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ATS-QSIG

Digital Signalling

Training Documentation

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Copyright Notice
2014 JSP Teleconsultancy . All rights reserved.
JSP Teleconsultancy has the exclusive rights to present Air Traffic Services Ground Voice Network Communication courses, including ATSQSIG courses under a Licence Agreement (L/01/03-JSP/QSIG) with EUROCONTROL Institute of Air Navigation Services. This
documentation has been produced by JSP Teleconsultancy and may only be used in the framework of the Licence Agreement and/or in
relation with the pertinent Eurocontrol courses, workshops and seminars. The reproduction of this material is permitted for personal and noncommercial purposes only. This is subject to the material being reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context. This document
or CD-ROM may be copied to third parties under the same restrictions, provided the source is acknowledged.
Any other use is subject to prior written consent by JSP Teleconsultancy.
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Table of Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 7
Introduction to QSIG ....................................................................................................................................... 8
Course Objectives -DAY 1 ............................................................................................................................ 10
Course Objectives - DAY 2 ..............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.

INTRODUCTION TO QSIG ........................................................................................................... 13


What is QSIG ?............................................................................................................................................. 14
Why is it called QSIG ? ................................................................................................................................. 14
Migration to ATS-QSIG ................................................................................................................................. 16
What is a corporate network ? ...................................................................................................................... 16
Basic Corporate Network Example ............................................................................................................... 18
Modern Corporate Network example ............................................................................................................ 20
Advantages of Corporate networks .............................................................................................................. 22

3.

BENEFITS OF ATS-QSIG ............................................................................................................ 25


ATS-QSIG offers: Interoperability between systems with common interfaces .............................................. 26
ATS-QSIG offers: Fast call performance ...................................................................................................... 26
ATS-QSIG offers: Feature transparency ...................................................................................................... 28
ATS-QSIG offers: Innovation ........................................................................................................................ 28
ATS-QSIG offers: Compliancy with international standards ......................................................................... 30
ATS-QSIG offers: Better Noise, Error correction and Crosstalk performance .............................................. 30
ATS-QSIG offers: 3 calls per 64kbps digital link ........................................................................................... 32
ATS-QSIG offers: Reduced Leased Line Costs............................................................................................ 32
ATS-QSIG offers: Improved link reliability (1) ............................................................................................... 34
ATS-QSIG offers: Improved link reliability (2) ............................................................................................... 34
ATS-QSIG offers: Priority call interoperability ............................................................................................... 36
ATS-QSIG Supplementary Services- Priority Calls inhibited ........................................................................ 38
ATS-QSIG Supplementary Services-Priority calls enabled .......................................................................... 40
ATS-QSIG Tester- Standard Items Supplied ................................................................................................ 42
QSIG offers: Supplementary Services .......................................................................................................... 44

4.

INSIDE QSIG ................................................................................................................................ 49


Private Integrated Services Network Overview............................................................................................. 50
OSI reference model applied to QSIG .......................................................................................................... 52
Definitions for Gateway, Transit, Originating and Terminating etc. ............................................................... 54

5.

QSIG OSI LAYER 1 ...................................................................................................................... 57


Role of QSIG Layer 1 ................................................................................................................................... 58
Key references for QSIG Layer 1 ................................................................................................................. 58
ATS-QSIG uses LD-CELP voice coding ....................................................................................................... 60
LD-CELP Voice Encoding ............................................................................................................................ 62
G.728 LD-CELP Voice Encoder/Decoder ..................................................................................................... 64
LD-CELP post filter/ synchronization ............................................................................................................ 64
LD-CELP Encoder/Decoder Sync ................................................................................................................. 66
ECMA 253 standard mapping....................................................................................................................... 68
ECMA 253 Line Bit Sequence ...................................................................................................................... 70
Co-directional interface G.703 (1)................................................................................................................. 70
Co-directional line encoding ......................................................................................................................... 72
ATS-QSIG- Bipolar Code violation method (Octet timing signal) ................................................................... 72

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Octet integrity transport problem .................................................................................................................. 74


Solutions to transport octet integrity ............................................................................................................. 74
X.21 to G.703 co-directional interface converters ......................................................................................... 76
Co-directional without octet integrity signal .................................................................................................. 76
ATS-QSIG HDLC flag search method (Autoseek) ....................................................................................... 76

6.

QSIG OSI LAYER 2: LAP-D ......................................................................................................... 79


Role and Objective of QSIG layer 2 .............................................................................................................. 80
Key references to QSIG Layer 2 (LAP D) ..................................................................................................... 80
QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Services .................................................................................................................... 82
QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Functions (1) ............................................................................................................. 82
QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Functions (2) ............................................................................................................. 84
HDLC Frame Structure ................................................................................................................................. 84
The Flag Sequence ...................................................................................................................................... 86
The Address Field ........................................................................................................................................ 88
The Control Field (1)..................................................................................................................................... 90
The Control Field (2)..................................................................................................................................... 90
The Control Field (3)..................................................................................................................................... 92
The Control Field (4)..................................................................................................................................... 94
Information and Frame Check Sequence Fields........................................................................................... 96
Multiple frame Establishment........................................................................................................................ 96
Multiple frame Disconnect ............................................................................................................................ 98
Multiple frame Information Transfer .............................................................................................................. 98
Example of being unstable in state 4 .......................................................................................................... 100

7.

QSIG OSI LAYER 3 SUB-LAYER 1: BASIC CALL (BC) .......................................................... 103


Role and Objectives of QSIG Layer 3 ......................................................................................................... 104
Key references to QSIG Layer 3 Basic Call (BC) ....................................................................................... 104
Basic QSIG Protocol model ........................................................................................................................ 106
Full QSIG Protocol model ........................................................................................................................... 108
QSIG messages ......................................................................................................................................... 110
Call Establishment for ATS-QSIG............................................................................................................... 112
Call Establishment Call Control States for ATS-QSIG ................................................................................ 114
Call Establishment Protocol Timers for ATS-QSIG..................................................................................... 116
Call Clearing ............................................................................................................................................... 116
Call Clearing call control states .................................................................................................................. 118
Call Clearing Protocol Timers ..................................................................................................................... 120
Call Clearing from A side prior to channel assignment ............................................................................... 120
Call Clearing from the A side after channel assignment ............................................................................. 122
Call Clearing from B side prior to channel assignment ............................................................................... 122
Call Clearing from B side after channel assignment ................................................................................... 124
ATS-QSIG Call Establishment with Transit PINX ....................................................................................... 126
Call Clearing with Transit PINX .................................................................................................................. 128
Call Rejection of a Transit call at PINX C ................................................................................................... 130
Call Clearing with Transit PINX prior to channel assignment in PINX C ..................................................... 132
Call Collisions ............................................................................................................................................. 134
Simultaneous Call Attempts........................................................................................................................ 134

8.

QSIG MESSAGE STRUCTURES AND TYPES ......................................................................... 137


QSIG frame (Message structure)................................................................................................................ 138
The Protocol Discriminator Field................................................................................................................. 138
The Call Reference Field ............................................................................................................................ 140
The Mesage Type Field (1)......................................................................................................................... 142

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The Message Type Field (2) ....................................................................................................................... 142


The Message Type Field (3) ....................................................................................................................... 144
The Message Type Field (4) ....................................................................................................................... 144
The Information Field.................................................................................................................................. 146
General Structure of the Information Elements........................................................................................... 148
Setup message........................................................................................................................................... 150
Call Proceeding Message ........................................................................................................................... 152
Alerting and Connect Messages ................................................................................................................. 152
Disconnect Message .................................................................................................................................. 154
Release and Release Complete Messages ................................................................................................ 154
Progress Message...................................................................................................................................... 156
Restart and Restart Acknowledge messages ............................................................................................. 156
Status message .......................................................................................................................................... 158
Facility Message ......................................................................................................................................... 158
Notify Message ........................................................................................................................................... 160
General Structure of the Facility & Notification Information elements ......................................................... 162

9.

QSIG OSI LAYER 3 SUB-LAYER 2: GENERIC FUNCTIONAL PROTOCOL .......................... 165


Key references to QSIG sub-layer 2: Generic Functional Protocol ............................................................. 166
Generic Functional Protocol (GFP) ............................................................................................................. 166
Corporate Network of PINXs ...................................................................................................................... 168

10. QSIG OSI LAYER 3 SUB-LAYER 3: SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES ..................................... 171


Key references to ATS-QSIG layer 3 Supplementary Services .................................................................. 172
QSIG supplementary services standardisation methodology ..................................................................... 174
Transit Counter (TC) ................................................................................................................................... 174
ATS-QSIG Supplementary Services - Call Intrusion................................................................................... 176
Routine/Priority calls ................................................................................................................................... 176
Call Intrusion FACILITY message types ..................................................................................................... 178
Call Intrusion example (1) ........................................................................................................................... 178
Call Intrusion example (2) ........................................................................................................................... 180
Call Intrusion to non-busy user example .................................................................................................... 180
Call Intrusion to protected user example .................................................................................................... 182
Call Priority Interrupt (1) ............................................................................................................................. 182
Call Priority Interrupt FACILITY message types ......................................................................................... 184
Call Priority Interrupt example .................................................................................................................... 186
Call Priority Interrupt -CPIPL negotiation example ..................................................................................... 188
Call Priority Interrupt - when all calls protected........................................................................................... 192

11. ATS-QSIG GATEWAY EXAMPLES ........................................................................................... 195


Need for a Gateway.................................................................................................................................... 196
MSC for Incoming Gateway example (1) .................................................................................................... 198
MSC for Incoming Gateway example (2) .................................................................................................... 200
MSC for Outgoing Gateway example (1) .................................................................................................... 202
MSC for Outgoing Gateway example (2) .................................................................................................... 204
Outgoing Gateway Mapping ATS-R2 status number to ATS-QSIG cause number .................................... 206
Incoming Gateway Mapping ATS-QSIG cause number to ATS-R2 status number .................................... 208
Incoming Gateway Mapping ATS-QSIG cause number to ATS-R2 Release line signal ............................. 210
Incoming Gateway Priority Level Mapping ................................................................................................. 212
Outgoing Gateway Priority Level Mapping ................................................................................................. 212
ATS-QSIG v SIP Incoming Gateway example (1) ...................................................................................... 214
ATS-QSIG v SIP Incoming Gateway example (2) ...................................................................................... 214
ATS-QSIG v SIP Outgoing Gateway example (1) ...................................................................................... 216

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ATS-QSIG v SIP Outgoing Gateway example (2) ...................................................................................... 216


Gateway Plugtests Event ........................................................................................................................... 218
Gateway Plugtest Test Configuration ......................................................................................................... 218
SIP to ATS-QSIG/ATS-R2 Gateway Test Results ...................................................................................... 220

12. ATS QSIG FIELD TRIAL TEST .................................................................................................. 223


PICS Proforma and PIXIT Proforma ........................................................................................................... 224
Layer 3 Basic Call PICS (1) ........................................................................................................................ 224
Layer 3 Basic Call PICS (2) ........................................................................................................................ 226
Conformance test case example (1) ........................................................................................................... 228
Interoperability test example (1) ................................................................................................................. 232
Interoperability test example (2) ................................................................................................................. 234

13. ATS-QSIG TESTER (PUMA) ...................................................................................................... 237


PUMA 4600E .............................................................................................................................................. 238
PUMA front panel ....................................................................................................................................... 238
Interfacing to the PUMA 4600E .................................................................................................................. 240
Codirectional Monitor.................................................................................................................................. 240
ATS-QSIG call setup .................................................................................................................................. 242
ATS-QSIG parameters ............................................................................................................................... 242
Using ATS-QSIG call setup -Link control .................................................................................................... 244
Using ATS-QSIG call setup: Call control .................................................................................................... 244
Using ATS-QSIG call setup: Traffic generation .......................................................................................... 246
Protocol Monitor ......................................................................................................................................... 246
Filtering the captured data .......................................................................................................................... 248
Triggering ................................................................................................................................................... 248
Protocol Log ............................................................................................................................................... 250

14. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................ 253


Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 254

GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................................ 257

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Introduction

1. Introduction

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Introduction to QSIG
ATS QSIG and its application to Air Traffic Services Ground Voice Networks
Course Description
QSIG is a digital signalling protocol used for communications between multi-supplier nodes in a
Private Telecommunications Network.
It therefore allows products from different vendors to work together.
The new ECMA and ETSI approved ATS QSIG digital signalling protocol has been introduced within
Europe and globally over the digital links of the operational Air Traffi c Services Ground Voice
Network.
This 2 day course has been designed to introduce the general aspects of ATS-QSIG and its
implementation in an Air Traffic Services Ground Voice Network on DAY 1. An in depth assessment of
all technical aspects and in the field issues relating to ATS-QSIG using the OSI model approach then
follows on DAY 2.

Benefits for the Course participants


At the end of the course, you will have acquired a deeper understanding of ATS-QSIG and its
application to Air Traffic Services Ground Voice Networks.
In particular:
DAY 1
- Introduction to QSIG and Benefits of QSIG
- QSIG terminology
- ATS QSIG Layer 1 aspects (Line interfaces, Voice compression etc.)
- ATS QSIG Layer 2 Data link functionality
- ATS QSIG Layer 3 Basic and Transit Call, Message Structures and Types
- ATS QSIG Layer 3 Generic Functional Protocol
- ATS-QSIG Supplementary Services and Additional Network Features
- ATS QSIG Gateway examples
- ATS QSIG Conformance and Interoperability Testing issues

Course suitable for


Professionals within various sectors of the aeronautical industry who need to develop a greater
understanding of ATS QSIG, from the basics through to the practical in the field issues.
DAY 1 and is suited to participants with Commercial or Telecommunications background, whereas
DAY 2 is suited to participants with a Telecommunications background.
The Introduction to QSIG has been prepared by and is being presented by John Palmer, from
JSP-Teleconsultancy.

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION TO ATS-QSIG
Part 1
Presented by
JOHN PALMER

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Course Objectives -DAY 1

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Introduction

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ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

12

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Introduction to QSIG

2. Introduction to QSIG

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What is QSIG ?
QSIG is an ISDN based protocol for signalling between nodes of a Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) or
a Corporate Network.
QSIG allows products from different vendors to work together.
N.B. Private Integrated services Network Exchange (PINX): a generic term used to cover various types of
corporate networking equipment such as PABX, multiplexer, CENTREX, etc., etc.
As far back as 1988, the European Commission pushed for European standards to be produced for private
telecommunication networks. This was in line with its single market targets to eliminate technical barriers to trade,
ensure fair competition within the European Union and strengthen European competitiveness in the global market
place. With the co-operation of the PABX manufacturers a programme of work was started with the primary aim
to develop standards to permit advanced networking of equipment such as PABXs and compatible services
offered by Public Network Operators such as Virtual Private Networking and CENTREX services. The ITU-T
(Blue Book) Recommendations of 1988 on ISDN were the agreed starting point from which to develop the future
private networking standards that later became known as "QSIG".
The first European telecommunication standards for QSIG were published in the early 1990s and references to
these standards have been published in the European Community's Official Journal as required by the
Community Directives on standardisation.
The liberalisation process has moved ahead faster than many predicted. Total liberalisation of voice services in
the European Community took effect from 1998. This prospect opens the way for a myriad of options for medium
and large corporations to consider in defining how their total telecommunications needs should be met into the
21st century. What will be the role of standards in this future "open market" for telecommunications services?
Clearly, there are substantial benefits in having a multi-vendor environment building upon the broad deployment
of a voluntary standard networking protocol that is:
1.

a 'high' platform upon which competitive features and applications can be built, and

2.

that can interface effectively with the open telecommunications infrastructure supporting ISDN and thereby
preparing for the Information Society in the private sectors.

Why is it called QSIG ?


The slide illustrates the ITU-T ISDN reference model extended for corporate networks, showing all the reference
points;
In extending the ITU-T ISDN reference model to include PINX to PINX signalling used in private ISDNs it was
necessary to identify two new points, called "Q" and "C".
The "Q" reference point is the logical signalling point between two PINXs. The physical connection to the PINXs
is made at the "C" reference point. The Intervening Network (IVN) and can be either dedicated channels
(analogue or digital) or switched connections (for Virtual Private Networks).
An overview of the reference points for public ISDN and private ISDN is shown in the slide. Some differences
between public ISDN and private ISDN can be seen. Within the public ISDN the two end PINXs are connected
through two reference points using different ISDN protocols; namely DSS1 at the "T" reference point and ISUP
within the public ISDN at the "N" reference point. For private ISDNs, only one protocol is necessary as the QSIG
protocols have sufficient functionality to be used both within the network at transit nodes and on the outside at
access nodes. Hence QSIG is used between all three PINXs.
At the "C" Reference point a variety of interface dependent protocols can occur, depending on the type of
Intervening Network (IVN). These IVNs need not be ISDNs. However, it is generally assumed that a digital circuit
presented as a G.703 interface is used.

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Introduction to QSIG

What is QSIG ?

QSIG is an ISDN based protocol for


signalling between nodes of a Private
Integrated Services Network (PISN) or a
Corporate Network;
QSIG is a modern, powerful and intelligent
inter-PINX signalling system designed
specifically to meet requirements for
sophisticated communications services;
QSIG allows products from different
vendors to interwork together.

Why is it called QSIG ?


TE

TE
S

TE
S
T

PINX
1

PINX
2

Inter-PINX control

1..8

TE

S
U

PUBLIC
ISDN

PUBLIC
ISDN

TE

S
T

PINX
3

INTERVENING NETWORK
Inter-PINX control

PISN Private Integrated Services Network


PINX Private Integrated Network Exchange

Q reference point: is the logical


signalling point between 2 PINXs.
C reference point: is the physical
connection between 2 PINXs

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Migration to ATS-QSIG

ATS Ground Voice Network currently migrating from analogue to digital infrastrutures;

Eurocontrol designed ATS QSIG (ECMA approved) adaptation of QSIG especially for needs of air
traffic control;

Eurocontrol has successfully tested ATS QSIG functionality with European and Oceanic Gateway
Field Trials;

For ANSPs implies: Reduced Leased Line costs, Better speech quality and fast call set-up times
and replacement of analogue networks (ATS R2 signalling);

What is a corporate network ?


A network serving a defined and limited group of users; typically members of a single organisation
The term "Corporate Network (CN)" describes a network serving a defined and limited group of users; typically,
members of a single organisation.
Corporate Networks are often referred to as "Private Networks" and at one time this was quite correct. If an
organisation wanted to establish an internal communications network it would rent some leased circuits from a
Public Telecommunications network Operator (PTO), buy some PABXs and employ a switchboard operator to
handle incoming calls. With advances in technology, and in particular, the introduction of sophisticated computer
controlled exchanges into public telecommunications networks, this is no longer strictly the case. Today a
Corporate Network is just as likely to be constructed using Centrex and/or Virtual Private Network (VPN) services
offered by PTOs. Hybrid networks are also possible, in which some components (such as leased circuits,
Centrex, or Virtual Private Network (VPN) facilities) are owned and run by a PTO, while other components (e.g.,
PABXs, Routers) are owned and managed by the Organisation itself.
A network that was once privately owned may now be out-sourced to a third party who will own and operate the
network on behalf of the user organisation. The third party may even acquire a licence to resell network capacity
to several or many customers. The distinction between such private networks and true public networks is
becoming more blurred. Increasingly it is a distinction based on different licensing regimes rather than distinctions
based on technology or ownership.
From the point of view of Standards this means that whereas in the past the needs of private networks could be
satisfied with a relatively small number of Standards, today this is no longer the case. There is a complex set of
some 200 Standards for Corporate Networks that continues to evolve faster than ever before to keep up with
changes in business communications practices and technologies. It becomes an ever harder task for the
Standards user, whether they are engineers working for an equipment manufacturer, product managers
employed by a Network Operator or Service Provider, or telecoms managers looking after the communications
needs of a Corporation (large or small), to keep track of what is applicable and how it might affect their business.

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Introduction to QSIG

Migration to ATS-QSIG

ATS Ground Voice Network currently migrating from


analogue to digital infrastrutures;
Eurocontrol designed ATS QSIG (ECMA approved)
adaptation of QSIG especially for needs of air traffic
control;
Eurocontrol has successfully tested ATS QSIG
functionality with European and Oceanic Gateway Field
Trials;
For ANSPs implies: Reduced Leased Line costs, Better
speech quality and fast call set-up times and
replacement of analogue networks (ATS R2 signalling);

What is a corporate
network ?

A network serving a defined and limited


group of users; typically members of a
single organisation.

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Basic Corporate Network Example


Traditionally, organisations used PABX systems as a platform for voice communications to improve internal and
external contact by allowing people to reach each other and pass information in an efficient manner.
Originally, PABX systems in geographically remote sites were linked either by the public telecommunication
network or by simple analogue "tie lines" allowing the transfer of basic voice-band information between the
PABXs. These simple networks were the forerunners of today's, complex, CTNs (Corporate Telecommunication
Networks).
The slide shows an Basic Corporate network with two "Private Integrated Network Exchanges" (PINXs) located at
two different sites, connected via an analogue tie-line, in order that users of PINX 1 can make calls to users of
PINX 2 and vice versa.

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Introduction to QSIG

Basic Corporate Network


Example

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Modern Corporate Network example


As business practices have changed, so has the manner in which information used in business is transferred.
Telecommunications is no longer solely about the exchange of voice signals between people; it now covers the
transmission of voice, data, video, images and multimedia traffic between people or machines.
Demands for communication systems have changed as business practices have evolved. Signalling systems for
corporate networking have also evolved and improved to match the changing demand. Analogue tie lines, still
have their place, however, by themselves they rarely form the main trunks for the modern CTN. Generally,
analogue tie lines have been replaced by higher speed digital services and the networks themselves have
become more sophisticated.
Network Operator provided services have also evolved and improved; ISDN is growing as an important access
for wide area communications through the public network infrastructure and many business applications have
been developed to utilise the benefits of ISDN.
Network Operator provided services, including ISDN, are adequate for the needs of many domestic and small
business users.
The users often require modern corporate networks to comprise of PINX (Private Integrated services Network
Exchange) equipment supplied by more than one vendor. Reasons for multi-vendor networks are numerous and
can include: - multi-supplier purchasing strategies, mergers and acquisitions, regional maintenance
arrangements and joint ventures.
For many companies, expenditure on telecommunication represents a major expense and communications
managers need to adopt strategies with care. If a CTN is to be employed then three main requirements are
placed on the network; these are:
1.

expenditure must be future proofed; it must be protected against further evolution making current equipment
incompatible or obsolete.

2.

that a standard network interface be supplied by all vendors to allow direct interconnection of, and reliable
communication between, PINX; and

3.

that the network supports existing business applications, thus bringing the benefits of those applications to
the corporate network.

The Slide illustrates a "Modern Corporate Network", as a whole network of PINXs, interconnected by digital
leased lines. Some of the PINXs are terminal nodes, others are transit nodes and some are both. Each of the
PINXs shown in the illustration has different types of terminals connected at its User-Network Interface. These
range from the ordinary simple telephones, ISDN feature phones and Mobile telephony (e.g. DECT system) to
Multi-media terminals with either a direct interface or interfaced through the "S" bus. The Corporate Network
might involve interaction with "Private Network Operators" (PNO) who are also able to supply services across the
network.

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Introduction to QSIG

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Advantages of Corporate networks


For a variety of reasons, many corporations find it advantageous to supplement Network Operator services and
operate their own corporate communications networks. Nodes in such networks can be connected by dedicated
links or by Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).
Many companies believe that their corporate network is a key factor in the success of their business.
Some of the main advantages of operating a CTN are:

reduced communications costs;

the ability to manage the network and the services it provides according to (evolving) business needs;

improved security and confidentiality;

the increased number of facilities; and

use of customised features to provide a competitive business edge.

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Introduction to QSIG

Advantages of Corporate
networks

Reduced communications costs;


Ability to manage the network and services it
provides according to evolving business
needs;
Improve security and confidentiality;
Increased number of facilities;
Use of customized features to provide a
competitive business edge;

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ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

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Benefits of ATS-QSIG

3. Benefits of ATS-QSIG

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ATS-QSIG offers: Interoperability between systems with common


interfaces
QSIG provides an extremely powerful method of connecting PINX equipment in a corporate network. The
flexibility of QSIG is best demonstrated by reviewing the benefits that QSIG brings to the user. These are
numerous and discussed below:

Vendor independence: QSIG is not a proprietary standard. It is an open, international standard and it is
supported by the world's leading PABX suppliers - Customers can purchase equipment from more than one
supplier;

Guaranteed inter-operability: Twelve of the world's leading PABX manufacturers signed a memorandum of
understanding concerning the development and support of QSIG. The MoU became effective in February
1994 and it commits the signatories to facilitate the performance of inter-operability tests. The multi-vendor
commitment to QSIG means that users can confidently operate corporate networks that comprise of PINX
equipment supplied by a variety of suppliers.

Free form topology: The use of QSIG does not impose the use of a specific network topology and it can be
used with any network configuration: meshed, star, main and satellite, etc. Existing networks can, regardless
of their topology, be upgraded to QSIG. New networks can be installed using the most effective and
economical topology.

Unlimited number of nodes: There is no limitation on the number of nodes that can be used in a QSIG
network. New nodes can be added to the network as business needs dictate.

Flexible numbering plan: QSIG does not impose any restriction on the numbering plan for the network. The
network designer/communications manager is free to adopt the most suitable numbering plan.

ATS-QSIG offers: Fast call performance


The slide has the scope of highlighting the difference in typical call performance parameters between ATS-QSIG
digital signalling and ATS-R2 and ATS No.5 analogue signalling systems over a direct point to point route. The
best and worse case call establishment times are compared for digital and analogue signalling systems.
The typical call performance parameter over two links (through a transit node) is also defined.

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Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG offers: Interoperability between


systems with common interfaces
SUPPLIER A

Vendor
independence;
Guaranteed interoperability;
Free form topology
Unlimited number of
nodes;
Flexible numbering
SUPPLIER C
plan;

SUPPLIER B

64kb/s
Co-directional
leased lines

SUPPLIER D

ATS-QSIG offers: Fast call


performance
VCS A

Direct Point-to-Point Route:


ATS-QSIG call alerting
Faster than 1 second

VCS B

Direct Network Route through


1 transit VCS
ATS-QSIG call alerting
Faster than 1.5 seconds

Direct Point to Point Route comparison


ATS-QSIG: 0.2s Best
0.9s Worse
ATS-R2: 1.92s Best
3.35s Worst
ATS No.5: 1.69s Best
2.90s Worse

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VCS C

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ATS-QSIG offers: Feature transparency


Feature transparency: QSIG is an intelligent and powerful signalling system, providing great flexibility in terms
of network architecture. When a network node provides a particular service to users, then that node must
understand the specific part of the protocol needed to handle the service.
It does not follow that all nodes in the network must offer the same set of services. When a node does not
provide a particular service, it simply transfers the information to another node, which has the appropriate
functions.
QSIG is structured and organized to adapt to service levels offered by different systems and it allows each
network node to provide only the required level of service. The QSIG network can exchange high level services
between two nodes, via nodes with lower service levels.

ATS-QSIG offers: Innovation


Innovation: Manufacturers supporting QSIG are still free to develop custom, innovative features for particular
customers and/or markets. A special mechanism within QSIG - Generic Functional Procedures (QSIG-GF),
provides a standardised method of transporting non-standard features.
Basic rules related to transparency, defined in QSIG GF, allow end to end communication through the network,
what ever its structure. As illustrated in the slide, innovative services provided by Manufacturer A are available
between sites 1&2, even when the call is routed via a PINX that does not itself support the innovative service.
QSIG does not deny the use of innovative features within CTNs and users are free to negotiate the development
and supply of customised features with the PINX vendor.

28

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG offers: Feature


transparency

ATS-QSIG offers: Innovation

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

29

ATS-QSIG offers: Compliancy with international standards


With the assistance of PQM Consultants, EUROCONTROL developed a specification (informally,
"ATS-QSIG") for the use of a digital signalling system ( QSIG / PSS1 ) in ground voice
communications networks. This specification has now reached the end of extensive and detailed
evaluation through implementation testing and trialling. Its existence will allow ANSPs with
responsibility for air traffic control to procure communications equipment that will be interoperable
across national borders.
In parallel to the testing and trialling activities presently in progress, EUROCONTROL and PQM
Consultants initiated procedures in ECMA and ETSI to allow the specification to be formally adopted
as a European Norme (EN). This process gives a legal foundation to the specification; thus allowing
national agencies procuring appropriate communications equipment to cite it in Requests For Tender.
This specification successfully passed the ETSI approval process and is now an ECMA and standard
(ECMA 312) and an ETSI standard.(EN 301 846). The latest edition of the ECMA 312 standard was
edition 3 published in June 2003.
The Standard can be downloaded free of charge from the ECMA website at www.ecmainternational.org

ATS-QSIG offers: Better Noise, Error correction and Crosstalk


performance

Less sensitive to noise - digital signals have a better performance in the presence of noise. They can
operate in the presence of much higher noise levels because they can be more easily detected from a noisy
signal.

Permits Error correction - Due to error correction algorithms, the sensibility to noise of digital signals is even
less due to errors in the digital bit stream being detected and corrected. This however does cause extra
redundant bits to be added to the bit stream.

Reduced Crosstalk - Digital transmission techniques are almost impervious to common line crosstalk.

30

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG offers: Compliancy with


international standards

Approved by ECMA- International: ECMA 312


edition 3 (June 2003) : Profile Standard for the
Use of PSS1 (QSIG) in Air Traffic Services
Networks.
(download free from the ECMA website (www.ecmainternational.org);

Approved by ETSI: EN 301 846

ATS-QSIG offers: Better Noise,


Error correction and Crosstalk
performance

Better Noise Performance: in presence of


higher noise levels, bits are easier detected;
Error correction: noise sensibility even less
due to error correction;
Reduced Crosstalk: Digital transmission
techniques almost impervious to common line
crosstalk;

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

31

ATS-QSIG offers: 3 calls per 64kbps digital link


ATS-QSIG employs a 64kbps digital leased line (defined by EN 300 289) . This 64kbps bandwidth is divided into
4 sub-channels (as defined by the ECMA 253 standard). Each of these 4 sub-channels hence has a bandwidth of
16kbps. (4 x 16kbps =64kbps).
Three of these sub-channels are used for the transport of compressed voice at 16kbps (as defined by the ITU-T
recommendation G.728 LD-CELP). The forth sub-channel is used as a signalling channel to establish and clear
the calls on the 3 voice channels.
Today in Europe the yearly rental cost of a 64kbps leased line usually costs less than an analogue leased line.
Due to the fact that 3 voice channels are available using ATS-QSIG, a cost benefit analysis can be performed to
calculate the savings in yearly rental cost when replacing 3 analogue leased lines with a single 64 kbps digital
leased line.

ATS-QSIG offers: Reduced Leased Line Costs


The slide has the scope of providing an example of current leased line costs in the UK. It uses. It uses BTs
private leased line cost info from their 2005 price guide to compare the costs of installing and renting a 500km
analogue leased line and a 500km digital leased line at 64kbps. The slide illustrates that the cost of renting a
analogue leased line is 9510 (sterline) comapared to a cost of 6935 for a 64kbps leased line.

Assuming that 3 analogue leased lines are to be replaced by a 64kbps digital leased line employing ATS-QSIG
with 3 voice channels, the annual savings would be as folows.

3 analogue leased lines cost 28,530


1 x 64kbps digital leased line costs 6935

Annual saving: 28,530 - 6935 = 21,595

The slide also provides an example of the current BT prices to install and rent a 2Mbps line.

32

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG offers: 3 calls per 64kbps


digital link
VCS

3 voice channels

1 Signalling channel

VCS

64kb/s digital line

One 64kb digital leased line (trunk) split into three voice
channels and one signalling channel
Therefore 3 analogue leased lines=1 ATS-QSIG digital line
Cost benefit analysis:
Compare cost saving of one 64kbps digital line against cost
of 3 analogue leased lines

JSP
TELECONSULTANCY
2005

ATS-QSIG offers: Reduced


Leased Line Costs
Network Operator
Exchange

ATS unit

Network Operator
Exchange

Main Link

Local End

ATS unit

Local End

500km
Leased Line

Local End Main Link

Local End

Total

Analogue connection

445

600

445

1490

Analogue Rental

210

4530 (180km) +12/km extra

210

9510

Digital 64kbps
380
kilostream connection

140

380

900

Digital 64kbps Rental

940

1680 +6,75/km

940

6935

Digital 2Mbps
Megastream

3500

3500

7000

Digital 2Mbps rental

1900

1900

63100

6800 +105/km

Example uses BTs 2005 private circuit leased line cost info.
Rental costs calculated for a 500km line
Prices are in Sterline ()
JSP

TELECONSULTANCY
2005
Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

33

ATS-QSIG offers: Improved link reliability (1)


Line Checking
Due to ATS R2 and ATS No.5 analogue signalling system not sending a continuous tone over an idle leased line
(Idle tone off), a VCS does not know whether an analogue leased line over the inter-VCS link is functional until a
call is made. Also due to the majority of lines today within the AGVN being switched lines and not dedicated
point-to-point lines, even a user would not appreciate a line had failed, but could witness a reduction in the
service level. In order to solve this problem, a VCS is usually configured to automatically make a periodic test call
over each analogue circuit on each of its inter-VCS links in order to verify that the leased line and the interface
card registers are operating satisfactorily.
The frequency with which test calls should be made on each leased line within the inter-VCS link is ANSP
dependent, but it is recommended that one test call is made by a VCS after a 30 minute period of inactivity on
any leased line. Failure of the test call should cause up to 2 further test calls to be made within a short time after.
If all these test calls also fail, then the failure should be indicated immediately and the line automatically removed
from service by the VCS.

