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system

Leroy O. Garciano, Latinus E. Boylston, Jr., Stephen Cromer

Danfoss Power Solutions

ABSTRACT

Hydraulic load-sensing (LS) systems have found increasing applications in an open circuit hydraulic system work function

for off-highway mobile equipment. By providing only the needed power requirements in a work function generates energy

savings, thus increasing machine productivity and reducing cost of fuel. A conventional LS system is composed of a

variable displacement pump with feedback control, other hydraulic components and the load. The feedback control

strategy is realized by monitoring the pressure differential between pump outlet and the LS signal, and regulates servo

pressure to move the swashplate angle to the commanded position to provide only the required flow. However, it is well

known in the mobile hydraulics industry that the nature of the dynamic response of a LS system is oscillatory. Depending

on the degree of mismatch between the hydraulic power system and load, could lead to instability. This instability causes

intense oscillation of some components in the machine and is often accompanied by high frequency noise. This causes

operator discomfort and is a safety concern. In a work function application in a paving machine as an example, there are

reports of LS system instability. This paper investigates a generic open circuit hydraulic power system of a work function

in a paver machine. This circuit is then modeled and simulations were conducted using the Matlab Simhydraulics toolbox.

The high system pressure oscillation is then analyzed using phase portrait [2] to show the limit cycle oscillation and

Fourier Transform analysis was conducted. Mathematical analysis based on a research finding that was reportedly

recently [1] was applied. One solution is proposed to reduce the amplitude of the oscillation.

INTRODUCTION

In the design of energy efficient off-highway mobile machines, hydraulic power system architectures are focused on

energy savings strategies. In a mobile hydraulics work function, load sensing (LS) systems are widely adopted. The LS

system has controllability and the control strategy is to provide only the flow that is needed and at the pressure that is

required to match the greatest load to optimize system pressure and minimize heat losses. Load sensing (variable

pressure) works like a constant pressure system where constant pressure is matched with the greatest load thus

generating power savings. However the feedback mechanism of an LS system is well known to have system instability.

The objective of the paper is to conduct modeling and simulation of instability of a generic open circuit hydraulic system

for work function of a paving machine using Matlab Simhydraulics toolbox and present a solution that attenuated the

amplitude of the oscillation.

A BRIEF REVIEW OF ENERGY EFFICIENT HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURES

Figure 1(a)-(d) shows various hydraulic power system architectures with their corresponding work cycle efficiencies.

Figure 1(a) show a fixed displacement pump with a relief valve. In this circuit, when the control valve handle is in neural

3

position, the fixed displacement pump is delivering a maximum flow of 6.3e-4 m /s (10 gpm) that goes to the hydraulic

reservoir at a system pressure of 207 Bars (3000 psi). When the control valve is opened, the pump is still delivering a

-4

3

constant flow of 6.3e m /s to the linear actuator at a system pressure of 207 Bars as illustrated in Fig. 1(a). The required

3

flow to move the actuator with load is 3.17e-4 m /s (5 gpm) at a pressure of 68.94 Bars (1000 psi). The work done by the

system is only 2.2 Kw (2.9 hp). Total power generated by the system is 13 Kw (17.5 hp). The efficiency during the work

cycle is 17%.

An LS unloader circuit is shown in Fig. 1(b). In this circuit, when the control valve handle is in neural position, no load

3

sensing signal exists. Therefore all pump flow of 6.3e-4 m /s flows to the reservoir at a system pressure of 207 Bars.

Applying a LS signal from the control valve directs pump flow to the circuit and when the pump outlet pressure reaches a

pre-set value above the load sensing signal, i.e., 79.3 Bars (1150 psi = system pressure of 1000 psi + margin=150 psi),

pump flow is metered off to the tank. Thus, only the pump flow needed for the work function is supplied to the control

valve at a pre-set pressure. The work done on the system is 2.2 Kw (2.9 hp). The total power generated by the system is

5 Kw (6.7 hp). Efficiency during the work cycle is 43% as illustrated in Fig. 1(b).

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

Total power input

(2.9 hp out) / (17.5 hp in) = 17%

(c)

(5 gpm)(1000 psi)/1714 = 2.9 hp

(c)

(10 gpm)(1150 psi)/1714 = 6.7 hp

(2.9 hp out) / (6.7 hp in) = 43%

(5 gpm)(1000 psi)/1714 = 2.9 hp

Total power input

(2.9 hp out) / (8.8 hp in) = 33%

(d)

