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The water sanitation crisis is the greatest public health problem that the world is facing
today. The good news is it is a problem that can be solved in the near future with the hard
work of good engineers who have strong public support. The technology necessary to provide
people in need with clean water already exists. It is merely a matter of finding a way to
implement these technologies into the existing communities at a low cost and without
disrupting the lifestyle of the communities being helped. It is the idea that is at the center of
this project.

Drinking water supply and sanitation in India continue to be inadequate, despite

longstanding efforts by the various levels of government and communities at improving
coverage. The level of investment in water and sanitation, albeit low by international
standards, has increased in size during the 2000s. Access has also increased significantly. For
example, in 1980 rural sanitation coverage was estimated at 1% and reached 21% in
2008. Also, the share of Indians with access to improved sources of water has increased
significantly from 72% in 1990 to 88% in 2008. At the same time, local government
institutions in charge of operating and maintaining the infrastructure are seen as weak and lack
the financial resources to carry out their functions. In addition, only two Indian cities have
continuous water supply and an estimated 69% of Indians still lack access to improved
sanitation facilities. Most rural water supply schemes in India use a centralised, supply-driven
approach, i.e. a government institution designs a project and has it built with little community
consultation and no capacity building for the community, often requiring no water fees to be
paid for its subsequent operation. Since 2002 the Government of India has rolled out at the
national level a program to change the way in which water and sanitation services are
supported in rural areas. The program, called Swajaldhara, decentralises service delivery
responsibility to rural local governments and user groups
The Water Grid is a region-wide, long term, water supply scheme that provides a
sustainable water infrastructure network for the South East region of Queensland, Australia.
The project was the largest urban response to the drought in Australia, which severely affected

water supplies in Brisbane and surrounds, particularly between 2004 and 2007. It was the
origin of idea


As temperatures started rising up with each passing day the demand for drinking water
started increasing. During the ensuing summer there would be an additional demand of 20 to
25 per cent of water but the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board
(HMWS&SB) would not be in a position to meet the additional demand due to lack of
infrastructure, inadequate distribution network and erratic power supplies.
As against the demand of 480-500 Million Gallons of water per Day (MGD),
HMWS&SB is presently supplying water to their full potential at 330-340 (MGD) from all the
five sources. With the 150 MGD water shortage and additional demand of 20 per cent,
consumers have to face acute shortage of drinking water.
Unlike the previous year, the present water levels in the five reservoirs Krishna,
Singur, Manjira, Osmansagar and Himayatsagar are in comfortable position. Of the total
storage capacity which is 39.783 TMC, the present storage is about 28.082 TMC. Last year on
the same date it was 10.857 TMC. Due to depleting water levels, Water Board has reduced the
supplies by about 50 MGD during the last summer.
The five reservoirs are main sources of drinking water to the people of Greater
Hyderabad limits and surrounding villages but unfortunately the HMWS&SB is not in a
position to meet the additional demand.
In addition to the piped water supply, about 27-30 MGD of ground water also is being
drawn by the consumers in the water supply service area of HMWS&SB. As the bore wells are
going dry, consumers have to look for tap water. There would be more pressure on the Water
Board for additional demand.

To compound the woes of the consumers further, the Central Power Distribution
Company Limited of Andhra Pradesh (APCPDCL) will play spoilsport because of erratic
power cuts.
Out of the 340 MGD of water supplied to Greater Hyderabad and enroute villages,
nearly 320 MGD water is pumped all the way from Krishna, Singur, Manjira reservoirs which
are about 90-100 km away from the city.
For pumping the water to city, uninterrupted power is required for continuous flow of
water but constant and erratic power cuts could lead to disturbances in water supply system
and a cause of serious concern to the citizens in the days to come.
The citizens should brace up and get prepared to face a harsh summer. The core areas
of twin cities would receive water once in three days with cut in duration of water supply by
about 50 per cent while the erstwhile surrounding municipalities now merged with the GHMC
would get water once or twice a week.
Presently, the Board is supplying 340 MGD that include Osmansagar (20 MGD),
Himayatsagar (15 MGD), Singur (75 MGD), Manjeera (45 MGD), Krishna-Phase-I and
Phase-II (180 MGD).The Osmansagar and Himayatsagar reservoirs are on the verge of drying
up and Water Board may install pumping motors in these two reservoirs to pump the available
HMWS&SB officials told Express that the demand would be more this summer as a
majority of private bore wells have gone dry due to the plummeting water table in the city.The
Water Board has over 1,075 power bore wells and of them some 25 per cent are said to be in
working condition.On the hand bore wells, of the existing 6,100 about 3,500 are said to be
functioning. There are about 1,865 static tanks and many of them got damaged.
HMWS&SB has prepared a Summer Action Plan. For all the Operation and
Maintenance (O&M) Divisions, HMWS&SB has sanctioned Rs 35 lakh each. The amount