ATS-QSIG offers: Improved link reliability (2)


In the case of links in the AGVN using digital signalling, test calls are not necessary because the layer 2 data link,
once established between two VCSs, exchanges Receive ready supervisory frames every 10 seconds. In this
way link failure is indicated immediately and both VCSs constantly try to re-establish the link while the failure is
being indicated. When a data link is lost, it is impossible for calls to be made over that particular line. The VCS
should ensure that any established calls in progress over a line when a data link is loss should cause the active
call indication at the CWP to be cleared in order to inform the controller that they no longer have an established
call.
Also if a line interface within a VCS has failed for a period longer than 5 seconds, it should be classed as a failure
condition and removed from service.

Note: Loss of data link or link interface should lead to established calls on the link being immediately
cleared at the CWP.

34

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG offers: Improved


link reliability (1)

ATS-R2 /No.5: Uses IDLE TONE OFF no tone on


line when calls are not being made;
Periodic Test Calls (i.e. Every 10 minutes) necessary
to check line is operational;
Line failure identification therefore slow.
With analogue circuits, Bi-lateral agreement between
ANSPs necessary;
VCS A

VCS B

Periodic Test Call


Status signal

ATS-QSIG offers: Improved link


reliability (2)

ATS-QSIG: No Test calls, Link constantly monitored at


Layer 2 through exchange of supervisory frames (RR)
every 10 seconds.
VCSs try to re-establish link when data link lost- any
active calls are cleared on link loss;
Failure indicated immediately to supervisory system;
VCS A
VCS B
10 sec

RR
RR

RR
RR
RR

SABME

10 sec

Link
Lost

UA

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

35

ATS-QSIG offers: Priority call interoperability


ATS-QSIG offers Priority (Emergency) call interoperability.

36

Harmonized use of Priority (Emergency) call feature between multi-vendor VCS systems;

Emergency calls messages and protocol have been standardized and are defined in the ECMA 312
standard;

Call Priority Interoperability was tested during Eurocontrol European ATS-QSIG field trial between
Voice Communication Systems from the participating European VCS suppliers;

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG offers: Priority call


interoperability

Harmonized use of Priority (Emergency) call feature


between multi-vendor VCS systems.
Emergency calls messages and protocol are standardized;
Call Priority Interoperability was tested during field trial;

VCS A

VCS B

DA

DA
Priority

Priority

DA

DA

DA

DA

DA

DA

DA

DA

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

37

ATS-QSIG Supplementary Services- Priority Calls inhibited


VCS configuration to inhibit use of Priority Calls
ANSPs disagreeing to the use of PRIORITY calls on cross-border links should configure the ATS QSIG
implementations within their VCS as follows:

Originating and terminating VCSs are unable to negotiate the Call Priority Interru pt Protection
Level (CPIPL) to be associated with an established ATS QSIG call. A VCS should be configured
with the highest CPIPL value for all ROUTINE calls from/to the VCS or it should have the highest
CPIPL value associated with a user type.

All ATS R2/No.5 Calls coming from Incoming Gateway VCS into the ATS QSIG network should be
mapped by the Gateway VCS to ATS QSIG calls having the highest Call Interrupt Protection value
(i.e. CPIPL=3).

The best way to illustrate the Call Interrupt Protection op eration is through an example. The Table
below associates different user types to the highest protection (CPIPL) value.

E xa mp le o f Ca ll I nt er r upt Pro t ect io n lev el s a s sig ne d to d iffer ent U se r ty p es


fo r Ro uti ne ca l l s

Call Priority Interrupt Protection


Level (CPIPL)

User Type

RADAR controller

Assistant controller

Administration

An established ROUTINE or PRIORITY call between two users is always associated with the highest
Call Interrupt Protection (CPIPL), independent of any user type. The Table below illustrates this by
defining the Call Interrupt Protection value (CPIPL) associated with an established ROUTINE or
PRIORITY call between the different user types.
E xa mp le o f Ca ll I nt er r upt Pro t ect io n a s so c ia t ed w it h e sta bl i sh ed Ro uti ne o r
Prio r ity ca ll s

Routine or Priority call


From

To

CPIPL
associated
with established call

RADAR controller (3)

RADAR controller (3)

RADAR controller (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

RADAR controller (3)

Administration (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

RADAR controller (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

Administration (3)

Administration (3)

RADAR controller (3)

Administration (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

Administration (3)

Administration (3)

The same highest call interrupt protection value (i.e. CPIPL=3) assigned to each user type indicates that
all users have Total interrupt protection and their calls can not be cleared by a PRIORITY call in order
to free resources when the link is congested.
38

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG Supplementary
Services- Priority Calls inhibited

Call Priority Interrupt Not allowed by ANSP


Call Intrusion Not allowed by ANSP
VCS always negotiates
maximum Protection
For call

Routine call (Protection 3)


Routine call (Protection 3)
Routine call (Protection 3)
VCS Call Intrusion
Protection ON

VCS Call Intrusion


Protection OFF
Emergency !
Priority Call

A PRIORITY Call always has the highest Call Interrupt Capability (i.e. CPICL=3), but is unable to
interrupt a ROUTINE call with Total interrupt Protection (CPIPL=3). It implies that PRIORITY calls
no longer have an impact within the network.
Call Intrusion Protection switched ON
Each ANSP should decide whether established ROUTINE calls at the VCSs within its network will
allow a call intrusion from a PRIORITY call to occur in case of an emergency situation. The ATS QSIG
signalling protocol defined in ECMA 312 allows Call Intrusion Protection (CIPL) to be switched ON or
OFF at a CWP, DA key or telephone connected to the VCS.
In the case that Call intrusion is not allowed at a CWP, DA key or telephone its Call Intrusion Protection
should be switched ON (i.e. CIPL=3).
A PRIORITY call to a busy user (in a ROUTINE or PRIORITY call), received at a VCS with Call
Intrusion Protection switched ON should be refused intrusion by the VCS. There should be no
interrogation of the Protection ON/OFF status of the unwanted users CWP, DA key or telephone.
Note: Despite being refused intrusion, the ROUTINE or PRIORITY call should still be directed and
displayed as an incoming Priority call at the CWP. Some VCSs also activate a one way voice path for
the Priority call to a loudspeaker at the CWP in order to make immediate voice contact. When answered
a two-way voice path is established.
The Table below defines whether a VCS receiving a PRIORITY call to a Busy user will permit Call
Intrusion or not.
Ca l l i nt r u sio n per mi s s i o n f o r B u sy / U nw a nte d Us er VC S ( int erfa c e) p ro tect io n
sta t us
Call Intrusion Protection at
Busy user CWP, DA key

Call Intrusion Protection at


Unwanted User CWP, DA key

Call intrusion
permitted ?

Switched ON

Irrelevant

NO

Switched ON

Irrelevant

NO

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

39

ATS-QSIG Supplementary Services-Priority calls enabled


Call Interrupt Protection

Originating and terminating VCSs are able to negotiate the Call Priority Interrupt Protection
Level (CPIPL) to be associated with an established ATS QSIG call. A VCS should either be
configured with a default CPIPL value for all ROUTINE calls from/to the VCS or it should be
configured with a CPIPL value associated with each User type.

The best way to illustrate the Call Interrupt Protection operation is through an example. The Table
below associates different User types to a Call Interrupt Protection value (CPIPL).

E xa mp le o f Ca ll I nt er r upt Pro t ect io n lev el s a s sig ne d to d iffer ent U se r ty p es


fo r Ro uti ne ca l l s

Call Priority Interrupt Protection


Level (CPIPL)

User Type

RADAR controller

Assistant controller

Administration

An established ROUTINE call between two users should be associated with the higher of the Call
Interrupt Protection values (CPIPL) assigned to each user. The Table below illustrates this by defining
the Call Interrupt Protection value (CPIPL) associated with a routine call between the different user
types.
E xa mp le o f Ca ll I nt er r upt Pro t ect io n a s so c ia t ed w it h e sta bl i sh ed Ro uti ne ca l l s

Routine Call
From

To

CPIPL
associated
with established call

RADAR controller (2)

RADAR controller (2)

RADAR controller (2)

Assistant Controller (1)

RADAR controller (2)

Administration (0)

Assistant Controller (1)

RADAR controller (2)

Assistant Controller (1)

Assistant Controller (1)

Assistant Controller (1)

Administration (0)

Administration (0)

RADAR controller (2)

Administration (0)

Assistant Controller (1)

Administration (0)

Administration (0)

The CPIPL value assigned to each user type allows an order of importance to be associated with
each call such that if a call has to be interrupted by a VCS in order to free resources for a
PRIORITY call when a link is congested, the established ROUTINE call chosen by the VCS
would be that associated with the lowest CPIPL value available on that link.
Call Intrusion Protection switched OFF

Each ANSP should decide whether established ROUTINE calls at the VCSs within its network will
allow a call intrusion from a PRIORITY call to occur in case of an emergency situation. The ATS QSIG
signalling protocol defined in ECMA 312 allows Call Intrusion Protection (CIPL) to be switched ON or
OFF at a CWP, Direct Access key or telephone connected to the VCS.

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Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG Supplementary
Services-Priority calls enabled

Call Priority Interrupt - Allowed by ANSP


Call Intrusion Allowed by ANSP
Hears interrupt
warning tone<15s
(Rec. 5s)

Hears interrupt
warning tone<15s
(Rec. 5s)

Priority Level 1 call


Routine call (Protection level 1)
Routine call (Protection Level 2)
Routine call (Protection Level 3)

Wanted
user

Hears intrusion
warning tone of 1s
Emergency !
Priority Call

Some ANSPs isolate


unwanted user during
Call intrusion, others
allow 3-party conference

Unwanted
user

In the case that Call intrusion is allowed at a CWP, DA key or telephone, its Call Intrusion Protection
should be switched OFF (i.e. CIPL=0).
A PRIORITY call to a busy user (in a ROUTINE call), received at a VCS with Call Intrusion Protection
switched OFF does not mean that the call intrusion into the established call will be permitted at a VCS.
Before a VCS can decide whether or not to allow call intrusion it must determine if the Call Intrusion
Protection is switched ON or OFF at the CWP, DA key or telephone of the other user (unwanted user)
involved in the call. Unknown to the user, interrogation and response messa ges are passed between the
VCSs. The Table below defines whether a VCS receiving a PRIORITY call to a Busy user will permit
Call Intrusion or not.

Ca l l i nt r u sio n per mi s s i o n f o r B u sy / U nw a nte d Us er VC S ( int erfa c e) p ro tect io n


sta t us
Call Intrusion Protection at
Busy user CWP, DA key

Call Intrusion Protection at


Unwanted User CWP, DA key

Call intrusion
permitted ?

Switched OFF

Switched OFF

YES

Switched OFF

Switched ON

NO

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41

ATS-QSIG Tester- Standard Items Supplied

42

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Benefits of ATS-QSIG

ATS-QSIG Tester- Standard Items


Supplied
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

External clockG703
2 Mbps unframed testing
G704 2.048 Mbps framed
PCM-30/31/30C/31C
Framing analysis
m & n x 64 kbit/s testing
E1 line monitor with channel activity map
Alarm monitoring
Drop & insert BERT
Bi-directional drop and insert
CAS generation & monitoring
Internal clock, recovered clock
21.
Auto-Configure
22.
Slips measurement
23.
Mux/Demux testing
24.
Extensive range of BERT patterns
25.
G.821 result analysis
26.
Histogram Analysis
27.
Propagation Delay
28.
MeasurementVariable internal clock offset
Copyright 2005 Eurocontrol
Multi-Language
Support

Remote controllable
Test Set Up and Result Storage
G.704 Data Link
Event Logging
Serial / Parallel Printer Support
PCMCIA Card Result Storage
VT100 Terminal Emulator
600 0hm External Audio (ip/op) connection

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

43

QSIG offers: Supplementary Services


The standardisation of these services is an ongoing process and new services are added as the market
demands. Provides a list of currently available QSIG supplementary services and Additional Network features
(ANFs) supported by QSIG.
QSIG Services and Additional Network Features
QSIG supports a wide range of basic services, generic functional procedures and supplementary services, which
are designed to improve business performance. Each supplementary service is detailed in separate standards.
Following the ITU-T methodology for the specification of ISDN services, separate standards are created for each
service identifying the broad outline of how the service is presented to the user and details of the signalling
protocol used in the network.
In addition to a wide range of supplementary services, QSIG networks (CTNs using the QSIG protocol) offer
various features which can improve the handling of certain calls or the performance of the network as a whole,
rather than directly benefiting any particular user. However, users might perceive indirect benefits, e.g. the
avoidance of calls with inadequate quality of service or the minimising of charges incurred. As there is no
particular served user, these features are not called supplementary services; instead they are given the name
Additional Network Features (ANFs).
The standardisation of CTN services is an ongoing process and new services are added as the market demands.
The supplementary services and ANFs currently supported by QSIG are described below.
Advice of Charge (AOC): This service allows the served user to receive information concerning charges for a
call. Three versions of the service provide information on:

charging rates at call establishment time and changes to charging rates during a call;

cumulative charge information automatically or on request during a call;

final charge information when a call is released.

This service is similar to the corresponding service offered in public ISDNs. In order to provide this service to the
network user, the CTN can use the corresponding service in the public ISDN to obtain charging information for
outgoing calls.
The QSIG network may provide to its users a different version of the service from that which the public ISDN
provides to the QSIG network. Moreover, it may make adjustments to the charges, e.g. as is the practice in
hotels.
Call completion: This category provides two supplementary services:

Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers (CCBS) - A calling user encountering a Busy destination can
request that the call be automatically completed when the busy destination becomes free.

Completion of Calls on No Reply (CCNR) - The calling user, encountering a destination that remains
unanswered can request that the call be automatically completed when the called destination is next used
and becomes free again.

These services are also referred to as - Call Back when free and Call Back When next used, respectively.
Call forwarding and diversion: Several types of "call diversion" services are supported and these can be either
controlled or uncontrolled. For call forwarding services, calls incoming to the served user are, subject to
conditions, diverted to another destination as defined by the served user at the time of activating the service. The
supported services in this category are:

Call Forwarding Busy (CFB) - Only incoming calls encountering a busy served user are diverted.

Call Deflection (CD) - is a service permitting the served user, on arrival of an incoming call, to request that
the QSIG network divert the call to another destination. The request can be generated automatically by the
terminal immediately the call arrives or after remaining unanswered for a certain period of time, or the
request can be generated as a result of user action on being alerted.

Call Forwarding No Reply (CFNR) - Incoming calls are diverted provided that the served user fails to answer
the incoming call within a predefined period of time.

Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU)- All incoming calls are diverted.

Activation, deactivation and interrogation of Call Forwarding services can be performed by the served user or by
another authorised user, e.g. the user who is already the "divert-to" user may be able to deactivate forwarding or
activate forwarding to a different "divert-to" user.
44

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Benefits of ATS-QSIG

QSIG offers: Supplementary


Services

Advice of Charge
Call completion
Call forwarding
Call Interception - ANF
Call Intrusion (CI)
Call Offer (CO)
Call Transfer (CT)
Call Waiting (CW)
Direct Dialling In (DDI)
Do Not Disturb (DND)
Identification Services

Mobile
Multiple Subscriber
Number
Operator services
Path Replacement -ANF
Recall
Sub-addressing
User to User Signalling

Call Interception (CINT): This additional network feature enables calls that cannot be completed due to certain
conditions to be redirected to a pre-defined user known as the "intercepted-to user".
Call Intrusion (CI): This service permits a calling user to request immediate connection to a busy destination.
This may involve joining the calling user, in conference, to the existing call, or alternatively may cause the
existing call to be placed on hold. The original call is restored on withdrawal of the served user.
Call Offer (CO): This service permits a calling user to request that the call be offered to the user at a busy
destination and that the called user be given the choice of accepting, rejecting or ignoring the waiting call.
Call Transfer (CT): This supplementary service enables a user who has two calls of the same basic service to
connect together as a new call between the other two users.
Call Waiting (CW): This service permits the served user, whilst engaged in a call, to be notified of an incoming
call and then to have the choice of accepting, rejecting or ignoring the waiting call.
Direct Dialling In (DDI): In reality this is a supplementary service of the public ISDN, however, the QSIG network
can enter into arrangements with the public ISDN for DDI, so that incoming calls can be addressed directly to
called users within the QSIG network. A DDI call from a public ISDN is progressed across the QSIG network and
to the called user as a basic call.
Do Not Disturb (DND): the QSIG Network rejects All incoming calls to the served user. The calling user is given
an appropriate indication and at this point can activate the Do Not Disturb Override (DNDO) service, provided
that they are enabled for the service, which causes the called user to be alerted.
Users can be awarded various levels of protection against override by DNDO and similarly, various levels of
override capability can be awarded to users served by DNDO, allowing the override of different levels of
protection.
Identification services: There are several services that when activated can provide information regarding the
identification of the users. The services provided are:

Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP)- a service offered to the called user and provides that user
with the calling user's number and, if applicable, the calling user's sub-address.

Connected Line Identification Presentation (COLP)- a service offered to the calling user and provides that
user with the connected user's number and, if applicable, the connected user's sub-address.

Calling/Connected Line Identification Restriction (CLIR) - a service which prevents the served user's number
being presented to another user; i.e. it prevents CLIP/COLP from working. CLIR can be invoked to apply to

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

45

all calls or on a per call basis. It can restrict the presentation of the served user's number not only during
normal call establishment but also when the possibility of number presentation arises during the operation of
other supplementary services, e.g. Call Forwarding and Call Transfer.

Calling Name Identification Presentation (CNIP)

Connected Name Identification Presentation (CONP)

Calling/Connected Name Identification Restriction (CNIR)


CNIP, CONP and CNIR work in the same manner as CLIP, COLP and CLIR respectively. The main
difference is that CNIP and CONP provide the user's name rather than the user's number. The line
identification services CLIP, COLP and CLIR, work in harmony with the equivalent supplementary services of
the public ISDN; e.g. for incoming calls from the public ISDN, the QSIG network will not receive the calling
user's identification if the public ISDN's CLIR service has been invoked. For an outgoing call to a public
ISDN, the QSIG network will not receive the connected user's identification if the public ISDN's COLR
service has been invoked.

Mobile: A major benefit of QSIG is its integration with Cordless Terminal Mobility (CTM) and several "mobile"
supplementary services and ANFs are supported by QSIG. These services, when the standards are finalised, will
allow the cordless terminal user to move throughout the QSIG network, registering the terminal at nodes to make
and receive calls.
Multiple Subscriber Number (MSN): MSN is a supplementary service which permits more than one number
(QSIG network number or public ISDN number) to be associated with a single QSIG network access.
Operator Services: The operator (or attendant) is a special type of user on the CTN and is differentiated from
the ordinary user by the type of tasks the operator is intended to perform. A number of business improving
services developed especially for operators will, when standards are finalised, be supported by QSIG. Such
services include for example: serial call, call distribution to attendants, night service, call offer, message waiting
and intrusion.
Path Replacement (PR): This ANF permits an active call's connection through the QSIG network to be replaced
by a new connection, e.g. to obtain a more efficient or cost effective connection.. For example, after call transfer
any unnecessary "loops" can be eliminated.
Recall (RE): This is a supplementary service that provides for the redirection of a call transferred by the served
user back to the served user if the call is unanswered.
Sub-addressing (SUB): QSIG supports the transfer of a sub-address from the calling user to the called user
during call establishment. This also applies to calls incoming from, or outgoing to a public ISDN.
User to User Signalling (UUS): This supplementary service, when standardised, will allow a user to
send/receive signalling information in conjunction with a call. Three versions of the service permit user-to-user
signalling:
1.

in call control messages during call establishment;

2.

while the called user is being alerted; and

3.

during the active phase of the call.

46

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Benefits of ATS-QSIG

This page is intentionally blank.

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47

ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

48

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Inside QSIG

4. Inside QSIG

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49

Private Integrated Services Network Overview


The slide illustrates the ITU-T ISDN reference model extended for corporate networks, showing all the reference
points;
In extending the ITU-T ISDN reference model to include PINX to PINX signalling used in private ISDNs it was
necessary to identify two new points, called "Q" and "C".
The "Q" reference point is the logical signalling point between two PINXs. The physical connection to the PINXs
is made at the "C" reference point. The Intervening Network (IVN) and can be either dedicated channels
(analogue or digital) or switched connections (for Virtual Private Networks).
An overview of the reference points for public ISDN and private ISDN is shown in the slide. Some differences
between public ISDN and private ISDN can be seen. Within the public ISDN the two end PINXs are connected
through two reference points using different ISDN protocols; namely DSS1 at the "T" reference point and ISUP
within the public ISDN at the "N" reference point. For private ISDNs, only one protocol is necessary as the QSIG
protocols have sufficient functionality to be used both within the network at transit nodes and on the outside at
access nodes. Hence QSIG is used between all three PINXs.
At the "C" Reference point a variety of interface dependent protocols can occur, depending on the type of
Intervening Network (IVN). These IVNs need not be ISDNs. However, it is generally assumed that a digital circuit
presented as a G.703 interface is used.

50

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

Inside QSIG

Private Integrated Services


Network Overview
TE

TE
S

TE
S
T

PINX
PINX
1
2
C
Q
Q

1..8

TE

S
U

PUBLIC
ISDN
Isdn Appl.

PUBLIC
ISDN

TE

S
T

PINX
3
Q

INTERVENING NETWORK
Inter-PINX control

Inter-PINX control

PISN
ITU-T ISDN REFERENCE MODEL EXTENDED FOR CORPORATE
NETWORKS.
Q reference point is the logical signalling point between 2 PINXs.
The physical connection between 2 PINXs is made at the C reference point.

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51

OSI reference model applied to QSIG


The slide illustrates the 7 layer ISO model and will be used to explain the transfer of QSIG protocol across transit
network;
Open Systems Interconnect (OSI): The 7 layer model
The International Standards Organisation has been working towards the establishment of world-wide standards
collectively known as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards, based on the principles of layering.
This principle helps the structured design of computer networks. The OSI reference model (OSI-RM), defines 7
layers and is used as a guide for all network architectures conforming to the open system principles. Open
systems are systems that are open for communication with other systems conforming to the same principles.
In the OSI-RM, each system is decomposed functionally into a set of subsystems and is represented pictorially in
a vertical sequence. Vertically adjacent subsystems communicate through their common interfaces, while peer
subsystems collectively form a layer in the architecture. Each layer provides a set of well defined services to the
layer above, by adding its own functions to the services provided by the layer below.
For example, the Transport Layer performs the overall, end-to-end data transfer task. It only knows of Network
and Session Layers, yet what it receives from the Network Layer is the sum of Network, Data Link, and Physical
Layer services. The Transport Layer adds some value to the Network Layer service and offers the result to the
Session layer as the Transport Layer service. The service description for the Transport Layer is not
implementation specific; therefore a new OSI Transport protocol could be inserted into an OSI end-system
without affecting the other layers.
Layer 1 - the physical layer defines the characteristics of the signal to be transferred over the bearer. It covers
such things as pulse amplitudes, line coding, transmission rates, connectors, and anything else needed to
transfer digits satisfactorily.
Layer 2 - the link layer provides discipline for the assembling of the digits. It provides error detection and
correction by assembling the digits into frames. At present all layer 2 formats are derived from a standard known
as High level Data Link Control (HDLC).
Layer 3 - the network layer: Establishes a connection over voice path. Provides the means to establish,
maintain and terminate the switched connections between end systems. Addressing and routing functions are
also included in the network layer
Layer 4 - the transport layer. This is the terminal-to-terminal layer. Data may be carried across the networks
using various forms of layer 1,2 and 3 (e.g. via a LAN and ISDN) but the terminals must have information at
appropriate rates. Transport User information or control information between end systems.
Layer 5 - the session layer. This defines the way in which applications running at the two ends of the link
intercommunicate, including initiation and termination of sessions and co-ordinating their activity during the
session.
Layer 6 - the presentation layer. This establishes the common format that is to be used between terminals,
using common rules for representing data.
Layer 7 - the application layer. This is the task to be performed, for example file transfer, airline booking,
message handling.
The lowest 3 layers are called the network service layers. In QSIG there are two types of channel. First the
64kbit/s "B" circuit switched channel for customer use. For straightforward data purposes in simple terms QSIG
defines only the layer 1 attributes of this channel, the customer being free to use the bits provided for his own
higher layer protocols. The 16kbit/s or 64kbit/s "D" signalling channel includes all three layers.
The distinction between "User" information and "Control" information must be drawn. The User information line
carries applications (layer 7) from terminal to terminal, only changing its physical form (Layer 1) at intermediate
points such as a transit Switch. However the Control information in the form of signalling uses only the first three
defined layers (i.e. 1,2 and 3). .

52

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Inside QSIG

OSI reference model applied to


QSIG
End VCS (PINX)

End VCS (PINX)

APPLICATION

APPLICATION

PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

SESSION

SESSION

TRANSPORT
NETWORK

Transit VCS (PINX)

NETWORK

TRANSPORT
NETWORK

DATA LINK

DATA LINK

DATA LINK

DATA LINK

PHYSICAL

PHYSICAL

PHYSICAL

PHYSICAL

PHYSICAL MEDIUM

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53

Definitions for Gateway, Transit, Originating and Terminating etc.


The slide has the scope of explaining the common QSIG definitions of Originating, Terminating, Incoming calls,
Outgoing calls, Incoming Gateway, Outgoing Gateway etc, Inter-PINX link, Intervening network (IVN).
Originating PINX: Within the context of a call, the PINX to which the calling user is attached is known as the
Originating PINX
Terminating PINX: Within the context of a call, the PINX to which the called user is attached is known as the
Terminating PINX.
Transit PINX: Within the context of a call, any PINX through which the call passes, excluding the Originating
PINX, the Terminating PINX, an Incoming Gateway PINX and an Outgoing Gateway PINX, is known as a Transit
PINX.
Gateway PINX: Within the context of a call, a PINX that performs interworking between QSIG and another
signalling system, either ISDN or non-ISDN.
Incoming Gateway PINX: A PINX that routes an incoming call from a route employing another signalling system
on to an inter-PINX link employing QSIG
Outgoing Gateway PINX: A PINX that routes an incoming call from an inter-PINX link employing QSIG
signalling on to a route employing another signalling system.
Side, Incoming Side and Outgoing Side: The term "Side" is used to describe either of the PINXs located at
each end of an inter-PINX link, and in particular to the QSIG protocol control entity within a PINX. In the context
of a call, the Outgoing Side is the Side that routes the call over the inter-PINX link and the Incoming Side is the
Side that receives the call.
Inter-PINX Connection: A connection between two PINXs using the infrastructure of a public telecommunication
network operator. An inter-PINX connection may be established permanently or on-demand depending on the
nature of the infrastructure and the user's requirements.
Inter-PINX Link: A link between two PINXs comprising the totality of signalling and user information transfer
means.
NOTE: A "link" (as opposed to a "connection") is what is seen from the point of view of the Call Control function.
Forward direction: Is the direction from the originating PINX towards the terminating PINX.
Backward direction: Is the direction from the terminating PINX towards the originating PINX.
Outgoing Call and Incoming Call: From the point of view of the Outgoing Side a call is an Outgoing Call. From
the point of view of the Incoming Side a call is an Incoming Call.

54

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Inside QSIG

Definitions for Gateway, Transit,


Originating and Terminating etc.

GATEWAY

incoming : ATS-R2=>QSIG
outgoing : QSIG =>ATS-R2

ORIGINATING, TERMINATING, TRANSIT (GATEWAY) PINX

Forward direction

Originating PINX
or Incoming
Gateway PINX

Backward direction
Transit PINX

Inter-PINX link

PINX 1
Outgoing
side

Terminating PINX
or Outgoing
Gateway PINX

Inter-PINX link

PINX 2
Incoming
side

PINX 3
Outgoing
side

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Incoming
side

55

ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

56

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

5. QSIG OSI Layer 1

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57

Role of QSIG Layer 1


The role of QSIG OSI Layer 1 - the physical layer is to define the characteristics of the signal to be transferred
over the leased line. Signal characteristics include for example the pulse amplitude, line coding, transmission
rates, timing, jitter, slips, return loss and connector pin outs, and anything else needed to transfer digits
satisfactorily. Layer 1 also defines the algorithms employed to encode/decode and compress/decompress the
Voice signals.
The specifications for both 64kbit/s and 2048kbit/s interface characteristics are basically divided into the following
sections:

Network interface presentation - Specifies the technical requirements and test principles for the network
interface;

Connection characteristics - Specifies the technical requirements and test principles for the connection
characteristics;

Terminal equipment interface - Specifies the full physical and electrical characteristics of the interface,

Key references for QSIG Layer 1


Has the scope of defining all relevant QSIG Layer 1 Reference standards for 64kbit/s digital unrestricted leased
lines and the Layer 1 Voice Compression standards applied to ATS QSIG.
64kbit/s related specifications
ETS 300 290 (Jan 1994) - Business TeleCommunications (BTC); 64 kbit/s digital unrestricted leased line
with octet integrity (D64U) Terminal equipment interface + Amendment 1 (1995) - Specifies the full physical
and electrical characteristics and corresponding test principles for a terminal equipment interface for connection
to the network termination points of ONP 64 kbit/s digital unrestricted leased lines with octet integrity.
ECMA 253 standard Mapping/16 (Dec 1996); Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) Mapping
Functions for the employment of 64kbit/s Circuit Mode connections with 16 kbit/s sub-multiplexingDefines the mapping functions in exchanges of Private Integrated Services Networks (PISNs) required for the
utilisation of scenarios in which 64 kbit/s circuit mode connections are sub-multiplexed into 4 x 16 kbit/s channels
for carrying inter-PINX signalling and user information.
ITU-T Rec. G.703 Physical/Electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces Paragraph 1 Interface at 64 kbit/s.
The ITU-T Recommendation G.728 contains the description of an algorithm for the coding of speech signals at
16 kbit/s using low-delay code excited linear prediction (LD-CELP).

58

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

Role of QSIG Layer 1

Defines the characteristics of the signal to be


transferred over the leased line.
Signal characteristics include for example the
pulse amplitude, line coding, transmission rates,
timing, jitter, slips, return loss and connector pin
outs, and anything else needed to transfer digits
satisfactorily.
Layer 1 also defines the algorithms employed to
encode/decode and compress/decompress the
Voice signals.

Key references for QSIG Layer 1

ETS 300-290
ed.1 (1994)

Business Telecommunications (BTC), 64kbit/s digital unrestricted

ETS 300-290/A1 leased line with octet integrity (D64 U); Terminal Equipment interface
ed.1 (1995)
ECMA 253
(1996)

Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) Mapping Functions for


the Employment of 64 kbit/s Circuit Mode Connections with 16 kbit/s
Sub-Multiplexing (International Standard ISO/IEC DIS 17310)

ITU Rec. G703


para. 1 (1998)

General aspects of digital transmission systems- Terminal equipments


physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces

ITU Rec. G728


(1992)

ITU-T Recommendation G.728: Coding of speech at 16kbit/s using


low-delay code excited linear prediction (LD-CELP)

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59

ATS-QSIG uses LD-CELP voice coding


The slide provides general information about the LD-CELP algorithm as defined by ITU-T G.728
The Recommendation ITU-T G.728 contains the description of an algorithm for the coding of speech signals at
16 kbit/s using low-delay code excited linear prediction (LD-CELP).
Outline of LD-CELP
The LD-CELP algorithm consists of an encoder and a decoder respectively, and is illustrated in following slide.
The essence of CELP techniques, which is an analysis-by-synthesis approach to codebook search, is retained in
LD-CELP. The LD-CELP however, uses backward adaptation of predictors and gain to achieve an algorithmic
delay of 0.625 ms. Only the index to the excitation codebook is transmitted. The predictor coefficients are
updated through LPC analysis of previously quantized speech. The excitation gain is updated by using the gain
information embedded in the previously quantized excitation. The block size for the excitation vector and gain
adaptation is five samples only. A perceptual weighting filter is updated using LPC analysis of the unquantized
speech.

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

ATS-QSIG uses LD-CELP voice


coding
Unacceptable

Business
Quality

Toll
Quality
*

PCM (G.711)

(Cellular)

(Kbps)

Bandwidth

LD-CELP Low Delay


- Code Exited Linear
64
Prediction
Voice compression/
decompression
algorithm,
32
standardised
24
as ITU-T G.728;
16
8
Provides quality
voice at 16kbit/s with 0
low encoding and
decoding delay;

ADPCM 32 (G.726)

ADPCM 24 (G.726)

ADPCM 16 (G.726)

LPC 4.8

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LDCELP 16 (G.728)

CS-ACELP 8 (G.729)

Quality

61

LD-CELP Voice Encoding


Outline of LD-CELP
The LD-CELP algorithm consists of an encoder and a decoder respectively, and is illustrated in following slide.
The essence of CELP techniques, which is an analysis-by-synthesis approach to codebook search, is retained in
LD-CELP. The LD-CELP however, uses backward adaptation of predictors and gain to achieve an algorithmic
delay of 0.625 ms. Only the index to the excitation codebook is transmitted. The predictor coefficients are
updated through LPC analysis of previously quantized speech. The excitation gain is updated by using the gain
information embedded in the previously quantized excitation. The block size for the excitation vector and gain
adaptation is five samples only. A perceptual weighting filter is updated using LPC analysis of the unquantized
speech.