(5 gpm)(1200 psi)/1714 = 3.5 hp

(2.9 hp out) / (3.5 hp in) = 83%

Fig. 1 Open circuit hydraulic power system architectures for energy savings. (a) fixed displacement pump

with relief valve; (b) fixed displacement with load sense unloading valve; (c) variable displacement pump

with pressure compensation; (d) variable displacement pump with load sensing control feature

A variable displacement pump with pressure compensation is shown in Fig. 1(c). The variable pump will provide full flow

3

at pressures below the compensator setting. Once the pump flow is restricted to 3.17e-4 m /s, pressure will rise to the

setting of the pressure compensator and then the pump will de-stroke to the level needed to maintain the compensator

pressure setting. The work done on the system is 2.2 Kw (2.9 hp). The total power generated by the system is 6.6 Kw

(8.8 hp). Efficiency during the work cycle is 33% as illustrated in Fig. 1(c).

Figure 1(d) shows a variable displacement pump with LS control feature. The variable displacement pump will provide

only the needed amount of flow at a set pressure (system pressure plus margin). The work done on the system is 2.2 Kw

(2.9 hp). The total power generated by the system is 2.6 Kw (3.5 hp). Efficiency during the work cycle is 83% as

illustrated in Fig. 1(d).

From the above example, among the various hydraulic power configurations for energy savings, the LS system, as

illustrated in Fig. 1(d), has the highest efficiency of 83%. This is the reason why LS system architectures are widely

adopted in the mobile hydraulics industry.

OPEN CIRCUIT HYDRAULIC LOAD SENSING WITH ROTATIONAL LOAD

f1

f2

Fig. 2 A generic open circuit hydraulic system work function for a paver machine

Figure 2 shows a generic open circuit hydraulic system for a work function of a paver machine. It is composed of a

variable displacement pump, with pressure compensators and proportional valves, load sensing lines LS1 & LS2, and it is

driving two auger motors. A shuttle valve will select only the highest load pressure between the motors that is then fed

back to the LS port, and the variable displacement axial piston pump responds to the load either by stroking or de-stroking

the swash plate. The pressure compensator will maintain a constant pressure drop across the proportional valve and will

try to limit the load oscillation that is reflected back to the system.

MATLAB SIMHYDRAULICS REALIZATION OF THE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

Variable Orifice #1

Va, pa

Hydraulic

motor #1

Hose #2

Pressure

Comp #1

Vb, pb

Hose #3

f1

Auger #1

LS #1

PC-LS Pump

LS #2

Shuttle valve

Hose #1

Variable Orifice #2

Ab

Damping

orifice, Ab

Va, pa

Hydraulic

motor #2

Hose #4

Pressure

Comp #2

Vb, pb

f2

Hose #5

Damping

orifice, Ab

Auger #2

Fig. 3 Matlab SimHydraulics realization of the generic hydraulic open circuit work function of a paver machine.

Fig. 3 shows a Matlab SimHydraulics realization of the generic hydraulic circuit (Fig. 2). An almost 1-to-1 representation

of an actual system is obtained in Simhydraulics, which is much more intuitive compared to the Simulink toolbox. The

model shows a LS pump, pressure compensators and variable orifices (that represented the proportional valve), two

hydraulic motors to drive the augers and a shuttle valve. This system with pressure compensators is called a load

independent system.

A REPRESENTATIVE SIMPLIFED MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OPEN CIRCUIT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

qa

Va,pa

Hydraulic hose, H1

Variable orifice

Hydraulic

pump

Hydraulic motor

Jt

Tm

Dm

m

qb

Reservoir

Damping

Orifice, Ab

Vb,pb

Hydraulic hose, H2

Fig. 4 shows a representation of a constant flow system, a rotational inertia load, a variable orifice, inlet and outlet

hydraulic hoses and a damping orifice (Ab). In the mathematical development of this circuit [1], continuity of flow and force

balance of applied forces and torque equations are shown as follows [1]:

qa Dm

d m Va dpa

dt

e dt

(1)

d 2 m

Jt

Dm ( pa pb ) Tm

dt 2

d

V dp

Dm m qb b b

dt

e dt

qb qa C q Ab

pb

(2)

(3)

(4)

Linearization and performing a Laplace transformation of eqs. (1) (4) leads to eqn. (5)-(8) as reported in [1] as follows:

Qa Dm s m

Va

sPa (5)

e

2

J t s Dm ( Pa Pb ) Tm

Dm s m Qb

Vb

(6)

sPb (7)

Qb K cb Pb (8)

where,

K cb

qb

(9)

pb

2 pb b

According to [1], an optimal value K cb opt that leads to obtaining the optimal area of the damping orifice (

the oscillation is shown in eqn. (10) as follows:

C q Ab

Ab ) to attenuate

K cb opt Dm

Vb 3 / 4

(10)

e J t ( 1)

where,

Va

(11)

Vb

1

hmax ( 1) (12)

2

and for optimal damping, the area of the damping orifice Ab is,

Ab

qa K cbopt

C q2

(13)

Fig. 5 shows a block diagram of a dynamical system subjected to a forcing frequency that produces oscillation. The

objective is to attenuate the amplitude of the system response.