would be utilised for repairs to hand pumps and power bore wells, repairs to static tanks,
providing additional static tanks, repairs to pumps and motors and electrical installations,
pollution related works, etc.
Under the SAP, it is proposed to take up through online approval system developed for
avoiding undue delays in approvals and to have a track of expenditure being done by the
individual General Manager of O&M divisions and also to ensure to take up the SAP works as
per the priorities fixed. All the proposed works under SAP would be grounded and
commissioned before March 2014, they added.
To meet the domestic needs first, it would reduce bulk water supply to industries and
bulk customers.
To meet the additional water demand, HMWS&SB would see that additional trips are
made by the water tankers with 5,000 to 10,000 litres capacity to provide drinking water to the
public. At present there are 525 water tankers available with the water board. In peripheral
areas, over 200 water tankers are under the control of GHMC. Out of 340 MGD, supply of 3
MGD is through 6,599 Public Stand Posts (PSPs) and 5 MGD is through 500 mobile tankers.



The water grid programme aimed at supplying drinking water to all households in the
state has been named Telangana Drinking Water Project. For executing the project, the state
government has already decided to set up Telangana Drinking Water Supply Corporation
Though the project has been designed for supply of drinking water for 15 years, the system
and equipment should cater to the needs of the people for 30 years, nearly one lakh acre of
forest land would be taken over for the project and government would provide alternate land
towards compensation to the forest department.

The Telangana government announced

Telangana Water Grid project at an estimated cost of Rs.25,000 crore to permanently solve the
drinking water problem in the state. The grid, which will use 160 TMC ft (thousand million
cubic feet) water, will be completed in four years, said Chief Minister K. Chandrasekhar Rao

The Telangana Government is contemplating two major projects - establishing a Water Grid
to supply domestic and drinking water through pipe and taps for each household and a
projectto restore village tank systems toimprove water availability for agriculture and
domestic purpose. These two projects are of utmostimportantfor human development and
growth of agriculture sector.The public spending on these two projects are reported to be more
than Rs 50,000 cr.
These projects if designed and implemented properly will immensely benefit the
people of Telangana. It is about how to implement them in cost effective and timely manner
without further causing social tensions and ecological degradation. A wider public debate
about these projects- technical, social and economics will help the Government of Telangana
in proper designing, implementation and also reducing the costs of these projects.
This article will look at the water grid project as is being reported in the press and
suggests a process to design it better so that People of Telangana can benefit from it.

Project: Water Grid

Very little information is in the public domain perhaps those details might emerge later.
However, rural water supply schemes are not new to Independent India. The evolution of
source of drinking water from Panchayat raj wells, mark-I, Mark-II hand pumps, taps to
purified water seem to be the logical development reflecting the aspirations of the people. It is
important to look at the previous initiatives and incorporate some of the lessons into this
Clarity on purpose and scope of water grid

Can piped water be source of drinking in 2025? Already more than 50% rural people
in Telangana are reported to be drinking water from purified sources. Cans, RO plants
are common site in many villages these days. So in that case the water grid when and
how it is completed will not supply water for drinking. So the question is will GoT
really need to invest so much money and effort when people any way not going to drink
from the taps?