LD-CELP as defined by ITU-T Recomendation G.728 provides very high voice


quality at low bit rates. It is processor intensive and uses Digital Signal Processors
(DSPs); The Voice Encoder operates at speeds of 13.4 million instructions per
seconds (MIPS) , while the Decoder operates at speeds of 7.5MIPS.
8 bit PCM speech sample converted to 16 bit Linear PCM and sent to
coder;

62

Coder employs 1024 vector codebook which uses feedback to


continuously analyze, learn and predict the voice waveform; In reality this
is modelling the human speech.

5 speech samples= 10 bit codeword

20 speech samples = 4 x (10 bit codewords) = 1 subframe (approx 2.5ms


to encode)

2 subframes are combined into a 5ms block for transmission;


2 subframes = 40 speech samples = 2 x 4 x (10 bit codewords) = 80 bits
80 bits are sent at 16kbps which takes approx 5ms time to encode

The Codebook minimize delay to between 2-5 ms;

The Mathematical result (Index) is sent to the far end decoder for
synthesis & generation of original voice waveform

If 80 bits are sent in 5ms, the time to send the 10 bit index at 16kbps is
therefore:
5ms/8 = 0.625ms

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

QSIG OSI Layer 1

LD-CELP Voice Encoding

Very high voice quality at low bit rates, processor intensive,


use of DSPs; Encoder 13.4MIPS, Decoder 7.5MIPS
8 bit PCM speech sample converted to 16 bit Linear PCM and
sent to coder;
Coder employs 1024 vector codebook which uses feedback
to continuously analyze, learn and predict the voice
waveform; (Models human speech)
Every five samples of speech produce a 10-bit codeword;
Codebook minimize delay to between 2-5 ms;
Four 10-bit codewords= subframe (approx 2.5ms to encode)
2 subframes combined into 5 ms block for transmission
(hence 80 bits sent at 16Kbps time required 5ms)
Mathematical result (Index) sent to far end decoder for
synthesis & generation of original voice waveform

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63

G.728 LD-CELP Voice Encoder/Decoder


The slide illustrates the functions of both the LD-CELP encoder and decoder.
LD-CELP encoder
After the conversion from A-law or -law PCM to uniform PCM, the input signal is partitioned into blocks of fiveconsecutive input signal samples. For each input block, the encoder passes each of 1024 candidate codebook
vectors (stored in an excitation codebook) through a gain scaling unit and a synthesis filter. From the resulting
1024 candidate quantized signal vectors, the encoder identifies the one that minimises a frequency-weighted
mean-squared error measure with respect to the input signal vector. The 10-bit codebook index of the
corresponding best codebook vector (or codevector), which gives rise to that best candidate quantized signal
vector, is transmitted to the decoder. The best codevector is then passed through the gain scaling unit and the
synthesis filter to establish the correct filter memory in preparation for the encoding of the next signal vector. The
synthesis filter coefficients and the gain are updated periodically in a backward adaptive manner based on the
previously quantized signal and gain-scaled excitation.
LD-CELP decoder
The decoding operation is also performed on a block-by-block basis. Upon receiving each 10-bit index, the
decoder performs a table look-up to extract the corresponding codevector from the excitation codebook. The
extracted codevector is then passed through a gain scaling unit and a synthesis filter to produce the current
decoded signal vector. The synthesis filter coefficients and the gain are then updated in the same way as in the
encoder. The decoded signal vector is then passed through an adaptive postfilter to enhance the perceptual
quality. The postfilter coefficients are updated periodically using the information available at the decoder. The five
samples of the postfilter signal vector are next converted to five A-law or -law PCM output samples.

LD-CELP post filter/ synchronization


Post Filter
The LD-CELP Decoders postfilter enhances the perceptual quality of the output speech after it has passed
through transit VCSs ('i.e. transit connection') of several G.728 codecs. Without a post filter calculation, the
voice should be switched through at a transit VCS (i.e. there should not be voice depression and then recompression at a transit VCS). This implies that voice is compressed at the originating VCS and the
decompressed at the terminating VCS. If there is only one compression and decompression of the voice, the
difference with the post filter turned on or off can not be heard.
Post Filter turned off
The ITU G.728 recommendation allows the postfilter to be turned off and an LD-CELP implementation can still be
fully compliant to ITU G.728 with the postfilter turned off. Turning the postfilter off also improves the coder
performance for non speech signals (refer to ITU G.728 4.6.1 or Appendix II Rec. G.728: II.3.5). Not calculating
the post filter also allows a lot of powered to be saved in the signal processor.
Voice Channel Synchronization
The meetings of the VCS suppliers prior to the start of the ATS-QSIG field trial decided to use an in-channel
synchronization mechanism as defined by the ITU-T G.728 recommendation of 100 bits/s.
th
The LD-CELP algorithm steals the highest bit of every 16 codeword (vector) in each of the voice channels. This
stolen bit is replaced by a series of alternating zeros and ones (101010101....). Hence every 160th bit of the
16kbit/s stream is replaced with a series of alternating '0' and '1' at the MSB of the affected codeword. This allows
the decoder to synchronize within a time of 80ms to 100ms when using 16kbit/s channels.
Note: a vector is the smallest unit of information in a LD-CELP-coded data-stream, represented by a 10bit-word.
Which leads to a bit rate of 16kbits/16(vectors)*10(bits per vectors) = 100bits/sec (for synchronisation)

64

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

QSIG OSI Layer 1

G.728 LD-CELP Voice


Encoder/Decoder
A or
Encoder

law PCM at
64kbps /A LAW

VECTOR
BUFFER
5 SAMPLES

LINEAR

1024 VECT
EXITATION
V/Q CODE
BOOK (3+7)

1024
quantized
levels

LPC
SYNTHESIS
FILTER

GAIN

BACKWARD
GAIN
ADAPTOR

PERCEPT
WEIGHT
FILTER

BACKWARD
PREDICTOR
ADAPTOR

Minimise
Mean
Squared
Error (MSE)

Encoder Processor
performs: 13.4 MIPS

Decoder
10 bit
codeword
at 16kbps

EXITATION
V/Q CODE
BOOK

Decoder Processor
performs:7.5 MIPS

SYNTHESIS
FILTER

GAIN

BACKWARD
GAIN
ADAPTOR

10 bit
Codeword
at 16kbps

POST
FILTER

CONVERT
TO PCM

5 A or
law PCM
samples
at 64kbps

BACKWARD
PREDICTOR
ADAPTOR

LD-CELP post filter/


synchronization
LD-CELP decoder post filter not implemented
by all suppliers;
Post Filter necessary if voice to be
decompressed at transit VCS;
Synchronisation bit rate in the voice channel
equal to 100bit/s;
(Bit stealing using MSB of every 16th ten bit
voice codeword - every 160th bit
=synchronisation bit)

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65

LD-CELP Encoder/Decoder Sync


Voice Channel Synchronization
The meetings of the VCS suppliers prior to the start of the ATS-QSIG field trial decided to use an in-channel
synchronization mechanism as defined by the ITU-T G.728 recommendation of 100 bits/s.
th
The LD-CELP algorithm steals the highest bit of every 16 codevector (codeword) in each of the voice channels.
This stolen bit is replaced by a series of alternating zeros and ones (101010101....). Hence every 160th bit of the
16kbit/s stream is replaced with a series of alternating '0' and '1' at the MSB of the affected codevector. This
allows the decoder to synchronize within a time of 80ms to 100ms when using 16kbit/s channels.
Note: a codevector is the smallest unit of information in a LD-CELP-coded data-stream, represented by a 10bitword.
Which leads to a bit rate of 16kbits/16(vectors)*10(bits per vectors) = 100bits/sec (for synchronisation)

66

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

LD-CELP Encoder/Decoder Sync


10 bit, G.728 Codevectors
0001011101

16kbps data Stream - where are the codevectors?

1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 11 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
1011000101

0111011001

Codevectors are completely independent of the HDLC channel, so


how can we synchronise the encoder and decoder at each end of the
link?
Bit Robbing! Every 16th Codevector, we rob the MSB and replace it
with a synchronisation bit. Use a known pattern: 0101 then use this
to synchronise the codevectors.
0

160 bits

0
160 bits

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1
160 bits

67

ECMA 253 standard mapping


Has the scope of explaining the Mapping function compliant with ECMA 253 Mapping/16 for sub-multiplexing a
64kbit/s circuit mode inter-VCS connection into 4 x 16 kbit/s channels;
This Standard defines the mapping functions in Switches of Private Integrated Services Networks (PISNs)
required for the utilisation of scenarios in which 64 kbit/s circuit mode connections are sub-multiplexed into 4 x 16
kbit/s channels for carrying inter-PINX signalling and user information.
This Standard specifies mapping functions for the following scenario:

Dedicated 64 kbit/s circuit mode connection with 16 kbit/s sub-multiplexing.

This scenario consists of a dedicated 64 kbit/s circuit mode connection in a point-to-point configuration, and
offering at the C reference point an interface with a single 64 kbit/s channel. This 64 kbit/s channel is submultiplexed by the Mapping (MP) functional grouping into 4 x 16 kbit/s channels. Where such a channel is used
for carrying speech, a speech compression function is also provided.
The applied mapping is a static mapping. There is a fixed relationship between user and signalling channels at
the Q reference point and the interface at the C reference point.
Capabilities at the Q reference point
For each instance of the Q reference point:

3 user channels (U Q ); and

1 signalling channel (D Q ) for carrying the inter-PINX layer 3 signalling protocol is provided.
The user channels are numbered 1, 2 and 3.

For a U Q -channel the following bearer capabilities shall be provided:

information transfer rate: 16 kbit/s

information transfer capability: speech, or unrestricted digital information

user information layer 1 protocol: ITU-T Rec. G.728 16 kbit/s LD-CELP

Other attributes shall be the same as at the C reference point.

64 kbit/s Unrestricted Digital Leased Line (D64U)


Layer 1 termination shall be in accordance with ETS 300 290.
Each 64 kbit/s bearer channel is sub-multiplexed into four 16 kbit/s sub-channels. Each 16 kbit/s sub-channel is
mapped to a pair of bit positions in the 64 kbit/s bearer channel as follows:

The first 16 kbit/s sub-channel shall be mapped to bit positions 1 and 2;

The second 16 kbit/s sub-channel shall be mapped to bit positions 3 and 4;

The third 16 kbit/s sub-channel shall be mapped to bit positions 5 and 6; and,

The fourth 16 kbit/s sub-channel shall be mapped to bit positions 7 and 8.

Channel allocation
A PINX shall support the mapping of a single instance of the Q reference point on to a single interface at the C
reference point. Each channel at the Q reference point shall be mapped to a 16 kbit/s channel in the 64 kbit/s
interface at the C reference point as follows:

The D Q -channel shall be mapped to the first 16 kbit/s channel;

U Q -channel number 1 shall be mapped to the second 16 kbit/s channel;

U Q -channel number 2 shall be mapped to the third 16 kbit/s channel; and,

U Q -channel number 3 shall be mapped to the fourth 16 kbit/s channel.

The slide depicts how four 16kbit/s sub-channels are mapped onto the 64Kbit/s bearer, by indicating the position
of the 3 U channels and the D channel, with respect to the bit position and transmission direction.

68

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

ECMA 253 standard mapping


Maps four 16kbit/s sub-channels on to 64kbit/s bearer channel
(D64U) by sequentially grouping octet aligned bits in groups of 2.
16 kbit/s signalling (D-) channel
3x16 kbit/s user (U-) channel carrying Compressed Voice according
to G.728 (LD CELP)
STATIC Mapping (fixed relation between Ux&D at Q and C ref )

Direction of transmission to line


1

Ch.1 (D) Ch.2 (U1) Ch.3 (U2) Ch.4 (U3)

Signalling

Voice 1

Voice 2

Voice 3

16kbit/s

16kbit/s

16kbit/s

16kbit/s

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64kbit/s
4x16kbit/s

69

ECMA 253 Line Bit Sequence


The slide illustrates the Line Bit sequence as if looking on an oscilloscope sampling the signals on the line you.
The data channel (D channel) is defined as LSB first, the voice channel (U channel) as MSB first.
The numbers shown imply the sequence of the bits. For the data channel 0,1,2, ... means LSB, LSB+1,LSB+2,
..., for the voice channel 9,8,7, ... means MSB, MSB-1,MSB-2, ... . As can been seen the data channel will be
sent with LSB first and the voice channel with MSB first.
The Data channel sends 1 octet at 2 bits at a time, whereas the U channel sends a 10 bit code book index at 2
bits at a time;
th

The synchronization word 0xAA (or 0x55) is sent in the MSB (i.e. Bit 9 of each U channel). Every 16 MSB is
used to send a bit of the synchronization word.

Co-directional interface G.703 (1)


Recommendation G.703 defines the PHYSICAL/ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIERARCHICAL
DIGITAL INTERFACES. For the ATS_QSIG field trials project, only co-directional interfaces are envisaged,
although the test equipment also has the capability of testing a Contra-directional interface.
Co-directional interface
The term co-directional is used to describe an interface across which the information and its associated timing
signal are transmitted in the same direction.
Electrical characteristics of 64 kbps co-directional interface

Nominal bit rate: 64 kbps.

Maximum tolerance of signals to be transmitted through the interface: 100 PPM.

64 klHz and 8 kHz timing signal to be transmitted in a co-directional way with the information signal.

One balanced pair for each direction of transmission; the use of transformers is recommended.

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

ECMA 253 Line Bit Sequence


| Octet 0
Octet 1
Octet 2
Octet 3
Octet 4
| MSB ......... LSB MSB ......... LSB MSB ......... LSB MSB ......... LSB MSB ......... LSB
| D' U1' U2' U3' D' U1' U2' U3' D' U1' U2' U3' D' U1' U2' U3' D' U1' U2' U3'
| 0,1 9,8 9,8 9,8 2,3 7,6 7,6 7,6 4,5 5,4 5,4 5,4 6,7 3,2 3,2 3,2 0,1 1,0 1,0 1,0
|-|-----------------------|-----------------------|-----------------------|-----------------------|------------------------> t
t0
t0 + 125s
t0 + 250s
t0 + 375s
t0 + 500s

D channel sends 1 octet at 2 bits at a time;


U channels send a 10 bit code book index at 2 bits at a
time;
Every 16th Bit 9 in a U channel is replaced by
synchronization bit (sequence 101010) equal to 100
bits/s;

Co-directional interface G.703 (1)


Equipment

Is an interface across
which the information
and its associated timing
signal are transmitted in
the same direction.

Equipment

Information signal
Timing signal

Nominal bit rate: 64 kbit/s.

Maximum tolerance of signals to be transmitted through the


interface: 100 ppm.

64 kHz and 8 kHz timing signal to be transmitted in a


co-directional way with the information signal.

One balanced pair for each direction of transmission; the use of


transformers is recommended.

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71

Co-directional line encoding


Code conversion rules
Step 1 A 64 kbit/s bit period is divided into four unit intervals.
Step 2 A binary one is coded as a block of the following four bits:
1100
Step 3 A binary zero is coded as a block of the following four bits:
1010
Step 4 The binary signal is converted into a three-level signal by alternating the
polarity of consecutive blocks.
Step 5 The alternation in polarity of the blocks is violated every 8th block.
The violation block marks the last bit in an octet.

ATS-QSIG- Bipolar Code violation method (Octet timing signal)


The ECMA 312 standard assumes a physical interface according to the ITU -T G.703 Co-directional
64kbps standard. This interface is bit-serial, with a code violation used as octet delimiter, also called
octet timing signal. The purpose of the octet delimiter is to enable the exact position of the bits in the 8 bit octet to be determined. For ATS-QSIG it assists in determining the position of the 2 -bit D-channel
carrying the call setup data, and each of the 2-bit U-channels carrying the voice payload.
The octet delimiter is an integral part of the bit-coding of the 64kbps co-directional interface, and is not
related to the issue of network synchronism and clock synch source.
An ATS-QSIG interface is dependent on accurate network synchronisation so that bit sli ps do not occur.
Slips in an ATS-QSIG connection are more serious than for a corresponding slip in a network using
uncompressed G.711 PCM, since the G.728 codec used for ATS-QSIG needs to resynchronize following
a slip, with a loss of voice during the resynchronization interval.
This principle octet synchronization solution requires 64kbps digital unrestricted leased lines compliant
with ETSI EN 300 288/289 in order to guarantee octet integrity during the transport of the octets
between end-systems.

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

Co-directional line encoding


Code conversion rules
Step 1: A 64 kbit/s bit period is
divided into four unit intervals.
Step 2: A binary one is coded as a
block of the following four bits:
1100
Step 3: A binary zero is coded as a
block of the following four bits:
1010
Step 4 The binary signal is
converted into a three-level
signal by alternating the polarity
of consecutive blocks.
Step 5 The alternation in polarity of the blocks is violated every
8th block. The violation block marks the last bit in an octet.

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73

Octet integrity transport problem

Solutions to transport octet integrity

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

Octet integrity transport


problem

Some ANSPs have recently experienced


problems in obtaining 64kbit/s lines with octet
integrity from their Network Operator (Telco);

ETSI EN 300 288: 64 kbit/s digital unrestricted leased line with


octet integrity (D64U); Network interface presentation
ETSI EN 300 289: 64 kbit/s digital unrestricted leased line with
octet integrity (D64U); Connection characteristics.

Reason: Some Telcos use data circuits (bit serial


circuits). These cant indicate code violations at
8-bit intervals needed by ATS-QSIG.
When delivered to G.703 codirectional interface,
the octet timing signal is no-longer accurate, as
bit 1 in the Octet is no-longer recognised.

Solutions to transport octet


integrity
Network operator supplies a transparent end-toend 64kbps channel from an E1 interfaceEach VCS is then configured to send octet timing
synchronization across the link to the other VCS;
ANSPs multiplexes ATS-QSIG 64kbps bitstream
to a single channel of an E1 frame. The other
channels of the E1 can be used for other
applications (i.e. data and voice);
If the Network operator can only supply a 64kbps
kilostream circuit with X.21 interfaces, then a
solution with X.21/G.703 co-directional Interface
converters is possible.

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75

X.21 to G.703 co-directional interface converters

Co-directional without octet integrity signal


ATS-QSIG HDLC flag search method (Autoseek)
In the case that a Telecom Operator is unable to supply a 64 kbps digital unrestricted leased circuit
(D64U), they may offer a bit-serial circuits (e.g. data circuits), that are however unable to guarantee
octet integrity. These result in the position of code violations being anywhere withi n the octet and hence
octet integrity is lost. In this case the ECMA 312 has a second option defined for octet synchronization.
As this is an optional item, some but not all of the VCS suppliers have implemented this solution. A
search of HDLC opening and closing flags is made within the full bit-64kbps stream channel. The
identification of these flags indicates the position of the 16kbps Signalling channel within the full bit stream. Once the position of the signalling channel is recognised, it is also po ssible to identify the
position of the voice channels. It is then possible to determine the position of the first and last bits
within an octet.
The octet synchronisation procedure permits recovery from slips in the 64 kbps bit stream. It
continuously monitors the link and corrects for loss of octet synchronization. Thi s octet synchronization
method should compensate for both an odd number of bit slips as well as an even number of bit slips.
The use of this algorithm however will need a longer time to achieve octet synchronizing.

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QSIG OSI Layer 1

X.21 to G.703 co-directional


interface converters
CUSTOMER PREMISES
EQUIPMENT
(NATS)

Kilostream
DCE

VCS A
NI64 card
Tx
G.703
Co-directional
interface

CUSTOMER PREMISES
EQUIPMENT
(NATS)

BT KILOSTREAM NETWORK

Kilostream
DCE

Black Box Converter


as DTE

VCS B
Black Box Converter
as DTE

Rx
G.703

Rx

Tx
120ohm
twisted
pair

BT clock sync

LACC-NI64 PHIF settings

Sync Out: Enabled

User Sync: Enabled

AIS Out: Disabled

Clock Sync Source: Internal

(i.e. from BT Clock sync)

Side: A, Layer 2: Network

X.21

X.21
DB-15

X.21
64kbps
Line

X.21
DB-15

NI64 card
Tx G.703
120ohm
Co-directional
G.703
twisted pair
interface

BLACK BOX CONVERTERS

TC G.703: LBT
(i.e. from G.703 Rx to
G.703 Tx).

Set LBT to DCE21

Set DTE Baud Rate to


64kbps

Rx

Tx

Rx

BT clock sync

LTCC-NI64 PHIF settings

Sync Out: Enabled

User Sync: Enabled

AIS Out: Disabled

Clock Sync Source: Internal

(i.e. from BT clock sync)

Side: B, Layer 2: User

Co-directional without octet


integrity signal
Some networks do not provide the 8kHz octet timing signal
How can the signalling channel / Voice channels be aligned?
Signalling channel carries HDLC flags when Idle.
HDLC Flag guaranteed to be 01111110.

Signalling channel can be detected, voice channels always offset


immediately following the signalling channel.
HDLC Flag Search method.
Feed 16kbps channel into a HDLC Flag detector, if
no flags detected, select next pair of bits, continue
until Flags detected.

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77

ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

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QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

6. QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

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79

Role and Objective of QSIG layer 2


The role of the Layer 2 recommendation is to define the High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) procedures
commonly referred to as the Link Access Procedure for a D channel or LAP D.
The objective of layer 2 is to provide a secure, error free connection between two end-points connected by a
physical medium.
Layer 3 call control information is carried by information elements within the layer 2 frames and it must be
delivered in sequence and without error. Layer 2 also has responsibility for detecting and retransmitting lost
frames.

Key references to QSIG Layer 2 (LAP D)


Has the scope of defining all relevant QSIG Layer 2 Reference standards for the High Level Data Link Control
(HDLC) procedures commonly referred to as the Link Access Procedure for a D channel or LAP D.
ETS 300 402-1 (Nov 1995) - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Digital Subscriber Signalling
System
No.
one
(DSS1)
protocol;
Data
link
layer;
Part 1: General aspects
ETS 300 402-2 (Nov 1995) - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Digital Subscriber Signalling
System No. one (DSS1) protocol; Data link layer; Part 2: General Protocol specification These two ETS
standards describe in general terms the link access procedure of the Digital Subscriber Signalling System No.
one (DSS1) protocol when used in the pan-European Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) as provided by
European public telecommunications operators, or in a Private Telecommunication Network (PTN), at the T
reference point or the S reference point or the coincident S and T reference point.
ETS 300 402-4 (Sep 1996) - Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Digital Subscriber Signalling
System No. one (DSS1) protocol; Data link layer; Part 4: Protocol Implementation Conformance
Statement (PICS) proforma specification for the general protocol.-Provides the Protocol Implementation
Conformance Statement (PICS) proforma for the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Digital Subscriber
Signalling System No. one (DSS1) protocol data link layer general protocol as specified in ETS 300 402-2 in
compliance with the relevant requirements and in accordance with the relevant guidance given in ISO/IEC 96467.
ITU-T Rec. Q.920 DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER SIGNALLING SYSTEM NO. 1 (DSS1) ISDN USER-NETWORK
INTERFACE DATA LINK LAYER GENERAL ASPECTS (Mar 1993)
ITU-T Rec. Q.921 DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER SIGNALLING SYSTEM NO. 1 (DSS1) ISDN USER-NETWORK
INTERFACE DATA LINK LAYER SPECIFICATION (Sep 1997) - This Recommendation specifies the frame
structure, elements of procedure, format of fields and procedures for the proper operation of the Link Access
Procedure on the D-channel, LAPD.

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QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

Role and Objective of QSIG


layer 2

Objective: to provide a secure, error free connection


between two end-points connected by a physical
medium;

Role of data link layer: to define High Level Data


Link (HDLC) procedures commonly referred to as
Link Access Procedures for D channel or LAP-D;

Layer 2 info. frames transport Layer 3 call control


messages (each containing info. elements);
Delivers frames in sequence & without error.

Layer 2 also has responsibility for detecting &


re-transmitting lost frames;

Key references to QSIG Layer 2


(LAP D)
ETSI standard

LAYER 2
DATA LINK
LAYER
(HDLC)

ITU-T Rec.

ISO standard

ETS 300-402-1 ITU I 440/ Q920


(1995)
ETS 300-402-2
(1995)

ITU I 441/ Q921 ISO/IEC 11575


(1995)

ETS 300-402-4
(1999)

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ISO/IEC 9646-7
(1997)

81

QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Services

Reliable data transfer - Provides a reliable mechanism for the transfer of information through the D-channel
by the use of the LAP-D protocol; The purpose of a Layer 2 HDLC frames are to transport the layer 3
information to its destination in the correct order and without errors.

Unacknowledged connectionless service Provides the means for higher layer entities to send data units
without the necessity of first establishing a link level connection. Data transfer can be point-to-point, multipoint, or broadcast. No acknowledgements are provided by the data link in this service. Link failure may
result in loss of data. This layer 2 service is not used by ATS-QSIG.

Connection-oriented service Is used by LAPD for the point-to-point acknowledged information transfer. It
supports sequenced delivery of data units and a comprehensive set of data link controls designed to
establish a connection, use it to reliably transfer user data, and then terminate it. This layer 2 service is used
by ATS-QSIG.

QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Functions (1)


The LAP-D functions include the following:

Many DATA LINKS per D channel - each data link is identified by a different Data Link Connection
Identifier (DLCI) contained in the address field of a HDLC frame. LAP D allows the possibility of frame
multiplexing by having separate addresses at layer 2 allowing many LAPs to exist on the same physical
connection. Within ATS_QSIG only one LAP exists per D-channel at present.

Initialisation of an already established physical link responsible for establishing and initialising the data
link connection (LINK ESTABLISHMENT).

Control of normal data interchange allows sequential order of the HDLC frames across a data link
connection through the use of SEQUENCE CONTROL, (INFORMATION TRANSFER).

Termination of link -responsible for terminating a data link connection, however for ATS-QSIG the link
should always remain active, but if terminated should be re-activated immediately. (TERMINATION)

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QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Services


Reliable mechanism for TRANSFER of info. through D-channel
using LAP-D protocol;

Connection-orientated service
Pt to Pt acknowledged info. transfer for sequenced delivery of
data units and data link control;
Designed to: establish a connection; use it to transfer user data;
terminate connection;

Connectionless service
Pt to Pt, Pt-to Multi-point or broadcast unacknowledged info.
transfer for higher layer entities;
Data units sent without necessity of first establishing a link level
connection;
Link failure may result in loss of data.

QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Functions


(1)
Provides One or more data links per D channel;
Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) in each HDLC frame
discriminates between connections through SAPI +TEI;
ATS-QSIG uses only one Data Link per D-channel;
LAP-D responsible for:

Establishing/ initialising data link connection between


two entities (i.e establishing LAP);
Control of normal data - allows sequential order of
HDLC frames across data link connection;
Termination of the Data link connection
Recovery control: from abnormal conditions (i.e.
invalid or no responses, loss of synch, faults resulting
from comm. link. anomalies

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83

QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Functions (2)

Error detection detection of transmission, format and operational ERRORS on the data link connection

Abnormal condition recovery such as invalid or no responses, loss of synchronisation, and faults
resulting from anomalies in the communications link.

Transparency this allows the link control to be totally independent of the information being transmitted
over the link.

Notification - of the management entity of unrecoverable errors

Flow control - allows regulation of the transmission rate of HDLC information frames across the data link by
the receiving end informing the sending end to stop transmitting frames until instructed to continue.

HDLC Frame Structure


The frame structure provides a common structure for all supervisory and information transfers in the bit-oriented
protocols. The frame structure governs the structure, formatting, and significance of the various fields in the
frame as well as the frame delimiting flags and frame check sequences.
A frame is a sequence of contiguous bits bound by, and including, opening and closing flag sequence. A valid
frame is a minimum of 48 bits in length and must conform to the structure as illustrated. Frames, containing only
link control sequences, form a special case where no Information field is present.
Each frame has the following six distinct fields as illustrated in the slide:

Opening Flag (1 octet)

Address Field (2 octets)

Control Field (1 or 2 octets)

Information field (variable length, but a maximum of 260 octets)

Frame Check Sequence Field (2 octets)

Closing Flag (1 octet)

The information field is only present in frames that carry Layer 3 information.
The standardised format permits multiple-frame transmission sequences requiring no frame-for-frame
acknowledgement. This minimises the amount of signalling needed for data link control.

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QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

QSIG Layer 2: LAP-D Functions


(2)
Abnormal condition recovery: such as invalid or no
responses, loss of synchronisation, and faults resulting
from anomalies in the communications link;
Transparency: allows link control to be totally
independent of information being transmitted over link;
Notification: of the management entity of
unrecoverable errors;
Flow Control: allows regulation of HDLC information
frame transmission rate across the data link
connection, by receiver using supervisory frames to
stop/start transmission;

HDLC Frame Structure

Opening Flag
Address field
Control field
Information field
Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
Closing Flag

FLAG

FCS

0 to 260

1 to 2

INFORMATION CONTROL

7-268

ADDRESS

FLAG

Direction of
transmission

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85

The Flag Sequence


All frames shall start and end with the flag sequence consisting of one 0 bit followed by six contiguous 1 bits and
one 0 bit. The flag preceding the address field is defined as the opening flag. The flag following the Frame Check
Sequence (FCS) field is defined as the closing flag. The closing flag may also serve as the opening flag of the
next frame, in some applications. However, all receivers must be able to accommodate receipt of one or more
consecutive flags.
Within the ATS-QSIG 1ayer 2 protocol however the transmitting data link layer entity shall always send an
opening flag and a closing flag for each layer 2 frame transmitted (i.e. the closing flag of one frame shall not
serve as the opening flag of the next frame).
Transparency (Bit Stuffing)
A transmitting data link layer entity shall examine the frame content between the opening and closing flag
sequences, (address, control, information and FCS fields) and shall insert a 0 bit after all sequences of five
contiguous 1 bits (including the last five bits of the FCS) to ensure that a flag or an abort sequence is not
simulated within the frame. A receiving data link layer entity shall examine the frame contents between the
opening and closing flag sequences and shall discard any 0 bit which directly follows five contiguous 1 bits.
Synchronisation
If no layer 3 information is being sent then flags are continuously sent in order to maintain synchronisation.

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QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

The Flag Sequence


01111110 Flag : unique bit sequence.
At TX side 0 BIT STUFFING after detection
11111 pattern in data stream
0 Bit de-stuffing in incoming data at RX side
If no layer 3 information is to be sent, Flags are
continuously sent to maintain synchronisation
1

0 to 260

1 to 2

FLAG

FCS

INFORMATION

CONTROL

ADDRESS

FLAG

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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87

The Address Field


Address field
Layer 2 multiplexing is achieved by employing a separate layer 2 address for each LAP in the system. To carry
the LAP identity the address is two octets long and identifies the intended receiver of a command frame and the
transmitter of a response frame. The address has only local significance and is known only to the two end-points
using the LAP. No use can be made of the address by the network for routing purposes and no information about
its value will be held outside of the layer 2 entity.
Address field extension bit (EA) - The address field range is extended by reserving the first transmitted bit of
the address field octets to indicate the final octet of the address field. The presence of a 1 in the first bit of an
address field octet signals that it is the final octet of the address field. The double octet address field for LAPD
operation shall have bit 1 of the first octet set to a 0 and bit 1 of the second octet set to 1, otherwise the frame
shall be ignored.
Command/response field bit (C/R) - The C/R bit identifies a frame as either a command or a response. The
user side shall send commands with the C/R bit set to 0, and responses with the C/R bit set to 1. The network
side shall do the opposite; that is, commands are sent with C/R set to 1, and responses are sent with C/R set to
0. The combinations for the network side and user side are shown in the table below.

C/R field bit usage


Command/Response
Command
Response

Direction

C/R value

Network side user side

User side network side

Network side user side

User side network side

Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) -In conformance with HDLC (High-level Data Link Control procedures)
rules, both peer entities on a point-to-point data link connection use the same Data Link Connection Identifier
(DLCI) composed of a SAPI-TEI.
Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI) -The SAPI identifies a point at which data link layer services are
provided by a data link layer entity type to a layer 3 or management entity. Consequently, the SAPI specifies a
data link layer entity type that should process a data link layer frame and also a layer 3 or management entity
which is to receive information carried by the data link layer frame. The SAPI allows 64 service access points to
be specified, where bit 3 of the address field octet containing the SAPI is the least significant binary digit and bit 8
is the most significant. The SAPI values are allocated as shown in the table below.

