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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS


A. IF CONDITIONAL
If conditional sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that
the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is
fulfilled. In this section you will find information on sentences containing the word 'if', the use of conditional
tenses, and the 'unreal past', that is, when we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to past time.
General Formula of If Conditional Sentence:

In general, the formula modality sentence is as follows:

if + condition, result / consequence


Formula without punctuation or commas:
result / consequnce + if + condition

Examples of conditional sentence:


If I meet him, I will introduce myself.
I will introduce myself if I meet him.

Negative if + condition
Formula:.

If ... not be replaced with unless

Example of negative if conditional:


If the students do not understand, they will raise their hand to ask.
Unless the students understand, they will raise their hand to ask.
There are four types of If Conditional Sentences:

1. The 'zero' conditional, where the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present.
Zero conditional sentence modality is used when the result / consequence (result) of the condition
(requirement) is always true. The type 0 is widely used in sentences such presuppositions scientific fact
(scientific truth).
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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

'IF' CLAUSE (SIMPLE PRESENT)

MAIN CLAUSE (SIMPLE PRESENT)

If you heat ice

it melts.

If it rains

you get wet

In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible. They are often used to
refer to general truths.
Formula Zero Conditional
Sentence modality formula is as follows.
if + condition, result / consequence
if + simple present, simple present
Zero conditional formula without commas:
result / consequence + if + condition
if + simple present + simple present

Examples of Conditional Sentence Type 0:

Sentence
s
(+)
(-)

(?)

Example sentences conditional

Example of conditional

sentences type 0 with commas


If I sleep late, I am sleepy
If one does not drink after doing

sentences type 0 without coma


I am sleepy if I sleep late.
if one does not drink after doing

exercise, one gets dehydrated one

exercise.

gets dehydrated
If we burn paper, does it Becomes

Does it Becomes ash if we burn

ash?

paper?

2. The Type 1 conditional, where the tense in the 'if clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main
clause is the simple future.

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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Conditional sentence type 1 is a modality that is used when the result / consequence (result) of the condition
(condition) are likely to be realized because its realistic condition to be met in the future.
'IF' CLAUSE (SIMPLE PRESENT)
If it rains

MAIN CLAUSE (SIMPLE FOTURE)


you will get wet

If you don't hurry

we will miss the train.


In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real. They refer to a possible
condition and its probable result.
Formula Conditional Type 1

Sentence modality can be seen in the following table below:


if + condition, result / consequence
if + present simple, will + bare infinitive

Formula without using commas:


result / consequence + if + condition
will + bare infinitive + if + simple present
Examples of Conditional Type 1:
Sentence

Example sentences conditional

Example of conditional

s
(+)

sentences type 1 with commas


If I have free time, I will go

(-)

swimming.
time.
If the bell rings, I'll go home.
I'll go home if the bell rings.
If you do not finish your homework, Your teacher will be angry if you
your teacher will be angry.
If he does not come, I will not be

sentences type 1 without coma


I will go swimming if I have free

do not finish your homework.


I will not be angry if he does not

angry.
come.
Unless he comes, I will not be angry. I will not be angry unless he
If he comes, I will not be angry.
comes.
I will not be angry if he comes.
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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

(?)

If they invite you, will you come?

Will you come if they invite you?

3. The Type 2 conditional, where the tense in the 'if' clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause
is the present conditional.
Conditional sentences type 2 is a modality that is used when the result / consequence (result) of the condition
(condition) have no or only little chance to materialize because of her condition is not possible or difficult to
fulfill in the future.
'IF' CLAUSE (SIMPLE PAST)

MAIN CLAUSE (PRESENT CONDITIONAL)

If it rained

you would get wet

If you went to bed earlier

you wouldn't be so tired.

In these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal. They are not based on fact, and
they refer to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result.
Formula Conditional Type 2

Sentence modality can be seen in the following table below:


if + condition, result / consequence
if + past simple, would / should / could / might + bare infinitive

Formula without using commas:


result / consequence + if + condition
would / should / could / might + bare infinitive + if + simple past
Examples of Conditional Type 2:

Sentence
s
(+)

Example sentences conditional

Example of conditional

sentences type 2 with commas


sentences type 2 without coma
If Nisa studied hard, she would pass. Nisa would pass if she studied
If I had much money, I would buy a
hard.
I would buy a sports car if I had
sports car.
If I were a millionaire, I would
much money.
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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

I would donate my money to

donate my money to charity.