System

Output or

System Response

Input or

Load

SIMULATION RESULTS

Two cases are presented in the simulation results, i.e., Case I involves simulation without any damping introduced to the

system and Case II presents two simulation results by varying the volume ratio between Va and Vb and obtaining an

optimal damping orifice (eqn. 12).

Case I: Volume ratio Va=Vb and without damping orifice (Ab)

Figure 6(a) shows the experimentally obtained load at the hydraulic auger motor and simulation system pressure

response (Fig. 6(b)) of the Simhydraulics model (Fig. 3). In this case, without introducing any damping in the hydraulic

circuit, the maximum amplitude of oscillation is about P=75 Bars (Fig. 6(b)). A phase portrait [2] and Fourier Transform

(FT) analysis shows a limit cycle oscillation (Fig. 7(a)) with a frequency of oscillation of f1=11.38 Hz (Fig. 7(b)). The

existence of a limit cycle oscillation and the sub-harmonic frequency (f1/3) confirms the nonlinear dynamics of the system

(Fig. 7(a) & (b)).

(a) Experimentally obtained

load at auger motor

80

60

40

20

100

Pressure [Bar]

Pressure [Bar]

100

Peak at approx. 75 Bars

80

60

40

20

0

Time [s]

Time [s]

Fig. 6 (a) Experimentally obtained input and (b) simulation system response of the SimHydraulics model.

80

60

Log(Pressure [Bar])

100

40

20

f1/3

f1 = 11.38 Hz (peak=-0.66)

-1

-2

0

20

40

60

80

100

10

15

Frequency [Hz]

Fig. 7 (a) Phase-portrait analysis of Fig. 6(b) showing a limit cycle oscillation; and,

(b) FT analysis of Fig. 6(b)

Case II: Volume ratios Va=5Vb & Va=10Vb with damping orifice (Ab)

Figure 8 shows the Simhydraulics simulation results for the system response of the circuit due to an input load applied to

the hydraulic motor. Figure 8(a) show pressure trace without damping; and the corresponding reduction of amplitude by

15% and 18% shown in Fig. 8(b) & (c)) respectively, by changing the volume ratios between Va and Vb. With all other

parameters given, the corresponding optimal area of the damping orifice (Ab) is obtained (see eqn. 13). The higher the

volume ratio between the inlet to the outlet at the hydraulic motor, the greater the amplitude reduction. The results

obtained here is just a solution in many possible solutions in trying to reduce the amplitude of oscillation.

100

100

Pressure [Bar]

60

Pressure [Bar]

Va Vb;

2;

Ab 0

80

40

20

0

Va 5Vb ;

6;

80

Ab 1.93e 6 m 2

60

40

20

0

Time [s]

Time [s]

Pressure [Bar]

100

Va 10Vb ;

11;

80

Ab 2.17e 6 m 2

60

40

20

0

0

Time [s]

Fig. 8 Simhydraulics simulation results showing time series data of system pressure. (a) Without damping; (b) With

damping showing 15% amplitude attenuation; and, (c) with damping showing 18% amplitude attenuation.

100

80

2

60

Log(Pressure [Bar])

40

20

f2=3.5 Hz

f1 = 10.25 Hz (peak=-0.30)

-1

-2

0

20

40

60

80

100

10

15

Frequency [Hz]

A phase portrait and FT analysis of Fig. 8(c) is shown in Fig. 9(a) and (b), respectively. The phase portrait analysis in Fig.

9(a) is not a limit cycle oscillation and no sub-harmonic frequency exists as compared to Fig. 7(a) and (b) respectively.

This probably indicates that the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system (i.e. without damping) was brought into a more

stable regime when damping was introduced.