SAPI value
0
1 11
12

Related layer 3 or management entity


Call control procedures
Reserved for future standardisation
Teleaction communication

13 15

Reserved for future standardisation

16
17 31

Packet communication conforming to X.25 level 3 procedures


Reserved for future standardisation

63
All others

Layer 2 management procedures


Not available for Q.921 procedures

For ATS-QSIG layer 2 protocol the SAPI value is always set to zero (Call control procedures)

Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI)

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QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

The Address Field

Address Field Extension Bits (EA)


Command/Response indication bit (C/R)
Data Link Connection Identifier :
DLCI =SAPI+TEI
Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI)
Class of Service (voice,data, voice+data,video,..)
Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI)
Uniquely defines the terminal within that class
(broadcast = all 1s)

FLAG

FCS

0 to 260

1 to 2

INFORMATION CONTROL DLCI/ADDRESS

Direction of
transmission

TEI = 0

EA
1

SAPI = 0

1
FLAG

C/R

EA
0

It is possible to associate a TEI with a single Terminal Equipment (TE) for a point-to-point data link connection. If
a TEI is not the group TEI and is not associated with any TE, that TEI is unassigned. A TE may contain one or
more TEIs used for point-to-point data transfer. The TEI for a broadcast data link connection is associated with all
user side data link layer entities containing the same SAPI. The TEI sub-field allows 128 values where bit 2 of the
address field octet containing the TEI is the least significant binary digit and bit 8 is the most significant binary
digit. The following conventions shall apply in the assignment of these values.
TEI for broadcast data link connection
The TEI sub-field bit pattern 111 1111 (127) is defined as the group TEI. The group TEI is assigned
permanently to the broadcast data link connection associated with the addressed Service Access Point (SAP).
TEI for point-to-point data link connection
TEI, values other than 127 are used for the point-to-point data link connections associated with the addressed
SAP. The range of TEI values shall be allocated as shown in the table below.

TEI Value
0-63
64-126

User Type
Non-automatic TEI assignment user equipment
Automatic TEI assignment user equipment

Non-automatic TEI values are selected by the user, and their allocation is the responsibility of the user.
Automatic TEI values are selected by the network, and their allocation is the responsibility of the network.

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89

The Control Field (1)


Control field formats
The control field may be 1 or 2 octets in length depending on the frame type. The control field identifies the type
of frame that will be either a command or response. The control field will contain sequence numbers, where
applicable.
Three layer 2 frame types are specified: numbered information transfer (I format), supervisory functions
(S format), and unnumbered information transfers and control functions (U format). The control field formats for
each frame type are shown in the following table.

Control field formats


Control field bits (modulo 128)

I format
S format

N(S)

Octet 4

N(R)

Octet 4

N(R)
U format

N(S) Transmitter send sequence number


N(R) Transmitter receive sequence number
S
Supervisory function bit

M
M
P/F

P/F

P/F
M

5
Octet 4

Modifier function bit


Poll bit when issued as a command, final
bit when issued as a response

By assigning different combinations to the S and M bits many frames

The Control Field (2)


Information transfer (I) format
The table below shows the control fields of the layer 2 information frames and indicates whether a frame exists
as a command or a response.
Encoding
Format

Commands

Information
transfer

I (information)

Responses

5
N(S)
N(R)

Octet

0
P

4
5

The I format shall be used to perform an information transfer between layer 3 entities. The functions of N(S), N(R)
and P are independent; that is, each I frame has an N(S) sequence number, an N(R) sequence number which
may or may not acknowledge additional I frames received by the data link layer entity, and a P bit that may be set
to 0 or 1.
Information (I) command
The function of the information (I) command is to transfer, across a data link connection, sequentially numbered
frames containing information elements provided by layer 3. This command is used in the multiple frame
operation on point-to-point data link connections. The N(S) and N(R) counts provide for numbering the frame
being sent and the frame expected to be received next. When information exchange is in progress, each data link
layer entity reports its N(R) and N(S) counts to each other.

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QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

The Control Field (1)


Information Transfer Frame (I)
Supervisory Frame (S)(Flow Control)
Unnumbered Frame (U)(Link Control)

0 to 260

FLAG

FCS

Direction of transmission
1 to 2

INFORMATION CONTROL
N(R)

ADDRESS

FLAG

N(S)

I format

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
N(R)
P/F 0 0 0 0 S S 0 1
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

S
format

M M M P/F M M 1 1
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

U
format

The Control Field (2)

Information Transfer (I) format


Used to perform acknowledged LAYER 3
information transfer.
N(S) Sender Sequence Number
N(R) Receiver Sequence Number
(P) Poll Bit

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The Control Field (3)


Supervisory (S) format
The table below shows the control fields of the layer 2 supervisory frames and indicates whether a frame exists
as a command or a response.
Octet

Supervisory

RR (receive ready)

RR (receive ready)

0
0
N(R)

1
P/F

4
5

RNR (receive not


ready)

RNR (receive not


ready)

0
0
N(R)

1
P/F

4
5

REJ (reject)

REJ (reject)

0
1
N(R)

1
P/F

4
5

The S format shall be used to perform data link supervisory control functions such as: acknowledge I frames,
request retransmission of I frames, and request a temporary suspension of transmission of I frames. The
functions of N(R) and P/F are independent, that is, each supervisory frame has an N(R) sequence number which
may or may not acknowledge additional I frames received by the data link layer entity, and a P/F bit that may be
set to 0 or 1.
Three different supervisory (S) frames are available for basic link control functions. All three may be used as
either commands or responses.
Receive ready (RR) command/response
The RR supervisory frame is used by a data link layer entity to indicate that it is ready to receive an I frame and
to acknowledge previously received I frames numbered up to and including N(R) 1; It is also used to clear a
busy condition that was indicated by the earlier transmission of an RNR frame by that same data link layer entity.
In addition to indicating the status of a data link layer entity, the RR command with the P bit set to 1 may be used
by the data link layer entity to ask for the status of its peer data link layer entity.
Reject (REJ) command/response
The REJ supervisory frame is used by a data link layer entity to request retransmission of I frames starting with
the frame numbered N(R). I frames numbered N(R)1 and below are acknowledged.
In addition to indicating the status of a data link layer entity, the REJ command with the P bit set to 1 may be
used by the data link layer entity to ask for the status of its peer data link layer entity.
Receive not ready (RNR) command/response
The RNR supervisory frame is used by a data link layer entity to indicate a busy condition; that is, a temporary
inability to accept additional incoming I frames. I frames numbered up to and including N(R)-1 are
acknowledged; I frame N(R) and any subsequent I frames received, if any, are not acknowledged. A data link
layer entity that receives a RNR frame when in the process of transmitting is stopped from transmitting at the
earliest possible time by completing or aborting the frame in process.
In addition to indicating the status of a data link layer entity, the RNR command with the P bit set to 1 may be
used by the data link layer entity to ask for the status of its peer data link layer entity.

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The Control Field (3)

Supervisory (S) format


Used to perform data link supervisory
control functions:
SS

Supervisory control function

00

Receiver Ready (RR)

01

Receiver Not Ready (RNR)

10

Reject Received Frame (REJ)

Receiver sequence numbering N(R)


Poll/final (P/F)

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93

The Control Field (4)


Unnumbered (U) format
The table below shows the control fields of the layer 2 unnumbered frames and indicates whether a frame exists
as a command or a response.
Encoding
Format

Commands

Responses

Octet

SABME (set
asynchronous balanced
mode extended)
DM (disconnected
mode)

Unnumbered

UI (unnumbered
information)

DISC (disconnect)

UA (unnumbered
acknowledgement)

FRMR (frame
reject)

XID (Exchange
Identification)
(Note)

P/F

XID (Exchange
Identification)
(Note)

The U format shall be used to provide additional data link control functions and unnumbered information transfers
for unacknowledged information transfer. This format does not contain sequence numbers. It does include a P/F
bit that may be set to 0 or 1.
Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended (SABME) command
The SABME unnumbered command is used to place the addressed user side or network side into modulo 128
multiple frame acknowledged operation.
No information field is permitted with the SABME command. A data link layer entity confirms acceptance of an
SABME command by the transmission at the first opportunity of a UA response. Upon acceptance of this
command, the data link layer entity's V(S), V(A) and V(R) are set to 0. The transmission of an SABME command
indicates the clearance of all exception conditions.
Previously transmitted I frames that are unacknowledged when this command is processed remain
unacknowledged and are discarded. It is the responsibility of a higher level (for example, layer 3) or the
management entity to recover from the possible loss of the contents of such I frames.
Disconnect (DISC) command
The DISC unnumbered command is used to terminate the multiple frame operation.
No information field is permitted with the DISC command. The data link layer entity receiving the DISC command
confirms the acceptance of a DISC command by the transmission of a UA response.
The data link layer entity sending the DISC command terminates the multiple frame operation when it receives
the acknowledging UA or DM response.
Previously transmitted I frames that are unacknowledged when this command is processed remain
unacknowledged and are discarded. It is the responsibility of a higher level (for example, layer 3) or the
management entity to recover from the possible loss of the contents of such I frames.
Unnumbered information (UI) command
When a layer 3 or management entity requests unacknowledged information transfer, the UI unnumbered
command is used to send information to its peer without affecting data link layer variables. UI command frames
do not carry a sequence number and therefore, the UI frame may be lost without notification.
Note that Unnumbered Information (UI) frames are not used within ATS-QSIG.
Unnumbered acknowledgement (UA) response

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The Control Field (4)

Unnumbered (U) format


Used to provide additional data link control
functions:

MMM MM
000 11
010 00
011 00
011 11
100 01
101 11

Control function

Disconnected Mode (DM)


Disconnect (DISC)
Unnumbered Acknowledgement (UA)
Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode
Extended (SABME)
Frame Reject (FRMR)
Exchange Identification (XID)

X
X
X

X
X

The UA unnumbered response is used by a data link layer entity to acknowledge the receipt and acceptance of
the mode-setting commands (SABME or DISC). Received mode-setting commands are not processed until the
UA response is transmitted. No information field is permitted with the UA response. The transmission of the UA
response indicates the clearance of any busy condition that was reported by the earlier transmission of an RNR
frame by that same data link layer entity.
Disconnected mode (DM) response
The DM unnumbered response is used by a data link layer entity to report to its peer that the data link layer is in
a state such that multiple frame operation cannot be performed. No information field is permitted with the DM
response.
Frame reject (FRMR) response
The FRMR unnumbered response may be received by a data link layer entity as a report of an error condition not
recoverable by retransmission of the identical frame, i.e. at least one of the following error conditions resulting
from the receipt of a valid frame:

a)

the receipt of a command or response control field that is undefined;

b)

the receipt of a supervisory or unnumbered frame with incorrect length;

c)

the receipt of an invalid N(R); or

d)

the receipt of a frame with an information field which exceeds the maximum
established length.

A valid N(R) value is one that is in the range V(A) N(R) V(S).

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Information and Frame Check Sequence Fields


Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field
Each frame includes a 16 bit frame check sequence (FCS) that immediately follows the Information field (or the
Control field if there is no I field) and precedes the closing flag. The FCS field serves to detect errors that are
induced by the transmission link and that validate transmission accuracy. The 16 bits result from a mathematical
computation on the digital value of all binary bits (excluding inserted zeros) in the frame including the address,
control and information fields.
The process is known as cyclic redundancy checking using the ITU-T Rec. V.41 generator polynomial of
16
12
5
x + x + x + 1. The transmitter's 16 bit shift register (shown below) is initialised to all ones before a frame is
16
transmitted. The binary value of the transmission is pre-multiplied by x
and then divided by the generator
polynomial. Integer quotient values are ignored and the transmitter sends the 1's complement of the resulting
remainder value, high order bit first, as the FCS field.
At the receiver, the initial remainder is also preset to all ones and the same process is applied to the serial
incoming bits, but this time the FCS is included in the division process. In the absence of transmission errors the
remainder should always be 0001 1101 0000 1111 (x15 through x0, respectively).
It is unlikely that a frame will disappear completely but it is possible for frames to be corrupted by noise at Layer
1. The receiver discards a frame in error and does not advance the receive sequence count. Subsequent
retransmission of the errored block is under control of error recovery procedures.

DATA
1
+

10

11

12

13 14 15

16

Multiple frame Establishment


The slide is an animated illustration of the Multiple Frame Establishment scenario showing the exchange of the
SABME and UA frames between two PINXs.
Before Layer 2 is ready to offer its services to layer 3 it must initiate the layer 2 start-up procedure known as
establishing a LAP.
LAP establishment is achieved by the exchange of layer 2 frames between one PINX configured as User side
and a second PINX configured as Network side. The purpose of this exchange is to align the state variables that
will be used to ensure the correct sequencing of information frames.
Before the LAP has been established the only frames that may be transmitted are unnumbered frames. The
establishment procedure requires that one PINX transmits a Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended
(SABME) frame and the corresponding PINX to acknowledge it with an Unnumbered Acknowledgement (UA).
Once the LAP is established Layer 2 is able to carry the Layer 3 information and is said to be the multiple frame
established state (layer 2 state 7). In this state Layer 2 operates its frame protection mechanisms.
Within the ATS-QSIG protocol, once the multiple frame established state (state 7) has been achieved on a link,
the two PINX will always try to maintain this state and will automatically re-establish the link after link loss.

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Information and Frame Check


Sequence Fields

The information field carries all LAYER 3


Information (QSIG)

Generator polynomial:

16 + X12 + X5 + 1
Direction of
transmission

FLAG

FCS

0 to 260

1 to 2

INFORMATION CONTROL

ADDRESS

FLAG

Multiple frame Establishment


PINX B

PINX A
Q

IVN

SABME

UA

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Multiple frame Disconnect


The slide is an animated illustration of the Multiple Frame Disconnect scenario showing the exchange of the
DISC and UA frames between two PINXs.
LAP disconnection is achieved by the exchange of layer 2 frames between one PINX configured as User side
and a second PINX configured as Network side. The LAP disconnection procedure requires that one PINX
transmits a Disconnection (DISC) frame and the corresponding PINX to acknowledge it with an Unnumbered
Acknowledgement (UA).
When the LAP is not established the only frames that may be transmitted are unnumbered frames.
When the LAP is not established Layer 2 is not able to carry the Layer 3 information and is said to be the TEI
assigned state (layer 2 state 4).

Multiple frame Information Transfer


The slide is an animated illustration of the Multiple Frame Information Transfer scenario showing the exchange of
RR frames.
Once established the LAP operates an acknowledged service in which every information frame (I frame) must be
responded to by the peer entity. The most basic response is the Receiver Ready (RR) response frame. The slide
shows the corresponding RR frames which acknowledge the layer 2 information frames used to transport the
layer 3 SETUP, CALL PROC, ALERTING and CONNECT messages.
The number of I frames allowed to be outstanding without an acknowledgement is defined as the window size
and can vary between 1 and 127. For telephony signalling applications the window size is 1 and after transmitting
an I frame the layer 2 entity will await a response from the corresponding peer entity before attempting to transmit
the next I frame. Providing there are no errors all that would be observed on the bus would be the exchange of I
frames and RR responses. However Layer 2 is able to maintain the correct flow of information, in the face of
many different error types.

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QSIG OSI Layer 2: LAP-D

Multiple frame Disconnect


PINX A

PINX B
Q

IVN

DISC

UA

Multiple frame Information Transfer


PINX A
Q

IVN

PINX B
C

(SETUP)
RR
(CALL PROCEEDING)
RR
(ALERTING)
RR
(CONNECT)
RR

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Example of being unstable in state 4


Animated illustration of passing from the TEI assigned state 4 to the Multiple Frame Established State 7 and then
showing that any link disconnect command will cause the data link to enter state 4 momentarily before
automatically requesting link re-establishment.
The slide shows PINX A configured as the Network side and PINX B configured as the User side. Initially the LAP
has not been established and PINX A and B are in the TEI assigned state (state 4). In order to establish the LAP
and enter the multiple frame established state, a SAMBE command is sent from PINX A, which then enters in the
Awaiting Establishment state (state 5). PINX B then answers with a UA response frame and PINX A enters in the
Multiple frame established state (state 7).
Once the LAP has been established, the data link layer becomes unstable in state 4, which implies that if it were
to return to state 4, the maximum time that it would remain there before re-establishing state 7 would be 6
seconds.
As an example, PINX A now sends a DISC command and enters the Awaiting release state (state 6). PINX B
then answers with a UA response frame and PINX A enters in the TEI assigned state (state 4).
As soon as PINX A realises that it has entered state 4, it sends the SABME command in order to request reestablishment of the link and PINX B answers with a UA response frame.
Within ATS-QSIG both Network and User sides are defined as unstable in state 4, and so once the data link has
been lost, both sides shall attempt to re-establish it as quickly as possible.
Within ATS-QSIG protocol the TEI value for every connection is set to 0. The following layer 2 states are
relevant to ATS-QSIG.

State 4: TEI assigned.

State 5: Awaiting establishment.

State 7: Multiple frame established.

The receipt of an Establish request in the TEI assigned state (state 4) will cause the initiation of the establishment
procedures and the transition to the awaiting establishment state (state 5). Completion of the LAP establishment
procedures takes the data link layer entity into the multiple frame established state (state 7).
The receipt of an Release request in the multiple frame established state (state 7) will cause the initiation of the
disconnection procedures and the transition to the awaiting release state (state 6). Completion of the LAP
disconnection procedures takes the data link layer entity into the TEI assigned state (state 4).

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Example of being unstable in state


4
PINX B

PINX A
Network side
Q
TEI assigned (4)
Awaiting
establishment (5)
Multiple frame
establishment (7)
Awaiting release (6)
TEI assigned (4)

Awaiting
establishment (5)
Multiple frame
establishment (7)

IVN

User side

SABME
UA

DISC
UA
SABME
UA

Once established the data link layer becomes unstable in state 4.

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ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

7. QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

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103

Role and Objectives of QSIG Layer 3

The objective of QSIG layer 3 is to define signalling procedures and protocol for circuit-switched call control
at the Q reference point between PINXs connected in a PISN.

The role of QSIG layer 3 is to effect the establishment, clearing and control of QSIG calls through its call
control messages exchanged between the protocol control entities of the PINXs. The QSIG layer 3 can be
sub-divided into three sub-layers of Basic Call, Generic Functional Protocol and Supplementary services
respectively.

QSIG Basic Call (BC)

The 1st sub-layer at layer 3 is QSIG Basic Call (BC). This is a symmetrical protocol (i.e. both the user side
and the network side of the interface are identical), designed for peer to peer operation and it includes transit
node capability.

QSIG Generic Functional Protocol (GFP)

The 2nd sub-layer at layer 3 is the QSIG Generic Functional (GF) protocol provides a standardised
mechanism to exchange signalling information for the control of supplementary services and additional
network features over a corporate network.

QSIG supplementary services

The 3rd sub-layer of layer 3 defines specific QSIG procedures at the Q reference point for individual
supplementary services;

Key references to QSIG Layer 3 Basic Call (BC)


Has the scope of defining all relevant QSIG layer 3 Basic Call standards
ECMA 142 ed.4 (2001), EN 300 171- (Dec 1992) and ISO/IEC standard 11574 - Private Telecommunication
Network (PTN); Specification, functional models and information flows Control aspects of circuit mode
basic services
This Standard specifies control aspects of standardized circuit mode services which may be supported by Private
Telecommunication Networks (PTNs). This Standard contains the Stage 1 and Stage 2 specifications of these
services.
ECMA 143, EN 300 172 ed.3- (Nov 1995) and ISO/IEC standard 11572 ed.2 (1997) - Private Integrated
Services Network (PISN); Inter-exchange signalling protocol; Circuit-mode basic services.
These standards define the Layer 3 protocol for signalling for the support of circuit mode bearer services (used
either on their own or in support of teleservices) at the Q reference point between Private Integrated Network
Exchanges (PINX) connected together within a Private Telecommunication Network (PTN). The Q reference
point is defined in ENV 41004.
Service specifications are produced in three stages and according to the method specified in ENV 41005. The
definition of signalling protocols is stage 3 of the method.

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Role and Objectives of QSIG


Layer 3

Role: Effect establishment, clearing and


control of QSIG calls through its call
control messages exchanged between the
call control entities of PINXs.
Objective: To define signalling procedures
and protocol for circuit-switched call
control at the Q reference point between
PINXs connected in a PISN.

Key references to QSIG Layer 3


Basic Call (BC)
ECMA standard ISO standard

LAYER 3 :

NETWORK
LAYER

ETSI standard

ECMA 142
ed.3 (2001)

ISO/IEC 11574

ECMA 143
ed.4 (2001)

ISO/IEC 11572 EN 300-172 ed. 3


ed.2 (1997)
(1995)

EN 300-171
(1992)

The 1st sub-layer at layer 3 is QSIG Basic Call (BC). This is


a symmetrical protocol (i.e. both the user side and the
network side of the interface are identical), designed for peer
to peer operation and it includes transit node capability.

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Basic QSIG Protocol model


The slide illustrates the Basic QSIG Protocol model for the Basic Call showing Call Control (CC) and Protocol
Control (PC) entities at layer 3 with its associated Q reference point. A Signalling carriage mechanism is shown
at layer 2 and its interface with layer 1 at the C reference point. A layer Management entity exists at each level
and all layers interface with the System Management Entity. The model also shows how the various entities
relate to the layers of the OSI model.
PC
The Protocol Control (PC) entity has the task of checking the contents of incoming layer 3 messages and forming
the contents of the outgoing messages at the Q reference point. It is instructed on which message should be sent
next by the Call Control Entity and passes on all correctly received messages to the Call Control Entity.
The Protocol Control (PC) entity provides services to Call Control. Primitives exchanged across the boundary
between Call Control and Protocol Control correspond to the information flows exchanged between the Call
Control functional entities, as identified at Stage 2. Protocol Control provides the mapping between these
primitives and the messages transferred across the inter-PINX link at the Q reference point.
In order to transfer messages, Protocol Control uses the services of the Data Link Layer, which in turn uses the
services of the Physical Layer. The actual Data Link Layer and Physical Layer protocols visible at the C reference
point are dependent upon the PINX interconnection scenario.
CC
The Call Control (CC) entity manages the set of layer 3 messages which are required to establish, maintain and
release a call in a network. The requirements for CC in order to co-ordinate the two protocol entities are
dependent on whether the PINX is a Transit PINX, an Originating PINX, a Terminating PINX, an Incoming
Gateway PINX or an Outgoing Gateway PINX. and each has to be individually defined.
LM
The Layer Management (LM) Entity has the task of managing the peer-to-peer operations of the layer protocols.
In many protocol descriptions there are usually statements to the effect that when encountering certain error
conditions, the layer protocol should notify the next higher layer.
SM
System management (SM) function is an implementation dependent function and is not subject to
standardisation. This is roughly equivalent to a computer operating system. It is embedded software within the
PINX that runs the whole Switch.

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Basic QSIG Protocol model

LM

LM
Legend:
CC (TCC)
PC
LM
SCM
SM

SCM

Layer 1 and 2

PC

Mirror-like arrangement

CC (TCC)

SM

Call Control (Transit Call Control)


Protocol Control
Layer Management
Signalling Carriage Mechanism
System Management

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Full QSIG Protocol model


The slide shows the Full QSIG Protocol model for the Generic Functional Protocol (GFP) with the inclusion of
Generic Functional Transport Control (GFTC) at layer 3 and a Co-ordination Function (CF), Supplementary
Service Control (SSC), Remote Operations Service Element (ROSE) and the Dialogue Service Element (DSE) in
the layers 4 to 7. This enhances the Basic QSIG model defined in the previous slide. A layer Management entity
exists at each level and all layers interface with the System Management Entity. The model also shows how the
various entities relate to the layers of the OSI model.
SS-Control
At the top layer of the OSI model (the application layer), the actual Supplementary service protocol operates
between peer Supplementary Services Control (SSC #1 to n) entities which are service-specific. Each SS-Control
entity manages a particular supplementary service. In the case of ATS-QSIG, SS-Control entities exist for both
the Call Intrusion and Call Priority Interrupt Supplementary services.
SS-Control entities can use the services of the Remote Operations Service Element (ROSE) and the Dialogue
Service Element (DSE) at the application layer via the Co-ordination Function (CF). These entities use the
services of Generic Functional Transport Control (GFTC) at the network layer via the Co-ordination Function.
GFTC uses the services of Protocol Control (PC) at the network layer.
ROSE
The Remote Operations Service Element (ROSE) is used for the support of Supplementary services at the Q
reference point. The underlying services used by ROSE are those provided by GFTC and not those provided by
the Association Control Service Element (ACSE).
ROSE provides a set of services to SS-control to support the ROSE protocol. It allows the invocation of an
operation to be performed on a remote system only once an association has been established between two
application entities. Its protocol primitives are specified in ISO 9072-1 [9], ISO 9072-2 [10] and within ITU-T Rec.
X.219 and relate to the following ROSE APDUs: Invoke, ReturnResult, ReturnError and Reject. These primitives
contain an invoke identifier for correlating requests and responses, an operation code, and an argument field for
parameters specific to the operation.
ROSE APDUs used in the context of a supplementary service shall be defined and encoded in accordance with
ASN.1 rules. Definitions of the required values appear in the relevant Supplementary service specification.
DSE
The Dialogue Service
Co-ordination Function:

Dialog Begin

Dialog Continue

Dialog End

Dialog Abort

Element

(DSE)

provides

the

following

services

to

SS-control

via

the

These services are used for creating and terminating a Dialogue which associates peer SS-control entities and
for exchanging ROSE APDUs within such an association.
CF
The Co-ordination Function (CF) provides co-ordination between GFT-Control, the va

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SSC #n

ROSE

(ACSE)

LM
CF
CC (TCC)

SM

GFTC

LM

LM
Legend:
ACSE
CC
CF
DSE
GFT
PC

Layer 1 and 2

PC

SCM

Association Control Service Element (not used in ATS-Qsig)


Call Control
Co-ordination Function
Dialogue Service Element (not used in ATS-Qsig)
Generic Functional Transport
Layer Management

(DSE)

Layer 3

SSC #1

Layer 4 to 7

Full QSIG Protocol model

PC
ROSE
SCM
SM
SSC
TCC

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Protocol Control
Remote Operatoins Service Element
Signalling Carriage Mechanism
System Management
SS-Control
Transit Call Control

109

QSIG messages
All QSIG Call Establishment Messages, Call Clearing Messages, Miscellaneous Messages and Supplementary
Services messages are defined here.
Call Establishment Messages
SETUP Is sent by the outgoing side to the incoming side to initiate call establishment.
SETUP ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Is sent by the incoming side to indicate that call establishment has been
initiated, but additional information may be required.
CALL PROCEEDING Is sent by the incoming side to indicate that the requested call establishment has been
initiated and no more call establishment information will be accepted.
ALERTING Is sent by the incoming side to the outgoing side to indicate that called user alerting has been
initiated.
CONNECT Is sent by the incoming side to the outgoing side to indicate call acceptance by he called user.
CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Is sent by the outgoing side to acknowledge the receipt of a CONNECT
message.
PROGRESS Is sent by the incoming side to indicate the progress of a call in the event of interworking or by
either side in the connection with the provision of optional in-band information /patterns.
Call Clearing Messages
DISCONNECT Is sent by either side as an invitation to terminate the connection.
RELEASE Is used to indicate that the equipment sending the message has disconnected the channel (if any)
and intends to release the channel and the call reference, and that the receiving equipment should release the
channel and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.
RELEASE COMPLETE - Is used to indicate that the equipment sending the message has released the channel
(if any) and call reference, the channel is available for re-use, and the receiving equipment shall release the call
reference.
RESTART Is used to request the recipient to restart (i.e. return to idle condition) the indicated channel(s).
RESTART ACKNOWLEDGE - Is used to acknowledge the receipt of a RESTART message and to indicate that
the requested restart is complete.
Miscellaneous Messages
INFORMATION - Is sent by the outgoing side to provide additional information during call establishment (in the
case of overlap sending).
STATUS - Is sent by either side in response to a STATUS ENQUIRY message or at any time during a call to
report certain error conditions.
STATUS ENQUIRY May be sent by either side at any time to solicit a STATUS message from the peer
signalling entity.
Supplementary Services
FACILITY - May be sent to transport APDUs. For the use of this message, refer to
NOTIFY - May be sent by a PINX to provide notifications to a user, in association with a Basic call.

Animated illustration, listing all the QSIG messages and deleting those not used by ATS-QSIG.
The following messages are not defined as ATS-QSIG layer 3 messages:

SETUP ACKNOWLEDGE

CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE

INFORMATION

Also the STATUS ENQUIRY message will never be sent by a PINX, however it can be received by a PINX and
for this reason is defined as a valid ATS-QSIG message.

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

QSIG messages
ATS-QSIG
CALL ESTABLISHMENT MSG

Setup
Setup Acknowledge
Call Proceeding
Alerting
Connect
Connect Acknowledge
Progress

CALL CLEARING MSG

Disconnect
Release
Release Complete
Restart
Restart Acknowledge

MISCELLANEOUS MSG

SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES

Facility
Notify

Information
Status
Status Enquiry (Rx only)

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Call Establishment for ATS-QSIG


The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Establishment between PINX A and PINX B using
the ATS-QSIG layer 3 messages. This is the Enbloc Sending example (i.e. all information is contained in a single
Setup message without the need to send additional Information messages).
1. The Outgoing side of PINX A sends a SETUP message to the Incoming side of PINX B containing all
information necessary in order to establish a call;
2.

The PINX B checks the channel number requested and if acceptable sends back a CALL PROCEEDING
message to PINX A, which indicates that requested call establishment has been initiated and no more call
establishment information will be accepted.

3.

The PINX B then sends an ALERTING message back to PINX A, which indicates that the called user is
being alerted (i.e. the telephone is ringing).

4.

The PINX B then sends a CONNECT message back to PINX A, which indicates that the call has been
accepted by the called user (i.e. the called user has answered the call).

5.

For the ATS-QSIG protocol a CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE message is NOT returned to the incoming side
of PINX B in order to acknowledge the receipt of a CONNECT message.

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Establishment for ATSQSIG


PINX A
Q

IVN

PINX B
C

SETUP
CALL PROCEEDING
ALERTING
CONNECT

Outgoing side

Incoming side

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

113

Call Establishment Call Control States for ATS-QSIG


The slide is an animated illustration which demonstrates the Call Establishment Call Control States for ATS-QSIG
which uses only Enbloc sending and doesn't use the Connect Acknowledge message.
States for Circuit Mode Call Control used by ATS-QSIG
The states below are used in association with call references other than the global call reference.
Null State (0)
No call exists.
Call Initiated (1)
This state exists for an outgoing call when the Outgoing Side has sent a request for call establishment to the
Incoming Side but has not yet received a response.
Call Present (6)
This state exists for an incoming call when the Incoming Side has not yet responded to the request from the
Outgoing Side for call establishment.
Incoming Call Proceeding (9)
This state exists for an incoming call when the Incoming Side has sent to the Outgoing Side acknowledgement
that it has received all call information necessary to effect call establishment.
Outgoing Call Proceeding (3)
This state exists for an outgoing call when the Outgoing Side has received acknowledgement that the Incoming
Side has received all call information necessary to effect call establishment.
Call Received (7)
This state exists for an incoming call when the Incoming Side has indicated to the Outgoing Side that the called
user is being alerted.
Call Delivered (4)
This state exists for an outgoing call when the Outgoing Side has received from the Incoming Side an indication
that the called user is being alerted.
Active (10)
This state exists for an incoming call when the Incoming Side has received from the Outgoing Side an
acknowledgement of the indication that the called user has answered the call. This state exists for an outgoing
call when the Outgoing Side has received from the Incoming Side an indication that the called user has answered
the call.
Compatible Protocol Control States for ATS-QSIG
Internal Protocol Control State
associated with call reference

114

Report Protocol Control state in STATUS


message

Null

Null

Call initiated

Call Present

Outgoing Call Proceeding

Incoming Call Proceeding

Call Delivered

Call Received

Call Present

Call initiated

Call Received

Call Delivered

Incoming Call Proceeding

Outgoing Call Proceeding

10

Active

10

Active

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Establishment Call Control


States for ATS-QSIG
PINX A
Q

Null State (0)


Call Initiated (1)

Outgoing Call
Proceeding (3)
Call Delivered (4)

Active (10)

IVN

PINX B
C

SETUP
CALL
PROCEEDING

Null State (0)


Call Present (6)

Incoming Call
Proceeding (9)

ALERTING

Call Received (7)

CONNECT

Active (10)

Outgoing side

Incoming side

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

115

Call Establishment Protocol Timers for ATS-QSIG


The slide is an animated illustration which demonstrates the Call Establishment Protocol Timers for ATS-QSIG.
Timer
Number

Timer Value

T303

Min
4
Max 6 s

Call State

Cause for Start

Normally terminated

On
Sending
SETUP

On receipt of CALL
PROCEEDING,
CONNECT, ALERTING,
SETUP
ACKNOWLEDGE or
RELEASE COMPLETE

T310

Min 110 s Outgoing Call On receipt of


On Receipt of
Maxi 120 s
Proceeding
CALL
ALERTING, CONNECT,
PROCEEDING
PROGRESS (#1, #2 or
#8), DISCONNECT or
RELEASE

T301

Supplier
Dependent

s Call Initiated

Call
Delivered

ALERTING
received

On CONNECT received

Incoming
side

Outgoing
side

Call Clearing
The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Clearing between PINX A and PINX B for both QSIG
and ATS-QSIG layer 3 messages.
1. The PINX A sends a DISCONNECT message to PINX B as an invitation to terminate the connection. This
message can be sent from either side of the connection.
2.

