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Original Title: MELJUN CORTES ALGORITHM Transform-And-Conquer Algorithm Design Technique

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design technique

Application of Transform-and-Conquer algorithm

design technique in the following algorithms:

Presorting algorithm

Gaussian Elimination

Balanced search tree

Problem reduction

* Property of STI

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problem by modifying instance to a simple one

applied in the same or different problem

involves three variations :

1. Instance simplification

2.

Representation Change

3.

Problem Reduction

* Property of STI

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instance simplification through presorting and

Gaussian elimination

representation change through balanced search

trees, heaps and Horners rule

problem reduction through least common multiple

and optimization

* Property of STI

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Presorting

data are sorted to make computation easier

solves instance of problem by transforming into

another simplified instance of the same problem

Many problems involving lists are easier to be solved

when list is sorted.

searching

computing the median

checking if all elements are distinct (element

uniqueness)

sorting

Geometric algorithms

* Property of STI

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binary search which requires only [log2n]+1

comparison in a worst case.

The total running time in the worst case will be:

geometric algorithms engaging with sets of points.

* Property of STI

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The following equations illustrates the Gaussian

Elimination algorithm:

* Property of STI

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application of Gaussian elimination application:

equation and moving up to the first one.

* Property of STI

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Ax = B

Ax = B

where:

* Property of STI

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operations:

this equation and some multiple of another equation

* Property of STI

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2x1 x2 + x3 = 1

4x1 + x2 x3 = 5

x1 + x 2 + x3 = 0

Solution:

We will start by creating the matrix. Subtract 2 *

row 1. Afterwards, subtract * row 1.

* Property of STI

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X3 = (-2)/2 = -1, x 2 = (3-(-3) x 3)/3 =0,

and

x1 = (1-x 3-(-1)x2)/2 = 1

* Property of STI

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Pseudo code:

// Gaussian Elimination (A(1..n, 1, n], b[1..n])

// Uses Gaussian elimination to matrix A of a

systems coefficients

//augmented with vector b of the systems righthand side values

//input: Matrix A[i, n+ 1] and column vector b[1..n]

//output: An equivalent upper-triangular matrix in

place of A with the corresponding right-hand side

values in the (n+1) column

* Property of STI

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systems coefficients

//augmented with vector b of the systems righthand side values

//input: Matrix A[i, n+ 1] and column vector b[1..n]

//output: An equivalent upper-triangular matrix in

place of A with the corresponding right-hand side

values in the (n+1) column

* Property of STI

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composed of nodes that contains elements of a set

of ordered items.

the root while all elements of the right subtree

should be greater than or equal to the root.

* Property of STI

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AVL Tree

the heights of the subtrees must differ by not

more than 1

each node is greater than its predecessor.

* Property of STI

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below.

* Property of STI

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Left of left

Right of right

Left of right

Right of left

* Property of STI

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high node has also become the left high node

Example: The figure below illustrates a sample

AVL tree before inserting 8.

Out of

balance

at 20

LH

BEFORE

INSERTING 8

LH

LH

AFTER

INSERTING 8

Transform-and-Conquer Algorithm Design Technique

* Property of STI

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also become the right high

Example: The figure below illustrates the right of

right case.

BEFORE

INSERTING 38

RH

RH

RH

AFTER

INSERTING 38

Transform-and-Conquer Algorithm Design Technique

* Property of STI

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become the right high

Example: The figure below illustrates the right of

left case.

BEFORE

INSERTING 15

RH

LH

AFTER

INSERTING 15

Transform-and-Conquer Algorithm Design Technique

* Property of STI

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become the left high

Example: The figure below illustrates the left of

right case.

AFTER

INSERTING 18

BEFORE

INSERTING 18

LH

RH

* Property of STI

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unbalancing of trees.

* Property of STI

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an unbalanced tree by rotating the edge

connecting the root and its left child in the binary

tree

left rotation.

* Property of STI

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left rotation but in opposite direction

right rotation.

* Property of STI

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case of unbalanced tree

left-right rotation

* Property of STI

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case of unbalanced tree

right-left rotation

* Property of STI

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Binary Search tree

The inequalities immediately imply that the

operations of searching and insertion are (log n)

in the worst case.

* Property of STI

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given problem to another problem using a known

algorithm

* Property of STI

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Solution:

Given three numbers a, b, and c, where:

o a is the width of a normal space

o b is the width of an option-space

o c is the amount we want to indent

Find two more numbers

x is the number of normal spaces to be

used

y is the number of option-spaces to be

used

* Property of STI

Page 29 of 30

Any

Questions?

* Property of STI

Page 30 of 30

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