Is it Grid, or Grid like thing? This is another aspectwhich requires clarity. If it is

water Grid then it connects with all the rural water supply with one or two major
supply routes with multiple distribution points. This raises enormous challenges in
availability of water quantity and its quality in addition to engineering aspects. If the the
source of water multiple - ground water and some surface water and put into the Grid
and then drawn from various points into small pipes for distributing to communities and
are connected to one Grid, then the challenges areeven more. GoT need to have basic
clarity on what exactly is this Grid and how it connects or inter-connects with each

Sources and quality- Surface or ground water or both? This is another aspects requires
clarity. If it is surface, the Grid and its structure will have to be radically different. Again
surface, if water is drawn from rivers and existing dams, the pipe line will have to be
different. If it is ground water based or included than it will have to be even more
complicated. In addition to other challenges like costs and engineering aspects to store,
lift, transport how can quality aspects be addressed?

Is this entirely new or connects the existing infrastructure: If Water Grid is about
bringing water in large pipes and supply with existing systems in rural Telangana then
design and operation will significantly different. If it is new what happens to existing
systems? But if they are interconnecting, how the management and operational issues
will be addressed?

Cost and benefit: How Much this system is going to cost. Often such projects far
exceed money several folds than estimated and also lead to delay going to decades. May
be GoT might estimate the costs more accurately taking the future situation of cost
escalations and also will implement it in time. Even then it is important to articulate the
a) cost of delivering water to each person b) cost of per unit of water c) O&M costs in
future, how will that be met d) cost of water treatment and disposal per unit of water e)
what happens to the swage generated in the villages due to water use for sanitation, etc.
It is very important to emphasise here that, these aspects are being raised only to

strengthen and make this project more acceptable and viable. No one is questioning the need
for universal safe and adequate domestic and drinking water system to serve Telangana
people. Keeping in view of the scanty and rather sketchy information available on this water
grid, in the public domain, the following points are suggested.

Status of Domestic and Drinking water infrastructure today: A quick and

detailed report on existing facilities may be made as first and important step. This report may
include the following a) current coverage according to 120 lpd norm b) existing treated
drinking water facilities and their distribution and reach out c) existing public and private
investments and their efficiency d) existing tap water systems in localised way and their
effectiveness e) some of the local water grids if they exist and their reach out f) current supply
and demand of purified water. This can be done in months time and then water Grid can be
designed with priority of reaching the unreached first and strengthening and expanding
existing systems to get quick results.

Start a Pilotproject: Since it is most likely will take time to design, approval and

implementation, a pilot in each district may be started which can later be connected with
Water Grid.

Pipe water for domestic and purified for drinking: As mentioned before more

than 50% of rural people already seem to be drinking purified water supplied through cans.
Some of them are delivering at the door for relatively small price. This will be the future
direction of drinking as it happened in cities and towns and is already happening in our
villages... People may not drink the drinking water supplied from the grid. GoT may want to
streamline and strengthen the existing systems and establish regulatory frame work to assure
quality, safety and affordability.
GoT should embark of clear and transparent process before starting this project. Wider
public debate and consultations at this stage will help GoT in designing and implementing
better. As on today, there are many questions about this project which needs to be debated.
And such debate is in the interest of GoT and people at large.


1. History of the town:

Medchal Nagar Panchayat constituted vide G.O.Ms.No.106 MA & UD (Elec-I) Dept.,

Dated: 22-03-2013 by merging two Gram Panchayaths viz., Medchal and Athvelly. Medchal
town is located in Rangareddy

District of Telangana State. The Government vide

G.O.Ms.No.464 MA&UD (Elec-I) Dept., have issued orders fixing 20 wards as strength of
Medchal Nagar Panchayat.Medchal is located at 17.6297N 78.4814E. It has an average
elevation of 577 meters, formerly called as Medi (Fig) Chelama (spring), but later came to
known as Medchal, This place once resort for Nizams who constructed beautiful mansion here,
there is famousTemples in Medchal Sri SriSriGandiMaisamma Temple and Ramalingeshwara
temple at height of 61 metres on hillock, this temple believed to be constructed by Kakatiyas,
and mosque built in the village during QuliQutub Shah time.andmedchal also famous for saint
jaffersahab who served the people not only to the medchal people but to all, former chief justice
and president justice hidayatullah visited to him.
2. Topography:

Medchal district is situated between 17.6297N 78.4814E and it is located at an

elevation of 577.0mts above sea-level. Medchal is surrounded with green forests. It is the head
quarters of the mandal and one of the recently formed ULB in RangaReddy district. It is situated
a distance of 20Kms from state capital Hyderabad. The town is situated on NH-7. The natural
slope of the town is towards North-South and difference between the highest and the lowest
topographic level is about 30m.
3. Climate & Rainfall:

The average rainfall of the district is 995 m.m., the annual rainfall of the district is 700 to
1200 m.m. The temperature of the district during May, the hottest month crosses to 420C, while
in December, the coldest month it will be minimum being less than 100C.