The PINX B sends back a RELEASE message to PINX A, which indicates that the Channel has been
disconnected from the PINX B side and will be released together with the call reference value upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the PINX A side. It also instructs PINX A to release the channel
and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

3.

The PINX A then sends back to PINX B a RELEASE COMPLETE message, which indicates that the channel
and call reference value has been released at the PINX A side and is available for re-use. Upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE the PINX B releases the channel and call reference value.

116

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Establishment Protocol


Timers for ATS-QSIG
PINX A
Q

IVN

PINX B
C

T303 (4 to 6 sec)

SETUP

T310 (30 sec)

CALL PROCEEDING
CONNECT, ALERTING,
REL.COMP

T301 (dependent)

ALERTING
CONNECT, PROGRESS,
DISCONNECT, RELEASE

CONNECT

Outgoing side

Incoming side

Call Clearing
PINX B

PINX A
Q

IVN

(DISCONNECT)
(RELEASE)
(RELEASE COMPLETE)

Incoming side

Outgoing side

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

117

Call Clearing call control states


The slide is an animated illustration which demonstrates the Call Clearing Call Control States for both QSIG and
ATS-QSIG.
States for Circuit Mode Call Control
The states below are used in association with call references other than the global call reference.
Null State (0)
No call exists.
Active (10)
This state exists for an incoming call when the Incoming Side has received from the Outgoing Side an
acknowledgement of the indication that the called user has answered the call. This state exists for an outgoing
call when the Outgoing Side has received from the Incoming Side an indication that the called user has answered
the call.
Disconnect Request (11)
This state exists when a Side has sent to the other Side a request to disconnect the user information connection
and is waiting for a response.
Disconnect Indication (12)
This state exists when a Side has received from the other Side a request to disconnect the user information
connection and has not yet responded.
Release Request (19)
This state exists when a Side has sent to the other Side a request to release the call and has not yet received a
response.
Compatible Protocol Call Clearing Control States for QSIG and ATS-QSIG
Internal Protocol Control State
associated with call reference

118

Report Protocol Control state in STATUS


message

Null

Null

11

Disconnect Request

11

Disconnect Request

12

Disconnect Indication

12

Disconnection Indication

11

Disconnect Request

19

Release Request

19

Release Request

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Clearing call control


states
PINX B

PINX A
Q

IVN

Active (10)
Disconnect
Request (11)

(DISCONNECT)

Idle (0)

(RELEASE)

(RELEASE COMPLETE)

Q
Active (10)
Disconnect
Indication (12)
Release
Request (19)
Idle (0)

Incoming side

Outgoing side

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

119

Call Clearing Protocol Timers


The slide is an animated illustration which demonstrates the Call Clearing Protocol Timers for both QSIG and
ATS-QSIG.
Timer
Number

Timer Value

Call State

Cause for Start

Normally terminated

Incoming
side

Outgoing
side

T305

Min
4
Max 30 s

s Disconnect
Request

On
Sending On receipt of RELEASE M
DISCONNECT
or DISCONNECT

T308

Min
4
Max 6 s

s Release
Request

On
sending
RELEASE

On receiving RELEASE
or RELEASE
COMPLETE

Second
T308

Min
4
Max 6 s

s Release
Request

On
retransmission of
RELEASE

On receiving RELEASE
or RELEASE
COMPLETE

Call Clearing from A side prior to channel assignment


The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Clearing from PINX A prior to channel assignment.
During call establishment, call clearing may be initiated towards the called user before an information channel
has been agreed between the Outgoing and Incoming sides. In this case clearing is accomplished by sending a
RELEASE message to the Incoming side.
1. The PINX A sends a SETUP message to the Incoming side containing all information necessary in order to
establish a call;
2.

The calling user almost immediately decides not to establish the call and aborts its establishment.
The PINX A then sends a RELEASE message to PINX B, which indicates that the Channel proposed in the
previous SETUP message will be released together with the call reference value upon receiving the
RELEASE COMPLETE message from PINX B. It also instructs PINX B to release the channel and prepare
to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE. This RELEASE message will contain a
Cause Information Element giving a Cause value which explains why the call was released (i.e. Cause
number 31 Normal Unspecified).

3.

The PINX B then sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to PINX A, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at PINX B and is available for re-use. Upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE the PINX A releases the channel and call reference value.

120

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Clearing Protocol Timers


PINX A

IVN

PINX B

DISCONNECT

T305 (4 to 6 sec)

RELEASE

T308 (4 to 6 sec)

RELEASE
COMPLETE

Outgoing side

Incoming side

Call Clearing from A side prior


to channel assignment
PINX A
Q

IVN

PINX B
C

SETUP
RELEASE

RELEASE
COMPLETE

Outgoing side

Incoming side

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121

Call Clearing from the A side after channel assignment


The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Clearing from PINX A after channel assignment.
During call establishment, call clearing may be initiated towards the called user after an information channel has
been agreed, but before the call between the Outgoing and Incoming sides has been connected. In this case
clearing is accomplished by sending a DISCONNECT message to the Incoming side.
1. The PINX A sends a SETUP message to the Incoming side containing all information necessary in order to
establish a call;
2.

The PINX B sends a CALL PROCEEDING message back to PINX A, which indicates that requested call
establishment has been initiated and no more call establishment information will be accepted.

3.

At that instant the calling user almost immediately decides not to establish the call and aborts its
establishment.
The PINX A then sends a DISCONNECT message to PINX B, which is an invitation to terminate the
connection. This DISCONNECT message will contain a Cause Information Element giving a Cause value
which explains why the call was released (i.e. Cause number 31 Normal Unspecified).

4.

The PINX B then sends a RELEASE message to PINX A, which indicates that the Channel agreed in the
previous CALL PROCEEDING message will be released together with the call reference value upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message from PINX A. It also instructs PINX A to release the channel
and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

5.

The PINX A then sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to PINX B, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at PINX A and is available for re-use. Upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE the PINX B releases the channel and call reference value.

Call Clearing from B side prior to channel assignment


The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Clearing from PINX B prior to channel assignment.
During call establishment, call clearing may be initiated towards the calling user prior to an information channel
being agreed. The rejection of a SETUP message by the incoming side when no responding message has
previously been sent (e.g. because of the unavailability of a suitable information channel) shall be accomplished
by returning a RELEASE COMPLETE message, releasing the call reference and entering the null state.
1. The PINX A sends a SETUP message to the Incoming side containing all information necessary in order to
establish a call;
2.

122

The PINX B then sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to PINX A, which indicates that the channel
requested was unacceptable and no other channel is available. The call reference value is also released at
PINX B and is available for re-use. Upon receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE the PINX A releases the
channel and call reference value.

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Clearing from the A side


after channel assignment
PINX A
Q

IVN

PINX B
C

SETUP
CALL
PROCEEDING
DISCONNECT
RELEASE
RELEASE
COMPLETE

Outgoing side

Incoming side

Call Clearing from B side prior


to channel assignment
PINX A
Q

IVN

PINX B
C

SETUP

RELEASE
COMPLETE

Outgoing side

Incoming side

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

123

Call Clearing from B side after channel assignment


The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Clearing from PINX B after channel assignment.
During call establishment, call clearing may be initiated towards the calling user after an information channel has
been agreed, but before the call between the Outgoing and Incoming sides has been connected. In this case
clearing is accomplished by sending a DISCONNECT message to the Outgoing side.
1. The PINX A sends a SETUP message to the Incoming side containing all information necessary in order to
establish a call;
2.

The PINX B sends a CALL PROCEEDING message back to PINX A, which indicates that requested call
establishment has been initiated and no more call establishment information will be accepted.

3.

At that instant PINX B decides is can no longer establish this call and cancels its establishment.
The PINX B then sends a DISCONNECT message to PINX A, which is an invitation to terminate the
connection. This DISCONNECT message will contain a Cause Information Element giving a Cause value
which explains why the call was released (i.e. Cause number 31 Normal Unspecified).

4.

The PINX A then sends a RELEASE message to PINX B, which indicates that the Channel agreed on the
receipt of the previous CALL PROCEEDING message will be released together with the call reference value
upon receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message from PINX B. It also instructs PINX B to release the
channel and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

5.

The PINX B then sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to PINX A, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at PINX B and is available for re-use. Upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE the PINX A releases the channel and call reference value.

124

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Clearing from B side after


channel assignment
PINX A
Q

IVN

PINX B
C

SETUP
CALL
PROCEEDING
DISCONNECT
RELEASE
RELEASE
COMPLETE

Outgoing side

Incoming side

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

125

ATS-QSIG Call Establishment with Transit PINX


The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Establishment with a Transit PINX. using the ATSQSIG layer 3 messages. This is the Enbloc Sending example (i.e. all information is contained in a single Setup
message without the need to send additional Information messages).
1. The PINX A sends an Enbloc SETUP message to the transit PINX B destined for PINX C containing all
information necessary in order to establish a call;
2.

The PINX B decides if the channel number is acceptable and sends a CALL PROCEEDING message back
to PINX A, which indicates that requested call establishment has been initiated and no more call
establishment information will be accepted.

3.

When receiving a SETUP message, the transit PINX B assumes there will be sufficient address information
in order to know the message destination (defined by the Called Party Number Address). As soon this is
known, the PINX B decides where to route the SETUP message and in this example it is routed to PINX C.
Simultaneously PINX B sends a CALL PROC message back to PINX A, confirming channel number.

4.

When receiving a SETUP message, the PINX C assumes there will be sufficient address information to know
the message destination (defined by the Called Party Number Address). In this example PINX C determines
that it is a local number, the channel indicated is acceptable, and sends a CALL PROCEEDING message
back to PINX B, which indicates that requested call establishment has been initiated and no more call
establishment information will be accepted.

5.

The PINX C then sends back to PINX B an ALERTING message, which indicates that the called user is
being alerted (i.e. the telephone is ringing). The transit PINX B immediately routes this ALERTING message
back to PINX A.

6.

The PINX C then sends back to PINX B a CONNECT message, which indicates that the call has been
accepted by the called user (i.e. the called user has answered the call). The transit PINX B immediately
routes this CONNECT message back to PINX A. The transit PINX B also through connects the information
channel in both directions, if not already connected (i.e. the voice channel from PINX A to the voice channel
to PINX C).

7.

It is recommended that through connection in both directions is achieved as early as possible during the call
Setup. This is particularly appropriate for speech channels. Delaying through connection, particularly in the
backward direction, to a later stage during the call Setup may lead to Speech clipping.

126

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

ATS-QSIG Call Establishment


with Transit PINX
PINX A

PINX B

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PINX C

127

Call Clearing with Transit PINX


The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Clearing of an active call through a Transit PINX.
This is valid for both QSIG and ATS-QSIG layer 3 messages.
1. The PINX A sends a DISCONNECT message to PINX B as an invitation to terminate the connection. This
message can be sent from either side of the connection.
2.

The transit PINX B sends back a RELEASE message to PINX A, which indicates that the Channel has been
disconnected from the PINX B side and will be released together with the call reference value upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the PINX A side. It also instructs PINX A to release the channel
and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

3.

The PINX A then sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to transit PINX B, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at the PINX A side and is available for re-use. Upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE the PINX B releases the channel and call reference value for that
particular link.

4.

The transit PINX B also sends a DISCONNECT message on to PINX C as an invitation to terminate the
connection.

5.

The PINX C sends back a RELEASE message to transit PINX B, which indicates that the Channel has been
disconnected from the PINX C side and will be released together with the call reference value upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the transit PINX B side. It also instructs PINX B to release the
channel and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

6.

The transit PINX B then sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to PINX C, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at the PINX B side and is available for re-use. Upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE the PINX C releases the channel and call reference value for that
particular link.

128

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Clearing with Transit PINX


PINX A

PINX B

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PINX C

129

Call Rejection of a Transit call at PINX C


The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call rejection in PINX C with a Transit PINX. This is valid
for both QSIG and ATS-QSIG layer 3 messages.
1. The PINX A sends an Enbloc SETUP message to the transit PINX B destined for PINX C containing all
information necessary in order to establish a call;
2.

The transit PINX B decides if the channel number is acceptable and sends a CALL PROCEEDING message
back to PINX A, which indicates that requested call establishment has been initiated and no more call
establishment information will be accepted.

3.

When receiving a SETUP message, the transit PINX B assumes there will be sufficient address information
in order to know the message destination (defined by the Called Party Number Address). As soon this is
known, the PINX B decides where to route the SETUP message and in this example it is routed to PINX C.

4.

When receiving a SETUP message, the PINX C decides that it is unable to accept the call; it sends a
RELEASE COMPLETE message back to the transit PINX B.

5.

On receipt of a RELEASE COMPLETE message, the transit PINX B can decide either to try to route the call
to PINX C on a different route if possible or to start call clearing. If call clearing is chosen, it disconnects the
appropriate channel and sends a DISCONNECT message back to PINX A as an invitation to terminate the
connection.

6.

The PINX A sends back a RELEASE message to transit PINX B, which indicates that the Channel has been
disconnected from the PINX A side and will be released together with the call reference value upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the transit PINX B side. It also instructs PINX B to release the
channel and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

7.

The transit PINX B then sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to PINX A, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at the PINX B side and is available for re-use. Upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE the PINX A releases the channel and call reference value for that
particular link.

130

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Rejection of a Transit call at


PINX C
PINX A

PINX B

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PINX C

131

Call Clearing with Transit PINX prior to channel assignment in PINX


C
The slide is an animated illustration to demonstrate the Call Clearing in PINX A with a Transit PINX, prior to
channel assignment in PINX C. This is valid for both QSIG and ATS-QSIG layer 3 messages.
1. The PINX A sends an Enbloc SETUP message to the transit PINX B destined for PINX C containing all
information necessary in order to establish a call;
2.

The transit PINX B decides if the channel number is acceptable and sends a CALL PROCEEDING message
back to PINX A, which indicates that requested call establishment has been initiated and no more call
establishment information will be accepted.

3.

When receiving a SETUP message, the transit PINX B analyses the message and routes it towards PINX C.

4.

At that instant the calling user almost immediately decides not to establish the call and aborts its
establishment.
The PINX A sends a DISCONNECT message to transit PINX B, which is an invitation to terminate the
connection. This DISCONNECT message will contain a Cause Information Element giving a Cause value
which explains why the call was released (i.e. Cause number 31 Normal Unspecified).

5.

The transit PINX B sends a RELEASE message to PINX A, which indicates that the Channel agreed in the
previous CALL PROCEEDING message will be released together with the call reference value upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message from PINX A. It also instructs PINX A to release the channel
and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

6.

The transit PINX B sends a RELEASE message to PINX C, which indicates that the Channel requested in
the previous SETUP message will be released together with the call reference value upon receiving the
RELEASE COMPLETE message from PINX C. It also instructs PINX C to release the channel (if had
already been assigned) and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

7.

The PINX A sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to transit PINX B, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at PINX A and is available for re-use. Upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE the transit PINX B releases the channel and call reference value.

8.

The PINX C sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message back to transit PINX B, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at PINX C and is available for re-use. Upon receiving
the RELEASE COMPLETE the transit PINX B releases the channel and call reference value.

132

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Clearing with Transit PINX prior


to channel assignment in PINX C
PINX A

PINX B

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PINX C

133

Call Collisions
Call Collisions
A Call collision occurs when 2 calls originating at the same instant from opposite ends of an inter-PINX link
attempt to use the same B-channel.
One PINX shall be designated side "A" and the other side "B" at the time the network is provisioned. Each PINX
knows whether it has been designated "A" or "B" side. In the case of ATS-QSIG the "A" side shall be awarded the
channel, and an alternative channel (if a free channel exists) shall be indicated in the first response to the SETUP
message sent from side "B";
In the case where the relative priorities of the colliding calls are different, the call with the higher priority is
awarded the channel. An alternative channel (if free channels exist) is indicated in the first response to the side
originating the lower priority call . If no free channel exists the lower priority call is cleared. The side originating
the lower priority call shall attempt to establish the call using an alternative route.

Simultaneous Call Attempts


Has the scope of defining a Simultaneous Call Attempts and why there is a requirement.
Exists when User A attempts to call User B at the same time as User B attempts to call User A. Different
channels can be requested during the call attempt.

This is a requirement of the Air Traffic Services Ground-Ground communication network, where an Air Traffic
Controller expects to be connected to the party and not receive the busy tone;

A Simultaneous Call Attempt can be made from opposite ends of the same route between two destinations,
or they may take separate routes through the network;

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC)

Call Collisions
A Call collision occurs when 2 calls originating at the
same instant from opposite ends of an inter-PINX
link attempt to use the same B-channel.

Priority call is awarded channel


With equal priority (i.e. 2 routine calls or 2 Priority
calls), "A" side is always awarded channel
An alternative channel (if a free channel exists)
offered to side not awarded channel;
To minimise call collisions, the "A" side seizes
channels in an upwards direction, whereas the
"B" side seizes them in a downwards direction.

Simultaneous Call Attempts


Exists when User A attempts to call User B at the same
time as User B attempts to call User A. Different channels
can be requested during the call attempt.

For ECMA 312 edition 3, SCAs will no longer be resolved.


SCA with call collision will be resolved in the same way as
call collision.
SCA without call collision over international links should
either: a) give Busy tone to the users or
b) automatically re-dial after random time interval
(<3s). Present busy tone if 2nd attempt
unsuccesful;
By bi-lateral agreement the outcome (a-b) for
simultaneous call attempts has to be defined for each
access method (IA, DA, IDA).

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135

ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

136

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QSIG Message Structures and Types

8. QSIG Message Structures and Types

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137

QSIG frame (Message structure)


Layer 3 messages effect the establishment and control of connections. They are carried in Layer 2 Information
frames only. The general structure of Layer 3 signalling messages is shown in the slide.
The QSIG frame (message) structure consists of the following fields in order of transmission:

Protocol Discriminator(PD) of 1 octet

Call Reference (CR) of 2 or 3 octets

Message Type (MT) of 1 octet

Information field from 0 to 255 octets

The maximum length of the frame is 5 octets (when no information is present) to 260 octets when the information
field is full.

The Protocol Discriminator Field


Protocol Discriminator (octet 1 in frame structure)
This slide illustrates the Protocol Discriminator (PD) field within the QSIG frame message structure
The Protocol Discriminator is the first part of every message and is coded as shown in the slide.
The Protocol Discriminator distinguishes call-control messages from other types of messages. This field has a
specific value of 08h which corresponds to the ITU-T Q.931 User-Network control messages.

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QSIG Message Structures and Types

QSIG frame (Message structure)


QSIG Frame (Message) Structure

Protocol discriminator (PD) = 08h


Call reference
Message type (MT)
Information field
Direction of transmission
0 to 255

INFORMATION

MT

CALL REFERENCE

PD

5 - 260

The Protocol Discriminator Field

The Protocol Discriminator field


Identifies the layer 3 protocol
PD=08h Corresponds to ITU-T Q931 UNI
Call Control Message
Direction of transmission
0 to 255

INFORMATION

MT

CALL REFERENCE
0
8

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0
7

0
6

PD
0
5

1
4

0
3

0
2

0
1

139

The Call Reference Field


Call Reference
This slide illustrates the Call Reference (CR) field within the QSIG frame message structure.
The Call Reference field consists of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Octets in the QSIG frame structure.
The purpose of the Call reference is to identify the call at the local inter-PINX link, to which the particular
message applies. It does not have end-to-end significance across a PISN.
The call reference is the second part of every message. The call reference is coded as shown in the slide.
Length of call reference value (octet 2 in frame structure)
This octet (in bits 1-4) defines the length of the Call Reference value in octets. For QSIG this is always set to 2.
Bits 5-8 are unused and are set to zeros. The actions taken by the receiver are based on the numerical value of
the call reference and are independent of the length of the call reference information element.
Call reference values (octets 3 and 4 in frame structure)
The call reference information comprises two fields: the call reference value and the call reference flag.
Call reference values are assigned by the outgoing side of an inter-PINX link for a call. These values are unique
to the outgoing side only within a particular D-channel layer 2 logical link connection. The call reference value is
assigned at the beginning of a call and remains fixed for the lifetime of a call. After a call ends, the associated call
reference value may be reassigned to a later call. Two identical call reference values on the same D-channel
layer 2 logical link connection may be used when each value pertains to a call originated at opposite ends of the
link.
Call reference (CR) flag
The call reference flag can take the values "ZERO" or "ONE". The call reference flag is used to identify which end
of the layer 2 logical link originated a call reference. The origination side always sets the call reference flag to
"ZERO". The destination side always sets the call reference flag to "ONE".
Hence the call reference flag identifies the side which allocated the call reference value for this call and the only
purpose of the call reference flag is to resolve simultaneous uses of the same call reference value.
Global call reference
The numerical value of the "global call reference" is zero. The equipment receiving a message containing the
global call reference should interpret the message as pertaining to all call references associated with the
appropriate data link connection identifier.

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The Call Reference Field

Length is fixed for QSIG (=2)


Identifies the call on the Inter-VCS link to which the message
belongs
If call ref = 0 ==> msg belongs to overall Qsig stack

CR: Direction Flag ; avoids identical call ref setup number on both
A,B sides ; 0 = outgoing 1= incoming ==> CR automatically
reversed for all incoming msg
0 to 255

INFORMATION

MT

CALL REFERENCE

PD

Direction of transmission
Call reference value (cont.)
8

CR
8

Call reference value


7

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Length
4

141

The Mesage Type Field (1)


Message Type (octet 5 in frame structure)
This slide illustrates the Message Type (MT) field within the QSIG frame message structure.
The purpose of the message type is to identify the function of the message being sent.
The message type is the third part of every message and is coded as shown in the slide.
This octet (in bits 1-7) identifies the message type (i.e. ALERTING message, a CONNECT message etc). Bits 6-7
group the messages by into the following four categories:

Call establishment

Call Information phase

Call clearing

Miscellaneous

Although Call Information Phase group is not used in QSIG.


Bit 8 is reserved for possible future extension.

The Message Type Field (2)


Defines the Call establishment group (bits 6-7= 00) of ATS-QSIG messages and the associated coding of bits1 to
5 in the message type field.
The Call establishment messages for ATS-QSIG are as follows:

ALERTING

CALL PROCEEDING

CONNECT

PROGRESS

SETUP

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The Mesage Type Field (1)


Direction of transmission
0 to 255

INFORMATION

MT

0
8

3
CALL REFERENCE

MC
7 6

Message
4 3 2

Call establishment messages

Call clearing messages

Miscellaneous messages

1
PD

The Message Type Field (2)

Call establishment messages of ATS-QSIG


0
5

0
4

0
3

0
2

1
1

ALERTING

0
5

0
4

0
3

1
2

0
1

CALL PROCEEDING

0
5

0
4

1
3

1
2

1
1

CONNECT

0
5

0
4

0
3

1
2

1
1

PROGRESS

0
5

0
4

1
3

0
2

1
1

SETUP

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143

The Message Type Field (3)


Defines the Call clearing group (bits 6-7 =01) of ATS-QSIG messages and the associated coding of bits1 to 5 in
the message type field.
The Call Clearing messages for ATS-QSIG are as follows:

DISCONNECT

RELEASE

RELEASE COMPLETE

RESTART

RESTART ACKNOWLEDGE

The Message Type Field (4)


Defines the Miscellaneous group (bits 6-7 =11) of ATS-QSIG messages and the associated coding of bits1 to 5 in
the message type field.
The Miscellaneous messages for ATS-QSIG are as follows:

FACILITY

NOTIFY

STATUS

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QSIG Message Structures and Types

The Message Type Field (3)

Call clearing messages of ATS-QSIG


0
5

0
4

1
3

0
2

1
1

DISCONNECT

0
5

1
4

1
3

0
2

1
1

RELEASE

1
5

1
4

0
3

1
2

0
1

RELEASE COMPLETE

0
5
0
5

0
4
1
4

1
3
1
3

1
2
1
2

0
1
0
1

RESTART
RESTART ACKNOWLEDGE

The Message Type Field (4)

Miscellaneous messages of ATS-QSIG


0
5

0
4

0
3

1
2

0
1

FACILITY

0
5

1
4

1
3

1
2

0
1

NOTIFY

1
5

1
4

1
3

0
2

1
1

STATUS

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145

The Information Field


This slide illustrates the Information field within the QSIG frame message structure.
The Information field is used to transport the information elements associated with the message type defined in
the previous field.
Every message type has associated with it a number of information elements.

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QSIG Message Structures and Types

The Information Field


Direction of transmission
0 to 255

INFORMATION

MT

3
CALL REFERENCE

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1
PD

147

General Structure of the Information Elements


The slide illustrates the general structure of the information elements contained in each message type.
Single Octet Types
Following the message type field, there are the Information elements required for each message type. Some of
these information elements are only a single octet in length and this is indicated when bit 8 is set to one. In this
case the element contains an identifier in bits 7-5 and a contents definition in bits 1-4. The technique allows for at
least 8 identifier values in the single octet version. Single octet information elements may appear at any point in
the message.
Multiple Octet Types
If bit 8 is set to zero, the information element is of variable length and the first octet of the element contains an
identifier in bits 7-1. The technique allows 128 identifier values in the variable length version. Note that there are
multiple information elements per message.
The Variable length information elements in any given message must be in an ascending order based upon their
binary value. This is to permit simple determination as to the inclusion or exclusion of any specific element in the
message. The QSIG protocol allows equipment to ignore any element in a message that is not within its
capabilities.
The octet immediately following the information element identifier gives the length of the element in octets. It is
important to note that for each information element shown in the following slides there is a corresponding
description of its contents (octets and bit positioning) given in ETS 300 172 ed.3 and ISO/IEC 11572.
Special Single Octet Identifiers
Another provision for expansion is the single octet shift element. This permits definition of another codeset of
elements which can be shifted into by use of the shift element. Two types of shifting are provided for: non-locking
shift - where only the subsequent element is from the codeset shifted into; and locking shift - where the new
codeset is shifted into until such time as another shift element is sent. Bit 4 of the single octet identifies the
element identifies the locking/non-locking effect (0= locking, 1 =non-locking). Bits 1-3 identify the element codeset thus 8 are possible. The current codesets are defined below:

Codeset 0 - ITU-T Q.931 information elements (initially active codeset);

Codeset 4: ISO information elements;

Codeset 6: Information elements specific to the local network (public or private)

Codeset 7: User-specific information elements

Within ATS-QSIG nearly all information elements are from codeset 0, with just one the Transit Counter from
Codeset 4.
The description of the messages in the following slides define which elements are mandatory and which are
optional and also defines the length of each information element.

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General Structure of the


Information Elements
Special Single Octet Identifiers:

Single Octet Types


bit
bit

8
1

7
0

6
1

5
0

4
x

3
x

2
x

8
1

1
x

7
0

6
0

5
1

4
0

3
x

2
x

1
x

locking shift Identifier

octet 1 IE-type

bit

non- locking shift Identifier


for change of Codeset to
xxx

Multiple Octet Types


octet 1 IE-type
octet 2
bit

8
0

7
x

6 5 4 3 2
x x x x x
length in oct.

following
octets 3 to n

1
x

bit

8
0
0

7
x
x

6
x
x

5
x
x

octet N
extendible by:
1

4
x
x

3
x
x

2
x
x

1
x
x

octet Na
octet Nb

octet Nx

...

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149

Setup message
This is an animated illustration to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information
Elements contained within a SETUP message used by ATS_QSIG. Within any message the inclusion of some
information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is Conditional (i.e. dependent
upon the call scenario).
The purpose of the information elements is to allow specification of exactly where the call is to go (i.e. called
party address), what type of connection it is to be (i.e. bearer capability), and many more details of the call
connection.
The SETUP message used for the ATS-QSIG protocol has the following information elements:
(M indicates Mandatory and O indicates Optional inclusion of the information element)
Sending Complete: is used to indicate completion of the called party number within the SETUP message. This
is a single information element.
Bearer Capability: Used to select the bearer capability of the connection. (i.e. Information transfer capability of
Speech, Information transfer rate of 16kbit/s, user information layer 1 protocol of ITU-T Rec. G.728 LD-CELP
etc).
Channel Identification: is used to identify which channel is controlled by these signalling procedures. For ATSQIG, this value can be either 1, 2 or 3. A PINX configured as the A side of a link will select available channels in
ascending order (1-2-3), whereas the PINX configured as B side will select available channels is descending
order (3-2-1), in order to minimise call collisions.
Facility: is used to convey ROSE APDUs (i.e. InvokePDU, ReturnResultPDU, ReturnErrorPDU and RejectPDU
between the supplementary service control entities.over the PISN. ROSE APDUs are used to control
Supplementary. The Facility information element may be repeated in a given message.
Progress Indicator: Is used to described an event that has occurred during the life of a call.
Calling Party Number: Is used to identify the calling party of a call.
Called Party Number: Is used to identify the called party of a call.
Shift: Selects codeset 4 on a locking basis;
Transit Counter: Is used to count the number of Transit PINXs a call passes through. It is originally set to 0 (1
for incoming gateway) and has a maximum value of 31.

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QSIG Message Structures and Types

Setup message
Information Element

Type Length

Protocol Discriminator
M
Call Reference
M
Message Type
M
Sending Complete
M
Bearer Capability
M
Channel Identification
M
Facility (CI invoke APDU)
C/M
Facility (CPI invoke APDU)
C/M
Facility (CPI(P) invoke APDU) C/M
Progress Indicator
O
Calling Party Number
M
Called Party Number
M
Shift
M
Transit Counter
M

1
3
1
1
4-5
5
27
24-27
24-27
4
9
9
1
3

En-block

Coding Std: ITU-T


Inform. Trans Cap: Speech
Inform Trans Rate: 16kb/s
Speech Compression Algorithm:
LD-CELP

Mandatory for Priority Call


CICL,CPICL,CPIPL=3
CPIPL Mandatory for
Routine call if CPIPL>0

M = Mandatory
O = Optional
C = Conditional

Transit
Counter:
0 to 31
Rec. 4 max

Channel No. : 1,2 or 3


A side counts up and
B side counts down

Locking
Shift:
Codset
0 to 4

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Numbering Plan: Private


Number Type: National
Party Number encoded
using ITU-T T50
numbering plan

151

Call Proceeding Message


This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements can be
contained within a CALL PROCEEDING message used by ATS_QSIG. Within any message the inclusion of
some information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is Conditional (i.e.
dependent upon the call scenario).
The purpose of the information elements in this message is to allow confirmation of the channel proposed in a
previously received SETUP message.
The CALL PROCEEDING message used for the ATS-QSIG protocol can have the following information
elements:
Channel Identification: is used to confirm which channel, proposed in a previously received SETUP message,
is controlled by these signalling procedures. For ATS-QIG, this value can be either 1, 2 or 3. It is possible for the
information element to propose a different channel number, if that requested was not available.

Alerting and Connect Messages


This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements that can be
contained within ALERTING and CONNECT messages used by ATS_QSIG. Within any message the inclusion of
some information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is Conditional (i.e.
dependent upon the call scenario).
The ALERTING and CONNECT messages used for the ATS-QSIG protocol can have the following information
elements:
Channel Identification: is used to confirm which channel, proposed in a previously received SETUP message,
is controlled by these signalling procedures. For ATS-QSIG, this value can be either 1, 2 or 3. It is possible for
the information element to propose a different channel number, if that requested was not available.
Facility: is used to convey ROSE APDUs (i.e. InvokePDU, ReturnResultPDU, ReturnErrorPDU and RejectPDU
between the supplementary service control entities over the PISN. ROSE APDUs are used to control
Supplementary. The Facility information element may be repeated in a given message.
Notification Indicator: is used to convey a notification. The maximum length of the information element is
application dependent. The Notification indicator information element may be repeated in a message.
Progress Indicator: Is used to describe an event that has occurred during the life of a call.

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Call Proceeding Message

Call Proceeding message

Information Element

Type

Length

Protocol discriminator

M
M
M

1
3
1

(O)/M

Call reference
Message type
Channel identification

Alerting and Connect Messages

ALERTING & CONNECT message

Information Element

Type

Length

Protocol discriminator
Call reference
Message type
Channel identification
Facility
Notification indicator
Progress indicator

M
M
M
C
O
O
O

1
3
1
5
varying
varying
4

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153

Disconnect Message
This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements that can be
contained within the DISCONNECT message used by ATS_QSIG. Within any message the inclusion of some
information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is Conditional (i.e. dependent
upon the call scenario).
The DISCONNECT message used for the ATS-QSIG protocol can have the following information elements:
Cause: is used to describe the reason for generating certain messages, to provide diagnostic information in the
event of procedural errors, and to indicate the location of the cause originator.
Facility: is used to convey ROSE APDUs (i.e. InvokePDU, ReturnResultPDU, ReturnErrorPDU and RejectPDU
between the supplementary service control entities over the PISN. ROSE APDUs are used to control
Supplementary. The Facility information element may be repeated in a given message.
Notification Indicator: is used to convey a notification. The maximum length of the information element is
application dependent. The Notification indicator information element may be repeated in a message.