(-)

charity if I were a millionaire.


If Nisa did not study hard, she would Nisa would not be passed if she
not be passed.
If Nisa studied hard, she would not

did not study hard.


Nisa would not fail if she studied

fail.
hard.
If Nisa did not study hard, she would Nisa would fail If she did not
fail.
study hard.
Unless Nisa studied hard, she would Nisa would fail unless she studied
fail.
If I were a millionaire, I would not
(?)

hard.
I would not donate my money to

donate my money to charity.


charity if I were a millionaire.
If Nisa did not study hard, she would Nisa would fail if she did not
fail?
study hard?
If I had much money, I would buy a Would I buy a sports car if I had
sports car.
If I were a millionaire, I would
donate my money to charity?

much money?
Would I donate my money to
charity If I were a millionaire?

4. The Type 3 conditional, where the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main
clause is the perfect conditional.
Conditional sentences type 3 is a modality that is used when the result / consequence (result) of the condition
(condition) there is no possibility to materialize because his condition had been met in the past.

'IF' CLAUSE (PAST PERFECT)

MAIN CLAUSE (PERFECT CONDITIONAL)

If it had rained

you would have got wet

If you had worked harder

you would have passed the exam.

In these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are
the opposite of what is expressed, and they refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result.

Formula Conditional Type 2

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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Sentence modality can be seen in the following table below:


if + condition, result / consequence
if + past perfect, would / should / could / might + bare infinitive

Formula without using commas:


result / consequence + if + condition
would / should / could / might + bare infinitive + if + past perfect
Examples of Conditional Type 2:

Sentence
s
(+)

(-)

(?)

Example sentences conditional

Example of conditional

sentences type 2 with commas


If you had remembered to invite

sentences type 2 without coma


Would have attended your party

me, I would have attended your

if you had remembered to invite

party.
If the waitress had been careful, she

me.
She would not have broke many

would not have broke many plates.

plates if the waitress had been

If he had asked for Forgiveness,

careful.
Would you have forgived him if

forgived would you have him?

he had asked for Forgiveness?

B. NOUN PHRASE
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as
its head word, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. [1] Noun phrases are very
common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type.
Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements
of prepositions or postpositions. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for instance, the noun phrase
some of his constituents contains the shorter noun phrase his constituents.

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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

In some modern theories of grammar, noun phrases with determiners are analyzed as having the determiner
rather than the noun as their head; they are then referred to as determiner phrases.

Components of noun phrases

A typical noun phrase consists of a noun (the head of the phrase) together with zero or more modifiers of
various types. The chief types of these modifiers are:
Determiners, such as the, this, my, some
Attributive adjectives, such as large, beautiful, sweeter
Adjective phrases and participial phrases, such as extremely large, hard as nails, made of wood, sitting on the
step
Noun adjuncts, such as college in the noun phrase a college student
Prepositional phrases, such as in the drawing room, of his aunt
Relative clauses, such as which we noticed
Other clauses serving as complements to the noun, such as that God exists in the noun phrase the belief that
God exists
Infinitive phrases, such as to sing well and to beat in the noun phrases a desire to sing well and the man to
beat
Formation Noun phrase:
The phrase can be in the form of noun with wording as follows:
1. a) Idefinite Article + Noun
that the purpose of the article is the word Idefinite (clothing) a and s.
Example: a truck an examination an investment
The series says a truck is a noun phrase, a noun describes truck; truck is the head of (headword) in the phrase, a
word is a word that describes the head.