4.Population Growth:

The Urban Local Bodies (ULB) under this study is within and around Medchal
Nagarapanchayat. In this Nagarapanchayat, considerable growth in population is taking place.
The demand for water is also going up abnormally. The population densities in the ULB have
considerably increased and a rational approach for arriving at the future population growth is
necessary. The population figures for the Medchal town are available since 1961 from the
Nagarapanchayat. The population figures are given in Table 4.1
Table 4.1: Population of Medchal Nagara panchayat

Census Population







Decadal Increase

Percentage increase
between consecutive













As per 2011 census, the total population of the town is 39146 of which Males constitute
52% of the population and females 48%. Medchal has an average literacy rate of 80.15%, higher
that the national average of 74.05%. Male literacy is 88.18%, and female literacy is 72.73%. In
Medchal, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. There are 26,047 households in the
Medchal town as per 2011 census. The average house hold size is 4.51 persons.

The Medchal is a Nagarapanchayat and mandal

headquarters in Rangareddy District..

Besides the usual compliment of offices of the Mandal administration of the State Government,
there are 24 primary schools, 6 upper primary schools, 10 high schools, 4 junior colleges and 2

degree colleges in the Medchal town. There is a government general hospital, an Ayurvedic and
homeopathic treatment centre, 5 private nursing homes and a community health centre with
about 30 medical doctors.

6.Economic Growth:

Medchal Nagar Panchayat is basically residential and industrial town with a large number
of small and medium industrial institutions. The N.H.44 is passing through the town. As such so
many business establishments are cropped up. A majority of population are business people and

Medchal has a railway station on Mudkhed-Medchal Section of Hyderabad (HYB)

Division of South Central Railway (SCR). It has direct train connectivity with Hyderabad,
Nizamabad, Nanded. It plays a very vital role in connecting number of villages within 40km
radius. National High way No.7 now NH 44 (the largest NH in India) passes through Medchal
making the road transport most easy. It is well connected to rest of India by road. Hyderabad is
40 km from here. The nearest airport is Hyderabad.
8.ULB Service Area:

The Medchal town was constituted as Nagarapanchayat on 2013. The population of the
Nagarapanchayat as per 2001 census is 21730 and as per 2011 census is 39146. The numbers of
electoral wards in this Nagarapanchayat are 20 as on 2011. Total households as per 2011 census
are 26047. Salient features of the Medchal Nagarapanchayat are given in Table II.8.2
Table II.8.2: Salient features of Medchal Nagarapanchayat :
Sl. No



ULB Establishment as Nagarapanchayat in the year


Population of the town

(as per 2001 Census)


Area of the town


No of Electoral Wards (2001)


No of Electoral Wards (2011)


Population of the town (as per 2011 census)

Total No. of Households (2001)

Total No. of Households (2011)


Length of C.C. Roads

21 Kms

Sl. No




Length of B.T. Roads

9 Kms


Length of Kutcha Roads



Length of Pucca Drains



Length of Kutcha Drains



Length of storm water drain



Length of Distribution pipe line


No. of Hand Bore wells



Main Source of water supply through bore wells

1.50 MLD


No. of House Service Connections


No. of Public stands post


200 Nos.

9.Services Provided by Medchal Nagarapanchayat:

9.1.Water Supply:

Total length of pipeline distribution network across the town is 45km. The distribution
pipes are G.I, PVC, A.C and HDPE pipes varying from 50mm to 250mm dia. For non -potable
water uses, there are 167 numbers of hand bore wells beside the private open wells. The present
clear water supply demand for this Nagarapanchayat is 7.56MLD, whereas, the present supply is
2.85 MLD in monsoon and 2.0 MLD in summer. There is no water treatment plant/ filtration
plant in the town. Water is being supplied by engaging private water tankers in the unserved area.
Approximately each water tanker (5000 liters Capacity) is making 3 to 6 trips in a day to cover
the unserved area.
9.2. Sewerage:

Medchal town has underground sewerage facility in part of the town. Majority of the area
in the town has open drains that collect wastewater. Household toilets directly discharge waste
water from soak pit in the open drains which have outfall in nallas. No house hold is dependent
on community toilet. At present sewerage management is not undertaken by the ULB. This
service facility is only taken up by private operators.