Release and Release Complete Messages


This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements that can be
contained within the RELEASE and RELEASE COMPLETE messages used by ATS-QSIG. Within any message
the inclusion of some information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is
Conditional (i.e. dependent upon the call scenario).
The RELEASE and RELEASE COMPLETE messages used for the ATS-QSIG protocol can have the following
information elements:
Cause: is used to describe the reason for generating certain messages, to provide diagnostic information in the
event of procedural errors, and to indicate the location of the cause originator.
Facility: is used to convey ROSE APDUs (i.e. InvokePDU, ReturnResultPDU, ReturnErrorPDU and RejectPDU
between the supplementary service control entities over the PISN. ROSE APDUs are used to control
Supplementary. The Facility information element may be repeated in a given message.

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Disconnect Message

DISCONNECT message

Information Element

Type

Protocol discriminator
Call reference
Message type
Cause
Facility
Notification indicator

M
M
M
C
O
O

Length
1
3
1
4 - 32
varying
varying

Release and Release Complete


Messages

RELEASE & RELEASE COMPLETE


messages

Information Element

Type

Protocol discriminator
Call reference
Message type
Cause
Facility

M
M
M
C
O

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Length
1
3
1
4 - 32
varying

155

Progress Message
This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements that can be
contained within the PROGRESS message used by ATS_QSIG. Within any message the inclusion of some
information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is Conditional (i.e. dependent
upon the call scenario).
The PROGRESS message used for the ATS-QSIG protocol can have the following information elements:
Cause: is used to describe the reason for generating certain messages, to provide diagnostic information in the
event of procedural errors, and to indicate the location of the cause originator.
Facility: is used to convey ROSE APDUs (i.e. InvokePDU, ReturnResultPDU, ReturnErrorPDU and RejectPDU
between the supplementary service control entities over the PISN. ROSE APDUs are used to control
Supplementary. The Facility information element may be repeated in a given message.
Notification Indicator: is used to convey a notification. The maximum length of the information element is
application dependent. The Notification indicator information element may be repeated in a message.
Progress Indicator: Is used to describe an event that has occurred during the life of a call.

Restart and Restart Acknowledge messages


This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements that can be
contained within the RESTART AND RESTART ACKNOWLEDGE messages used by ATS_QSIG. Within any
message the inclusion of some information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it
is Conditional (i.e. dependent upon the call scenario).
The RESTART and RESTART ACKNOWLEDGE messages used for the ATS-QSIG protocol can have the
following information elements:
Restart Indicator: is used to identify the entity (i.e. specific channel, all channels) to be restarted or which has
been restarted. In the case of ATS-QSIG only the "all channels" value is used.

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Progress Message

PROGRESS message
used when no other message is available to send
information

Information Element

Type

Protocol discriminator
Call reference
Message type
Cause
Facility
Notification indicator
Progress indicator

M
M
M
C
O
O
M

Length
1
3
1
4 - 32
varying
varying
4

Restart and Restart


Acknowledge messages

RESTART & RESTART-ACK message


used when both sides have different view on call situation +
ack

Information Element

Type

Length

M
Call reference (value set to 0-->SCM) M
M
Message type

1
3
1

Restart Indicator

Protocol discriminator

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157

Status message
This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements that can be
contained within the STATUS message used by ATS_QSIG. Within any message the inclusion of some
information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is Conditional (i.e. dependent
upon the call scenario).
The STATUS message used for the ATS-QSIG protocol can have the following information elements:
Cause: is used to describe the reason for generating certain messages, to provide diagnostic information in the
event of procedural errors, and to indicate the location of the cause originator.
Call State: is used to indicate the current state of a call or a global interface state.

Facility Message
This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements that can be
contained within the FACILITY message used by ATS_QSIG. Within any message the inclusion of some
information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is Conditional (i.e. dependent
upon the call scenario).
The FACILITY message used for the ATS-QSIG protocol (supplementary services only) can have the following
information elements:
Facility: is used to convey ROSE APDUs (i.e. InvokePDU, ReturnResultPDU, ReturnErrorPDU and RejectPDU
between the supplementary service control entities over the PISN. ROSE APDUs are used to control
Supplementary. The Facility information element may be repeated in a given message.
Notification Indicator: is used to convey a notification. The maximum length of the information element is
application dependent. The Notification indicator information element may be repeated in a message.

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Status message

STATUS message
General Msg used to find actual status : Null, Call Initiated,
Outgoing Call Proceeding, Call delivered, Call present, Call
received, Connect Request, Incoming Call Proceeding, Active,
Disconnect Request, Disconnect Indication, Release Request
or Global Call Reference Value Null, restart Req

Information Element

Type

Length

Protocol discriminator
Call reference
Message type
Cause
Call State

M
M
M
C
M

1
3
1
4 - 32
3

Facility Message

FACILITY message
used for Supplementary Services Only

Information Element

Type

Protocol discriminator
Call reference
Message type
Cause
Facility
Notification indicator

M
M
M
C
M
O

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Length
1
3
1
4 - 32
varying
varying

159

Notify Message
This is a table to be used in explaining the format and contents of the individual Information Elements that can be
contained within the NOTIFY message used by ATS_QSIG. Within any message the inclusion of some
information elements is Mandatory, while for others it is Optional and for some it is Conditional (i.e. dependent
upon the call scenario).
The NOTIFY message used for the ATS-QSIG protocol (supplementary services only) can have the following
information elements:
Notification Indicator: is used to convey a notification. The maximum length of the information element is
application dependent. The Notification indicator information element may be repeated in a message.

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Notify Message

NOTIFY message
Used for Supplementary Services Only

Information Element

Type

Length

Protocol discriminator

M
M
M

1
3
1

varying

Call reference
Message type
Notification Indicator

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161

General Structure of the Facility & Notification Information


elements
This slide illustrates the format and contents of the individual Information Elements contained within the
FACILITY and NOTIFICATION information elements.
The FACILITY information element comprises of the following fields:

FACILITY information element identifier has a value 1Ch.

Length of Facility Information Element is variable and depends upon the number of Octets in the
information element

Protocol Profile has a value 9Fh which implies the "Discriminator for Supplementary service Applications"

Network Facility Extension provides a means of routing the contents of the Facility information element
within the context of a call across the PISN, and a means of identifying the source and the destination of the
information.

Interpretation APDU provides a means whereby the originator can include optional instructions to the
receiving PINX for use in the event that it does not understand the operation value of an invokePDU
contained in an element of type ComponentPart of the Facility information element.

Component Part is used to define the ROSE-APDUs. ROSE APDUs used in the context of a supplementary
service shall be defined and encoded in accordance with ASN.1 rules. Definitions of the required values
appear in the relevant Supplementary service specifications.

The Notification information element comprises of the following fields:

Notification information element identifier has a value 27h.

Length of Notification Information Element is variable and depends upon the number of Octets in the
information element

Notification description has a value C0h which implies the "Call is a waiting call"

Notification sequence these fields are used to provide a notification to the user about the current status of
the supplementary service implementation. In the case of the call intrusion supplementary service for
example, this could have the following values:

intrusionimpending =D3h

intrusionIsEffective =D4h

endOfIntrusion = D7h

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General Structure of the Facility &


Notification Information elements
Information Element field
Comments
Octets
1
1Ch
Facility-IE identifier
1
Length of Facility IE
9Fh
Protocol Profile=Network Extensions 1
Defines Source & Dest. Entities
8
Network Facility Extension (NFE)
Optional
3
InterpretationAPDU
Component Part comprising of:
Var. Invoke, ReturnResult,
ReturnError, Reject PDUs
ROSE APDUs
Information Element field
Notification-IE identifier
Length of Notification IE
Notification Descriptor
Notification sequence

Octets
1
1
1
Var.

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Comments
27h
C0h
Defines Notification

163

ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 2: Generic Functional Protocol

9. QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 2: Generic


Functional Protocol

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165

Key references to QSIG sub-layer 2: Generic Functional Protocol


Has the scope of defining all relevant QSIG Layer 3 Reference standards for the Generic Functional Protocol the 2nd sub-layer at layer 3
These equivalent ECMA, EN and ISO Standards define the signalling protocol for use at the Q reference
point between two PINXs for the transport of protocol information as part of Supplementary Services
and/or Additional Network Features (ANFs) within a PISN. The protocol defined in this Standard forms
part of the PSS1 protocol (informally known as QSIG).
The generic functional procedures provide a flexible and open ended approach to the provision of supplementary
service and ANF protocols. These procedures provide:

generic protocols which may be utilised in the provision of supplementary services and ANFs, both
related to existing calls and separate from existing calls where appropriate to the capability required;

a dialogue identification protocol to enable supplementary service or ANF information flows to be tied
together to form a dialogue;

supplementary service and ANF transparency across a PISN, whereby transit PINXs need have no
knowledge of the capability provided to the PISN user or PISN itself unless involved in the provision of
that capability; and

the capability for standardised and manufacturer specific capabilities to coexist in both single and multivendor PISNs.

The protocol defined in this Standard is based upon that described in ITU-T Recommendation Q.932 Digital
subscriber signalling system No. 1 - Generic procedures for the control of ISDN supplementary services (1998).
This Standard is based upon the practical experience of ECMA member companies and the results of their active
and continuous participation in the work of ISO/IEC JTC1, ITU-T, ETSI and other international and national
standardization bodies. It represents a pragmatic and widely based consensus.

Generic Functional Protocol (GFP)


The generic functional protocol defined in this Standard provides the means to exchange signalling information
for the control of supplementary services over a PISN. It does not by itself control any supplementary service but
rather provides generic services to specific SS-Control entities. Procedures for individual supplementary services
based on these generic procedures are defined in other standards or may be manufacturer-specific.
The generic functional protocol operates at the Q reference point between two PINXs in conjunction with a Layer
3 protocol for Basic call control (ECMA-143). Together these use the services of the Signalling Carriage
Mechanism (SCM).
The generic functional protocol provides mechanisms for the support of supplementary services which relate to
existing basic calls or are entirely independent of any existing basic calls. In performing a supplementary service,
whether Call independent or Call related, use may be made of both the Call related and Call independent
information transfer procedures.
If a particular supplementary service comprises Call related and Call independent information transfer
procedures or relates to several basic calls at the same time it is - for the purpose of this Standard - deemed to
consist of separate instances of Call related (one for each call) and Call independent services respectively. The
combined use of two or more instances of Call related and/or Call independent procedures in support of a
particular supplementary service is outside the scope of this Standard.

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 2: Generic Functional Protocol

Key references to QSIG sub-layer 2:


Generic Functional Protocol
ECMA standard ISO standard

LAYER 3 :
NETWORK
LAYER

ECMA 165
ed.4 (2001)

ISO/IEC 11582

ETSI standard
EN 300-239 ed.2
(1995)

The 2nd sub-layer at layer 3 is the QSIG Generic


Functional (GF) protocol provides a standardised
mechanism to exchange signalling information for
the control of supplementary services and additional
network features over a corporate network.

Generic Functional Protocol


(GFP)

The QSIG GF protocol does not control any


supplementary service but it does provide generic
layer services to specific supplementary service
control entities;
The QSIG GF supports both a Call Related (relate
to existing calls) and Call Independent Signalling
connections (independent of existing calls) transport
mechanism for information transfer procedures of
supplementary services and ANFs.

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Corporate Network of PINXs


The slide depicts a network of PINXs each with a defined PINX address.
The Digital Users- Task Force (DU-TF) comprising of representatives from many Eurocontrol member states
propose that the first number in a VCS numbering range becomes the actual VCS address of that VCS.
In a future VCS network, the first number in VCS number range should become the PINX address.
VCS Suppliers within the field trial adopted this solution within their software. It implies however that a VCS
should have the capability of having its PINX address defined.

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Corporate Network of PINXs


PINX address:
320000

PINX address:
34500

PINX address:
33700

PINX address:
37200

PINX address:
36400

The DU-TF proposed that first number in VCS number range becomes PINX address.

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ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 3: Supplementary services

10. QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 3:


Supplementary services

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Key references to ATS-QSIG layer 3 Supplementary Services


The 3rd sub-layer of layer 3 defines specific QSIG procedures at the Q reference point for individual
supplementary services;
All relevant ATS-QSIG Reference standards for Supplementary Services- the 3rd sub-layer at layer 3 are defined
below:
ECMA-224 (1997), EN 301 047 or ISO/IEC 15055: Private Integrated Services Network (PISN);
Specification, functional model and Information Flows Transit Counter- Additional Network Feature.
This Standard specifies the Transit Counter additional network feature (ANF-TC), which is applicable to various
basic services supported by Private Integrated Services Networks (PISN).
ECMA-225 (1997), EN 301 048 or ISO/IEC 15056: Private Integrated Services Network (PISN); Interexchange signalling protocol Transit Counter- Additional Network Feature. This Standard specifies the
signalling protocol for use at the Q reference point in support of the Transit Counter additional network feature.
The protocol defined in this Standard forms part of the PSS1 protocol (informally known as QSIG).
ECMA-202 (1997), EN 300 425, ISO/IEC 14845: Private Integrated Services Network (PISN); Specification,
functional model and Information Flows Call Intrusion Supplementary Service. This Standard specifies
the Call Intrusion supplementary service (SS-CI), which is applicable to various basic services supported by
Private Integrated Services Networks (PISN).
ECMA-203 (2001), EN 300 426, ISO/IEC 14846: Private Integrated Services Network (PISN); Inter-exchange
signalling protocol Call Intrusion Supplementary Service. This Standard specifies the signalling protocol for
use at the Q reference point in support of the Call Intrusion supplementary service. The protocol defined in this
Standard forms part of the PSS1 protocol (informally known as QSIG).
ECMA-263 (1997), EN 301 655, ISO/IEC 15991: Specification, functional model and Information Flows Call Priority Interruption and Call Priority Interruption Protection Supplementary Services (CPI(P)SD).
This Standard specifies the Supplementary Services Call Priority Interruption (SS-CPI) and Call Priority
Interruption Protection (SS-CPIP), which are applicable to various basic services supported by Private Integrated
Services Networks (PISN).
ECMA-264 (1997), EN 301 656, ISO/IEC 15992: Private Integrated Services Network (PISN); Interexchange signalling protocol Call priority interruption and Call priority interruption Protection
supplementary services".
This Standard specifies the signalling protocol for the support of the Call priority interruption (SS-CPI) and Call
Priority Interruption Protection (SS-CPIP) supplementary services at the Q reference point between Private
Integrated Services Network eXchanges (PINXs) connected together within a Private Integrated Services
Network (PISN).

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 3: Supplementary services

Key references to ATS-QSIG


layer 3 Supplementary Services

CALL INTRUSION (SS-CI)


CALL PRIORITY INTERRUPTION (SS-CPI)
TRANSIT COUNTER (ANF-TC)

SERVICES
ANF-TC
SS-CI
SS-CPI

ECMA Standard

ISO Standard

ETSI Standard

ECMA 224 ed.2 (1997) ISO/IEC 15055 (1997) EN 301 047 (1997)
ECMA 225 ed.2 (1997) ISO/IEC 15056 (1997) EN 301 048 (1997)
ECMA 202 ed.2 (1997) ISO/IEC 14845 (1996) EN 300 425 (1995)
ECMA 203 ed.4 (2001) ISO/IEC 14846 (2003) EN 300 426 (1995)
ECMA 263 ed.2 (1997) ISO/IEC 15991 (2003) EN 301 655 (1999)
ECMA 264 ed.2 (1997) ISO/IEC 15992 (2003) EN 301 656 (1999)

The 3rd sub-layer of layer 3 defines specific QSIG procedures at


the Q reference point for individual supplementary services;

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QSIG supplementary services standardisation methodology


The following 3 Stage protocol specification exists for each supplementary service;

Stage 1: User requirements document - provides a description from the users point of view;

Stage 2: Identifies the functional capabilities and the information flows needed to support service;

Stage 3: Defines the QSIG signalling protocol (i.e. the procedures to be followed and encoding of messages)
for the PINXs at the Q reference point;

Transit Counter (TC)


Aditional Network Feature Transit Counter
The ANF-TC is an additional network feature which limits the number of network exchanges that a call request
may transit during call establishment, e.g. to protect the network against indefinite looping. There is no user
involved in the provision or operation of ANF-TC.

Within an AGVN employing the ATS QSIG protocol as defined by ECMA 312], the Transit
counter functionality, as specified in ECMA-225], should be supported by all VCSs.
As a call progresses through a transit VCS, the transit counter value is increased by 1.
A VCS should provide a management means of configuring the acceptable (network dependent)
value that the transit count field shall be allowed to reach ( 6.4.3.2 of ECMA-225). It is
recommended that for an ATS Ground Voice Network (AGVN) this value is set to 4 in order to
guarantee the call performance criteria. Any incoming call having a transit counter value equal
to this network limit should be rejected by the VCS and the call cleared towards the digital
network.
It should be remembered when planning the number of inter-VCS links possible in Direct
Network Routes and Detour Routes a call coming from a Gateway into the ATS QSIG network
shall have its transit counter value already set to 1.
Note: For operational reasons this value is different from the value (zero) specified in ECMA
143.
The Transit Counter information element is contained in a SETUP message. It uses codeset 4 and is therefore
preceded by a locking shift info. Element in order to change the Codeset from 0 to 4. A VCS should however be
capable of accepting a locking and non-locking shift.

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QSIG supplementary services


standardisation methodology
The following 3 Stage protocol specification exists
for each supplementary service;

Stage 1: User requirements document - provides a


description from the users point of view;
Stage 2: Identifies the functional capabilities and the
information flows needed to support service;
Stage 3: Defines the QSIG signalling protocol (i.e.
the procedures to be followed and encoding of
messages) for the PINXs at the Q reference point;

Transit Counter (TC)


Transit

End
TC=0

TC=0

MFC R2

Transit

Transit

End

TC=1

End

Transit
TC=1

TC=2

Incoming Gateway
TC=1

Transit

Transit

Transit
TC=3

TC=2

End

TC=4
Network limit=4
Call Rejected

TC prevents looping
TC increased by 1 for each inter-VCS link
TC info element contain in SETUP message; Codeset 4 with
locking shift.
VCS configured for Network limit (i.e. 4)
Incoming Gateway sets TC=1

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175

ATS-QSIG Supplementary Services - Call Intrusion


Call Intrusion (CI) supplementary service
The Call Intrusion (CI) supplementary service allows a user finding an busy extension to intrude on the call in
progress, providing they have a Call Intrusion Capability Level (CICL) higher than the Call Intrusion Protection
Level (CIPL) of both call participants;

Priority call uses Call Intrusion (CI) supplementary service. A Priority call has capability to intrude
on a call in progress when called user is busy, providing its Call Intrusion Capability Level (CICL) is
higher than Call Intrusion Protection Level (CIPL) of both call participants;
The CICL is a FACILITY IE containing within the SETUP message. The CIPL is VCS configurable
parameter for either the whole VCS or for individual CWPs;
Two
types
of
call
exist:
A Routine call has no Priority capability. Priority OFF with no capability to intrude in a call in progress; CICL=0;
A Priority call automatically has Priority capability associated with it. Priority ON has capability to intrude in a call
in progress providing it is a call without call intrusion protection.
The Call Intrusion Protection Level (CIPL) can be set for the whole VCS or for individual CWPs. There are two
CIPL levels:

Call Intrusion Protection OFF (Call intrusion allowed): CIPL=0

Call Intrusion Protection ON: (Call intrusion not allowed): CIPL=3;

Routine/Priority calls

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 3: Supplementary services

ATS-QSIG Supplementary
Services - Call Intrusion
Priority call uses Call Intrusion (CI) supplementary
service.
Parameters: Call Intrusion Capability Level (CICL)
Call Intrusion Protection Level (CIPL)
Call Intrusion occurs if CICL>CIPL (of both users in call)
CICL is a FACILITY IE in SETUP message,
CIPL is VCS parameter;
ECMA 312 ed.3 defines 2 types of call:
Priority call with CICL=3 & Routine call with CICL=0
CIPL set for whole VCS or individual CWPs;
CIPL has 2 levels:
Protection OFF (Call intrusion allowed): CIPL=0
Protection ON: (Call intrusion not allowed): CIPL=3;

Routine/Priority calls
Routine Call
Has just one FACILITY message
in SETUP message:
CPIPL=3/2/1/0

Associated with one of 4


interrupt protection levels (CPIPL)

0 = (i.e. Admin)
1 = (i.e. Assistant controller)
2 = (i.e. Radar controller)
3 = ANSP doesnt allow Interrupt

Can have Intrusion Protection


on/off
CIPL = 0 (ANSP allows intrusion)
CIPL = 3 (ANSP doesnt allow
intrusion)

Priority Call
Has 3 FACILITY messages in
SETUP message:
CPIPL=3
CPICL=3
CICL=3

Total Protection (no interruption


possible)
Will never be intruded
(intrusion protection ON)
Can Interrupt routine calls with
CPIPL<3
Can intrude on Routine calls with no
Intrusion protection

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Call Intrusion FACILITY message types


The following lists the ATS-QSIG Call Intrusion FACILITY and NOTIFY message types.

CALL INTRUSION REQUEST INVOKE (ciREQUEST.inv)

CALL INTRUSION REQUEST RESPONSE (ciREQUEST.res)

CALL INTRUSION GET CIPL INVOKE (CIGETINV)

CALL INTRUSION GET CIPL RESPONSE (CIGETRES)

CALL INTRUSION COMPLETED INVOKE (cicompleted.inv);

ReturnErrorPDU (ERROR)

RejectPDU (REJECT)

NOTIFY (CALL INTRUSION)

Call Intrusion example (1)


The slide is an animated illustration with the scope of explaining the signalling messages sent during a Call
Intrusion scenario example.
The following describes a Call Intrusion Scenario:
1. A SETUP message sent containing a Call Intrusion Request Invoke Facility IE. Upon arrival at the
terminating PINX it finds the called CWP busy;
2.

Terminating PINX sends Call Intrusion Get CIPL invoke (CI-GetCIPL-I) to the PINX of other CWP in call,
and receives back a Call Intrusion Get CIPL response (CI-GetCIPL-R) defining its CIPL level (i.e. 0,1,2 or
3);

3.

Terminating PINX then determines if calling CICL is higher than CIPL of call participants. If true, then
terminating PINX allows call intrusion and informs originating PINX through a CONNECT message
containing Call Intrusion Request Response Facility IE.

4.

If false, call request is rejected through RELEASE message to originating PINX.

5.

Prior to call intrusion taking place, both CWPs are informed of impending intrusion, via the NOTIFY
message.

6.

While a call intrusion is in progress, both CWPs are informed of that the intrusion is now effective, via the
NOTIFY message.

7.

After the intruding party leaves the call, both CWPs are informed of that the intrusion is now ended, via the
NOTIFY message.

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Call Intrusion FACILITY


message types

CALL INTRUSION REQUEST INVOKE (ciREQUEST.inv)


CALL INTRUSION REQUEST RESPONSE (ciREQUEST.res)
CALL INTRUSION GET CIPL INVOKE (CIGETINV)
CALL INTRUSION GET CIPL RESPONSE (CIGETRES)
CALL INTRUSION COMPLETED INVOKE (cicompleted.inv);
ReturnErrorPDU (ERROR)
RejectPDU (REJECT)
NOTIFY (CALL INTRUSION)

Call Intrusion example (1)


Active call between A and B
with possible intrusion

CWP B

CWP A
with CIPL=0

NOTIFY
CWP A
of impending intrusion
/of Intrusion effective
/of end of intrusion

CWP C

ORIG.

with CICL=3

PINX

CWP C decides to
disconnect from call

SETUP to call CWP B with


CI request invoke FAC. IE
FACILITY with CI get
CIPL invoke for CWP A
FACILITY with CI get
CIPL result of CWP A
NOTIFY impending
TERM.
intrusion to CWP A
CONNECT with CI request PINX
response FAC. IE
NOTIFY Intrusion
Effective to CWP A
DISCONNECT by CWP C

NOTIFY with CIPL=0


CWP B
of impending intrusion
/of intrusion effective
/of end of intrusion

Terminating PINX
decides that CWP C has
higher CICL than the
CIPL of CWP A or
CWP B, therefore
intrusion can proceed

RELEASE
RELEASE COMPLETE
NOTIFY End of
Intrusion to CWP A

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Call Intrusion example (2)


The slide is an animated illustration with the scope of explaining the signalling messages sent during a
Call Intrusion scenario example.
The following describes a Call Intrusion Scenario:
1. A SETUP message sent containing a Call Intrusion Request Invoke Facility IE. Upon arrival at
the terminating PINX it finds the called CWP busy;
2. Terminating PINX sends Call Intrusion Get CIPL invoke (CI-GetCIPL-I) to the Unwanted User
PINX in call, and receives back a Call Intrusion Get CIPL response (CI-GetCIPL-R) defining
its CIPL level (i.e. 0,1,2 or 3);
3. Terminating PINX then determines if CICL of call requesting intrusion is higher than CIPL of
both call participants (i.e. Wanetd and Unwanted Users); If true, then terminating PINX allows
call intrusion and informs originating PINX through a CONNECT message containing Call
Intrusion Request Response Facility IE.
4. If false, call intrusion request is rejected with Call Intrusion Error message (unauthorised) to
originating PINX.
5. Prior to call intrusion taking place, the Unwanted User VCS is informed of impending intrusion,
via the NOTIFY IntrusionIsImpending message.
6. While a call intrusion is in progress, the Unwanted user VCS is informed of that the intrusion is
now effective, via the NOTIFY IntrusionEffective message.
7. If the Unwanted user leaves the call before the Intruding User, the Intruding user VCS is
informed that the intrusion is completeed, via the ciCompleted.inv message.

Call Intrusion to non-busy user example


An ATS QSIG Priority call shall always contain a ciRequest invoke with a CICL=3.
If the call is made to a non-busy user, the response to this message should always be a ciError PDU with value
not busy.
It is not possible to intrude if he called user is not in a busy state.
The call however should always be treated as a Priority call by the terminating VCS and either connected
automatically to the controllers headset, loudspeaker with appropriate indication at the Controller working
Position or indicated as a Priority Call at the Controller Working Position in order that the controller can manually
answer the call. This depends on the method used by the ANSP to manage Priority Calls at the Controller
Working Position.

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Call Intrusion example (2)


Active call between A and B
with possible intrusion

CWP B

CWP A

SETUP to call CWP B with


CI request invoke FAC. IE

with CIPL=0

NOTIFY
CWP A
of impending intrusion
/of Intrusion effective

CWP C

ORIG.

with CICL=3

PINX

CWP A decides to
disconnect from call

NOTIFY with CIPL=0


CWP B
of impending intrusion
/of intrusion effective
/of end of intrusion

FACILITY with CI get


CIPL invoke for CWP A
FACILITY with CI get
CIPL result of CWP A
NOTIFY impending
TERM.
intrusion to CWP A
Terminating PINX
CONNECT with CI request PINX decides that CWP C has
response FAC. IE
higher CICL than the
NOTIFY Intrusion
CIPL of CWP A or
Effective to CWP A
CWP B, therefore
intrusion can proceed
DISCONNECT by CWP A
RELEASE
RELEASE COMPLETE
FACILITY ciCompleted.invoke

Call Intrusion to non-busy user


example
VCS A

VCS B

A
VCS A

1. A is a CWP and B is a CWP


2. A makes priority call to B

CIPL=0
VCS B

SETUP cr=01, ch. 1, cpipRequest.inv=3, cpiRequest.inv=3


ciRequest.inv=3, CGPN=A, CDPN= B
CONNECT cr=01, ch.1, ciError=not busy (F1h)

The ciError = not busy is the response to the ciRequest from VCS A at the
GFP level.
It is not possible to intrude to a non-busy user. Whether the call is automatically
connected to the controllers headset, loudspeaker etc is supplier dependent.

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Call Intrusion to protected user example


An ATS QSIG Priority call shall always contain a ciRequest invoke with a CICL=3.
If the call is made to a busy protected user, due to the fact that the called Wanted user (or the Unwanted User) is
protected from call intrusion (associated with CIPL=3), the response to this message should always be a ciError
PDU with value not authorised.
It is not possible to intrude if the called Wanted user (or Unwanted user) is Protected from call intrusion.
If the called user is a Controller Working Position however, the call should always be treated as a Priority call by
the terminating VCS and indicated as such at the Controller working Position in order that the controller can
manually answer the call.
If the called user is a normal telephone (as illustrated in slide) however, the call request should be rejected by the
terminating VCS.

Call Priority Interrupt (1)


Call Priority Interrupt (CPI) supplementary service.

The Call Priority Interrupt (CPI) supplementary service allows a priority call to proceed successfully in the
case that there is no voice channel available. This is accomplished by force releasing an established call of
lower priority;

The Call Priority Interrupt Protection CPI(P) supplementary service allows the protection of calls against
interruption from priority calls;

A call Setup can be associated with a Call Priority Interruption Capability Level (CPICL) and/or a Call
Priority Interruption Protection Level (CPIPL). A call with a CPICL =3 is known as a priority call and hence
has the capability to interrupt other calls, both protected (i.e. CPIPL > 0) and non-protected (i.e. CPIPL=0),
with the exception of calls having total protection (i.e. CPIPL=3);

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Call Intrusion to protected user


example VCS A
VCS B
C
A
VCS A

Telephone

CICL=3

CIPL=3

1. B makes non-priority call to C (answer call at C)


2. B has a CIPL=3
3. A makes priority call to B, (i.e. CICL=3)
4. A hears busy tone, B is still in converation with C

VCS B

SETUP cr=01, ch. 3, cpipRequest.inv=3, CGPN=B, CDPN=C


CALL PROC cr=01, ch. 3
ALERTING cr=01
CONNECT cr=01
SETUP cr=02, ch. 1, cpipRequest.inv=3, cpiRequest.inv=3,
ciRequest.inv=3, CGPN=A, CDPN=B
REL COMP cr=02, cause=user busy, ciError=notAuthorised (EFh)

Call Priority Interrupt (1)

Priority call uses Call Priority Interrupt (CPI(P)) supplementary


service.
Parameters: Call Priority Interrupt Capability Level (CPICL)
Call Priority Interrupt Protection Level (CPIPL)
Call interruption occurs if link congested & CPICL>CPIPL
(lowest Protected call on link interrupted)
CPICL and CPIPL are FACILITY IEs in SETUP message;
ECMA 312 ed.3 defines 2 types of call:
Priority call with CPICL=3 and CPIPL=3
Routine call with only a CPIPL = 3/2/1/0
Priority calls interrupts routine call with CPIPL<3
Routine calls with CPIPL=3 & Priority calls cant be interrupted;
CPIPL negotiated between VCSs over link at call set-up;

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Call Priority Interrupt FACILITY message types


The following lists the ATS-QSIG Call Priority Interrupt FACILITY message types.

CALL PRIORITY INTERRUPT REQUEST INVOKE (cpiinv)

CALL PRIORITY INTERRUPT PROTECTION REQUEST INVOKE (cpipinv)

NOTIFY (CALL PRIORITY INTERRUPT)

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Call Priority Interrupt FACILITY message


types

CALL PRIORITY INTERRUPT REQUEST INVOKE (cpiinv)


CALL PRIORITY INTERRUPT PROTECTION REQUEST
INVOKE (cpipinv)
NOTIFY (CALL PRIORITY INTERRUPT)

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Call Priority Interrupt example


The slide is an animated illustration which has the scope of explaining an example of a Call Priority Interrupt
scenario and the signalling messages sent between PINXs.
1. Assume only three voice channels are available between a Transit PINX and a Terminating PINX. These
three voice channels are busy with active calls. One call has a CPIPL of 2, a second call has the highest
CPIPL of 3 and a third call between CWP A and CWP B has a CPIPL of 1.
2.

CWP C at the originating PINX desires to call CWP D at the terminating PINX. A SETUP message is sent
from the Originating PINX to the transit PINX containing a FACILITY IE with a callInterruptionRequest invoke
APDU. This APDU defines the CPICL of the calling user as 3 which is a Priority Call as its CPICL is greater
than 0.

3.

While attempting to establish a new call the transit PINX discovers that no voice channel is available on the
inter-PINX link to the Terminating PINX. The link is congested.

4.

As the calling user invoked the CPI supplementary service, the Transit PINX does not reject the calling
user's call request, but checks to see whether a call interruption is possible. It does this by behaving as an
Interrupting PINX.

5.

The Interrupting PINX checks to see whether call interruption is possible. It does this by comparing the
CPICL value of the priority call from CWP C with the CPIPL values of established calls on the congested
inter-PINX link. It discovers 2 established calls with a CPIPL value lower than the CPICL value of the priority
call from CWP C exist.

6.

If the Interrupting PINX has no knowledge of the CPIPL for a particular established call, the call is treated as
if it has no protection (i.e. CPIPL value equal to zero). In this example more than one call is interruptible and
so the Interrupting PINX selects the call with the lowest CPIPL value. In this case it happens to be the active
call in progress between CWP A and CWP B.

7.

As call interruption is possible, the Interrupting PINX provides notification of impending interruption to CWP A
and CWP B in the established call. It does this by sending NOTIFY messages to the Adjacent PINXs of the
established call (in this example the Terminating PINX).

8.

These NOTIFY messages use the call references of the established call, and contain the notification value
"interruptionIsImpending". The Interrupting PINX then starts a timer. The interruption occurs on expiry of this
timer.

9.

