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The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one

equilibrium state to another, and makes no reference to how long the process will take. But in engineering, we are often

interested in the rate of heat transfer, which is the topic of the science of heat transfer.

The objective of this lecture is to extend the thermodynamic analysis through study of the modes of heat transfer and through

development of relations to calculate heat transfer rates.

Introduction:

The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium

state to another, and makes no reference to how long the process will take. But in engineering, we are often interested in the rate

of heat transfer, which is the topic of the science of heat transfer.

Objective:

The objective of this notes is to extend the thermodynamic analysis through study of the modes of heat transfer and through

development of relations to calculate heat transfer rates. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for much of the material treated in

this subject. We do so by appreciating the physical mechanisms that underlie heat transfer processes and the relevance of these

processes to our industrial and environmental problems.

Thermodynamics is concerned with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to

another, and it gives no indication about how long the process will take. A thermodynamic analysis simply tells us how much heat

must be transferred to realize a specified change of state to satisfy the conservation of energy principle.

In practice, we are concerned with the rate of heat transfer (heat transfer per unit time) than we are with the amount of heat

transfer. For example, we can determine the amount of heat transferred from a thermos flask as the hot milk inside cools from

95oC to 85oC by a thermodynamic analysis alone. But, a designer of the thermos flask is primarily interested in how long it will be

before the hot milk inside cools to 85oC, and a thermodynamic analysis cannot answer this question. Determining the rates of heat

transfer to or from a system and thus the time of cooling or heating, as well as the variation of temperature, is the subject of heat

transfer.

Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states and changes from one equilibrium state to another. Heat transfer, on the other

hand, deals with systems that lack thermal equilibrium, and thus it is a non-equilibrium phenomenon. Therefore, the study of heat

transfer cannot be based on the principles of thermodynamics alone. However, the laws of thermodynamics lay the framework for

the science of heat transfer. The first law requires that the rate of energy transfer into a system be equal to the rate of increase of

the energy of that system. The second lawrequires that heat be transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature. It is

analogous to the electric current flowing in the direction of decreasing voltage or the fluid flowing in the direction of decreasing

pressure.

Heat transfer is energy in transit due to temperature difference . Whenever there exists a temperature difference in a medium or

between media, heat transfer must occur. The basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence of temperature difference .

There can be no net heat transfer between two mediums that are at the same temperature. The temperature difference is the

driving force for heat transfer, just as the voltage difference is thedriving force for electric current flow and pressure difference is

the driving force for fluid flow. The rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends on the magnitude of the temperature

gradient (the temperature difference per unit length or the rate of change of temperature) in that direction. The larger the

temperature gradient, the higher the rate of heat transfer.

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER : There are three modes of heat transfer namely conduction, convection and

radiation.

Conduction : Conduction refers to the heat transfer that occurs across the medium. Medium can be solid or a fluid.

Convection : Convection refers to the heat transfer that will occur between a surface and a moving fluid when they

are at different temperatures.

Radiation : In radiation, in the absence of intervening medium, there is net heat transfer between two surfaces at

different temperatures in the form of electromagnetic waves.

It is important to understand the physical mechanisms which underlie the heat transfer modes and that we are able

to use the rate equations that quantify the amount of energy being transferred per unit time.

Conduction:

Conduction can be imagined as a atomic or molecular activity which involves the transfer of energy from the more

energetic to the less energetic particles of a substance due to interactions between the particles.

Explanation:

The physical mechanism of conduction is explained as follows:

Consider a gas in which there exists a temperature gradient and assume that there is no bulk motion. The gas may

occupy the space between two surfaces that are maintained at different temperatures, as shown in Figure 1.2. The

temperature at any point is associated with the energy of gas molecules in proximity to the point. This energy is

related to the random translational motion, as well as to the internal rotational and vibrational motions, of the

molecules.

Higher temperatures are associated with higher molecular energies, and when neighboring molecules collide, as they

are constantly doing, a transfer of energy from the more energetic to the less energetic molecules must occur. In the

presence of the temperature gradient, energy transfer by conduction must then occur in the direction of decreasing

temperature. This transfer is evident in the Figure 1.2. The hypothetical plane at xo is constantly being crossed by

molecules from above and below due to their random motion. However, molecules from above are associated with a

larger temperature than those from below, in which case there must be a net transfer of energy in the

positive x- direction. Hence, the net transfer of energy by random molecular motion may be thought of asdiffusion of

energy.

It is possible to quantify heat transfer processes in terms of appropriate rate equations. These equations may be used

to compute the amount of energy being transferred per unit time. The rate equation for heat conduction is known

as Fourier's Law. The rate equation for the one dimensional plane wall shown in Figure below, having a temperature

distribution T(x) is given by

(W/m2) is the heat transfer rate in the x -direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of

transfer, and it is proportional to the the temperature gradient, dT/dx , in this direction. The proportionality constantk is

a transport property known as the thermal conductivity (W/m.K) and is a characteristic of the wall material. The minus

sign is a consequence of the fact that the heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature.

Under the steady state conditions shown in Figure 1.3, where the temperature distribution is linear, the temperature

gradient may be expressed as

http://www.cdeep.iitb.ac.in/nptel/Mechanical/Heat%20and%20Mass

%20Transfer/Conduction/Module

%201/interactivepages/prob1.1as.html#assumptions

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