CONCLUSION

A generic hydraulic LS control system for the work function of a paver machine was investigated. The generic circuit was

modeled using Matlab Simhydraulics. System pressure oscillation due to high torque load that was reflected to the

hydraulic LS control system showed high amplitude of oscillation characterized by a limit cycle. The existence of a limit

cycle oscillation and the sub-harmonic frequency f1/3 is a well-known nonlinear dynamics system behavior. Mathematical

modeling and analysis using continuity equations, force balance and torque loads about the hydraulic motor that was

previously reported were utilized in this paper. The results indicated that by varying the volume ratios between Va and Vb

by as much as Va=10Vb, an optimal damping orifice (Ab) was obtained. The simulation results showed a reduction of

amplitude oscillation by 18%. In addition, the phase portrait analysis probably indicated that the initial nonlinear dynamics

behavior of the system without damping was brought to a more stable regime when damping was introduced that

attenuated the amplitude of oscillation by 18%. This approach is a solution of various possible solutions to attenuate the

intense oscillation of an unstable response of a hydraulic LS control system. The modeling and simulation results need to

be experimentally validated to be able to confirm the results reported in this paper.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge Abhijit Das, Advance Systems Engineer and Charles Throckmorton, Principal Engineer

for Danfoss Power Solutions for their technical assistance in this paper.

REFERENCES

th

1. Axin, M. and Krus, P. Design Rules for High Damping in Mobile Hydraulic Systems, The 13 Scandinavian

International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP2013, June 3-5, 2013, Linkoping, Sweden.

2. Garciano, L.O., Torisu, R., Takeda, J. and K. Sakai. Random, Quasi-Periodic and Chaotic Vibrations of Farm

Tractors Journal of JSAM, Vol. 64, No. 1, 2002, pp 91-99

3. Wikipedia.org

CONTACT

Leroy O. Garciano is a Systems & Application Engineer for Danfoss Power Solution at the Ames, Iowa location. He has

a BS degree in Mechanical Engineering at the University of San Carlos, Philippines. He obtained his MS/PhD degrees in

Bio-Engineering resources at Iwate University, Japan. Prior to joining Danfoss, he worked in Japan at the Tokyo

University of Agriculture and Technology; in the US at the Univ. of California, Davis; and in North Dakota. His research

and industry experiences include vehicle dynamics; development of commercially-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensor devices for

soil dynamics research; 3D Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of a cutting tool in soil; multispectral and hyperspectral

technologies for crop yield prediction; and precision agriculture technologies for assisted-steer and auto guidance for

agricultural machineries. His published peer-reviewed papers are in the areas of vehicle dynamics, multispectral and

hyperspectral technologies, as well as in soil dynamics research. He is conversant in several languages. Mr. Garciano

can be contacted at lgarciano@danfoss.com.

Latinus E. Boylston, Jr. is a Systems and Applications Engineer for Danfoss Power Solutions at the Ames, Iowa

location. He has dual BS degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering from Washington State

University in Pullman Washington. Boylston started his career in Texas Instruments DMOS6 wafer fabrication facility as

an Equipment Engineer in Dallas, Texas. He has developed power management systems for Texas Instruments and

Micrel Semiconductor, in Huxley, Iowa, as an analog and mixed signal integrated circuit designer. Additionally, Boylston

worked for Iowa State University as a Technology Licensing Manager managing ISUs diverse portfolio of engineering and

physical sciences intellectual property assets. Mr. Boylston has given presentations and written articles on diverse topics

from novel ADC techniques to management and marketing of intellectual property. Mr. Boylston can be contacted at

eboylston@danfoss.com

Limit cycle - is a closed trajectory in phase space having the property that at least one other trajectory spirals into it either

as time approaches infinity or as time approaches negative infinity. Such behavior is exhibited in some nonlinear systems.

Ab

Cq

Dm

Jt

Kcb

Kcbopt

Pa

Pb

qa

qb

s

t

Tm

Va

Vb

h

m

f12

t

= Flow coefficient [-]

3

= hydraulic motor displacement [m /rad]

2

= Rotational inertia load [kg-m ]

4

= Flow-pressure coefficient for the damping orifice [m -s/Kg]

4

= Kcb which gives the highest damping [m -s/Kg]

= Pressure on inlet side of motor [Bar]

= Pressure on outlet side of motor [Bar]

3

= flow into the motor [m /s]

3

= flow into the motor [m /s]

= Laplace operator

= time [s]

= External torque [N-m]

3

= Volume on inlet side of hydraulic motor [m ]

3

= Volume on outlet side of hydraulic motor [m ]

= Bulk modulus [Pa]

= Parameter [-]

= Maximum damping [-]

= Rotational angle [rad]

3

= Density [kg/m ]

= Orifices [m]

= Phase lag [s]

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