In order to interrupt the established call, the Interrupting PINX sends a DISCONNECT message to the
Adjacent PINXs (in this example the terminating PINX) of the established call and follows basic call clearing
procedures. This DISCONNECT message uses the call reference of the established call and contains the
notification value "interruptionForcedRelease". Cause no. 31 "Normal, unspecified" is used.

10. Once the active call between CWP A and CWP B has been cleared, the Interrupting PINX continues with the
establishment of the priority call from CWP C, using the newly available voice channel.
At the same time the Interrupting PINX re-invokes the CPI supplementary service by placing a
callInterruptionRequest invoke APDU in the outgoing SETUP message. The content of this APDU shall be
the same as the content of the original callInterruptionRequest invoke APDU.
11. If call interruption were not possible (including the case where the protection levels of the established calls
on the required inter-PINX link were too high to permit interruption) the priority call from CWP C would have
been released. Either cause no. 34 "no circuit/channel available" or cause no. 44 "requested circuit/channel
not available" would have been used.
12. It is also possible that when waiting for the call between CWP A and CWP B to be cleared, the Interrupting
PINX decides that it is no-longer necessary, due to a voice channel becoming available from another cleared
call on the same inter-PINX link. In this case the Interrupting PINX stops timer, sends NOTIFY messages to
the Adjacent PINXs of the established call. These NOTIFY messages use the call references of the
established call, and contain the notification value "interruptionTerminated".

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Call Priority Interrupt example


Active call on Channel 1
with CPIPL=1
between A and B

CWP
A

CWP
C

NOTIFY
CWP A
of impending
disconnection

NOTIFY
CWP B
of impending
disconnection

NOTIFY B of interrupt
DISCONNECT Chan.1

SETUP to call
CWP D with
CPI request
ORIG. invoke
CPICL=3

TRAN.

PINX

PINX

CALL PROC.
ALERTING D
CONNECT
D to C

CWP
B

Channel 2 busy
(CPIPL=2)
Channel 3 busy
(CPIPL=3)

RELEASE Chan.1
RELEASE COMP
SETUP to call CWP D
with CPI request
invoke CPICL=3
CALL PROC. to D
ALERTING D
CONNECT D to C

TERM.

PINX

CWP
D
Transit PINX decides
call from CWP C has
higher CPICL than
CPIPL call between
CWP A & B, therefore
call on Chan.1will
be interrupted.

13. It is also possible that when the users at CWP A and CWP B are warned of an impending interruption, they
will decide to immediately clear the call themselves. In this case the Interrupting PINX receives a message
from one of the Adjacent PINXs (or the terminating PINX in this case) of the established call to clear the
established call. When clearing of the established call has been completed on the inter-PINX link required for
the priority call to proceed, the Interrupting PINX stops the timer and continues with the establishment of the
priority call from CWP C using the newly available voice channel.
14. In order to establish a call with protection, the CPIPL supplementary service is used. During call Setup the
Originating PINX sends a SETUP message containing a FACILITY IE having a callProtectionRequest invoke
APDU. A value in the APDU conveys the CPIPL of the calling user to the PINX. An originating, transit or
terminating PINX on receiving a callProtectionRequest invoke APDU shall save the protection level of the
call for the duration of the call.
15. A call SETUP not containing a FACILITY IE having a callProtectionRequest invoke APDU is assumed to
have a protection level of 0 (i.e. no protection).
16. On receipt of a CONNECT message containing a callProtectionRequest invoke APDU in which the value of
the CPIPL contained therein is higher than that already saved for the call, the PINX saves the new CPIPL
value for the duration of the call.

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187

Call Priority Interrupt -CPIPL negotiation example


If VCS configured to enable use of Priority Calls
Originating and terminating VCSs are able to negotiate the Call Priority Interrupt Protection Level (CPIPL) to be
associated with an established ATS QSIG call. A VCS should either be configured with a default CPIPL value for
all ROUTINE calls from/to the VCS or it should be configured with a CPIPL value associated with each User
type.
An established ROUTINE call between two users should be associated with the higher of the Call Interrupt
Protection values (CPIPL) assigned to each user.
The table below illustrates this by defining the Call Interrupt Protection value (CPIPL) associated with a routine
call between the different user types.

E xa mp le o f Ca ll I nt e r ru pt P ro tect io n a s so cia ted w it h esta b li s he d Ro uti ne ca l l s

Routine Call
From

To

CPIPL
associated
with established call

RADAR controller (2)

RADAR controller (2)

RADAR controller (2)

Assistant Controller (1)

RADAR controller (2)

Administration (0)

Assistant Controller (1)

RADAR controller (2)

Assistant Controller (1)

Assistant Controller (1)

Assistant Controller (1)

Administration (0)

Administration (0)

RADAR controller (2)

Administration (0)

Assistant Controller (1)

Administration (0)

Administration (0)

The CPIPL value assigned to each user type allows an order of importance to be associated with each call such
that if a call has to be interrupted by a VCS in order to free resources for a PRIORITY call when a link is
congested, the established ROUTINE call chosen by the VCS would be that associated with the lowest CPIPL
value available on that link.
A PRIORITY Call always has the highest Call Interrupt Capability (i.e. CPICL=3) and will therefore always be
able to interrupt a ROUTINE call (CPIPL <3) in case of emergency.
A PRIORITY call between the User Types should result in an established call associated with the highest Call
Interrupt Protection level as defined in the table below.

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 3: Supplementary services

Example

of

Call

Interrupt

Protection

associated

with

established

Priority

Call Priority Interrupt -CPIPL


negotiation example
VCS A

VCS B

A
CPIPL=1

VCS A

CPIPL=2

1. A has a CPIPL=1 and B has a CPIPL=2


2. A makes non-priority call to B (answer call at B)

VCS B

SETUP cr=01, ch. 1, cpipRequest.inv=1, CGPN=A, CDPN=B


CALL PROC cr=01, ch. 1
ALERTING cr=01
CONNECT cr=01, cpipRequest.inv=2

calls

Priority Call
From

To

CPIPL
associated
with established call

RADAR controller (3)

RADAR controller (2)

RADAR controller (3)

Assistant Controller (1)

RADAR controller (3)

Administration (0)

Assistant Controller (3)

RADAR controller (2)

Assistant Controller (3)

Assistant Controller (1)

Assistant Controller (3)

Administration (0)

Administration (3)

RADAR controller (2)

Administration (3)

Assistant Controller (1)

Administration (3)

Administration (0)

If VCS configured to inhibited use of Priority Calls


Originating and terminating VCSs are unable to negotiate the Call Priority Interrupt Protection Level (CPIPL) to
be associated with an established ATS QSIG call. A VCS should be configured with the highest CPIPL value for
all ROUTINE calls from/to the VCS or it should have the highest CPIPL value associated with a user type.
An established ROUTINE or PRIORITY call between two users is always associated with the highest Call
Interrupt Protection (CPIPL), independent of any user type. The table below illustrates this by defining the Call
Interrupt Protection value (CPIPL) associated with an established ROUTINE or PRIORITY call between the
different user types.

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

189

E xa mp le o f Ca ll I nt e r ru pt P ro tect io n a s so cia ted w it h esta b li s he d Ro uti ne o r


Prio r ity ca ll s

Routine or Priority call


From

To

CPIPL
associated
with established call

RADAR controller (3)

RADAR controller (3)

RADAR controller (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

RADAR controller (3)

Administration (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

RADAR controller (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

Administration (3)

Administration (3)

RADAR controller (3)

Administration (3)

Assistant Controller (3)

Administration (3)

Administration (3)

The same highest call interrupt protection value (i.e. CPIPL=3) assigned to each user type
indicates that all users have Total interrupt protection and their calls can not be c leared by a
PRIORITY call in order to free resources when the link is congested.
A PRIORITY Call always has the highest Call Interrupt Capability (i.e. CPICL=3), but is unable
to interrupt a ROUTINE call with Total interrupt Protection (CPIPL=3). It impl ies that
PRIORITY calls no longer have an impact within the network.

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 3: Supplementary services

This page is intentionally blank.

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191

Call Priority Interrupt - when all calls protected


In this example it is assumed that an inter-VCS link comprises of only 3 voice channels. Each of the 3 voice
channels is being used for a call associated with the maximum Call Priority Interrupt Protection (i.e. CPIPL=3).
In the case that a Priority Call is then made over the inter-VCS link, the calling user will be connected the
network congestion tone and the Priority Call will be rejected.
The same situation would arise if the calls on the 3 voice channels were all Priority Calls. An established priority
call is always associated with the maximum Protection and can not be interrupted or intruded.

192

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QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 3: Supplementary services

Call Priority Interrupt - when all


calls protected
VCS A

C
D
E
A

VCS B
CPIPL=3

CPIPL=3

CPIPL=3

CPICL=3

1. C makes non-priority call to F with CPIPL=3 (answer call at F)


2. D makes non-priority call to G with CPIPL=3 (answer call at G)
3. E makes non-priority call to H with CPIPL=3 (answer call at H)
4. A makes priority call to B (i.e. CPICL=3)
Check:
1. A hears busy tone or network congestion tone

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

193

ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

194

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

11. ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

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195

Need for a Gateway


Within the context of a call, a PINX that performs interworking between ATS-QSIG and another signalling system,
either ISDN or non-ISDN, is known as a Gateway PINX.
A Gateway PINX that routes an incoming call from a route employing another signalling system on to an interPINX link employing ATS-QSIG signalling is known as an incoming gateway PINX.
A Gateway PINX that routes an incoming call from an inter-PINX link employing ATS-QSIG signalling on to a
route employing another signalling system is known as an Outgoing Gateway PINX.
Within the Air Traffic Services Voice Network, there are currently many routes employing the ATS-R2 analogue
signalling system. It is therefore important that upon the gradual introduction of ATS-QSIG links, the two
protocols must be able to interwork and this involves each of the PINXs in the voice signalling network being able
to perform the gateway function.
Interworking is the process by which two signalling systems can interact; it is the provision of services and
facilities available in one VCS or network to the users in another VCS or network;

196

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

Need for a Gateway

A Gateway provides interworking between two


networks;
To guarantee operation with ATS-R2 analogue
network, a PINX in ATS voice network must have
capability to interwork between ATS-R2 network and
ATS-QSIG network;
Incoming gateway converts ATS-R2 signalling to
ATS-QSIG signalling;
Outgoing gateway will perform the opposite function.

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

197

MSC for Incoming Gateway example (1)


The slide is a illustration to demonstrate the operation of a PINX performing an interworking between ATS R2
signalling and ATS-QSIG signalling. The example is the successful Call Establishment and Call Clearing between
a link employing ATS-MFC-R2 signalling and a link employing ATS-QSIG signalling. This is an incoming gateway
call.
1.

The Gateway receives the ATS-R2 seizing line signal followed by the 13 digits of address information
(comprised of 6 digit called party address, 1 digit priority value, 6 digit calling party address);

2.

All dialling information has to be received and checked prior to the Gateway formatting and sending the
equivalent ATS-QSIG SETUP message to the destination QSIG End containing all information necessary in
order to establish a call;

3.

The QSIG End checks to see if the channel number requested is acceptable and sends a CALL
PROCEEDING message back to Gateway, which indicates that requested call establishment has been
initiated and no more call establishment information will be accepted.

4.

The QSIG End then sends back to the Gateway an ALERTING message, which indicates that the called
user is being alerted (i.e. the telephone is ringing). An ALERTING message contains a Progress Indicator IE,
if the QSIG End sends inband Ringing Tone, otherwise this should be sent by the Gateway;

5.

The ALERTING message is converted by the Gateway into an ATS-R2 STATUS signal, with the value
"Terminal Free" (i.e. the telephone is ringing). At this point the voice channel on the ATS-R2 link is
connected at the R2 side.

6.

The QSIG End then sends back to the Gateway a CONNECT message, which indicates that the call has
been accepted by the called user (i.e. the called user has answered the call). The Gateway PINX connects
the voice channels between the two networks. The CONNECT message should also stop any inband
Ringing tone being sent.

Not Indicated on Slide from this point:


7.

Assuming the R2 End decides to clear the active call. A Release line signal is sent to the Gateway from the
R2 side indicating the circuit has now been cleared.

8.

On receiving the Release line signal, the Gateway sends a DISCONNECT message to QSIG End as an
invitation to terminate the connection.

9.

The QSIG End sends back a RELEASE message to the Gateway, which indicates that the Channel has
been disconnected from the QSIG End and will be released together with the call reference value upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the Gateway. It also instructs Gateway to release the
channel and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

10. The Gateway then sends back to the QSIG End a RELEASE COMPLETE message, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at the Gateway End and is available for re-use. Upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE the QSIG End releases the channel and call reference value.

198

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

MSC for Incoming Gateway example (1)


R2_End

Gateway

QSIG_End

R2_End
Idle

Gateway
Idle

QSIG_End
Idle

SEIZING line signal


Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit

Digits 1-6: Destination number

Digits 7: Call Priority Level


Digits 8-13: Originators number

Setup (Progress Indicator IE)


Call_Proceeding
Alerting (Progress Indicator IE)
Status_Terminal_Free (6)
Ringing Tone

Connect

R2_End
Call_Established

Gateway
Call_Established

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

Indicates inband ringing tone to


gateway
Ringing tone sent inband
Ringing tone stopped

QSIG_End
Call_Established

199

MSC for Incoming Gateway example (2)


The slide is an illustration to demonstrate the operation of a PINX performing an interworking between ATS-R2
signalling and ATS-QSIG signalling. The example is the unsuccessful Call Establishment and subsequent Call
Clearing between a link employing ATS-R2 signalling and a link employing ATS-QSIG signalling. This is an
incoming gateway call.
1.

The Gateway receives the ATS-R2 seizing line signal followed by the 13 digits of address information
(comprised of 6 digit called party address, 1 digit priority value, 6 digit calling party address);

2.

All dialling information has to be received and checked prior to the Gateway formatting and sending the
equivalent ATS-QSIG SETUP message to the destination QSIG End containing all information necessary in
order to establish a call;

3.

The QSIG End checks to see if the channel number requested is acceptable and sends a CALL
PROCEEDING message back to Gateway, which indicates that requested call establishment has been
initiated and no more call establishment information will be accepted.

4.

The call is not answered after a timeout period and so the QSIG End decides to clear the call by sending a
DISCONNECT message back to the Gateway, which contains a Cause Information Element indicating that
"No user is responding" or No answer from user.

5.

The DISCONNECT message is converted by the Gateway into an ATS-R2 RELEASE line signal. This
informs the R2 side that the call was unsuccessful and the circuit is being cleared.

6.

The Gateway sends back a RELEASE message to the QSIG End, which indicates that the Channel has
been disconnected from the Gateway End and will be released together with the call reference value upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the QSIG End. It also instructs the QSIG End to release
the channel and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

7.

The QSIG End then sends back to the Gateway a RELEASE COMPLETE message, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at the QSIG End and is available for re-use. Upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE the Gateway releases the channel and call reference value.

200

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

MSC for Incoming Gateway example (2)


R2_End

Gateway

QSIG_End

R2_End
Idle SEIZING line signal

Gateway
Idle

QSIG_End
Idle

Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit

Digits 1-6: Destination number

Digits 7: Call Priority Level


Digits 8-13: Originators number

Setup (Progress Indicator IE)


Call_Proceeding
Alerting (Progress Indicator IE)

Status_Terminal_Free (6)
Ringing Tone
Disconnect
(cause=no. 18, 19)
Release

RELEASE line signal

Release Complete

R2_End
Idle

Gateway
Idle

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

Indicates inband ringing tone to


gateway
Ringing tone sent inband
Call not answered
Ringing tone stopped

Cause Number
18: No user responding
19: No answer from user

QSIG_End
Idle

201

MSC for Outgoing Gateway example (1)


The slide is a illustration to demonstrate the operation of a PINX performing an interworking between ATS QSIG
signalling and ATS R2 signalling. The example is the successful Call Establishment and Call Clearing between a
link employing ATS-QSIG signalling and a link employing ATS R2 signalling. This is an outgoing gateway call.
1.

The QSIG End sends a SETUP message to the Gateway containing all information necessary in order to
establish a call;

2.

The Gateway checks the contents of the received SETUP message, checks the channel number requested
and if acceptable, converts the information into the equivalent ATS R2 signalling. It sends an ATS R2 seizing
line signal followed by the 13 digits of address information (comprised of 6 digit called party address, 1 digit
priority value, 6 digit calling party address);

3.

Simultaneously, the Gateway sends back a CALL PROCEEDING message to QSIG End, which indicates
that requested call establishment has been initiated and no more call establishment information will be
accepted.

4.

The Gateway then sends back a PROGRESS message to QSIG End, which indicates that call has left the
QSIG environment and will not be end-to-end digital.

5.

Assuming that the called user is free, the R2 End will send back to the Gateway a status signal indicating the
terminal is free. It may also send inband Ringing tone towards the Gateway.

6.

On receiving the Status Terminal free signal the Gateway will convert this signal to a CONNECT message
(i.e. no ALERTING message is sent in this case). The Gateway sends a CONNECT message back to the
QSIG End, which indicates that the call has been accepted by the called user (i.e. even though this still may
not be the case).

7.

When the Call is answered, the R2-End should stop sending any inband Ringing tone;

Not Indicated on Slide from this point:


8.

Assuming that the QSIG End decides to clear the active call. A DISCONNECT message is sent to the
Gateway. as an invitation to terminate the connection.

9.

On receiving the DISCONNECT message, the Gateway converts it to a RELEASE line signal and send it to
the R2 End, informing the R2 End that the call has now been released.

10. The Gateway sends back a RELEASE message to the QSIG End, which indicates that the Channel has
been disconnected from the Gateway and will be released together with the call reference value upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the QSIG End. It also instructs QSIG End to release the
channel and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.
11. The QSIG End then sends back to the Gateway a RELEASE COMPLETE message, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at the QSIG End and is available for re-use. Upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE the Gateway releases the channel and call reference value.

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

MSC for Outgoing Gateway example (1)


R2_End

Gateway

QSIG_End

R2_End
Idle

Gateway
Idle

QSIG_End
Idle

Setup
SEIZING line signal
Call_Proceeding
Progress
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit

Digits 1-6: Destination number

Indicates call is not


End-to-End digital

Digits 7: Call Priority Level


Digits 8-13: Originators number

Status_Terminal_Free (6)
Connect

Ringing Tone
Ringing tone sent inband
Ringing tone stopped when
call answered

R2_End
Call_Established

Gateway
Call_Established

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

QSIG_End
Call_Established

203

MSC for Outgoing Gateway example (2)


The slide is a illustration to demonstrate the operation of a PINX performing an interworking between ATS QSIG
signalling and ATS R2 signalling. The example is the unsuccessful Call Establishment and subsequent Call
Clearing between a link employing ATS-QSIG signalling and a link employing ATS-R2 signalling. This is an
outgoing gateway call.
1. The QSIG End sends a SETUP message to the Gateway containing all information necessary in order to
establish a call;
2.

The Gateway checks the contents of the received SETUP message, checks the channel number requested
and if acceptable, converts the information into the equivalent ATS-R2 signalling. It sends an ATS-R2 seizing
line signal followed by the 13 digits of address information (comprised of 6 digit called party address, 1 digit
priority value, 6 digit calling party address);

3.

Simultaneously, the Gateway sends back a CALL PROCEEDING message to QSIG End, which indicates
that requested call establishment has been initiated and no more call establishment information will be
accepted.

4.

The Gateway then sends back a PROGRESS message to QSIG End, which indicates that the call has left
the QSIG environment and will not be end-to-end digital.

5.

Assuming that the called terminal is out-of-service, the R2 End will send back to the Gateway a status signal
indicating the terminal is out-of-service.

6.

On receiving the Status Terminal Out-of-service signal the Gateway will convert this signal to a
DISCONNECT message with a cause value defining that Destination is Out-of-Order. The Gateway sends
this DISCONNECT message back to the QSIG End, which indicates that the call was unsuccessful. The
Gateway also sends a RELEASE line signal to the R2 End in order to clear the circuit.

7.

The QSIG End sends back a RELEASE message to the Gateway, which indicates that the Channel has
been disconnected from the QSIG End and will be released together with the call reference value upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the Gateway. It also instructs the Gateway to release
the channel and prepare to release the call reference after sending RELEASE COMPLETE.

8.

The Gateway then sends back to the QSIG End a RELEASE COMPLETE message, which indicates that the
channel and call reference value has been released at the Gateway and is available for re-use. Upon
receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE the QSIG End releases the channel and call reference value.

204

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

MSC for Outgoing Gateway example (2)


R2_End

Gateway

QSIG_End

R2_End
Idle

Gateway
Idle

QSIG_End
Idle

Setup
SEIZING line signal

Call_Proceeding
Progress

Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit

Digits 1-6: Destination number

Digits 7: Call Priority Level


Digits 8-13: Originators number

Status_Terminal_Out_of_Service (5)
RELEASE line signal

Disconnect
Cause=Destination out of order
Release
Release Complete

R2_End
Idle

Gateway
Idle

QSIG_End
Idle

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

205

Outgoing Gateway Mapping ATS-R2 status number to ATS-QSIG


cause number
Has the scope of explaining the mapping of ATS R2 status numbers to ATS-QSIG cause numbers, across a
gateway.
Call clearing initiated by the Outgoing Gateway VCS
The Outgoing Gateway VCS shall initiate call clearing if it is not able to proceed with call establishment, if a
failure condition occurs after the call has been established, or if a clear request or failure signal is received from
the ATS R2 network. The status signal received from the ATS R2 network shall be translated to an ATS QSIG
cause value as indicated in the Table below.
Mapping of R2 status to QSIG cause

Status
ATS R2 status
number
3
Terminal busy
5
Terminal out of service
8
Trunk congestion

Cause
ATS QSIG cause
number
17
User busy
18
Destination Out-of-order
34
No circuit/channel available

Note: Due to the small number of ATS R2 status signals available (i.e. Terminal free, Terminal busy, Trunk
congestion, Terminal out of service), it is impossible to map certain status signals to an equivalent cause in the
ATS QSIG network. For example Terminal out of service status signal is sent when the destination is out-oforder, number is unallocated or destination is incompatible etc. The Outgoing gateway maps all of these to just
one equivalent cause number in the ATS QSIG network.
On receipt of a RELEASE line signal from the ATS R2 network during an established call, the Outgoing
Gateway VCS shall initiate call clearing towards the ATS QSIG network with an ATS QSIG cause defined in the
table below.
Mapping: ATS R2 RELEASE line signal - ATS QSIG normal call clearing cause

ATS R2 line signal


RELEASE

Cause
ATS QSIG cause
number
16
Normal call clearing

On receipt of an unexpected RELEASE line signal from the ATS R2 network during the call establishment
phase, the Outgoing Gateway VCS shall initiate call clearing towards the ATS QSIG network with an ATS QSIG
cause defined in the Table below.
Mapping: ATS R2 RELEASE line signal to ATS QSIG protocol error cause

ATS R2 line signal


RELEASE

Cause
ATS QSIG cause
number
111
Protocol error, unspecified

A RELEASE line signal from the ATS R2 network is translated to a QSIG cause value as indicated in the table
above.

206

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

Outgoing Gateway Mapping ATS-R2 status


number to ATS-QSIG cause number

The Status register signal or Release Line signal


received from the ATS-R2 network is translated to a
ATS- QSIG cause value as shown below:

Status
ATS-R2
Number
status
3
Terminal Busy

Cause
Number
17

Terminal out of service

27

Trunk Congestion

34

ATS-R2
Line signal
Release

ATS-QSIG
cause
User busy
Destination out of order
No circuit/channel
available

Cause
ATS-QSIG
Number
cause
16
Normal Call Clearing

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

207

Incoming Gateway Mapping ATS-QSIG cause number to ATS-R2


status number
Has the scope of explaining the mapping of ATS-QSIG cause numbers to ATS R2 status numbers,
across a gateway.
Call clearing initiated by the Incoming Gateway VCS
On receipt of an indication of call clearing from the ATS QSIG network, during the call establishment
phase of a call, with an ATS QSIG cause defined in the Table below, the Incoming Gateway VCS
shall send a trunk congestion status signal to the ATS R2 network using the mappings specified in the
Table. An Incoming Gateway VCS may attempt to find a free route to the required destination on all
routes defined in its Preferred routes table configured within the VCS, before this status signal is sent
to the ATS R2 network however.
Mapping: ATS QSIG cause to ATS R2 status Trunk Congestion
Cause
number
3
6
34
41
44

ATS QSIG cause


No route to destination
Channel unacceptable
No circuit/channel available
Temporary failure
Requested circuit channel not
available

Status
number
8
8
8
8
8

ATS R2 status
Trunk congestion
Trunk congestion
Trunk congestion
Trunk Congestion
Trunk Congestion

On receipt of an indication of call clearing from the ATS QSIG network, during the call establishment
phase of a call with an ATS QSIG cause defined in the Table below, the Incoming Gateway VCS
shall send the corresponding status signal to the ATS R2 network using the mappings specified below.
Mapping: ATS QSIG cause to ATS R2 status
Terminal out of service/Busy
Cause
number
1
17
22
27
28
57
58
63
65
88

208

ATS QSIG cause

Status
number
Unallocated (unassigned) number
5
User busy
3
Number changed
5
Destination out of order
5
Invalid number format
5
Bearer capability not authorised
5
Bearer capability not available
5
Service or option not available,
5
unspecified
Bearer capability not
5
implemented
Incompatible destination
5

ATS R2 status
Terminal out of service
Terminal busy
Terminal out of service
Terminal out of service
Terminal out of service
Terminal out of service
Terminal out of service
Terminal out of service
Terminal out of service
Terminal out of service

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

Incoming Gateway Mapping ATS-QSIG


cause number to ATS-R2 status number

The ATS- QSIG cause value is translated to a Status register


signal received from the ATS-R2 network as shown below:

Cause
Number
3
6
34
41
44
17
1
22
27
28
57
58
63
65
88

ATS-QSIG
Status
cause
Number
8
No Route to destination
8
Channel unacceptable
8
No circuit/channel available
8
Temporary Failure
8
Requested circuit/chan. not avail
3
User Busy
Unallocated number
5
5
Number changed
5
Destination out of order
5
Invalid number format
5
Bearer capability not authorised
5
Bearer capability not available
5
Service or option not available
5
Bearer capability not implemented
5
Incompatible destination

ATS-R2 status or
line signal
Trunk Congestion
Trunk Congestion
Trunk Congestion
Trunk Congestion
Trunk Congestion
Terminal busy
Terminal out-of-service
Terminal out-of-service
Terminal out-of-service
Terminal out-of-service
Terminal out-of-service
Terminal out-of-service
Terminal out-of-service
Terminal out-of-service
Terminal out-of-service

When a clearing cause is received at an Incoming Gateway VCS with no equivalent ATS R2 status, the
Incoming Gateway VCS shall send "Terminal out of service" status signal to ATS R2 network.

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209

Incoming Gateway Mapping ATS-QSIG cause number to ATS-R2


Release line signal
Has the scope of explaining the mapping of ATS-QSIG cause numbers to ATS R2 RELEASE line
signal, across a gateway.
Call clearing initiated by the Incoming Gateway VCS
On receipt of an indication of call clearing from the ATS QSIG network, during the call establishment
phase of a call with an ATS QSIG cause defined in the Table below, the Incoming Gateway VCS
shall not send a status signal to the ATS R2 network. In these cases the Incoming gateway VCS shall
send a RELEASE line signal to the ATS R2 network in order to release the circuit for another call.
It shall also follow call clearing procedures to release the call towards the ATS QSIG network.
Mapping: ATS QSIG unanswered call causes to ATS R2 RELEASE line signal
Cause number
ATS QSIG cause
ATS R2 line signal
18
No user responding
RELEASE
19
No answer from user
RELEASE
Note:
It is assumed that the Terminating VCS call control shall
only initiate call clearing on expiry of an internal no user
answering timer. This timer is Network dependent.

On receipt of an indication of call clearing from the ATS QSIG network, during the call establishment
phase of a call with an ATS QSIG call rejected cause defined in the Table below, the Incoming
Gateway VCS shall not send a status signal to the ATS R2 network. In these cases the Incoming
gateway VCS shall send a RELEASE line signal to the ATS R2 network in order to release the
circuit for another call. It shall also follow call clearing procedures to release the call towards the ATS
QSIG network.
Mapping: ATS QSIG call reject cause to ATS R2 RELEASE line signal
Cause number
ATS QSIG cause
ATS R2 line signal
21
Call rejected
RELEASE
Note:
This cause number is returned to the incoming gateway
VCS in the case that the transit counter has reached the defined
network limit.

On receipt of an indication of call clearing from the ATS QSIG network, during the call established or
call establishment phases of a call, with an ATS QSIG protocol error related cause defined in the
Table below, the Incoming Gateway VCS shall not send a status signal to the ATS R2 network. In
these cases the Incoming Gateway VCS shall send a RELEASE line signal to the ATS R2 network
in order to release the circuit for another call. It shall also follow call clearing procedures to release
the call towards the ATS QSIG network..

210

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

Mapping: ATS QSIG protocol error causes to ATS R2 RELEASE line signal
Cause
number
31
81
82
96
97
98

99
100
101
102
111

ATS QSIG cause


Normal unspecified
Invalid call reference
Identified channel does not exist
Mandatory info element missing
Message type non existent or not
implemented
Message not compatible with call
state or message non-existent or
not implemented
Information element non existent
or not implemented
Invalid info element content
Message not compatible with call
state
Recovery on timer expiry
Protocol error, unspecified

ATS R2 line
signal
RELEASE
RELEASE
RELEASE
RELEASE
RELEASE
RELEASE

RELEASE
RELEASE
RELEASE
RELEASE
RELEASE

Note: When a clearing cause is received at an Incoming Gateway VCS for which there is no
equivalent ATS R2 status (i.e. any cause other than those listed in Tables 2 to 7 above), the Incoming
Gateway VCS shall send a "Terminal out of service" status signal to the ATS R2 network.

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211

Incoming Gateway Priority Level Mapping


Has the scope of explaining the mapping of ATS-QSIG priority levels to ATS-R2 priority levels, across a gateway.
On receipt of a call from the ATS R2 network (on a direct network route or on a detour route), the Incoming
Gateway VCS shall initiate the call towards the ATS QSIG network. The ATS QSIG Call Control within the
Incoming Gateway VCS shall read the ATS R2 Priority level of the call and include the relevant FACILITY IEs
(i.e. CPIPL, CPICL and CICL) in the SETUP message with values as specified in the slide.
Only an ATS R2 call with the highest priority level on a direct (Priority level 1) or detour route (Priority level 6) is
mapped to an equivalent priority call in the ATS QSIG network. All the other ATS R2 calls are mapped to
routine calls in the ATS QSIG network but are associated with a Call Interrupt Protection level relative to the
priority level of the ATS R2 call.

Outgoing Gateway Priority Level Mapping


On receipt of a SETUP message from the ATS QSIG network complying with the ATS QSIG bearer capability IE,
the Outgoing Gateway VCS shall attempt to establish a call towards the ATS R2 network. The ATS QSIG Call
Control within the Outgoing Gateway VCS shall also map any relevant FACILITY IEs in the SETUP message to
the equivalent ATS R2 priority level as specified in the slide.
The choice of mapping to ATS R2 Priority levels 1 or 6, 2 or 7, 3 or 8 and 4 or 9 is ANSP dependent.
Only in the case that 3 FACILITY IEs are present in the SETUP message containing Call Protection Request
Invoke (cpipRequest.inv) with CPIPL=3, Call Interrupt Request Invoke (cpiRequest.inv) with CPICL=3 and Call
Intrusion Request Invoke (ciRequest.inv) with CICL=3 shall Call Control attempt to establish a call with the
highest priority in the ATS R2 network (i.e. Priority level 1 or Priority level 6). All other routine ATS QSIG calls are
mapped according to their Call Interrupt Protection level to the equivalent ATS R2 priority level.
Calls mapped by the Outgoing Gateway to Priority levels 6,7,8 or 9 can be sent over a single inter-VCS link
towards the terminating VCS.

212

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

Incoming Gateway Priority Level


Mapping

Mapping of ATS-R2 priorities to ATS-QSIG Supplementary Service


parameters
Gateway Output
ATS QSIG

Gateway Input
ATS R2/ATS No.5
Priority Level

Route

Direct

Detour

Direct

Call Protection
Request invoke
(CPIPL)

Call Interrupt
Request invoke
(CPICL)

Call Intrusion
Request invoke
(CICL)

Call type

Priority

Not present

Not present

(Total Interrupt
Protection)

2 (Note 1)

Not present

Not present

(Medium Interrupt
Protection)

1 (Note 1)

Not present

Not present

(Low Interrupt
Protection)

Not present
(Note 1)

Not present

Not present

(No Interrupt
Protection)

Routine

Routine

Detour

Routine

Direct

Detour

Direct

ATS QSIG

Detour

Routine

Not present: information shall not be included in the Call request as its value is 0
Note 1: If Incoming Gateway configured to prevent Call Priority Interrupt in ATS QSIG network, this value should be 3.

