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Development of Surfaces

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SURFACE

DEVELOPMENT

Development of Surfaces

The development of

surface of an object

means the unrolling

and unfolding of all

surfaces of the object

on a plane

If the surface of a

solid is laid out on a

plain surface, the

shape thus obtained

is called the

development of that

solid

shape of a plain sheet that by proper

folding could be converted into the

shape of the concerned solid.

Knowledge of

development is very

useful in sheet metal

work, construction of

storage vessels, chemical

vessels, boilers, chimneys

etc.

Such vessels are manufactured

from plates/sheets that are cut

according to these developments

and then properly bend into

desired shaped and the joints are

welded or riveted.

the true length of the corresponding line on

the surface which is developed.

Methods of Surface Development are:

2. Radial line development

3. Triangulation development

4. Approximate development

1. Parallel line development

uses parallel lines to construct the expanded pattern of each

three-dimensional shape. The method divides the surface into

a series of parallel lines to determine the shape of a pattern

Example: Prism, Cylinder.

2. Radial line development

Radial line development uses lines radiating from a central

point to construct the expanded pattern of each threedimensional shape.

Example: Cone, Pyramid.

3. Triangulation developments

Are made from polyhedrons, single-curved surfaces, and

wrapped surfaces.

It is used for developing transition pieces

This is done by assuming the surface to be made from a series

of triangular surfaces laid side-by-side to form the

development

Example: Tetrahedron and other polyhedrons.

In approximate development,

the shape obtained is only approximate. After joining, the part

is stretched or distorted to obtain the final shape.

Example: Sphere

Development of a Cylinder

Draw the plan & elevation of the cylinder

Divide the plan in to equal parts (i.e. 8, 12)

Draw horizontal lines A-A and A1-A1 from the side of the elevation

The length of these lines is D (circumference of the cylinder)

Divide the stretch-out line into the equal number of same parts as the

plan (i.e. 8, 12)

The rectangle (A- A; A1- A1), gives the development of the cylinder.

Side view

Draw the (truncated) cone elevation and plan

views as shown.

Divide the plan view into equal parts/segments

(i.e. 12)

Transfer these points to the elevation.

Development of a Pyramid

square pyramid

Find the true length of the slant edge

0 11

Take radius = length 0 - 11 with any

centre o, draw an arc of a circle.

Choose any point 1 on the arc and

join it to point o (centre of the arc).

On the plan view, use length 1-2, 2-3,

3-4, 4-1 to mark off four division

along the arc as 1, 2, 3, 4 etc. Join 1,

2, 3 and 4 along with 01. Join 1 to 2,

2 to 3, 3 to 4 and 4 to 1 with straight

lines.

the pyramid (i.e. 50 mm) mark

four divisions on the

The 4 isosceles triangles

represent the lateral

development of the pyramid.

Development of a Truncated Pyramid

Draw the front and plan view of the

Draw the front and top views of the

truncated pyramid

On the plan, draw the diagonal 1-3, 2-4 to

meet at 0. Numbered the plan and project to

the front as shown

Extend centre 0 horizontally. 0-1 as radius,

draw an arc to meet 11

11. Join 11 to 0 (equals the true length of

the slanting side)

Drop off the cutting points a b c d on the

elevation to meet the plan at d, c, b and a

respectively

..Truncated Pyramid cont.

0-11 as radius with centre 0, draw an arc.

Join any point 1 to centre 0 of the arc

to cut points along the arc and number the

points as 1, 2, 4, 1. Join these points to

centre 0.

0-a as radius, with centre 0, draw an inner

(smaller) arc.

Use length a-b, b-c, c-d and d-a, from the

plan, locate 5 points A, B, C, D and A on the

inner arc.

arc to form the development of the

truncated pyramid

3. Triangulation developments

Transition pieces are the sheet metal used for connecting

pipes or openings either of different shapes of cross sections or

of same cross sections but not arranged in identical positions.

3. Triangulation developments

In this method, the lateral surfaces of the transition

pieces are divided in to a number of triangles

By finding the true lengths of the sides of each triangle

triangles in their true shapes adjoining each other.

Triangulation method

ELEVATION

PLAN

Triangulation method

Draw the elevation and the plan view

as shown

divided into eight equal parts 1,2,3,4,

etc.

Join pts 1,2,3,4 and 5 to pt. a. and 5, 6,

7, 8, 9 to pt b.

Triangulation method

triangles 1da, 5ab, 9bc, and 13cd and

4 curved triangles 1a5, 5b9, 9c13 and

13d1

Triangulation method

Project points 1,2,3,etc to the

front view to meet 1,2,3. etc.

Connect 1, 2, 3 etc to a and 5,

6, 7, 8 9 to b.

Triangulation method

Draw vertical line XY. The

first triangle to be drawn is

1pa (from plan)

The true length of sides 1p

and 1a are found from the

true length diagram.

Triangulation method

To get true length of sides 1p

& 1a

step off the distances 1p and

1a on the horizontal drawn

through X to get the point 1P

and 1A.

Connect these two points to

Y. The length Y-1P and Y-1A

are the true lengths of the

sides 1p and 1a respectively.

Triangulation method

DEVELOPMENT

Draw line 1P = Y-1P

Draw an arc with center 1

and radius Y-1A.

P as center & radius pa,

(from plan view) draw an arc

to cut the line 1-A at A.

Triangulation method

length of the line 2a (i.e. Y-2A), draw an arc.

With 1 as center & radius 1-2 (T.V),

draw another arc intersecting the

pervious arc at 2.

Triangulation method

A -1 -2 -3 - 4 - 5 is the development of the

curved triangle 1-a-5.

AB is the true length of the plain triangle a-5-b.

the other three curved triangles

and plain triangles.

Triangulation method

A as center & radius = true length of the line 2a (i.e. Y-2A), draw an

arc.

With 11 as center & radius = 1-2 (T.V), draw another arc

intersecting the pervious arc at 2.

Triangulation method

A -11-21-31- 41- 51 is the development of the curved triangle 1-a-5.

AB is the true length of the plain triangle a-5-b.

Similar procedure is repeated for the other three curved triangles

and plain triangles.

THANK YOU

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