point
T

SC Steam generator
Boiler Steam Pressure
above the critical point

221 bar

Simple Supercritical cycle


2

Pressure range
Sub critical
Super critical

: Below 221 bar


: 221 and above

CRITICAL CONDITION
Definition
CRITICAL is a thermodynamic expression describing the
state of a substance beyond which there is no clear
distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase.
The critical pressure & temperature for water are
Pressure

= 225.5 kg / cm2 (g)

Temperature = 374.2 C

T S DIAGRAM

Temperature ( 0 C )

OUTPUT INCREASE

240c

F
A
-273

Entropy KJ / Kg K
Basic Rankine Cycle

568C

TEMP
540C

600

SUPER CRITICAL
BOILER CYCLE WITH
SH, RH & Regeneration

500
400
300
200
100

0
ENTROPY

The Concept
The mass flow rate thru all heat transfer circuits from
Eco. inlet to SH outlet is kept same except at low loads
wherein recirculation is resorted to protect the water wall
system

Circulation Systems
STEAM TO TURBINE
STEAM TO TURBINE

SH
SH

DRUM

ECO.

EVAPORATOR

EVAPORATOR

SEPERATING
VESSEL

ASSISTED
CIRCULATION TYPE

Drum Type

FEED

FEED

ECO.

Once-through

CIRCULATION PUMP
(LOW LOAD &
START-UP)

LOW LOAD SYSTEM WITH CIRC. PUMP

Thank You