9.3. Solid Waste Management:

Solid waste management is also the responsibility of the Nagarapanchayat. According to

an estimate done by the Nagarapanchayat on an average about 25 MT of solid waste is generated
in the town in each day which is disposed off by the Nagarapanchayat by simple dumping to fill
up low lying areas. The garbage from the streets and the market places are collected in cycle van
with the help of contract labours and transported to vats located in different places. From the
vats, the garbage is collected in Tractors and transported to the low lying dumping ground
located outside the municipal limit. Door - to -door collection system is in practice in the
Medchal ULB , but there is no clear record for the number of households covered with door to
door collection system. There is one open dumping site of 4 acres for disposal of municipal
solid waste. For door to - door collections of solid waste there are 2 tractor trailers, which on
average make seven round (7) trips to dumping site every day. Waste characteristic survey is
done to known the composition and weight of the municipal solid waste generated by the house
holds. Also none of the open dump site has Weigh Bridge installed for obtaining exact amount of
waste collected and dumped into the dumpsite. Amount of waste collected is only estimated from
the average vehicular trips made to the dump site. No waste is composted, processed, recycled or
reused. Only collection and transportation of solid waste is done by the ULB.
9.4 Storm Water Drainage:

The drainage of the town is implemented by surface drains which ultimately discharge to
nearby low lying areas.Storm water drain network is not present as a whole in the Medchal
town. In the core area roads are having open drains for carrying waste water and rain water.

Pucca Drains



Kutcha Drains



18.00 Kms

9.5 Roads in the Town:

The total length of roads and streets maintained by the Medchl Nagara panchayat
is 75.00 Kms. The total lengths occupied by various categories of surfaces with their
respective lengths are as follows:

Cement Concrete Roads :

21 Kms.


Black Topped Roads

9 Kms



Kutcha Roads



9.6 Street Lighting:-

Street lighting is being maintained by the Nagarapanchayat on and the following

composition of street lights are in existence.
Sl No



High Mast Lights

234 Nos

Central Lighting

282 Nos

S.V lamps

40 Nos

Tube Lights

1485 Nos

2041 Nos

10. Need of the project: -

The Medchal town is having existing water supply scheme with Power bore wells with
2.20MLD installed capacity. At present water is being supplied to the town from 25Nos of power
bore wells only. In summer these bore wells are dependable due to depletion of ground water.
Although the present clear water demand is 7.130 MLD, only 2200 ML of water is available in
summer due to non availability of sufficient yield in the bore wells. Hence it is proposed to draw
raw water from Telangana water grid to meet the present, intermediate and ultimate demand of
Medchal town as the TELANGANA WATER GRID SOURCE. In the present proposals only
Medchal town is considered.No additionla area including out side the municipal limits area is
not considered in this project.
11. Population projection & water demand:

As per 2001 census, the total population of the town is 21,730 of which Males constitute
49% of the population and females 51%. Medchal has an average literacy rate of 59%, lower
than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 68%, and female literacy is 49%. In
Medchal, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. The percentage of population growth
between 2001-2011 is 80.15%. Sex ratio of the town is 50.46% are male and 49.54% are
females. Average literacy rate of Medchal city is 80.51 percent of which male and female literacy
was 88.18% and 72.73%. About 80.51% are literate. There are 8,047house holds in the Medchal
town as per 2011 census. The average house hold size is 4.50 persons.