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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Explanation:
A or one's means (a, a, a, a, etc.) and placed in front of the noun explained.
A is used when the word that follows begins with the sound off, for example: a man, a star etc.. An used
when berikunya word beginning with the sound of life, for example: an astrich, an exam, etc.
A or an object only by kat can be calculated (countable nouns) and the number one or singular noun (singular).
b) Definite Article + Noun
is the definite article is the article The.
Example: the ship the soup the cars the models
The series is said he said the phrase noun. The noun explain ship, soup, cars models. Words ship, soup, cars,
models are the words of the head; explains the chief said.
Explanation:
The often interpreted: these, it said.
The objects could be followed by one or a number of single, for example the sea, the process, etc., or followed by
the object of more than one or plural, as the people, the poets, etc., and can also be followed by an object can be
calculated, for example, the water, the nitrogen.
c) Demonstrative Adjective + Noun
is a demonstrative adjective is a word this, these, that, and those.
Example: This song That poem those disasters
That stranger These tragedies this liquid
Explanation:
This and that is used when the noun is singular or if the object can not be calculated; these and those when the
plural noun.
d) Possesive Adjective + Noun
is a possessive adjective is a word that says the owner of something, such as my, yours, his, her, its, our, their,
jean's, Mr.Jones', dab.
Example: Her ideas brittany's computers your question
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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Explanation:
A person or thing that the owner of something expressed by 's, for example, Han's house, the sun's energy, etc.
If the owner is over with-s, add only the sign (') no-s, for example, Hans' racket, students', and so on.
2. Numerals (word number)
The meaning of numerals is one, two, three, ten, and so on.
Example: Two tympanis
Four members
Three guests
3. Quantitative adjective + noun
Is a word that specifies the number of an object, for example, some, any, much, many, a lot of, few, a little, and
so on.
Example: some marvels much wine many wife
Explanation:
Some and any means 'some' or 'a little'. Some and any are used to describe all the objects (singular, plural,
countable, uncountable).
Much and many mean a lot. Much to explain uncountable nouns; many for countable nouns.
A lot of to describe the plural and uncountable nouns.
Few and a little bit mean (fewer than some or any). Few to describe plural nouns: a little to explain uncountable
nouns.
4. Qualitative Noun + adjective
Is a word that shows the properties of an object or situation, such as: white, large, important, harmless, etc..
Example: kind treatments underpaid clear sky works
5. Noun phrase with the formation of
Of is used to merge two nouns or noun phrases, which are in front of the noun is part of the property or in the
back of noun and noun phrases to form a new whole; phrase this thing can still be connected to the other of the

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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

phrases to infinity.
Example: the roof of the house (roof =)

Note:
C. The
RELATIVE
ability toPRONOUNS
better understand the noun phrase is important to recognize the idea in a
sentence, rather than just knowing the word for word. Knowledge of the possible
variations of the expansion in the form of noun phrases are very useful in understanding
the precise and specific meaning contained in a sentence.

C. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it
"relates" to the word that it modifies.

Here is an example:

The person who phoned me last night is my teacher.

In the above example, "who":

relates to "person", which it modifies

introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night"

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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

There are five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that*

Who (subject) and whom (object) are generally only for people. Whose is for possession. Which is for
things. In non-defining relative clauses, that is used for things. In defining relative clauses (clauses that are
essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra information) that can be used for things and people**.

Relative pronouns can refer to singular or plural, and there is no difference between male and female.
Look at these examples showing defining and non-defining relative clauses:

Example Sentences

Notes

S=subject, O=object, P=possessive


defining

- The person who phoned me last

relative

night

clauses

- The person that phoned me last


S

is

my

teacher.

That is preferable

night is my teacher.
- The car which hit me was
yellow.

That is preferable

- The car that hit me was yellow.


O

- The person whom I phoned last

Whom

night

formal.

is

my

teacher.

- The people who I phoned last


night

are

my

is

correct
The

pronoun is optional.

teachers.

- The person that I phoned last


night

is

my

teacher.

- The person I phoned last night is


my teacher.
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but

relative

IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

- The car which I drive is old.

That

is

preferable

- The car that I drive is old.

which.

- The car I drive is old.

pronoun is optional.

The

to

relative

- The student whose phone just


rang

should

stand

up.

- Students whose parents are


wealthy pay extra.
P
- The police are looking for the car
whose

driver

was

masked.