Outgoing Gateway Priority Level


Mapping

Mapping of ATS-QSIG Supplementary Service parameters to


ATS-R2 priorities
ATS QSIG
Call type

Gateway Output
ATS R2/ATS No.5

Gateway Input ATS QSIG


Call Protection
Request invoke
(CPIPL)

Call Interrupt
Request invoke
(CPICL)

Call Intrusion Request


invoke
(CICL)

Priority level

Priority

1 or 6

Routine

Not present

Not present

(Total Interrupt Protection) *

2 or 7
Routine

Not present

Not present

Not present

Not present

3 or 8

Not present

Not present

Not present

4 or 9

(Medium Interrupt Protection)

Routine
(Low Interrupt Protection)

Routine
(No interrupt protection)

Not present: information shall not be included in the Call request as its value is 0
It is not possible to guarantee Total Interrupt Protection for an ATS QSIG call as it passes through the
gateway into the ATS R2/No.5 network with Priority Level 2.

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213

ATS-QSIG v SIP Incoming Gateway example (1)

ATS-QSIG v SIP Incoming Gateway example (2)

214

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

ATS-QSIG v SIP Incoming


Gateway example (1)
ATS-QSIG Emulator
(B-side, Network)

Gateway
(A-side, User)

SETUP (CPIPL=1)

SIP_End

INVITE (urgent)

CALL PROCEEDING

180 Ringing

ALERTING

Call manually
answered

200 OK
CONNECT

ACK
Both Way Voice

Both-way RTP media

DISCONNECT

Call manually
cleared

BYE

RELEASE
RELEASE COMPLETE

200 OK

ATS-QSIG v SIP Incoming


Gateway example (2)
ATS-QSIG Emulator

SIP_End

Gateway

SETUP (CPIPL=3, CPICL=3, CICL=3)

INVITE (emergency)

CALL PROCEEDING

200 OK
CONNECT

Call automatically
answered

ACK
Both Way Voice

Both-way RTP media

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215

ATS-QSIG v SIP Outgoing Gateway example (1)

ATS-QSIG v SIP Outgoing Gateway example (2)

216

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

ATS-QSIG v SIP Outgoing


Gateway example (1)
Gateway
(B-side, User)

SIP_End

INVITE (emergency)

ATS-QSIG Emulator
(A-Side, Network)

SETUP (CPIPL=3, CPICL=3, CICL=3)

100 Trying
CALL PROCEEDING

Ringing tone
heard

180 Ringing

ALERTING

200 OK

CONNECT

Call manually
Answered

ACK
Both-way RTP media

Call manually
cleared

Both Way Voice

BYE

DISCONNECT

200OK

RELEASE
RELEASE COMPLETE

ATS-QSIG v SIP Outgoing


Gateway example (2)
Gateway
(A-side, User)

SIP_End

INVITE (normal)

ATS-QSIG Emulator
(B-Side, Network)
SETUP (CPIPL=1)

100 Trying
CALL PROCEEDING

Ringing tone
heard

180 Ringing

ALERTING

200 OK

CONNECT

Call manually
Answered

ACK
Both-way RTP media

BYE
200OK

Both Way Voice

DISCONNECT

Call manually
cleared

RELEASE
RELEASE COMPLETE

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217

Gateway Plugtests Event

Gateway Plugtest Test Configuration

218

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

Gateway Plugtests Event

Took place March 1st to 5th 2010 with 6 VCS Suppliers attending
Ran selected test cases from EUROCONTROL defined SIP <>ATSR2 and SIP <> ATS-QSIG gateway interworking test specifications
Company pairings had a 4-hour session to complete either SIP v
ATS-R2 or SIP v ATS-QSIG and each company has 2 sessions per
day

Suppliers agreed on selected test cases for execution during


timeslot

R2-SIP Incoming Gateway: 13 from 27 test cases selected (48%)


SIP-R2 Outgoing Gateway: 10 from 19 test cases selected (52%)
QSIG-SIP Incoming Gateway: 12 from 28 test cases selected (42%)
SIP-QSIG Outgoing Gateway: 11 from 26 test cases selected(42%)
Overall 46 from 100 test cases to be run (46% coverage)
Unselected tests can be performed time permitting

Besides step-by-step test procedure definition, Message


Sequence Charts also added to the specifications
Wrap-up session planned each evening to discuss any problems

Gateway Plugtest Test Configuration


CWP A1,A2, A3

ATS-QSIG
Emulator

ATS-QSIG
circuit
Wire
shark

ATS-QSIG
End VCS A
ATS-QSIG
Monitor

ATS-QSIG
circuit

Gateway
VCS A
IUT

UA_A1
UA_A2
UA_A3

Sub-network 1

Sub-network 2
Wire
shark
UA_B1
UA_B2
UA_B3

SIP End
VCS B

UA_B1
UA_B2
UA_B3

CWP B1,B2,B3

Test configuration for all


SIP v ATS-QSIG test scenarios

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219

SIP to ATS-QSIG/ATS-R2 Gateway Test Results

220

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ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

SIP to ATS-QSIG/ATS-R2
Gateway Test Results
SIP to ATS-R2
Number of tests per test session: 24, Number of Sessions: 30
Of the 30 reported sessions 30 were agreed (100.0%)
650 Tests performed in total
Interoperability

Not executed

Totals

OK

NO

NA

OT

Run

Results

645 (99.2%)

5 (0.8%)

27 (3.8%)

43 (6.0%)

650 (90.3%)

720

SIP to ATS-QSIG
Number of tests per test session: 23, Number of Sessions: 12
Of the 12 reported sessions 12 were agreed (100%)
214 Tests performed in total
Interoperability

Not executed

Totals

OK

NO

NA

OT

Run

Results

202 (94.4%)

12 (5.6%)

10 (3.6%)

52 (18.8%)

214 (77.5%)

276

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221

ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

222

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ATS QSIG Field Trial Test

12. ATS QSIG Field Trial Test

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223

PICS Proforma and PIXIT Proforma


The slide has the scope of explaining the purpose of PICS and PIXIT statements.
For each of the conformance test suites that have to be run in order to ensure a PINX is compliant with the
nominated standards, a "Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement" (PICS) and a "Protocol
Implementation eXtra Information for Test" have to be defined.
Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement (PICS)
The purpose of a "Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement" (PICS) is to describe by answering a
number of questions how the protocol to be conformance tested has been implemented and which options have
been used. It is used to select the tests to be run and to solve any discussion about an option during the
conformance assessment process through the following notation:

O : Optional ;

M : Mandatory ;

N/A : not applicable;

C : Conditional (conditional), using IF, THEN, ELSE

By defining a PICS and a PIXIT statement to be associated with the Test Suite, the Protocol Analyser will restrict
the test cases selected from the test suite to just those relevant to the protocol being tested. This guarantees that
when the restricted test suite is run for the PINX, every test case run on the Protocol Analyser is relevant to the
layer and protocol implementation being tested.
Protocol Implementation eXtra Information for Test (PIXIT)
Defines data to be provided by the PINX manufacturer ( contents of data packets, timer values, retransmission
counters etc.) needed to execute a test suite.

Layer 3 Basic Call PICS (1)

224

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ATS QSIG Field Trial Test

PICS Proforma and PIXIT


Proforma
PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION CONFORMANCE STATEMENT
Describes each alternative and option related to a given protocol,
which the implementation claims to be conformant.
This document is used to select the tests to be run and to solve any
discussion on an option during the conformance assessment
process.

with the following notation:

O : Optional ;
M : Mandatory ;
N/A : not applicable;
C : Conditional (conditional), using IF, THEN, ELSE

PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION EXTRA INFORMATION FOR TEST

Defines data to be provided by the VCS manufacturer ( contents of data


packets, timer values, retransmission counters etc.) needed to execute a test
suite.

Layer 3 Basic Call PICS (1)


Circuit switched call control
IUT is configured as A ?
YES/NO
IUT can act as Originating PINX ?
YES
IUT can act as Incoming Gateway PINX ?
YES
IUT can act as Transit PINX ?
YES
IUT can act as Terminating PINX ?
YES
IUT can act as Outgoing Gateway PINX ?
YES
IUT supports call request ?
YES
IUT always includes SCI in SETUP ?
YES
Overlap sending procedures implemented ? NO
Number of information channels supported ?
3

BOOLEAN and numeric number values


A number is available for tsp_lnum ?
Number incomplete for the IUT coded as CDPN ?
IUT not compl. num. without SCI or T302 exp. ava.?
Number of the previous items coded as CDPN
Invalid number can be divided in two parts ?
First part of invalid number coded as CDPN
Second part of invalid number coded as CDPN
IUT Outg. Gat. but not compl. num. avail. as CDPN ?
IUT Outg. Gat. but not compl. num. as CDPN ?
IUT terminating but not compl. num as CDPN ava. ?
IUT terminating but not compl. num as CDPN

More about number values


Valid channel number for tests
1
Second valid channel number for tests 2
Non existent channel number
4
Number complete for the IUT as CDPN
7007B93U3V3W3X3Y3Z
Number incomplete for the IUT as CDPN 7002B93U
A number is available for tsp_Fnum ?
YES
Num. (Compl. Or not) for the IUT as CDPN 7007B93U3V3W3X3Y3Z
Values are av. For tsp_Cnum1 and tsp_Cnum2 ?
NO
First digit of tsp_Cnum coded as CDPN
Second and subsequent digits coded as CDPN
Num Dig. of a terminal the IUT knows to be compl.
3G3H3J3K3L3M

NO
NO
YES
7005B93N3P3Q3R
7003B93S3T
YES
7004B93U3V3W
YES
7005B93U3V3W3X

Segmentation - Restart - Status Enquiry


About Segmentation
Message segmentation implemented ?
NO
Message re-assembly implemented ?
NO
About Restart
Initiation of RESTART - All channels ?
NO
Initiation of RESTART - Single channel ?NO
Impl. REST. or REST. Can be prov. in suitab. way ? NO
IUT send repeated RESTART messages ?
NO
About Status Enquiry
Sending of STATUS ENQUIRY implemented ?
NO
Maximum number of STATUS ENQUIRY messages 1

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225

Layer 3 Basic Call PICS (2)

226

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ATS QSIG Field Trial Test

Layer 3 Basic Call PICS (2)


Bearer Capability features
16kbit/s Unrestricted BC supported ?
16kbit/s Speech BC supported ?
16kbit/s 3.1KHz Audio BC supported ?
16kbit/s Unrest. BC with tones and announ. supp. ?
Complete Bearer Capability IE
Party Category and Transit Counter
About Party Category
Party Category functionality ?
Num. for terminal conn. to Termin.IUT as CDPN
Party Category associated with previous number
Number for terminal conn. to Outg. IUT as CDPN
Party Category associated with previous number
About Transit Counter
Transit Counter functionality ?
Sending of Transit Counter in SETUP message
Timers and channel busy condition
Optional timer T301 implemented ?
Duration of T301 (sec.)
Duration of T304 (sec.)
Duration of tone and ann. Terminating PINX (sec.)
Optional timer T313 implemented ?
SETUP re-transmitted on expiry of T303 ?
Timer T310 Implemented ?
Duration of T310 (sec)

YES
YES
NO
NO
0403A092AA

NO
7007B93U3V3W3X3Y3Z
n/a
7007B93U3V3W3X3Y3Z
n/a
YES
YES

YES
120
0
0
NO
NO
YES
30

Information channels bust condition


Possible to make all channels busy for testing conf. ? YES

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227

Conformance test case example (1)


The following is an example of a layer 3 basic call conformance test case description and PT502 text file.

Test Case TC311HO

2002 09 23 TC0311HO.00
Recording Start : ISDN Conf USR
WAN Port 1 RS449
V3.0-4.1 Rev. 2
PT502 - 32
Test Case: TC0311HO
2002-09-23 11:29:52
971

P1 Usr 0 0
C INFO
Orig PD=Q.931 CR=0X0000
Var.=ETSI_SUP
1
01111001 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000001 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-0000--- Spare
-----111 Class
972
P1 Net 0 0
C INFO
Dest PD=Q.931 CR=0X0000
Var.=ETSI_SUP
1
01111001 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000001 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-0000--- Spare
-----111 Class
973
P1 Usr 0 0
C INFO
Orig PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001
Var.=ETSI_SUP
1
10100001 INFORMATION ELEMENT
1
00000100 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000011 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-10----- Coding standard
---00000 Info. trans. cap.
4
1------- Extension bit
-00----- Transfer mode
---10010 Info. transfer rate
5
1------- Extension bit
-01----- Layer identifier
---01010 Layer 1 protocol
1
00011000 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000011 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-0------ Interface ident.
--1----- Interface type
---0---- Spare
----0--- Preferred/Exclusive
-----0-- D-channel indicator
------01 Info. chan. sel.
3.2 1------- Extension bit
-00----- Coding standard
---0---- Number/Map
----0011 Chan./Map type
3.3 1------- Fixed pattern
-0000001 Channel number
1
01101100 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000111 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-011---- Type of number

228

RESTart
:
:
:
:
:

RESTART INDicator
1 octets
not continued
all interfaces

RESTart ACKnowledge
:
:
:
:
:

RESTART INDicator
1 octets
not continued
all interfaces

SETUP
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

SENDing COMPlete
BEARER CAPability
3 octets
not continued
national standard
speech
not continued
circuit mode
reserved
not continued
1
reserved
CHANNEL IDentification
3 octets
not continued
implicitly identified
other interface
preferred
not D-channel
as indicated
not continued
CCITT
number
B-channel units
expected value 0b1
1
CALLING party NUMber
7 octets
not continued
network specific number

Copyright 2014 JSP-Teleconsultancy

ATS QSIG Field Trial Test

Conformance test case example


(1)
Test Case TC311HO
Test Purpose
Ensure that the IUT in state 10, on receiving a DISCONNECT
message containing an unrecognised IE coded as
comprehensive required, sends a RELEASE message
containing a Cause IE with a Cause Value encoded as 99 and
enters state 19.

N.B. Look in course notes for corresponding print out of test


case scenario.

----1001 Numbering plan


******** Number
01110000 INFORMATION ELEMENT
00000111 IE length
1------- Extension bit
-011---- Type of number
----1001 Numbering plan
4
******** Number
1
1001---- INFORMATION ELEMENT
----0--- Shift type
-----100 Codeset ident.
1
00110001 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000001 IE length
3
******** IE contents
974
P1 Net 0 0
C INFO
Dest PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001
Var.=ETSI_SUP
1
00011000 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000011 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-0------ Interface ident.
--1----- Interface type
---0---- Spare
----0--- Preferred/Exclusive
-----0-- D-channel indicator
------01 Info. chan. sel.
3.2 1------- Extension bit
-00----- Coding standard
---0---- Number/Map
----0011 Chan./Map type
3.3 1------- Fixed pattern
-0000001 Channel number
4
1
2
3

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

private numbering plan


[344301]
CALLED party NUMber
7 octets
not continued
network specific number
private numbering plan
[349501]
SHIFT
locking
reserved
Set(04)/Code(31)
1 octets
80

CALL PROCeeding
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

CHANNEL IDentification
3 octets
not continued
implicitly identified
other interface
preferred
not D-channel
as indicated
not continued
CCITT
number
B-channel units
expected value 0b1
1

Produced by JSP Teleconsultancy

229

975

P1 Net 0 0
C INFO
Dest PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001
Var.=ETSI_SUP
976
P1 Net 0 0
C INFO
Dest PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001
Var.=ETSI_SUP
977
P1 Usr 0 0
C INFO
Orig PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001
Var.=ETSI_SUP
1
00001000 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000010 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-00----- Coding standard
---0---- Spare
----0001 Location
user
4
1------- Extension bit
-0011111 Cause value
1
01111010 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000001 IE length
3
******** IE contents
978
P1 Net 0 0
C INFO
Dest PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001
Var.=ETSI_SUP
1
00001000 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000010 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-00----- Coding standard
---0---- Spare
----0000 Location
4
1------- Extension bit
-1100011 Cause value
979
P1 Usr 0 0
C INFO

ALERTing
CONNect
DISConnect
:
:
:
:
:
:

CAUSE
2 octets
not continued
CCITT

:
:
:
:
:

not continued
Normal, unspecified
Set(00)/Code(7A)
1 octets
00

private network serving local

RELease
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

CAUSE
2 octets
not continued
CCITT
user
not continued
IE non-existent

Orig PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001 STATUS ENquiry


Var.=ETSI_SUP
980
P1 Net 0 0
C INFO
Dest PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001
STATUS
Var.=ETSI_SUP
1
00001000 INFORMATION ELEMENT : CAUSE
2
00000010 IE length
: 2 octets
3
1------- Extension bit
: not continued
-00----- Coding standard
: CCITT
---0---- Spare
:
----0001 Location
: private network serving local
user
4
1------- Extension bit
: not continued
-0011110 Cause value
: Response to STATUS ENQUIRY
1
00010100 INFORMATION ELEMENT : CALL STATE
2
00000001 IE length
: 1 octets
3
00------ Coding standard
: CCITT
--010011 Call state
: Release Request
Test Case: TC0311HO
Verdict: PASS(0)
981

P1 Usr 0 0
C INFO
Orig PD=Q.931 CR=0X0001
Var.=ETSI_SUP
1
00001000 INFORMATION ELEMENT
2
00000010 IE length
3
1------- Extension bit
-00----- Coding standard
---0---- Spare

230

RELease COMplete
:
:
:
:
:

CAUSE
2 octets
not continued
CCITT

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ATS QSIG Field Trial Test

----0001

Location

: private network serving local

user
4

1------- Extension bit


-0011111 Cause value
Recording End
: ISDN Conf USR
V3.0-4.1 Rev. 2

: not continued
: Normal, unspecified
WAN Port 1 RS449

PT502 - 32

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Interoperability test example (1)


The ATS-QSIG Basic Service interoperability test suite attempts to test the IUT in both the "A" side configuration
and the "B" side configuration and comprises 25 test cases:
The following is an example of a typical layer 3 basic call interoperability test case description.

Test:

BS-1

Title:
Test Purpose
Pre-test
conditions:
Step

Mandatory
Yes
Selection
Selected:
No
Criteria:
Voice call establishment from User A to User B
To verify that a call can be established successfully to User B by User A and that
speech communication is possible between User A and User B
Configure User A and User B with Bearer Capability set to "Speech, 16kbit/s"
Test description

1
Initiate new call at User A to the address of User B
2
Check A:
Is Ringing Tone heard?
3
Check B:
Is terminal alerting (visual or audible indication)?
4
Accept call at User B
5
Check A:
Is Ringing Tone heard?
6
Check B:
Is terminal alerting?
7
Apply speech at User A
8
Check B:
Can speech from User A be heard and understood?
9
Apply speech at User B
10
Check A:
Can speech from User B be heard and understood?
11
Clear the call at User A and User B
Observations:

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Verdict
Pass
Fail
Yes
Yes

No
No

No
No

Yes
Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

ATS QSIG Field Trial Test

Interoperability test example (1)


Test: BS-1

Selection Criteria:

Title:

Voice call establishment from User A to User B

Mandatory

Selected: Yes
No

Test Purpose To verify that a call can be established successfully to User B by


User A and that speech communication is possible between User A
and User B
Configure User A and User B with Bearer Capability set to
Pre-test
conditions: "Speech, 16kbit/s"
Step

Test description

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Verdict

233

Interoperability test example (2)

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ATS QSIG Field Trial Test

Interoperability test example (2)

Step

1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8
9
10

11

Verdict
Pass Fail

Test description

Initiate new call at User A to the address of User B


Check A: Is Ringing Tone heard?
Check B: Is terminal alerting (visual or audible indication)?
Accept call at User B
Check A: Is Ringing Tone heard?
Check B: Is terminal alerting?
Apply speech at User A
Check B: Can speech from User A be heard and understood?
Apply speech at User B
Check A: Can speech from User B be heard and understood?
Clear the call at User A and User B

Yes
Yes

No
No

No
No

Yes
Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Observations:

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ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

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ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

13. ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

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PUMA 4600E

PUMA front panel

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ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

PUMA 4600E

Developed by EXFO (Consultronics) under a Eurocontrol


contract
Based on existing well proven hardware
Conformance Tested with over 1000 test scenarios
Full DSP implementation for G.728 Voice
Interop tested with 3 major Vendors equipment
Standard features/options remain (BERT, VF, Jitter)
3 New Modes:
ATS-QSIG Call Setup
ATS-QSIG Monitor
Codirectional Monitor

(Emulation)
(Protocol Monitor)
(Physical Layer + Voice decode)

Copyright 2006 EUROCONTROL

PUMA front panel


Multifunctional LED
Indicators

Battery Charge
Remaining Indicator

Battery State
Indicator
Inbuilt
Speaker

Power On
Display backlight and
Contrast Buttons

Inbuilt
Microphone

Volume Control
Control Hot Keys

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239

Interfacing to the PUMA 4600E

Codirectional Monitor

240

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ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

Interfacing to the PUMA 4600E


Headset
socket

External
Clock

Codirectional Monitor (RxA,RxB)


Dual E1, 120 Ohm Tx/Rx

PCMCIA
Dual E1, 75Ohm Tx/Rx

Co-directional Tx/Rx

Codirectional Monitor
Line Health Overview
Receive Only.
Quick look and see
Detect Signalling
Detect Layer 1 Alarms
Detect timing violations
Check Clock integrity
Logs major Events:
Signal loss
AIS

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241

ATS-QSIG call setup

ATS-QSIG parameters

242

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ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

ATS-QSIG call setup

PUMA emulates a VCS and


operator working positions

Full Layer 1, Layer 2


implementation, Network/User
side, clock master, clock slave.
A/B Side emulation at Layer 3.
G.728 LD-CELP 16kbps voice
encoding.
Establish 3 Calls end to end,
Switch between active calls
using keys.
Supports Routine and Priority
calls.

ATS-QSIG parameters

Layer 1 Sync: Autoseek/Octet


Layer 2 Sync: Manual/Auto
Layer 2 Emulation: User/Network
Side: A/B
Calling Party: 6 digit number
Called Party: 6 digit number
B Channel: 1/2/3
Voice Source: Mic or headset
Call Type: Voice/data
Auto Answer: On/Off
AutoAns Priority: On/Off
Transit Counter: 0-31
Interrupt Protection(CPIPL): 3/2/1/0
Intrusion Protection(CIPL): 0 (off) 3 on

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Bulk Call Parameters.


Timers.

243

Using ATS-QSIG call setup -Link control

Using ATS-QSIG call setup: Call control

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ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

Using ATS-QSIG call setup Link control


Active Page:
Data link Control
Layer 2
State Information

A/B Side,
User/Network

Memory indication

Manual Layer 2
Link Control

Real time Frame display

Using ATS-QSIG call setup:


Call control
Active Page:
Call Control
Layer 3
Active Calls
Display

Place Routine
Call

Place Priority
Call

Disconnect
Active Call

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Answer
Incoming Call

245

Using ATS-QSIG call setup: Traffic generation


Traffic Generation
Setup time is calculated from the time SETUP message transmitted until first ALERTING or CONNECT
message response.
All Calls are cleared before the next call is attempted.
Call Clears automatically on receipt of ALERTING or CONNECT.
Traffic Generation can be used for benchmarking equipment - Does one VCS react faster or slower than
another VCS?
Is the handling of a Routine call as fast as a Priority call?
What are the impacts of different call routings?
Are call success rates different at various times of day?
What is the highest call rate a link can sustain?

Protocol Monitor

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ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

Using ATS-QSIG call setup:


Traffic generation
Active Page:
Traffic Generation

Start /Stop
Traffic
Generation Test

Print Results of Bulk Traffic Test

Reset Traffic,
Test and Results

Protocol Monitor

Real-time display
of frames from
both pairs.
Black font is Pair
A, Blue font is
Pair B. All frames
timestamped with
Millisecond
resolution and
given unique
frame number.
Only basic high
level description
generated in this
mode.

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Filtering the captured data

Triggering

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ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

Filtering the captured data


Filters do not affect
the captured data.
They filter the frames
that are displayed on
the screen. To
troubleshoot Call
related problems, it is
best to filter all of
Layer 2.

Use these for individual filtering

Use these for ALL Layer2/Layer3 Messages

Triggering
Bleep Alert
Gives Audio alert when
Event occurs
Flash LED
Gives Visual alert when
Event occurs
Start Spool
Starts capturing data.
Stop Spool
Stops capturing data.

Start and Stop spool are exclusive triggers, only one can be
applied to any event, eg start or stop but not both. Triggers are
One shot so need to be Re-armed before the trigger event
occurs for subsequent messages/frames.Call Ref, TEI and
SAPI all require a trigger value for the event to occur.

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Protocol Log

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ATS-QSIG tester (PUMA)

Protocol Log
All Frames can be analysed to BitLevel: Scroll to the required Frame.
Press F3 (Expand)
11:33:25:736, Pair B 06 Octets: (1947)
---- packet: Q.921 ---| ---- packet: address ---| {.... ...0}= 00h [000d] ext bit: more octets in the group follow
| {.... ..1.}= 01h [001d] command / response field bit
| {0000 00..}= 00h [000d] Service Access Point Identifier: Call control procedures
| {.... ...1}= 01h [001d] ext bit: last octet in the group
| {0000 000.}= 00h [000d] Terminal Endpoint Identifier: Non-automatic TEI assignment user equipment Q.921 and Q.922
| ---- end of packet: address ---| ---- packet: receive ready ---| ---- packet: S format control ---| {.... ..01}= 01h [001d] flag
| {.... 00..}= 00h [000d] supervisory function bits
| {0000 ....}= 00h [000d] reserved: valid
| {.... ...1}= 01h [001d] poll / final bit
| {0001 010.}= 0Ah [010d] transmitter receive sequence number
| ---- end of packet: S format control ---| ---- end of packet: receive ready ---80-C1 = 80C1h [32961d] FCS
Hex
02,01,01,15,80,C1

Upload Results key - to print to


printer or through serial port to
hyperterminal

In the Detailed view, use the


cursor keys to page up and down
through the decode, and left and
right to scroll more text onto the
screen.

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ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

252

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Conclusion

14. Conclusion

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253

Conclusion
The Sections covered by the Introduction to QSIG course have been:
1. Inside QSIG
2. QSIG OSI layer 1
3. QSIG OSI layer 2: LAP-D
4. QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC) and Transit Call (TC)
5. QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 2: Generic Functional Protocol (GFP)
6.

QSIG
OSI
layer
3
Additional Network Features (ANF)

sub-layer

3:

Supplementary

7. QSIG message structures


8. ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples
9. ATS-QSIG Field Trial Test phase
10. PUMA 4600E Test Instrument
11. Differences between ATS-QSIG and QSIG Protocol

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Services

(SS)

and

Conclusion

Conclusion
The Sections covered by this course have been:

1. Inside QSIG

2. QSIG OSI layer 1

3. QSIG OSI layer 2: LAP-D

4. QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 1: Basic Call (BC) and Transit Call (TC)

5. QSIG message structures

6. QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 2: Generic Functional Protocol (GFP)

7. QSIG OSI layer 3 sub-layer 3: Supplementary Services (SS) and


Additional Network Features (ANF)

8. ATS-QSIG Gateway Examples

9. ATS-QSIG Field Trial Test phase

10. PUMA 4600E Tester

11. Differences Between ATS-QSIG and QSIG Protocol

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ATS-QSIG Digital Signalling

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Conclusion

Glossary
A-law
ADPCM
AGVN
ANF
ANF-TC
ANSP
AOC
APDU

PCM companding algorithm used in Europe


Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
ATS Ground Voice Network
Additional Network Feature
Additional Network Feature - Transit Counter
Air Navigation Service Provider
Advice of Charge
Application Layer Protocol Data Units-- or --

ASN.1
ATS
ATS-QSIG
ATS-R2
BC
BTC
C/R
CAS
CCBS
CCNR
CD
CELP
CFB
CFNR
CFU
CI
CICL
CINT
CIPL
CLIP
CLIR
CN
CNIP
CNIR
CO
COLP
COLR
CONP
CPI
CPICL
CPIPL
CR

Application Layer Protocol Data Units


Abstract Syntax Notation
Air Traffic Services
Air Traffic Services Signalling at the Q reference point
Air Traffic Services- R2 signalling protocol
Basic Call
Business TeleCommunications
Command/Response bit
Channel Associated Signalling
Call Completion to Busy Subscribers
Call Completion on No Reply
Call Deflection
Code Excited Linear Prediction
Call Forwarding Busy
Call Forwarding No Reply
Call Forwarding Unconditional
Call Intrusion
Call Intrusion Capability Level
Call Interception
Call Intrusion Protection Level
Calling Line Identification Presentation
Calling/Connected Line Identification Restriction
Corporate Network
Calling Name Identification Presentation
Calling/Connected Name Identification Restriction
Call Offer
Connected Line Identification Presentation
Connected Line Identification Restriction
Connected Name Identification Presentation
Call Priority Interrupt
Call Priority Interrupt Capability Level
Call Priority Interrupt Protection Level
Call Release-- or -Call Reference-- or --

CS-ACELP
CT
CTM
CTN
CW
CWP
D64U
DA
DDI
DECT
DISC
DLCI
DM
DND
DNDO
DSP
DSS1
DU-TF
E1

Call Reference
Conjugate Structure - Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction
Call Transfer
Cordless Terminal Mobility
Corporate Telecommunication Network
Call Waiting
Controller Working Position
64kbps digital leased line with octet integrity
Direct Access
Direct Dialling In
Digital European Cordless Telephone
Disconnect
Data Link Connection Identifier
Disconnected Mode
Do Not Disturb
Do Not Disturb Override
Digital Signal Processor
Digital Signal System No.1
Digital Users Task Force
2048kbps interface
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EA
ECMA
EN
ETS
ETSI

Address Field Extension bit


European Computer Manufacturers Association
European Norm
European Telecommunications Standard
European Telecommunication Standard Institute-- or --

EUROCAE
EUROCONTROL
FCS
FRMR
G.703
G.711
G.728
GF
GFP
HDLC
ICAO
ID
IDA
IE
IEC
ISDN
ISO
ISUP
ITU
ITU-T
IUT
IVN
LAN
LAP
LAPD

European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute


European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment
European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation
Frame Check Sequence
Frame Reject
ITU-T recommendation for transmitting voice over digital carriers
ITU-T recommendation for PCM voice coding
ITU-T recommendation: LD-CELP voice coding
Generic Functional
Generic Functional Protocol
High level Data Link Control
International Civil Aviation Organisation
Identity
Indirect Access
Information Element
Interexchange Carrier
Integrated Services Digital Network
International Standards Organisation
Integrated Service User Part
International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication
Implementation Under Test
Intervening Network
Local Area Network
Link Access Protocol
Link Access Protocol on the D channel-- or --

LD
LD-CELP
LPC
LSB
MIPS
MP
MSB
MSN
MT
N/A
ONP
OSI

Link Access Protocol on the D channel


Loop Disconnect
Low Delay-Code Excited Linear Prediction
Linear Predictive Coding
Least Significant Bit
Millions of Instructions Per Second
Mapping
Most Significant Bit
Multiple Subscriber Number
Message Type
Not Applicable
Open Network Provision
Open System Interconnection-- or --

OSI-RM
P/F
PABX
PCM
PD
PDU
PICS
PINX
PISN
PIXIT
PNO
PPM
PR
PSS1
PT502
PTN
PTO
PUG
Q.920
Q.921

258

Open Systems Interconnection


Open Systems Interconnection- Reference model
Poll/Final bit
Private Automatic Branch Exchange
Pulse Code Modulation
Protocol Discriminator
Protocol Data Unit
Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement
Private Integrated Network Exchange
Private Integrated Services Network
Protocol Implementation Extra Information for Test
Private Network Operator
Parts Per Million
Path Replacement
Private Signalling System No.1
ATS QSIG Test Equipment
Private Telecommunication Network
Public Telecommunication Operators
PENS User Group
ITU-T recommendation: Digital Subscriber Signalling System No.1 (DSS) ISDN UserNetwork Data Link specification
ITU-T recommendation: Digital Subscriber Signalling System No 1 (DSS1) - ISDN

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Conclusion

QSIG
QSIG-GF
RE
REJ
RNR
ROSE

user - network data link layer - specification


ITU-T recommendation: ISDN user-network interface layer 3 specification for basic
call control
ITU-T recommendation: Digital subscriber signalling system No. 1 - Generic
procedures for the control of ISDN supplementary services
Signalling at the Q reference point
QSIG-General Functional
Recall
Receive Reject
Receive Not Ready
Remote Operations Service Element-- or --

RR
RTP
RX
SABME
SAPI
SCA
SCM
SDH
SIP
SS
SS-CI
SS-CPI
SS-CPIP
SUB
TC

Remote Operations Service Element


Receive Ready
Real Time Protocol
Receive
Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended
Service Access Point Identifier
Simultaneous Call Attempts
Signalling Carriage Mechanism
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Session Initiation Protocol
Supplementary Service
Supplementary Service- Call Intrusion
Supplementary Service- Call Priority Interrupt
Supplementary Service-Call Priority Interrupt Protection
Sub-addressing
Transit Call-- or --

TE
TEI
UA
UI
UNI
UUS
VCS
VPN
WAN
XID

Transit Counter
Terminal Equipment
Terminal Endpoint Identifier
Unnumbered Acknowledgement
Unnumbered Information
User-to-Network Interface
User to User Signalling
Voice Communication System
Virtual Private Network
Wide Area Network
Exchange Identification

Q.931
Q.932

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Conclusion

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