11.1. Projected population:

The population projections arrived based on rate of growth @ 2%by the instructions of
PH Engineers for the base year -2018, intermediate year-2033 and ultimate year-2048 are 44966,
60519 and 81450 respectively.
The project has been designed as per approved norms indicated below:

Per capita domestic supply 135 lpcd

UFW 15% of Total Demand

Peak Factor for design of Distribution system 3.0

Minimum Pipe size 110mm n

Residual Head at the furthest end of Distribution system 7 m

11.2. Water Demand:

The estimated water demand of Medchal Nagarapanchayat area for different years
calculated on above considerations are as follows:



Demand with
135 lpcd in

UFW Losses @


135 lpcd


Total Demand in


























12. Pipe Material:

Recommended pipe materials for different uses are indicated below:
Type of Use
Rising Main

Diameter Range
Upto450 mm dia

Pipe Recommended

Gravity mains

Upto 500 mm dia


Gravity mains

400mm to 200mm dia

D.I K7

Distribution System

110 mm - 200 mm
200 mm - 450 mm

HDPE PE-100Gr 6kg/sqcm

D.I K7

13. House Service Connection:

In line with the recommendations in the CPHEEO Manual Medium Density Polyethylene
(MDPE) pipes are suggested for use for consumer connections.All House Service Connections
are proposed to be made through metering only including slums with provision of shared
connections where needed.
14. Supply of Water on 24x7 bases:

It is recommended that future supply of water shall be on 24x7 basis which means supply
of water for 24 hours a day, 7 days in a week and for 365 days in a year. In other words, it means
supply of water round the clock without break. To ensure continuous supply without break the
followings have been ensured:
1) Adequate quantity of supply
2) Adequate size of distribution network
3) Adequate pressure of water even at the furthest end of the system
4) Extensive metering

15. The Concept Plan as below:

The Telangana Water Grid has been selected as the source for water Supply in Medchal
Nagarapanchayat. It is proposed to draw 12.65 MLD of Water from the Proposed Tapping point
under Telangana water grid near medchal check post which is an about 3.50 Km away from
proposed head works near Rama-Lingeshwara-Swami Temple.
It is proposed to construct 1100KL Master balancing reservoir at proposed head works
near Rama-Lingeshwara-Swami Temple. About 2 acres of land is sufficient for construction
Head works for ultimate requirements. The collected water will be pumped to proposed ELBR
with low lift pumping equipments from where the water will be distributed to different
distribution reservoirs by gravity for use of the consumers.
For equitable distribution of water the entire town has been split up into 4 water supply
zones having independent service reservoir. It is proposed to construct 4new distribution
reservoirs and utilize 3 existing ELSRs to cover the entire area.
The distribution of water from the ELSRs will be done by gravity through a network of
pipelines which has been designed by adopting Hazens William formula using EPANET
The supply will be done for 24x7 basis. All consumers will receive water through
metering system. MDPE pipes and specials will be used for house service connection. For the
purpose of equitable distribution the entire town area has been divided into four zones.

Following are the major components proposed in the Detailed project Report.

1. 500 mm diaDI.K9 main from proposed tapping point near Medchal check post to
proposed master balancing reservoir at proposed head works near Rama-LingeshwaraSwami Temple.
2. 1100KL Master balancing reservoir at proposed head works near Rama-Lingeshwara3.

Swami Temple.
3Nos of 26.13KW clear water pumpsets near Rama-Lingeshwara-Swami Temple.
1 No. 200KVA Transformer with 11KV dedicated feeder main.
1 No. 200 KVA generator.
450mm dia DI K9 clear water pumping main from WTP to proposed ELBR.
300KL capacity clear water ELBR.
500mm dia to 150mm dia DI K7 clear water gravity mains form ELBR to different

Service reservoirs
9. Hydraulic Zoning.
10. Elevated Level Service Reservoirs(ELSR).
11. Distribution System with household connections.
12. Watchmen quarters.
13. Twin type Staff Quarters.
14. Compound wall to ELSRs and Head works
15. Approach Roads.
16. Operation & Maintenance.
The design works has been broadly divided into two groups:

Hydraulic Design

Structural Design

The hydraulic designs are carried out for the following components:
1. Gravity Main.
2. Master balancing reservoir
3. Pumping main.
4. Distribution System using EPANET.
The structural designs are carried out for the following components:
1. Master Balancing Reservoir
2. Elevated Service Reservoir.
3. Watchmen quarters


A systemic flow pattern is followed as follows