- The police are looking for the car


of which the driver was masked.
non-defining

- Mrs Pratt, who is very kind, is

relative

my teacher.

clauses
S

Whose can be used with


things. Of which is also
possible.

- The car, which was a taxi,


exploded.
- The cars, which were taxis,
exploded.

- Mrs Pratt, whom I like very

Whom

much,

formal. Who is common in

is

my

teacher.

is

correct
English

but

- Mrs Pratt, who I like very much,

spoken

and

is my teacher.

informal written English.

- The car, which I was driving at


the time, suddenly caught fire.
P

- My brother, whose phone you


just heard, is a doctor.

12

- The car, whose driver jumped out

Whose can be used with

just before the accident, was

things. Of which is also

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completely

destroyed.

- The car, the driver of which


jumped

out

accident,

just
was

before

the

possible.

completely

destroyed.
Notes:
*Not

all

grammar

sources

count

"that"

as

relative

pronoun.

**Some people claim that even in defining relative clauses we cannot use "that" for people but must use
"who/whom". There is no good reason for such a claim; there is a long history of "that" for people in defining
relative clauses from Chaucer, Shakespeare and the Authorized Version of The Bible to Fowler's and Churchill.

Relative pronouns are pronouns that point to the preceding noun (antecedent) that serves as a link in a
sentence. Relative pronouns are placed at the beginning of ordinary or subordinate clause dependent clause that
describes

or

provides

additional

information

to

the

independent

clause

or

main

clause.

Pronouns used are: who, whom, whose, Selatan, and That.


- The man who is Sitting in the corner is my friend.
- The boy whom we visited is her boyfriend.
- The girl whose car was SOLD will go to our Study Abroad.
- The filing cabinet, Selatan, we purchase last week, is very well built.
- The book of That describes about animal behavior is expensive.
Says who, whom, whose, Selatan, and That in the above example points to the preceding noun (the man, the
boy, the girl, the filling cabinet, the book).
Nouns (noun) or pronouns (pronoun) as the man, the boy, the girl, the filling cabinet, and the book is called
the antecedent term.
- Voters whose names begin with the letters M to Z Should go to Room 2.
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- That photo is a reminder of TechPowerUp who was very IMPORTANT to me.


- Hands up everyone who would like a drink.
- A mole is an animal That lives underground.
- He was accused of Being drunk in charge of a vehicle, is a serious offence Selatan.
To show the people, use the relative pronouns: who, whom, whose and That.
- The man who spoke
- That the man spoke (although application That is true, and who even suggested as a subject pronoun)
- The Man That I Saw
- The man whom I saw (though whom the application is true, That is advisable, as the object pronoun)
To show in any other object or animal, use the relative pronouns: Selatan, That and whose.
- The paint Selatan was Sitting on the mat
- The paint That was Sitting on the mat
- The book whose cover was torn
- A book to Selatan, I often refer
When pointed at an object, of Selatan, whose can be used to replace.
- A cover of the book was torn Selatan
Expansion relative pronouns with pronouns like whoever, whomever, whatever known as indefinite relative
pronouns (relative pronouns without antecedent).
- The waiter will tease whomever he likes.
- She said whatever Came to mind.
- Let in whoever Come to me.
What word can also be used as indefinite relative pronouns, eg:
- I will tell you what you need to know.
- I know what I like.
Notes:

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IF CONDITIONAL, NOUN PHRASE, AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

1. Who referred to as the subject pronoun and the object pronoun whom. This may be compared with he and
him, for hire and prototypes, etc.
- The man who was there (compare 'he was there')
- The man whom I saw (compare 'I saw him')
2. Whom said more often used in formal English. In everyday usage, both in speech and in writing, whom is
usually replaced with who.
- The man who I saw
- The man who you were speaking to
3. Whom who can not be replaced by any previous preceded by preposition.
- The man to whom you were speaking
- Sonny Smith elected chairman, than whom there could not have been no better choice.
Usually this form of preposition + whom worn in formal English.
Indefinite relative pronouns have the property that there are at relative pronouns or indefinite pronouns.
Types of pronouns, such as pointing at a noun, but the person or thing in question is not mentioned explicitly.

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